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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Tobacco Growers, Manufacturers
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November 15, 1492 - Christopher Columbus noted in his journal use of tobacco among Indians - first recorded reference to tobacco. 

March 5, 1558 - Francisco Fernandes introduced smoking tobacco in Europe.

July 27, 1586 - Sir Walter Raleigh brought first tobacco to England from Virginia.

1612 - John Rolfe cultivated first tobacco at Jamestown, VA; introduced successful source of livelihood to English colonists.

1760 - Pierre Lorillard, French Huguenot, started making snuff in factory on Chatham Street in Manhattan; first tobacco company in America; 1792 - Peter,  George Lorillard (sons) relocated company to Bronx, used Bronx River to power mill; America's oldest tobacco company; oldest continuously operating company in United States; June 28, 1800 - received a patent for a "Machine for Cutting Tobacco"; 1883 - reported sales of over $10 million, production of over 25 million pounds of tobacco products; 1891 - incorporated; 1895 Lorillard mill acquired by New York Botanical Garden, converted to restaurant; 1910 - acquired by American Tobacco Company; 1926 - introduced Old Gold cigarettes; 1952 - introduced Kent cigarettes (named for Herbert A. Kent, board chairman and former president, promoted "Old Gold" brand); 1968 - acquired by Loew's Corporation (Laurence Tisch, Preston Robert Tisch) for more than $418 million; June 9, 2008 - spun-off to shareholders of Carolina Group, set up in 2002 to track  financial performance Loews' ownership interest in Lorillard.

1782 - John Garrett II established first Garrett snuff mill on Red Clay Creek in Delaware; 1824 - George Garrett entered family business, changed name to Levi Garrett and Sons; 1833 - George Garrett shares acquired by William Garrett; 1857 - Walter Garrett and William Garrett Jr. (sons) entered business, changed name to W. E. Garrett and Sons; 1895 - acquired by Henry Moore, George Wilson, John Gilmore (three employees) for $1; 1895 - cornerstone of Atlantic Snuff Company; 1900 - acquired by Buck Duke (formed American Snuff Company); 1911 - divided into American Snuff Company, Weyman and Burton (now U.S. Tobacco), George W. Helm; managed by Martin J. Condon, James Harwood; November 7, 1950 - American Snuff Company registered "W. E. Garrett & Sons" trademark first used in 1857 (snuff); May 8, 1951 - American Snuff Company registered "Levi Garrett & Sons" trademark first used in 1824 (snuff); 1966 - name  changed to Conwood Corporation; 1985 - acquired by Pritzker family (Chicago) for $408 million, taken private; April 2006 - Conwood Company, L.P. acquired by Reynolds American for $3.5 billion.

1822 - George Weyman opened tobacco shop in Pittsburgh, PA; introduced Copenhagen snuff; 1870 - William and Benjamin Weyman (sons) changed name to Weyman & Bros.; 1905 - Weyman & Bro. acquired by the American Tobacco Company (created October 19, 1904); 1911 - American Tobacco broken up; newly named Weyman-Bruton Company incorporated, published first annual report (net earnings of $77,454.41); 1921 - acquired Joseph G. Dill Inc., United States Tobacco Company; 1922 - renamed United States Tobacco Company; January 31, 1950 - United States Tobacco Company registered  "Copenhagen" trademark fist used September 18, 1894 (snuff); 1987 - adopted holding-company structure, named UST Inc.; 2001 - renamed U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company.

1822 - Christopher and John Foulks established J. & C. Foulks to manufacture cigars; 1830 - John's interest acquired by Hiram Shaw, name changed to Foulks & Shaw; 1844 - John E. Liggett (Foulks grandson)  joined company); 1847 - Foulks interest acquired by Liggett; name changed to Hiram Shaw & Co.; 1848 - Shaw interest acquired by W. C. L. Liggett (brother); name changed to J. E. Liggett & Bro.; 1855 - W. C. L. Liggett interest acquired by Henry Dausman; renamed Liggett & Dausman; 1873 - Dausman interest acquired by George S. Myers; formed The Liggett & Myers Tobacco Manufacturing Company; 1876 - introduced "Star" brand of plug chewing tobacco;  1878 - incorporated; 1885 - world's largest manufacturer of plug chewing tobacco; 1890s -entered cigarette business; launched L&M, Chesterfield, Lark (once some of best-known brands in industry); January 1899 - largest independent tobacco company in world; acquired by Union Tobacco Company; May 1899 - Union acquired by American Tobacco Company  (Tobacco trust); May 1911 - Trust dissolved, Liggett & Myers became independent; January 6, 1920 - registered "Chesterfield" trademark first used in 1896 (cigarettes); May 17, 1921 - registered "Lark" trademark first used May 31, 1920 (cigarettes); 1952 - first to offer cigarettes in two sizes: King and Regular; November 17, 1953 - registered "L&M" trademark first used in February 1953 (cigarettes); 1976 - name changed to Liggett Group, Inc.; 1977 - merged with Diversified Products Corporation, makers of sporting goods; 1980 - acquired by Grand Metropolitan PLC for $575 million; 1986 - acquired by Brooke Partners (Bennett S. LeBow) for $137 million; 1987 - went public; 1990 - became subsidiary of Brooke Group Ltd., holding company; 1997 - first tobacco company to settle smoking related litigation brought by Attorneys General of several states; first domestic cigarette maker to place a warning on cigarette packages; 1998 - signed tobacco litigation Master Settlement Agreement; 1999 - Vector Tobacco Inc. formed; L&M, Lark, Chesterfield brands acquired by Philip Morris Companies Inc. for $300 million; May 24, 2000 - name changed to Vector Group Ltd.

