15, 1492 - Christopher Columbus noted in his journal use of tobacco among Indians - first recorded reference to
March 5, 1558
- Francisco Fernandes introduced smoking tobacco in Europe.
July 27, 1586
- Sir Walter Raleigh brought first tobacco to England from
- John Rolfe cultivated first tobacco at Jamestown, VA;
introduced successful source of livelihood to English colonists.
- Pierre Lorillard, French Huguenot, started making snuff
in factory on Chatham Street
first tobacco company in America;
1792 - Peter,
George Lorillard (sons) relocated company to Bronx, used
Bronx River to power mill;
America's oldest tobacco company; oldest continuously operating
company in United States; June 28, 1800 - received
a patent for a "Machine for Cutting Tobacco"; 1883
- reported sales of over $10 million, production of over 25
million pounds of tobacco products; 1891 -
Lorillard mill acquired by New York
Botanical Garden, converted to restaurant;
1910 - acquired by American
Tobacco Company; 1926 - introduced Old Gold
cigarettes; 1952 - introduced Kent cigarettes
(named for Herbert A. Kent, board chairman and former president,
promoted "Old Gold" brand);
1968 - acquired by Loew's Corporation (Laurence Tisch,
Preston Robert Tisch)
for more than $418 million; June 9, 2008
- spun-off to shareholders of
Carolina Group, set up in 2002 to track
financial performance Loews' ownership interest in Lorillard.
- John Garrett II established first Garrett snuff mill
on Red Clay Creek in Delaware;
1824 - George Garrett entered
family business, changed name to Levi Garrett and Sons;
George Garrett shares acquired by William Garrett;
Walter Garrett and William Garrett Jr. (sons) entered
business, changed name to W. E. Garrett and Sons;
acquired by Henry Moore, George Wilson, John Gilmore
(three employees) for $1;
1895 - cornerstone of Atlantic Snuff
- acquired by Buck Duke (formed American Snuff Company);
divided into American Snuff Company, Weyman and Burton
(now U.S. Tobacco), George W. Helm; managed by Martin J.
Condon, James Harwood;
November 7, 1950 - American Snuff
Company registered "W. E. Garrett & Sons" trademark
first used in 1857 (snuff);
May 8, 1951 - American Snuff
Company registered "Levi Garrett & Sons" trademark first
used in 1824 (snuff); 1966
- name changed to Conwood
- acquired by Pritzker family (Chicago) for $408
million, taken private;
April 2006 - Conwood Company, L.P.
acquired by Reynolds American for $3.5 billion.
- George Weyman opened tobacco shop in Pittsburgh, PA;
introduced Copenhagen snuff;
1870 - William and Benjamin
Weyman (sons) changed name to Weyman & Bros.;
Weyman & Bro. acquired by the American Tobacco Company
(created October 19, 1904);
American Tobacco broken up; newly named Weyman-Bruton
Company incorporated, published first annual report (net
earnings of $77,454.41);
1921 - acquired Joseph G. Dill Inc.,
United States Tobacco Company;
1922 - renamed United States
Tobacco Company; January
31, 1950 - United States Tobacco Company
registered "Copenhagen" trademark fist used
September 18, 1894 (snuff);
1987 - adopted holding-company
structure, named UST Inc.;
2001 - renamed U.S. Smokeless Tobacco
- Christopher and John Foulks established J. & C. Foulks to
manufacture cigars; 1830 - John's interest
acquired by Hiram Shaw, name changed to Foulks & Shaw;
1844 - John E. Liggett (Foulks grandson) joined
company); 1847 - Foulks interest acquired by
Liggett; name changed to Hiram Shaw & Co.;
1848 - Shaw
interest acquired by W. C. L. Liggett (brother); name changed to
J. E. Liggett & Bro.; 1855 - W. C. L. Liggett
interest acquired by Henry Dausman; renamed Liggett & Dausman;
1873 - Dausman interest acquired by George S.
Myers; formed The Liggett & Myers Tobacco Manufacturing Company;
1876 - introduced "Star" brand of plug chewing
tobacco; 1878 - incorporated; 1885
- world's largest manufacturer of plug chewing tobacco;
1890s -entered cigarette business; launched L&M,
Chesterfield, Lark (once some of best-known brands in industry);
January 1899 - largest independent tobacco company
in world; acquired by Union Tobacco Company; May 1899
- Union acquired by American Tobacco Company (Tobacco
trust); May 1911 - Trust dissolved, Liggett &
Myers became independent; January 6, 1920 -
registered "Chesterfield" trademark first used in 1896
(cigarettes); May 17, 1921 - registered "Lark"
trademark first used May 31, 1920 (cigarettes); 1952
- first to offer cigarettes in two sizes: King and Regular;
November 17, 1953 - registered "L&M" trademark first
used in February 1953 (cigarettes); 1976 - name
changed to Liggett Group, Inc.; 1977 - merged with
Diversified Products Corporation, makers of sporting goods;
1980 - acquired by Grand Metropolitan PLC for $575
million; 1986 - acquired by Brooke Partners
(Bennett S. LeBow) for $137 million; 1987 - went
public; 1990 - became subsidiary of Brooke Group
Ltd., holding company; 1997 - first tobacco
company to settle smoking related litigation brought by
Attorneys General of several states; first domestic cigarette
maker to place a warning on cigarette packages; 1998
- signed tobacco litigation Master Settlement Agreement;
1999 - Vector Tobacco Inc. formed; L&M, Lark,
Chesterfield brands acquired by Philip Morris Companies Inc. for
$300 million; May 24, 2000 - name changed to
Vector Group Ltd.
