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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Drug Manufacturers
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1668 - Friedrich Jacob Merck acquired ownership of "Engel-Apotheke" [Angel Pharmacy] in Darmstadt; 1827 - Heinrich Emanuel Merck initiated move to large-scale production of alkaloids; 1889 - Georg Merck (grandson) took over office in New York, established Merck & Co.; 1899 - first Merck Manual published; 1925 - George W. Merck assumed control; 1930's - pharmaceutical research began; 1953  - merged with Sharp & Dohme = foundation for fully integrated, multi-national producer, distributor of pharmaceutical products; world´s oldest still operating pharmaceutical,  chemical company.

1758 - Johann Rudolf Geigy-Gemuseus began trading in “Materials, Chemicals, Dyes and Drugs of all Kinds"; 1914 -  name changed to J.R. Geigy Ltd.;  1945 - abbreviation, CIBA, became company’s name; 1938 - created pharmaceutical department.

1781 - Chobei Takeda I (32) started business selling traditional Japanese, Chinese medicines in Doshomachi, Osaka, center of medicine trade in Japan; bought medicines from wholesalers, divided them into smaller batches, sold them to local medicine merchants, doctors; beginning of present-day Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.; 1871 - Chobei Takeda IV formed cooperative union for purchasing Western medicines (quinine, anti-malaria drug, and phenol, an anti-cholera drug), began transactions with foreign trading companies; 1895, - became pharmaceutical manufacturer (bismuth subgallate, antidiarrheal agent, and quinine hydrochloride); 1925 - Incorporated as Chobei Takeda & Co., Ltd.; 1943 - name changed to Takeda Pharmaceutical Industries Limited; 1961 - English name changed to Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.

Photo Chobei Takeda I - Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd. (

April 30, 1796 - Samuel Lee, Jr. of Connecticut, received a patent for "Composition of Billious Pills"; first U.S. patent for pill; marketed as "Lee's Windham Pills" (composed of gamboge, aloes, soap, nitrate of potassa).

1830 - John K. Smith opened first drugstore in Philadelphia; 1865 -  Mahlon Kline joined Smith and Shoemaker as  bookkeeper. 1875 - Mahlon K Smith and Company renamed Smith, Kline and Company; 1891 - acquired French, Richards and Company, 1929 - renamed Smith Kline and French Laboratories; 1952 - introduced first time-released medicine, Dexedrine; 1960 - launches Contac, cold remedy; November 21, 1961 - registered "Contac" trademark first used February 7, 1961 (Oral Nasal Decongestant); 1982 - acquired Allergan, eye and skincare business; merged with Beckman Instruments Inc (specialized in diagnostics, measurement instruments and supplies); renamed SmithKline Beckman; 1989 - merged with The Beecham Group plc, formed SmithKline Beecham plc; 1994 - third-largest over-the-counter medicines company in  world, number one in Europe, international markets; December 27, 2000 - merged with Glaxo Wellcome, renamed GlaxoSmithKline, world's largest pharmaceutical company by market share (at time of merger).

June 23, 1839 - Julius Wilhelm Braun purchased Rosen-Apotheke, pharmacy in Melsungen, Germany; expanded to mail-order business for local herbs; 1864 - Bernhard Braun (eldest son) took over pharmacy; began producing pharmaceutical products (migraine sticks, plasters); 1867 - registered company as "B. Braun" (pharmacy and pharmaceutical products); 1893 - opened branch in New York; shortly opened offices in London, Paris, Constantinople, Buenos Aires, Tokyo; 1900 - Carl Braun (grandson) took over; 1908 - produced first absorbable suture material (catgut) from sheep intestines (used Kuhns method); 1914 - medico-mechanical workshop began manufacturing splints for surgery, simple extensions, blood pressure measuring devices; 1923 - set up own company health insurance fund; 1925 - established first foreign production facilities in Milan, Italy; 1929 - Otto Braun (great grandson) took over; established The Carl Braun Relief Fund in father's memory to support needy employees; 1930 - developed modified Tyrode´s solution Sterofundin® (basis for all later infusion solutions); 1935 - began production of Synthofil A, non-absorbable synthetic suture material; invented first surgical electric motor; 1937 - Dr. Bernd Braun (grandson, youngest son of Carl Braun), joined company as Scientific Director; 1939 - 500 employees; 1949 - developed Supramid-Braun, surgical suture material made from nylon; 1951 - produced first injection pump for continuous infusions; 1953 - began production of infusion devices made of glass; 1956 - began production of 'infusors' (infusion devices made of plastic); 1958 - more than 1,000 for first time; 1964 - more than 1,700 employees, sales of approximately DM 50 million; 1966 - established B. Braun Foundation to promote education, further training of doctors, nursing professionals; 1969 - sales exceeded DM 100 million, workforce more than 2,000 employees; 1976 - acquired controlling interest in Aesculap AG; B. Braun Melsungen AG sales of DM 424 million in fiscal 1975/76, 3,098 employees; 1977 - Ludwig Georg Braun (grandson, son of Otto Braun) became Chairman of the Board; 1997 - acquired McGaw, Inc. (California), largest single acquisition in company's history; 1998 - incorporated Aesculap AG & Co KG into B. Braun Group as Aesculap Division; sales of DM 4 billion, more than 27,000 employees worldwide; 2000 - sold B. Braun Biotech, biotechnology operation; 2007 - launched worldwide investment projects program (total investment of approximately € 1.4 billion); 2008 - 100th anniversary of industrial production of sterile sutures (awarded international "Future of Sututres" prize, endowed with prize money of 400,000 Euros).