John Edmund Liggett - Liggett & Myers (

1847 - Philip Morris, Esq., tobacconist and importer of fine cigars, opened shop on Bond Street in London, England; 1854 - made first cigarettes; 1873 - Margaret Morris (widow), Leopold Morris (brother) carried on cigarette trade; 1880 - Leopold Morris acquired Margaret Morris's interest; 1885 - Leopold Morris, Joseph Grunebaum established Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum, Ltd.; 1887 - Morris, Gunebaum dissolved partnership, company renamed Philip Morris & Co ., Ltd., 1894 - reorganized; William Curtis Thompson and family assumed majority interest; 1901 - appointed, by royal warrant, tobacconist for King Edward VII; 1902 - Gustav Eckmeyer, sole agent for Philip Morris in U .S . since 1872, incorporated Philip Morris & Co ., Ltd. in New York; 1905 - acquired rights o manufacture, sell all Philip Morris brands in Canada; April 14, 1908 - registered "Marlboro" trademark first used in 1883 (cigarettes; named for London street on which factory located); 1919 - coronet logo introduced; U .S . Philip Morris Company acquired by American stockholders, incorporated in Virginia under name of Philip Morris & Co ., Ltd ., Inc .; 1921 - Philip Morris-International Corp. organized; September 18, 1923 - registered "Call for Philip Morris" trademark first used February 15, 1919 (cigarettes); 1929 - Reuben M . Ellis, Leonard B . McKitterick took control; April 17, 1933 - Johnny introduced on NBC radio as Philip Morris spokesman; 1949 - sponsored first television show ("Tex and Jiinx Preview'); 1951 - sponsored "I Love Lucy" show; 1954 - acquired Benson & Hedges; January 1955 - introduced "Marlboro Man" to Dallas/Fort Worth test market; replaced Marlboro brown pack with red,  white package; name changed to Philip Morris Incorporated;  1961 - first national sponsor of National Football League telecast; 1962 - "Marlboro Country'' advertising campaign made national debut; acquired Burma-Vita Company; 1992 - 'Marlboro' ranked most valuable brand ($32 billion by Financial World magazine).

1852 - Don Jose Joaquin, son of Carreras, founder Don Jose Carreras-y-Ferrer, concentrated on blending tobacco and snuff, opened shop off Leicester Square; 1894 - acquired by W. J. Yapp; 1903 - became public company; 1904 - first tobacco firm to introduce coupons for customers to redeem for gifts; 1921 - produced first machine-made cork tip cigarette; November 1958 - acquired by Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation (S.A.) Limited for $4,500,000; merged company with Rothmans to create Carreras Rothmans Limited.

1866 - Washington Duke, wheat, corn, oats, subsistence crop farmer, began manufacture of smoking tobacco on part time basis; manufactured 15,000 pounds of "Pro Bono Publico"; necessitated utilization of other outbuildings on farm; began buying additional tobacco from neighboring farmers; 1870 - Brodie Duke began production in Durham, NC; 1873 - produced around 125,000 pounds of smoking tobacco annually; April 1874 - purchased two acres near railroad in Durham, NC, built new factory; beginning of large scale tobacco company; 1878 - renamed business W. Duke Sons and Company; 1881 - begin manufacture of cigarettes, in competition with W. T. Blackwell and Company ('Bull Durham' brand); 1884 - James "Buck" Duke established branch of company in New York; January 21, 1890 - merged with Allen and Ginter Company (Richmond, VA), F. S. Kinney Company and the Goodwin Company (New York), William S. Kimball and Company (Rochester, NY), incorporated American Tobacco Company; became known as "tobacco trust", almost complete monopoly of tobacco trade; May 1895 - went public; December 10, 1898 - incorporated Continental Tobacco Company (consolidation of leading navy plug plants in U.S.- included P. Lorillard); 1899 - acquired Union Tobacco Company (acquired Liggett & Myers in January 1899); 1911 - United States Supreme Court dissolved trust; four major tobacco corporations emerged from separation: American Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers, P. Lorillard, R. J. Reynolds; September 4, 1917 - registered "Lucky Strike" trademark first used January 1, 1883 (smoking and chewing tobacco, tobacco plugs, cigarettes).