John Edmund Liggett
- Liggett & Myers
- Philip Morris, Esq., tobacconist and
importer of fine cigars, opened shop on Bond Street in London,
England; 1854 - made first cigarettes; 1873
- Margaret Morris (widow), Leopold Morris (brother) carried on
cigarette trade; 1880 - Leopold Morris acquired
Margaret Morris's interest; 1885 - Leopold Morris,
Joseph Grunebaum established Philip Morris & Company and
Grunebaum, Ltd.; 1887 - Morris, Gunebaum dissolved
partnership, company renamed Philip Morris & Co .,
- reorganized; William Curtis Thompson and family assumed
majority interest; 1901 - appointed, by royal
warrant, tobacconist for King Edward VII; 1902 -
Gustav Eckmeyer, sole agent for Philip Morris in U .S . since
1872, incorporated Philip Morris & Co ., Ltd. in New York;
1905 - acquired rights o manufacture, sell all Philip
Morris brands in Canada; April 14, 1908 -
registered "Marlboro" trademark first used in 1883 (cigarettes;
named for London street on which factory located);
1919 - coronet logo introduced; U .S . Philip
Morris Company acquired by American stockholders, incorporated
in Virginia under name of Philip Morris & Co ., Ltd ., Inc .;
1921 - Philip Morris-International Corp. organized;
September 18, 1923 - registered "Call for Philip
Morris" trademark first used February 15, 1919 (cigarettes);
1929 - Reuben M . Ellis, Leonard B . McKitterick took
control; April 17, 1933 - Johnny introduced on NBC
radio as Philip Morris spokesman; 1949 - sponsored
first television show ("Tex and Jiinx Preview'); 1951
- sponsored "I Love Lucy" show; 1954 - acquired
Benson & Hedges; January 1955 - introduced
"Marlboro Man" to Dallas/Fort
Worth test market; replaced Marlboro brown
pack with red, white package; name changed to Philip
Morris Incorporated; 1961 - first national
sponsor of National Football League telecast; 1962
- "Marlboro Country'' advertising campaign made national debut;
acquired Burma-Vita Company; 1992
- 'Marlboro' ranked most valuable brand ($32 billion by
Financial World magazine).
- Don Jose Joaquin, son of Carreras, founder Don Jose
Carreras-y-Ferrer, concentrated on blending tobacco and snuff,
opened shop off Leicester Square; 1894 - acquired
by W. J. Yapp; 1903 - became public company;
1904 - first tobacco firm to introduce coupons for
customers to redeem for gifts; 1921 - produced
first machine-made cork tip cigarette; November 1958
- acquired by Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation (S.A.) Limited for
$4,500,000; merged company with Rothmans to create Carreras
- Washington Duke, wheat, corn, oats, subsistence crop farmer,
began manufacture of smoking tobacco on part time basis;
manufactured 15,000 pounds of "Pro Bono Publico"; necessitated
utilization of other outbuildings on farm; began buying
additional tobacco from neighboring farmers; 1870
- Brodie Duke began production in Durham, NC; 1873
- produced around 125,000 pounds of smoking tobacco annually;
April 1874 - purchased two acres near railroad in
Durham, NC, built new factory; beginning of large scale tobacco
company; 1878 - renamed business W. Duke Sons and
Company; 1881 - begin manufacture of cigarettes,
in competition with W. T. Blackwell and Company ('Bull Durham'
brand); 1884 - James "Buck" Duke established
branch of company in New York; January 21, 1890 -
merged with Allen and Ginter Company (Richmond, VA), F. S.
Kinney Company and the Goodwin Company (New York), William S.
Kimball and Company (Rochester, NY), incorporated American
Tobacco Company; became known as "tobacco trust", almost
complete monopoly of tobacco trade; May 1895 -
went public; December 10, 1898 - incorporated
Continental Tobacco Company (consolidation of leading navy plug
plants in U.S.- included P. Lorillard); 1899 -
acquired Union Tobacco Company (acquired Liggett & Myers in
January 1899); 1911 - United States Supreme Court
dissolved trust; four major tobacco corporations emerged from
separation: American Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers, P.
Lorillard, R. J. Reynolds; September 4, 1917 -
registered "Lucky Strike" trademark first used January 1, 1883
(smoking and chewing tobacco, tobacco plugs, cigarettes).
- Henry Tibbe, Dutch immigrant woodworker, made spinning wheels,
furniture in Washington, MO; began producing corn cob pipes;
July 9, 1878 - received a patent for a "Pipe" ("made
of corn-cobs, the object being to improve their durability and
appearance, and facilitate their being cleaned"); innovative
system of applying a plaster-based substance to outside of corn
cob bowls; 1907 - H. Tibbe & Son Co. renamed
Missouri Meerschaum Company (Meerschaum - from German word that
means "sea foam"; Turkish clay used in high grade pipes);
world's oldest, largest manufacturer.
November 21, 1871
- Moses F Gale, of New York, NY, received a patent for an
"Improvement in Cigar-Lighters"; first U.S. patent for a cigar
- Richard Joshua Reynolds (25) started chewing-tobacco
manufacturing operation in Winston, NC; 1899 -
sold two-thirds stake in R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to James
B. Duke's American Tobacco Company 'trust' (formed in 1890) in
exchange for exclusive rights to ship Camel cigarettes to
American troops fighting World War I in Europe; 1913
- introduced Camel cigarettes, blend of several different types
of tobacco, came to be called "the American blend";
September 30, 1919 - registered "Camel" trademark first
used in March 1901 (smoking tobacco and cigarettes); 1954
- introduced Winston, first filter cigarette to achieve major
success; October 30, 1956 - registered "Winston"
trademark first used June 26, 1952 (cigarettes); 1956
- introduced Salem, first filter-tipped menthol cigarette;
November 20, 1956 - registered "Salem" trademark
first used March 19, 1956 (cigarettes);
1958 - nation's
leading cigarette manufacturer; 1970 - formed new
parent company, R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.; September
1985 - acquired Nabisco Brands; 1986 -
parent company re-named RJR Nabisco, Inc.; April 1989
- acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in $25 billion
leveraged buyout (largest corporate transaction in history at
time); June 15, 1999 - R.J. Reynolds Tobacco
Holdings, Inc. became independent, publicly traded company again
(R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company as wholly owned subsidiary);
July 30, 2004 - R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Holdings, Inc.
merged U.S. tobacco business with British American Tobacco
plc., formed Reynolds American Inc.
November 7, 1876
- Albert H. Hook, of New York, NY, received first patent
for an "Improvement in Cigarette-Machines" ("for making
cigarette cylinders"); produced continuous cigarette of
indefinite length, to be cut into individual cigarettes;
1875 - 50 million cigarettes manufactured;
1882 - Hook machine came into practical commercial use.
September 25, 1878
- Dr. Charles Drysdale, senior physician to the Metropolitan
Free Hospital, wrote in The Times newspaper in Britain a warning
against the use of tobacco; estimated that £15,000,000 was
spent annually in Great Britain on tobacco; 1864 -
Drysdale had published in Med. Circular results of excessive use
- cases of jaundice in healthy young men smoking 3/4-oz daily,
"most distressing palpitation of the heart" in a young man who
smoked 1/2-oz daily; 1875 - he wrote a book,
"Tobacco and the Diseases It Produces."
September 7, 1880
- Oscar W. Allison, of Rochester, NY, received a patent for a
"Cigarette-Machine"; rights acquired by American Tobacco Company
(James B. Duke).
March 8, 1881
- James A. Bonsack, of Bonsack's, VA, received a patent for a
"Cigarette-Machine" (...a machine which will uniformly feed and
distribute the tobacco upon a continuous paper ribbon, then form
the same into a continuous roll, then paste the paper around it,
and finally cut off the same into definite lengths, all in a
series of consecutive operations"); could produce more than
70,000 cigarettes in 10-hour work shift; reduced labor cost of
cigarettes made by hand from 96.4 cents/thousand in 1876 to 8.1
cents/thousand in 1895 [source: 1898 Report from Commissioner of
Labor]; exclusive rights to machine, with termination of
agreements with all other cigarette manufacturers, acquired from
Bonsack Machine Company by American tobacco Company for 3-year
period; attempt to monopolize manufacture machinery for
manufacture of cigarettes; established significant competitive
advantage for Duke; 1895 - exclusive rights
reversed by courts.
- Drummond Tobacco Company of St. Louis, MO manufactured, sold
Chesterfield cigarettes; January 6, 1920 - Liggett
& Myers Tobacco Company registered "Chesterfield" trademark
first used in 1896 (cigarettes).
February 27, 1883
- Oscar Hammerstein, of New York, NY, received patent for a
"Cigar-Machine" ("Improvement in Machines for Making Cigars and
Cigarettes"); first practical cigar-rolling machine.