1869 - Henry Tibbe, Dutch immigrant woodworker, made spinning wheels, furniture in Washington, MO; began producing corn cob pipes; July 9, 1878 - received a patent for a "Pipe" ("made of corn-cobs, the object being to improve their durability and appearance, and facilitate their being cleaned"); innovative system of applying a plaster-based substance to outside of corn cob bowls; 1907 - H. Tibbe & Son Co. renamed Missouri Meerschaum Company (Meerschaum - from German word that means "sea foam"; Turkish clay used in high grade pipes); world's oldest, largest manufacturer.

November 21, 1871 - Moses F Gale, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement in Cigar-Lighters"; first U.S. patent for a cigar lighter.

1875 - Richard Joshua Reynolds (25) started chewing-tobacco manufacturing operation in Winston, NC; 1899 - sold two-thirds stake in R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to James B. Duke's American Tobacco Company 'trust' (formed in 1890) in exchange for exclusive rights to ship Camel cigarettes to American troops fighting World War I in Europe; 1913 - introduced Camel cigarettes, blend of several different types of tobacco, came to be called "the American blend"; September 30, 1919 - registered "Camel" trademark first used in March 1901 (smoking tobacco and cigarettes); 1954 - introduced Winston, first filter cigarette to achieve major success; October 30, 1956 - registered "Winston" trademark first used June 26, 1952 (cigarettes); 1956 - introduced Salem, first filter-tipped menthol cigarette; November 20, 1956 - registered "Salem" trademark first used March 19, 1956 (cigarettes); 1958 - nation's leading cigarette manufacturer; 1970 - formed new parent company, R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.; September 1985 - acquired Nabisco Brands; 1986 - parent company re-named RJR Nabisco, Inc.; April 1989 - acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in $25 billion leveraged buyout (largest corporate transaction in history at time); June 15, 1999 - R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Holdings, Inc. became independent, publicly traded company again (R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company as wholly owned subsidiary); July 30, 2004 - R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Holdings, Inc. merged U.S. tobacco business with British American Tobacco plc., formed Reynolds American Inc.

November 7, 1876 - Albert H. Hook, of New York, NY, received first patent  for an "Improvement in Cigarette-Machines" ("for making cigarette cylinders"); produced continuous cigarette of indefinite length, to be cut into individual cigarettes;  1875 - 50 million cigarettes manufactured; 1882 - Hook machine came into practical commercial use.

September 25, 1878 - Dr. Charles Drysdale, senior physician to the Metropolitan Free Hospital, wrote in The Times newspaper in Britain a warning against the use of tobacco;  estimated that £15,000,000 was spent annually in Great Britain on tobacco; 1864 - Drysdale had published in Med. Circular results of excessive use - cases of jaundice in healthy young men smoking 3/4-oz daily, "most distressing palpitation of the heart" in a young man who smoked 1/2-oz daily; 1875 - he wrote a book, "Tobacco and the Diseases It Produces."

September 7, 1880 - Oscar W. Allison, of Rochester, NY, received a patent for a "Cigarette-Machine"; rights acquired by American Tobacco Company (James B. Duke).

March 8, 1881 - James A. Bonsack, of Bonsack's, VA, received a patent for a "Cigarette-Machine" (...a machine which will uniformly feed and distribute the tobacco upon a continuous paper ribbon, then form the same into a continuous roll, then paste the paper around it, and finally cut off the same into definite lengths, all in a series of consecutive operations"); could produce more than 70,000 cigarettes in 10-hour work shift; reduced labor cost of cigarettes made by hand from 96.4 cents/thousand in 1876 to 8.1 cents/thousand in 1895 [source: 1898 Report from Commissioner of Labor]; exclusive rights to machine, with termination of agreements with all other cigarette manufacturers, acquired from Bonsack Machine Company by American tobacco Company for 3-year period; attempt to monopolize manufacture machinery for manufacture of cigarettes; established significant competitive advantage for Duke; 1895 - exclusive rights reversed by courts.