- Louis Rothman opened small tobacco kiosk on Fleet Street in
London; 1900 - opened showroom on Pall Mall,
launched Pall Mall brand of cigarettes; 1903 -
incorporated under name of Rothmans of Pall Mall; 1906
- created menthol cigarette (inserted menthol crystals into ends
of cigarettes); 1919 - Sidney (son) joined company
as apprentice; December 1926 -
assumed control; 1929
- Rothmans Limited, public company, formed, Sidney Rothman as
first chairman, managing director; 1954 -
controlling interest acquired by Rembrandt Tobacco Company;
1972 - Rothmans International created (Carreras
Rothmans of United Kingdom, Martin Brinkmann of West Germany,
Tabacofina of Belgium, Turmac of Netherlands); 1967
- Carreras acquired 51 percent of Alfred Dunhill Limited;
1983 - acquired interest in Cartier Monde; 1988
- Rembrandt Group restructured international activities, formed
holding company based in Switzerland, Compagnie Financier
Richemont (CFR); held 33 percent of Rothmans International plc;
1993 - separated luxury brands from tobacco
interests; 1995 - Rothmans operated as
wholly-owned subsidiary of Richemont; 1999 -
Rothmans International merged with British American Tobacco
(BAT), world's 2nd-largest cigarette producer; June 1999
- merged with British American Tobacco.
- George T. Brown and Robert F. Williamson founded Brown &
Williamson Tobacco Co. in North Carolina.
November 30, 1897
- James A. Sweeting, of New York, NY, received patent for a
"Device for Rolling Cigarettes" ("will enable the rolling of
cigarettes by the ordinary user with facility and convenience").
September 29. 1902
- UK’s Imperial Tobacco Company formed joint venture with
American Tobacco Company, formed British American Tobacco
Company (effort to end intense trade war); companies' businesses
outside ‘home’ markets transferred to British American Tobacco,
new company operations in Canada, Japan, Germany, Australia,
South Africa, China; James ‘Buck’ Duke first chairman;
1910 - sales of more than 10 billion cigarettes;
1911 - American Tobacco Company divested its shares in
joint venture, British American Tobacco went public; 1915
- cigarette sales of 25 billion; 1923 - Duke
resigned as chairman; 1927 - 120 subsidiaries,
more than 75,000 employees worldwide; acquired Brown &
Williamson, moved into U. S. market; 1937-
cigarette sales exceeded 55 billion in China, Japanese invasion
halted sales more than four years; 1952 - lost
several end markets (Egypt, Indonesia, China); 1960
- sales exceeded £280 billion, record trading profits of more
than £58 million; 1956 - acquired overseas
business of Benson & Hedges; 1966 - company
profits exceed £100m for first time; 1970 -
manufactured in 140 factories across 50 countries; 1970s
- entered retailing, acquired Argos in UK, Saks Fifth Avenue in
United States; 1972 - 1902 agreement with Imperial
revoked; 1976 - operations coordinated under new
holding company, B.A.T Industries; 1974 - UK’s
third largest company, largest tobacco manufacturer in free
world with annual sales of 500 billion cigarettes; 1989
- largest UK-based insurance group (acquired Eagle Star in 1984,
Allied Dunbar in 1985, Farmers Group in 1988); re-focused
exclusively on tobacco, financial services, divested almost
everything else; 1994 - acquired American Tobacco
Company (Lucky Strike, Pall Mall brands); 1998 - divested
financial services businesses; 1999 - merged with
Rothmans International (fourth largest tobacco company - several
major brands, including Dunhill); Canadian market largest
generator of profit; 2000 - sold Rothmans'
Canadian interests, acquired shares in Imasco (sold non-tobacco
interests); Canadian operation, wholly-owned subsidiary focused
solely on tobacco, known as Imperial Tobacco Canada; 2004
- combined Brown & Williamson and RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company,
formed Reynolds American (British American Tobacco had 42%
share); October 2005 - terminated sponsorship of
Formula One motorsport; February 28, 2008 - agreed
to acquire Scandinavia's leading tobacco group for $4.14
Duke - first chairman British
April 11, 1921
- Iowa became the first state to impose a cigarette tax.
- George G. Blaisdell, owner of Blaisdell Oil Co., developed the
Zippo lighter in a garage in Bradford, PA; had watched use of
cumbersome Austrian-made lighter (worked well but looked ugly,
required two hands, thin metal surface dented easily); liked the
sound of the word "zipper" so he formed different variations on
the word and settled on "Zippo," deciding that it had a "modern"
sound; lighters sold for $ 1.95 each with money back guarantee.
Blaisdell - founder, Zippo
March 3, 1936
- George Gimera and George G. Blaisdell, of Bradford, PA,
received a patent for a "Pocket Lighter" ("having a minimum of
projections from its closed case, and in which movement of the
cover from either its fully open or its fully closed position is
restrained by simple means concealed when the lighter is
closed"); assigned to Zippo Manufacturing Company.