1883 - Drummond Tobacco Company of St. Louis, MO manufactured, sold Chesterfield cigarettes; January 6, 1920 - Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company registered "Chesterfield" trademark first used in 1896 (cigarettes).

February 27, 1883 - Oscar Hammerstein, of New York, NY, received patent for a "Cigar-Machine" ("Improvement in Machines for Making Cigars and Cigarettes"); first practical cigar-rolling machine.

1890 - Louis Rothman opened small tobacco kiosk on Fleet Street in London; 1900 - opened showroom on Pall Mall, launched Pall Mall brand of cigarettes; 1903 - incorporated under name of Rothmans of Pall Mall; 1906 - created menthol cigarette (inserted menthol crystals into ends of cigarettes); 1919 - Sidney (son) joined company as apprentice; December 1926 - assumed control; 1929 - Rothmans Limited, public company, formed, Sidney Rothman as first chairman, managing director; 1954 - controlling interest acquired by Rembrandt Tobacco Company; 1972 - Rothmans International created (Carreras Rothmans of United Kingdom, Martin Brinkmann of West Germany, Tabacofina of Belgium, Turmac of Netherlands); 1967 - Carreras acquired 51 percent of Alfred Dunhill Limited; 1983 - acquired interest in Cartier Monde; 1988 - Rembrandt Group restructured international activities, formed holding company based in Switzerland, Compagnie Financier Richemont (CFR); held 33 percent of Rothmans International plc; 1993 - separated luxury brands from tobacco interests; 1995 - Rothmans operated as wholly-owned subsidiary of Richemont; 1999 - Rothmans International merged with British American Tobacco (BAT), world's 2nd-largest cigarette producer; June 1999 - merged with British American Tobacco.

1893 - George T. Brown and Robert F. Williamson founded Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. in North Carolina.

November 30, 1897 - James A. Sweeting, of New York, NY, received patent for a "Device for Rolling Cigarettes" ("will enable the rolling of cigarettes by the ordinary user with facility and convenience").

September 29. 1902 - UK’s Imperial Tobacco Company formed joint venture with American Tobacco Company, formed British American Tobacco Company (effort to end intense trade war); companies' businesses outside ‘home’ markets transferred to British American Tobacco, new company operations in Canada, Japan, Germany, Australia, South Africa, China; James ‘Buck’ Duke first chairman; 1910 - sales of more than 10 billion cigarettes; 1911 - American Tobacco Company divested its shares in joint venture, British American Tobacco went public; 1915 - cigarette sales of 25 billion; 1923 - Duke resigned as chairman; 1927 - 120 subsidiaries, more than 75,000 employees worldwide; acquired Brown & Williamson, moved into U. S. market; 1937- cigarette sales exceeded 55 billion in China, Japanese invasion halted sales more than four years; 1952 - lost several end markets (Egypt, Indonesia, China); 1960 - sales exceeded £280 billion, record trading profits of more than £58 million; 1956 - acquired overseas business of Benson & Hedges; 1966 - company profits exceed £100m for first time; 1970 - manufactured in 140 factories across 50 countries; 1970s - entered retailing, acquired Argos in UK, Saks Fifth Avenue in United States; 1972 - 1902 agreement with Imperial revoked; 1976 - operations coordinated under new holding company, B.A.T Industries; 1974 - UK’s third largest company, largest tobacco manufacturer in free world with annual sales of 500 billion cigarettes; 1989 - largest UK-based insurance group (acquired Eagle Star in 1984, Allied Dunbar in 1985, Farmers Group in 1988); re-focused exclusively on tobacco, financial services, divested almost everything else; 1994 - acquired American Tobacco Company (Lucky Strike, Pall Mall brands); 1998 - divested financial services businesses; 1999 - merged with Rothmans International (fourth largest tobacco company - several major brands, including Dunhill); Canadian market largest generator of profit; 2000 - sold Rothmans' Canadian interests, acquired shares in Imasco (sold non-tobacco interests); Canadian operation, wholly-owned subsidiary focused solely on tobacco, known as Imperial Tobacco Canada; 2004 - combined Brown & Williamson and RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, formed Reynolds American (British American Tobacco had 42% share); October 2005 - terminated sponsorship of Formula One motorsport; February 28, 2008 - agreed to acquire Scandinavia's leading tobacco group for $4.14 billion.

James ‘Buck’ Duke - first chairman British American Tobacco (

April 11, 1921 - Iowa became the first state to impose a cigarette tax.