- Anton Rupert (South Africa) established Voorbrand Tobacco
Company; renamed Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation; 1948
- manufactured first cigarettes; 1954 -
acquired controlling interest in Rothmans of Pall Mall;
1972 - overseas tobacco interests consolidated into
Rothmans; 1988 -Rembrandt Group restructured
international activities, formed Swiss holding company,
Compagnie Financier Richemont (CFR); held 33 percent of Rothmans
International plc; 1993
- separated tobacco, luxury goods operations into Rothmans
International BV/PLC, VendŰme Luxury Group SA/PLC; 1995 - consolidated tobacco
interests into Rothmans International (world's 4th-largest
cigarette manufacturer); Rothmans operated as wholly-owned
subsidiary of Richemont;
June 1999 -
Rothmans International merged with British American Tobacco
(BAT), world's 2nd-largest cigarette producer.
Anton Rupert - South Africa
August 1, 1950
- Lester Flickinger and George G. Blaisdell, of Bradford, PA,
received a patent for a "Pyrophoric Lighter" ("object of this
invention is to provide a simple, inexpensive and effective
manner of preventing [such] flint-induced, wheel-binding
distortions of a corrosion-resisting flint holding tube");
assigned to Zippo Manufacturing Company.
1957 - Service d'Exploitation Industielle des
Tabacs et Allumettes registered "Gauloises" trademark first used
in October 1947 (cigarettes).
September 8, 1961
- Journal of the American Medical Association held that there is
statistical evidence connecting smoking and heart disease.
June 8, 1963
- American Heart Association was first agency to campaign
January 11, 1964
- U.S. Surgeon General Luther Terry issued first government
report saying smoking may be hazardous to one's health.
- The Federal Trade Commission announced that, starting in 1965,
cigarette makers must include warning labels about the harmful
effects of smoking.
October 2, 1964
- Scientists announced findings that smoking can cause cancer.
1965 - President Johnson signed a bill requiring
cigarette makers to print health warnings on all cigarette
packages about the effects of smoking.
July 31, 1965
- The last cigarette commercial appeared on British television.
January 1, 1966
- All US cigarette packages began carrying the health warning:
Caution: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health
(resulted from landmark federal legislation enacted in 1965 that
required health warnings on cigarette packages); 1984
- law amended to require one of four warning labels in most
June 1, 1969
- Tobacco advertising is banned on Canadian radio and TV.
April 1, 1970
- President Richard Nixon signed a measure banning cigarette
advertising on radio and TV.
January 1, 1971
- Last televised cigarette ad ran at 11:50 p.m. during The
Johnny Carson Show.
April 11, 1972
- Lewis R. Toppel, of Chicago, IL, received a patent
(#3,655,325) for a "Smoking Deterrent" ("pseudo-cigarette
package that produces simulated coughing sounds when the package
is picked up by a potential user to remove the cigarette
June 2, 1985
- R.J. Reynolds Industries and Nabisco agreed to merge to
form a $4.9 billion company.; 1989 - acquired for
record $23 billion by Wall Street buyout firm Kohlberg Kravis
Roberts & Company; 1999 - RJR Nabisco sold its
international tobacco business for nearly $8 billion to Japan
Tobacco, Inc.; announced it plans to separate its remaining food
and domestic tobacco interests.
February 6, 1987
- No-smoking rules took effect in federal buildings.
February 19, 1987
- Anti-smoking ad aired for first time on TV, featured Yul
April 23, 1988
- A federal ban on smoking during domestic airline flights of
two hours or less went into effect.
May 16, 1988
- U.S. Surgeon-General C. Everett Koop declared nicotine to be
addictive in ways similar to heroin and cocaine.
February 28, 1997
- Smokers must prove they are over 18 to purchase cigarettes in
March 20, 1997
- Liggett Group, maker of Chesterfield cigarettes, settled 22
state lawsuits by admitting the industry markets cigarettes to
teenagers and agreeing to warn on every pack that smoking is
June 20, 1997
- The tobacco industry agreed to a massive settlement in
exchange for major relief from mounting lawsuits and legal
August 25, 1997
- The tobacco industry agreed to an $11.3 billion settlement
with the state of Florida.
January 1, 1998
- An anti-smoking law went into effect in California,
prohibiting people from lighting up in bars.
January 8, 1998
- Scientists identified a chemical compound which explains how
nicotine becomes addictive.
January 29, 1998
- Steven Goldstone, RJR Nabisco chairman and CEO, acknowledged
the health risk of tobacco products under oath to Congress (came
at a hearing where industry leaders pushed Congress to enact a
$368.5 billion deal giving them partial immunity from future
lawsuits); 1994 - seven tobacco industry
executives had stood before the House Commerce Committee and
sworn nicotine is not addictive.