1932 - George G. Blaisdell, owner of Blaisdell Oil Co., developed the Zippo lighter in a garage in Bradford, PA; had watched use of cumbersome Austrian-made lighter (worked well but looked ugly, required two hands, thin metal surface dented easily); liked the sound of the word "zipper" so he formed different variations on the word and settled on "Zippo," deciding that it had a "modern" sound; lighters sold for $ 1.95 each with money back guarantee.

Founder George G. Blaisdell George G. Blaisdell - founder, Zippo lighters (

March 3, 1936 - George Gimera and George G. Blaisdell, of Bradford, PA, received a patent for a "Pocket Lighter" ("having a minimum of projections from its closed case, and in which movement of the cover from either its fully open or its fully closed position is restrained by simple means concealed when the lighter is closed"); assigned to Zippo Manufacturing Company.

1941 - Anton Rupert (South Africa) established Voorbrand Tobacco Company; renamed Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation; 1948 - manufactured first cigarettes; 1954 -  acquired controlling interest in Rothmans of Pall Mall; 1972 - overseas tobacco interests consolidated into Rothmans; 1988 -Rembrandt Group restructured international activities, formed Swiss holding company, Compagnie Financier Richemont (CFR); held 33 percent of Rothmans International plc; 1993 - separated tobacco, luxury goods operations into Rothmans International BV/PLC, VendŰme Luxury Group SA/PLC;  1995 - consolidated tobacco interests into Rothmans International (world's 4th-largest cigarette manufacturer); Rothmans operated as wholly-owned subsidiary of Richemont; June 1999 - Rothmans International merged with British American Tobacco (BAT), world's 2nd-largest cigarette producer.

Anton Rupert - South Africa ( jpg)

August 1, 1950 - Lester Flickinger and George G. Blaisdell, of Bradford, PA, received a patent for a "Pyrophoric Lighter" ("object of this invention is to provide a simple, inexpensive and effective manner of preventing [such] flint-induced, wheel-binding distortions of a corrosion-resisting flint holding tube"); assigned to Zippo Manufacturing Company.

September 10, 1957 - Service d'Exploitation Industielle des Tabacs et Allumettes registered "Gauloises" trademark first used in October 1947 (cigarettes).

September 8, 1961 - Journal of the American Medical Association held that there is statistical evidence connecting smoking and heart disease.

June 8, 1963 - American Heart Association was first agency to campaign against cigarettes.

January 11, 1964 - U.S. Surgeon General Luther Terry issued first government report saying smoking may be hazardous to one's health.

June 24,1964 - The Federal Trade Commission announced that, starting in 1965, cigarette makers must include warning labels about the harmful effects of smoking.

October 2, 1964 - Scientists announced findings that smoking can cause cancer.

July 27, 1965 - President Johnson signed a bill requiring cigarette makers to print health warnings on all cigarette packages about the effects of smoking.

July 31, 1965 - The last cigarette commercial appeared on British television.

January 1, 1966 - All US cigarette packages began carrying the health warning: Caution: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health (resulted from landmark federal legislation enacted in 1965 that required health warnings on cigarette packages); 1984 - law amended to require one of four warning labels in most cigarette-related advertising.

June 1, 1969 - Tobacco advertising is banned on Canadian radio and TV.

April 1, 1970 - President Richard Nixon signed a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and TV.

January 1, 1971 - Last televised cigarette ad ran at 11:50 p.m. during The Johnny Carson Show.

April 11, 1972 - Lewis R. Toppel, of Chicago, IL, received a patent (#3,655,325) for a "Smoking Deterrent" ("pseudo-cigarette package that produces simulated coughing sounds when the package is picked up by a potential user to remove the cigarette therefrom").

June 2, 1985 - R.J. Reynolds Industries and Nabisco agreed to merge to form a $4.9 billion company.; 1989 - acquired for record $23 billion by Wall Street buyout firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Company; 1999 - RJR Nabisco sold its international tobacco business for nearly $8 billion to Japan Tobacco, Inc.; announced it plans to separate its remaining food and domestic tobacco interests.

February 6, 1987 - No-smoking rules took effect in federal buildings.

February 19, 1987 - Anti-smoking ad aired for first time on TV, featured Yul Brynner.

April 23, 1988 - A federal ban on smoking during domestic airline flights of two hours or less went into effect.

May 16, 1988 - U.S. Surgeon-General C. Everett Koop declared nicotine to be addictive in ways similar to heroin and cocaine.

February 28, 1997 - Smokers must prove they are over 18 to purchase cigarettes in US.

March 20, 1997 - Liggett Group, maker of Chesterfield cigarettes, settled 22 state lawsuits by admitting the industry markets cigarettes to teenagers and agreeing to warn on every pack that smoking is addictive.

June 20, 1997 - The tobacco industry agreed to a massive settlement in exchange for major relief from mounting lawsuits and legal bills.

August 25, 1997 - The tobacco industry agreed to an $11.3 billion settlement with the state of Florida.

January 1, 1998 - An anti-smoking law went into effect in California, prohibiting people from lighting up in bars.

January 8, 1998 - Scientists identified a chemical compound which explains how nicotine becomes addictive.

January 29, 1998 - Steven Goldstone, RJR Nabisco chairman and CEO, acknowledged the health risk of tobacco products under oath to Congress (came at a hearing where industry leaders pushed Congress to enact a $368.5 billion deal giving them partial immunity from future lawsuits); 1994 - seven tobacco industry executives had stood before the House Commerce Committee and sworn nicotine is not addictive.

March 30, 1999 - A jury in Portland, OR, ordered Philip Morris to pay $81 million to the family of a man who died of lung cancer after smoking Marlboros for four decades.

July 7, 1999 - A jury in Miami held cigarette makers liable for making a defective product that causes emphysema, lung cancer and other illnesses.

July 14, 2000 - A Florida jury ordered five major tobacco companies to pay smokers a record $145 billion in punitive damages.

March 10, 2006 - A study by the National Association of State Attorneys General (based on Treasury Department data) reported that tobacco use has reached its lowest level in the United States since 1951; cigarette sales declined in 2005 by 4.2 percent to 378 billion, the largest single-year decline on record; sales are down by 21 percent since the $246 billion legal settlement negotiated in 1998 between the State Attorneys General and the tobacco industry; other factors - cigarette tax increases (43 states and the District of Columbia have increased tobacco taxes since 1998) and a recent push for smoke-free laws (12 states and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have smoking bans at all indoor businesses, including bars and restaurants).

June 11, 2009 - U.S. Senate passed Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; gave government (Food and Drug Administration) unprecedented power over making, marketing of tobacco products (tobacco industry agreed in 1998 to pay $206 billion to settle Medicaid lawsuits brought by states, biggest civil settlement in U.S. history; Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in 2000 that FDA had no authority to control tobacco products unless Congress changed law; Philip Morris U.S.A., nation's largest tobacco company, broke industry ranks in 2001, said it saw wisdom of "reasonable" government oversight); tobacco companies will have to disclose their product research and ingredients, seek approval for new products; FDA will publish annual list of harmful ingredients by brand, can ban most dangerous of estimated 6,000 chemicals in cigarettes, except nicotine (can only be reduced), key to addiction. Nicotine; established regulatory structure, standards for manufacturing, marketing of tobacco products

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Washington Duke (

James B. Duke James Buchanan Duke  (

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philip morris photo




Philip Morris, Esq.  (

(Philip Morris), Joseph F. Cullman, 3rd (1998). I'm a Lucky Guy. (New York, NY: Philip Morris,    p.). Former Chairman and CEO (Philip Morris). Cullman, Joseph F. (Joseph Frederick), 1912- ; Philip Morris Incorporated--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Tobacco industry--United States--History. 

(J. C. Newman Cigar), Stanford J. Newman with James V. Miller and introduction by Marvin R. Shanken (1999). Cigar Family: A l00 Year Journey in the Cigar Industry. (New York, NY: Forbes Custom, 232 p.). Newman, Stanford J., 1916-; Newman family; J.C. Newman Cigar Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Cigar industry--United States--History.

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Richard Joshua Reynolds (chewing tobacco in 1875,  Camel cigarettes in 1913; photos/large/photo32.jpg)

(R. J. Reynolds), Patrick Reynolds and Tom Shachtman (1989). The Gilded Leaf: Triumph, Tragedy, and Tobacco: Three Generations of the R.J. Reynolds Family and Fortune. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 353 p.). Reynolds family; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company--History; Tobacco industry--United States--History.

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(Tiedemanns J. L.), Francis Sejersted, Arnljot StrÝmme Svendsen (1978). Blader av Tobakkens Historie: J. L. Tiedemanns Tobaksfabrik 1778-1978. (Oslo :Tiedemann: Gyldendal, 476 p.). J.L. Tiedemanns tobaksfabrik--History; Tobacco industry--Norway--History.

(Universal Leaf Tobacco Co.), Maurice Duke, Daniel P. Jordan (1995). Tobacco Merchant: The Story of Universal Leaf Tobacco Company. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 212 p.). Universal Leaf Tobacco Co.--History; Tobacco industry--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.