March 30, 1999
- A jury in Portland, OR, ordered Philip Morris to pay $81
million to the family of a man who died of lung cancer after
smoking Marlboros for four decades.
July 7, 1999
- A jury in Miami held cigarette makers liable for making a
defective product that causes emphysema, lung cancer and other
July 14, 2000
- A Florida jury ordered five major tobacco companies to pay
smokers a record $145 billion in punitive damages.
March 10, 2006
- A study by the National Association of State Attorneys
General (based on Treasury Department data) reported that
tobacco use has reached its lowest level in the United States
since 1951; cigarette sales declined in 2005 by 4.2 percent to
378 billion, the largest single-year decline on record; sales
are down by 21 percent since the $246 billion legal settlement
negotiated in 1998 between the State Attorneys General and the
tobacco industry; other factors - cigarette tax increases (43
states and the District of Columbia have increased tobacco taxes
since 1998) and a recent push for smoke-free laws (12 states and
the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have smoking bans at
all indoor businesses, including bars and restaurants).
June 11, 2009
- U.S. Senate passed Family Smoking Prevention
and Tobacco Control Act; gave government (Food and Drug
Administration) unprecedented power over making, marketing of
tobacco products (tobacco industry agreed in 1998 to pay $206
billion to settle Medicaid lawsuits brought by states, biggest
civil settlement in U.S. history; Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in
2000 that FDA had no authority to control tobacco products
unless Congress changed law; Philip Morris U.S.A., nation's
largest tobacco company, broke industry ranks in 2001, said it
saw wisdom of "reasonable" government oversight); tobacco
companies will have to disclose their product research and
ingredients, seek approval for new products; FDA will publish
annual list of harmful ingredients by brand, can ban most
dangerous of estimated 6,000 chemicals in cigarettes, except
nicotine (can only be reduced), key to addiction. Nicotine;
established regulatory structure, standards for manufacturing,
marketing of tobacco products
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(Joseph Frederick), 1912- ; Philip Morris Incorporated--History;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Tobacco
(J. C. Newman Cigar), Stanford J. Newman with
James V. Miller and introduction by Marvin R. Shanken (1999).
Cigar Family: A l00 Year Journey in the Cigar Industry.
(New York, NY: Forbes Custom, 232 p.). Newman, Stanford J.,
1916-; Newman family; J.C. Newman Cigar Company--History;
Businessmen--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United
States--Biography; Cigar industry--United States--History.
(Perry of London), Jacob M. Price (1992).
Perry of London: A Family and a Firm on the Seaborne Frontier,
1615-1753. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 191
p.). Perry family; Perry of London--History; Tobacco
industry--Great Britain--History; Tobacco industry--Great
(Principe de Gales),
Glenn L. Westfall (1987).
Don Vicente Martinez Ybor, The Man and His Empire:
Development of the Clear Havana industry in Cuba and Florida in
the Nineteenth Century. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 214
p.). Ybor, Vicente Martinez, 1818-1896; Cigar
industry--Florida--History--19th century; Cigar
industry--Cuba--History--19th century; Tobacco
industry--Florida--History--19th century; Tobacco
(Rembrandt Tobacco), Ebbe
Dommisse with the cooperation of Willie Esterhuyse (2005).
Anton Rupert A Biography. (Cape Town, SA: Tafelberg, 463
p.). Rupert, Anton; Industrialists--South Africa--Biography.
South Africa's most successful
(R. J. Reynolds company founded 1875),
Nannie M. Tilley (1985).
The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. (Chapel Hill, NC:
University of North Carolina Press, 706 p.). R.J. Reynolds
Industries--History; Tobacco industry--United States--History.
Reynolds (chewing tobacco in
1875, Camel cigarettes in 1913;
(R. J. Reynolds), Patrick Reynolds and Tom
The Gilded Leaf: Triumph, Tragedy, and Tobacco: Three
Generations of the R.J. Reynolds Family and Fortune.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 353 p.). Reynolds family; R.J.
Reynolds Tobacco Company--History; Tobacco industry--United
(R. J. Reynolds), Frank V. Tursi, Susan E.
White and Steve McQuilkin (2000).
Lost Empire: The Fall of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
(Winston-Salem, NC: Winston-Salem Journal, 416 p.). R.J.
Reynolds Tobacco Company; Tobacco industry--United States;
Business failures--United States.
(Tiedemanns J. L.), Francis Sejersted, Arnljot
StrÝmme Svendsen (1978).
Blader av Tobakkens Historie: J. L. Tiedemanns Tobaksfabrik
1778-1978. (Oslo :Tiedemann: Gyldendal, 476 p.). J.L.
Tiedemanns tobaksfabrik--History; Tobacco
(Universal Leaf Tobacco Co.), Maurice Duke,
Daniel P. Jordan (1995).
Tobacco Merchant: The Story of Universal Leaf Tobacco Company.
(Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 212 p.). Universal
Leaf Tobacco Co.--History; Tobacco industry--United
States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
(Zippo Manufacturing Company), Linda L.
Meabon; foreword by George B. Duke (2003).
Zippo Manufacturing Company. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia,
128 p.). 36-Year Employee; Grandson of George G. Blaisdell,
Owner of Zippo Manufacturing Company. Zippo Manufacturing
Company; Cigar lighters--History--Pictorial works; Bradford
(Pa.)--History--Pictorial works. Nearly four hundred million
lighters; commemorative showcase for corporate logos, special
events, famous places; family-owned, operated for more than 70
W. F. Axton (2009).
Tobacco and Kentucky. (Lexington, KY: University
Press of Kentucky, 160 p.). Professor of English (University of
Louisville). Tobacco industry -- Kentucky -- History; Tobacco --
Kentucky -- History. Forms in which tobacco has been
used, quick adoption by Old World, gradual development
into forms common today (blended cigarette); Burley
leaf (tobacco still most important crop); many aspects of tobacco production, ancient Indian pipes that found in Kentucky.
Anthony J. Badger (1980).
Prosperity Road the New Deal, Tobacco, and North Carolina.
(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina P, 295 p.). Paul
Mellon Professor of American History (Cambridge University,
Master of Clare College). Tobacco industry --North Carolina
--History; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States --Economic policy
--1933-1945; North Carolina --Economic policy.
Allan Brandt (2007).
The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall and Deadly Persistence of
the Product That Defined America. (New York, NY: Basic
Books, 672 p.). Amalie Moses Kass Professor of the History of
Medicine (Harvard Medical School), Professor in the Department
of the History of Science (Harvard University). Tobacco
industry--United States--History--20th century; Smoking--United
States--History--20th century; Smoking--Health aspects.
How one humble (largely useless)
product came to play such dominant role in lives and deaths;
shaped twentieth-century America--from modern advertising to
science, from regulatory politics to glamour and style; became
indispensable accessory of glamour, sex appeal.
Sherman Cochran (1980).
Big Business in China: Sino-foreign Rivalry in the Cigarette
Industry, 1890-1930. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 332 p.). Cigarette industry--China--History--19th
century; Cigarette industry--China--History--20th century.
Maurice Corina (1975).
Trust in Tobacco: The Anglo-American Struggle for Power.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 319 p.). Tobacco
industry--United States--History; Tobacco industry--Great
Britain--History; Trusts, Industrial--History.
T. M. Devine (1990). The Tobacco Lords: A
Study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and Their Trading
Activities, c. 1740-90. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh
University Press, 209 p.). Tobacco industry --Scotland --Glasgow
--History; Merchants --Scotland --Glasgow --History; Glasgow
(Scotland) --Commerce --History.
Tom Diamond (2005).
The Economic and Political Aspects of the Tobacco Industry: An
Annotated Bibliography and Statistical Review, 1990-2004.
(Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 241 p.). Tobacco
industry--Economic aspects--Bibliography; Tobacco
Iain Gately (2001).
Tobacco: The Story of How Tobacco Seduced the World.
(New York, NY: Grove Press, 403 p.). Tobacco--History;
Jerome Goodman (1993).
Tobacco in History: the Cultures of Dependence. (New
York, NY: Routledge, 280 p.). Tobacco--History; Tobacco--Social
Richard Kluger (1996).
Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public
Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. (New
York, NY: Knopf, 807 p.). Cigarette habit--United
States--History; Tobacco habit--United States--History;
Cigarette industry--United States--History; Tobacco
Allan Kulikoff (1986).
Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the
Chesapeake, 1680-1800. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of
North Carolina Press, 449 p.). Agriculture--Economic
aspects--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History; Tobacco
industry--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History;
Plantation life--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History;
Slavery--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--History;
Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--Economic conditions;
Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)--Social conditions.
Published for the Institute of Early American History and
Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia.
Gloria L. Main (1982).
Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 326 p.). Cost and
standard of living--Maryland--History; Plantation
life--Maryland--History; Tobacco industry--Maryland--History;
Maryland--Economic conditions; Maryland--History--Colonial
period, ca. 1600-1775.
Robert H. Miles, in collaboration with Kim S.
Coffin Nails and Corporate Strategies. (Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 298 p.). Cigarette industry--United
States; Tobacco industry--United States; Business
Carrick Mollenkamp ... [et al.] (1998).
The People vs. Big Tobacco: How the States Took on the Cigarette
Giants. (Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 334 p.). Trials
(Products liability)--United States; Cigarette industry--Law and
legislation--United States; Cigarette smokers--Legal status,
laws, etc.--United States; Compromise (Law)--United States;
Cigarette industry--United States; Tobacco--Physiological
Tara Parker-Pope (2001).
Cigarettes: Anatomy of an Industry from Seed to Smoke.