(Zippo Manufacturing Company), Linda L. Meabon; foreword by George B. Duke (2003). Zippo Manufacturing Company. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). 36-Year Employee; Grandson of George G. Blaisdell, Owner of Zippo Manufacturing Company. Zippo Manufacturing Company; Cigar lighters--History--Pictorial works; Bradford (Pa.)--History--Pictorial works. Nearly four hundred million lighters; commemorative showcase for corporate logos, special events, famous places; family-owned, operated for more than 70 years.

W. F. Axton (2009). Tobacco and Kentucky. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 160 p.). Professor of English (University of Louisville). Tobacco industry -- Kentucky -- History; Tobacco -- Kentucky -- History. Forms in which tobacco has been used, quick adoption by Old World, gradual development into forms common today (blended cigarette); Burley leaf (tobacco still most important crop); many aspects of tobacco production, ancient Indian pipes that found in Kentucky.

Anthony J. Badger (1980). Prosperity Road the New Deal, Tobacco, and North Carolina. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina P, 295 p.). Paul Mellon Professor of American History (Cambridge University, Master of Clare College). Tobacco industry --North Carolina --History; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States --Economic policy --1933-1945; North Carolina --Economic policy.

Allan Brandt (2007). The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 672 p.). Amalie Moses Kass Professor of the History of Medicine (Harvard Medical School), Professor in the Department of the History of Science (Harvard University). Tobacco industry--United States--History--20th century; Smoking--United States--History--20th century; Smoking--Health aspects. How one humble (largely useless) product came to play such dominant role in lives and deaths; shaped twentieth-century America--from modern advertising to science, from regulatory politics to glamour and style; became indispensable accessory of glamour, sex appeal.

Sherman Cochran (1980). Big Business in China: Sino-foreign Rivalry in the Cigarette Industry, 1890-1930. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 332 p.). Cigarette industry--China--History--19th century; Cigarette industry--China--History--20th century.

Maurice Corina (1975). Trust in Tobacco: The Anglo-American Struggle for Power. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 319 p.). Tobacco industry--United States--History; Tobacco industry--Great Britain--History; Trusts, Industrial--History.

T. M. Devine (1990). The Tobacco Lords: A Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading Activities, c. 1740-90. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 209 p.). Tobacco industry --Scotland --Glasgow --History; Merchants --Scotland --Glasgow --History; Glasgow (Scotland) --Commerce --History.

Tom Diamond (2005). The Economic and Political Aspects of the Tobacco Industry: An Annotated Bibliography and Statistical Review, 1990-2004. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 241 p.). Tobacco industry--Economic aspects--Bibliography; Tobacco industry--Political aspects--Bibliography. 

Iain Gately (2001). Tobacco: The Story of How Tobacco Seduced the World. (New York, NY: Grove Press, 403 p.). Tobacco--History; Tobacco--Social aspects--History.

Jerome Goodman (1993). Tobacco in History: the Cultures of Dependence. (New York, NY: Routledge, 280 p.). Tobacco--History; Tobacco--Social aspects; Smoking--History.

Richard Kluger (1996). Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. (New York, NY: Knopf, 807 p.). Cigarette habit--United States--History; Tobacco habit--United States--History; Cigarette industry--United States--History; Tobacco industry--United States--History.

Allan Kulikoff (1986). Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 449 p.). Agriculture--Economic aspects--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History; Tobacco industry--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History; Plantation life--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History; Slavery--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History; Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--Economic conditions; Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--Social conditions. Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia.

Gloria L. Main (1982). Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 326 p.). Cost and standard of living--Maryland--History; Plantation life--Maryland--History; Tobacco industry--Maryland--History; Maryland--Economic conditions; Maryland--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.

Robert H. Miles, in collaboration with Kim S. Cameron (1982). Coffin Nails and Corporate Strategies. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 298 p.). Cigarette industry--United States; Tobacco industry--United States; Business planning--United States.

Carrick Mollenkamp ... [et al.] (1998). The People vs. Big Tobacco: How the States Took on the Cigarette Giants. (Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 334 p.). Trials (Products liability)--United States; Cigarette industry--Law and legislation--United States; Cigarette smokers--Legal status, laws, etc.--United States; Compromise (Law)--United States; Cigarette industry--United States; Tobacco--Physiological effect.

Tara Parker-Pope (2001). Cigarettes: Anatomy of an Industry from Seed to Smoke. (New York, NY: New Press, 192 p.). Reporter (Wall Street Journal). Cigarette industry--History; Cigarette industry--United States--History; Tobacco industry--History; Tobacco industry--United States--History; Cigarette habit--Social aspects; Cigarette habit--Health aspects. 

Peter Pringle (1998). Cornered: Big Tobacco at the Bar of Justice. (New York, NY: Holt, 352 p.). Trials (Products liability)--United States; Products liability--Tobacco--United States; Cigarette industry--Law and legislation--United States.

Eds. Matthew P. Romaniello and Tricia Starks (2009). Tobacco in Russian History and Culture: The Seventeenth Century to the Present. (New York, NY: Routledge, 296 p.). University of Hawai'i at Manoa; University of Arkansas. Tobacco --Social aspects --Russia (Federation); Tobacco --Russia (Federation) --History; Russians --Tobacco use; Russia (Federation) --Social life and customs. Tobacco’s role in Russian culture starting with growth of tobacco consumption from first introduction in seventeenth century until pandemic status in current post-Soviet health crisis.

Relli Schechter (2006). Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco Market 1850-2000. (London, UK: I. B. Tauris, 224 p.). Teaches, Researches at the Department of Middle East Studies (Ben Gurion University). Tobacco industry -- Egypt; Economic development -- Social aspects -- Egypt; Smoking -- Social aspects -- Egypt; Egypt -- Commerce; Middle East -- Commerce. History of Egypt’s tobacco habits mirrors wider socio-economic developments.

Michael Thibodeau & Jana Martin (2000). Smoke Gets in Your Eyes: Branding and Design in Cigarette Packaging. (New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 143 p.). Cigarettes -- Packaging.

Lorena S. Walsh (2010). Motives of Honor, Pleasure, and Profit: Plantation Management in the Colonial Chesapeake, 1607-1763. (Chapel Hill, NC, Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 704 p.). Former Historian (27 years) at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Plantations --Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.) --Management --History; Tobacco industry --Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.) --Management --History. Management of more than 30 individual plantations in Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland, from founding of Jamestown to close of Seven Years' War, end of "Golden Age" of colonial Chesapeake agriculture; prior to 1763 - primary reason for large planters' debt, early in their careers, was purchase of capital assets (especially slaves); chronic indebtedness rare in later stages of careers; planters, family dynamics, relationships with enslaved workers; personal and family fortunes among privileged minority, suffering, resistance, occasional minor victories of enslaved workers.

Larry C. White (1988). Merchants of Death: The American Tobacco Industry. (New York, NY: Beech Tree Books, 240 p.). Tobacco industry--United States; Advertising--Cigarettes--United States; Tobacco--Physiological effect.


Business History Links

Cigarette Cards: ABCs                                                                            ABCsofCigaretteCards&col_id=161                                            

When smoking was more socially acceptable, it was fairly easy to find elaborate cigarette or tobacco cards attached to premium tobacco products that depicted film stars, the sporting life, plants, animals, monuments, and military-related ephemera. For the most part, these cards featured illustrations on one side with related information and text on the other. This rather amazing digital collection from the New York Public Library features thousands of these cards, culled from over six decades. 

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library                                                                                

The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) contains 7 million documents related to advertising, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and scientific research of tobacco products. LTDL includes documents posted on tobacco industry web sites as of July 1999 in accordance with the Master Settlement Agreement, additional documents added to those sites since that date, and the Mangini and Brown & Williamson document collections from the Tobacco Control Archives maintained by the University of California, San Francisco. New documents are added monthly as they are collected from industry sites.

Not a Cough in a Carload: Images From the Tobacco Industry Campaign to Hide the Hazards of Smoking              

This intention of this exhibit "is to tell ... the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products." View dozens of advertising images by brand or by theme (such as doctors smoking, brides smoking, inhaling, digestion, and calming nerves), and read slogans. From the Lane Library, Stanford School of Medicine.

The Tobacco Atlas                                                                                    

This 2002 publication provides an overview of tobacco consumption and promotion around the world. Includes facts and statistics on topics such as a history of tobacco usage, male and female smoking, health risks, passive smoking and children, deaths, costs to the economy and to smokers, tobacco manufacturing and companies, advertising, research, legislation limiting smoking areas, litigation, and more. From the World Health Organization (WHO).

Tobacco History                                                                                          

Tobacco Timeline                                                                                   

University of Michigan Tobacco Research Network                                               

UMTRN was established in the belief that, by enhancing research, the sharing of knowledge can ultimately accelerate progress toward a healthier society. The Network is designed to disseminate information and create a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning tobacco and nicotine, both within and outside of the University of Michigan.


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