(New York, NY: New Press, 192 p.). Reporter (Wall Street
Journal). Cigarette industry--History; Cigarette
industry--United States--History; Tobacco industry--History;
Tobacco industry--United States--History; Cigarette
habit--Social aspects; Cigarette habit--Health aspects.
Peter Pringle (1998).
Cornered: Big Tobacco at the Bar of Justice. (New York,
NY: Holt, 352 p.). Trials (Products liability)--United States;
Products liability--Tobacco--United States; Cigarette
industry--Law and legislation--United States.
Eds. Matthew P. Romaniello and Tricia Starks (2009).
Tobacco in Russian History and Culture: The Seventeenth Century
to the Present. (New York, NY: Routledge, 296 p.).
University of Hawai'i at Manoa; University of Arkansas. Tobacco
--Social aspects --Russia (Federation); Tobacco --Russia
(Federation) --History; Russians --Tobacco use; Russia
(Federation) --Social life and customs. Tobacco’s role in
Russian culture starting with growth of tobacco consumption from
first introduction in seventeenth century until pandemic status
in current post-Soviet health crisis.
Relli Schechter (2006).
Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian
Tobacco Market 1850-2000. (London, UK: I. B. Tauris, 224
p.). Teaches, Researches at the Department of Middle East
Studies (Ben Gurion University). Tobacco industry -- Egypt;
Economic development -- Social aspects -- Egypt; Smoking --
Social aspects -- Egypt; Egypt -- Commerce; Middle East --
Commerce. History of
Egypt’s tobacco habits mirrors wider socio-economic
Michael Thibodeau & Jana Martin (2000).
Smoke Gets in Your Eyes: Branding and Design in Cigarette
Packaging. (New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 143 p.).
Cigarettes -- Packaging.
Lorena S. Walsh (2010).
Motives of Honor, Pleasure, and Profit: Plantation Management in
the Colonial Chesapeake, 1607-1763. (Chapel Hill, NC,
Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History
and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North
Carolina Press, 704 p.). Former Historian (27 years) at the
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Plantations --Chesapeake Bay
Region (Md. and Va.) --Management --History; Tobacco industry
--Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.) --Management --History.
Management of more than 30 individual plantations in Chesapeake
colonies of Virginia and Maryland, from founding of Jamestown to
close of Seven Years' War, end of "Golden Age" of colonial
Chesapeake agriculture; prior to 1763 - primary reason for large
planters' debt, early in their careers, was purchase of capital
assets (especially slaves); chronic indebtedness rare in later
stages of careers; planters, family dynamics, relationships with
enslaved workers; personal and family fortunes among privileged
minority, suffering, resistance, occasional minor victories of
Larry C. White (1988).
Merchants of Death: The American Tobacco Industry. (New
York, NY: Beech Tree Books, 240 p.). Tobacco industry--United
States; Advertising--Cigarettes--United States;
Business History Links
Cigarette Cards: ABCs
When smoking was more socially acceptable, it was fairly easy to
find elaborate cigarette or tobacco cards attached to premium
tobacco products that depicted film stars, the sporting life,
plants, animals, monuments, and military-related ephemera. For
the most part, these cards featured illustrations on one side
with related information and text on the other. This rather
amazing digital collection from the New York Public Library
features thousands of these cards, culled from over six decades.
Legacy Tobacco Documents Library
The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) contains 7 million
documents related to advertising, manufacturing, marketing,
sales, and scientific research of tobacco products. LTDL
includes documents posted on tobacco industry web sites as of
July 1999 in accordance with the Master Settlement Agreement,
additional documents added to those sites since that date, and
the Mangini and Brown & Williamson document collections from the
Tobacco Control Archives maintained by the University of
California, San Francisco. New documents are added monthly as
they are collected from industry sites.
Not a Cough in a
Carload: Images From the Tobacco Industry Campaign to Hide the
Hazards of Smoking
This intention of this exhibit "is to tell ... the story of how,
between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies
used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to
reassure the public of the safety of their products." View
dozens of advertising images by brand or by theme (such as
doctors smoking, brides smoking, inhaling, digestion, and
calming nerves), and read slogans. From the Lane Library,
Stanford School of Medicine.
The Tobacco Atlas
This 2002 publication provides an overview of tobacco
consumption and promotion around the world. Includes facts and
statistics on topics such as a history of tobacco usage, male
and female smoking, health risks, passive smoking and children,
deaths, costs to the economy and to smokers, tobacco
manufacturing and companies, advertising, research, legislation
limiting smoking areas, litigation, and more. From the World
Health Organization (WHO).
University of Michigan Tobacco Research
UMTRN was established in the belief that, by enhancing research,
the sharing of knowledge can ultimately accelerate progress
toward a healthier society. The Network is designed to
disseminate information and create a forum for the exchange of
ideas concerning tobacco and nicotine, both within and outside
of the University of Michigan.