Julius Wilhelm Braun - B. Braun Group (

November 3, 1839 - First Opium War between China and Britain began.

1842 - Thomas Beecham, farm worker from Oxfordshire,  launched Beecham's Pills laxative business in England; 1945 - Beecham Group Ltd established (replaced Beecham Pills Ltd,  Beecham Estates Ltd; incorporated Beecham Research Laboratories; 1989 -SmithKline Beckman merged with The Beecham Group plc, formed SmithKline Beecham.

1849 - Cousins Charles Pfizer (chemist), Charles Erhart (confectioner), young entrepreneurs from Germany, borrowed $2,500 from Charles Pfizer's father, bought small brick building on Bartlett Street in Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, NY, formed Charles Pfizer & small chemical manufacturer; first product - santonin, used to treat intestinal worms (terrible taste); blended santonin with almond-toffee flavoring and shaped it into a candy cone - immediate success; 1857 - opened office in downtown Manhattan on Beekman Street; 1860 - manufactured borax, boric acid, first important producer in  United States; 1880 - began producing citric acid (became America's leading producer, company's biggest product in the next century); 1900 - incorporated; 1906 - sales of about $3.4 million, nearly 200 employees; 2006 - sales of $48.4 billion

1851 - Ernst Schering, a pharmacist, opened the "Green Pharmacy" in the north of Berlin; 1928 - incorporated in New York City; 1941 - President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered Schering AG's U.S. assets seized; 1952 - acquired by syndicate headed by Merrill Lynch, went public; 1971 - merged with Plough Inc., worldwide manufacturer of consumer products; formed Schering Plough (antibiotics, antihistamines, pharmaceuticals with household consumer products such as Coppertone, Di-Gel, Maybelline cosmetics); 1979 - acquired Scholl, Inc.

1856 - William R. Warner launched drug store in Philadelphia, PA; invented  tablet-coating process to encase harsh-tasting medicines in sugar shells (innovation earned Warner place in Smithsonian Institution); 1886 - gave up retail shop; focused solely on drug manufacturing under name William R. Warner & Co.; 1879 - Dr Joseph Lawrence, Jordan Wheat Lambert formulated amber-colored Listerine as disinfectant for surgical procedures (named after English physician Sir Joseph Lister who had performed first ever antiseptic surgery in 1865); 1884 - Jordan Wheat Lambert launched Lambert Pharmacal Company in St. Louis to manufacture, market Listerine to medical community; 1908 - William Warner & Co. acquired by Pfeiffer Chemical (Henry and Gustavus Pfeiffer); 1914 - became one of first prescription products available over the counter, founded mouthwash category; March 31, 1955 - pharmaceuticals marketer Warner-Hudnut merged with Lambert Pharmacal Co., created  Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.

1860 - John and Frank Wyeth founded John Wyeth & Brother, retail drugstore with small research lab, in Philadelphia, PA; 1862 - published first catalog of drugs for wholesale distribution; 1872 - employee Henry Bower  invented machine to make tablets from medicinal powders, allowed mass production of pills with pre-measured dosages (Thomas J. Young, of Philadelphia received a patent on October 8, 1874 for a "Machine for Making Pills, Lozenges, &c.", assigned to Henry Bower); 1907 - Stuart Wyeth (John's son) became president; 1929 - controlling interest in company bequeathed to Harvard University; 1931 - acquired by American Home products for $2.9 million; October 15, 2009 - acquired by Pfizer Inc. for $68 billion.

August 1, 1863 - Dye salesman Friedrich Bayer, master dyer Johann Friedrich Weskott established Friedr. Bayer et comp., factory in Barmen, Germany to manufacture, produce synthetic dyestuffs from coal-tar derivatives; July 1, 1881 - descendants of Bayer and Weskott established joint stock company Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co.; 1888 - pharmaceutical department established; 1894 - Felix Hoffmann joined company as chemist in chemical laboratory; August 10, 1897 - created acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in  chemically pure, stable form by acetylating salicylic acid with acetic acid; pain-relieving, fever-lowering, anti-inflammatory substance; 1899 - launched under trade name Aspirin, initially as powder supplied in glass bottles.

1866 - Albert Hartley Robins founded apothecary shop in Richmond, VA; 1896 - Claiborne Robins (son) organized A, H. Robins Company to package, sell remedy for stomach disorders to doctors; 1933 - E. Claiborne Robins (grandson) took over; 1963 - went public; June 12, 1970 - acquired rights to Dalkon Shield (IUD) from Dalkon Corporation for $750,000 plus 10% of net sales; June 1974 - about 2.8 million Dalkon Shields sold; June 28, 1974 - voluntarily halted further distribution at request of US Food and Drug Administration because of reported association with pregnancy-related complications; September 1980 - device recalled; company advised physicians to remove Dalkon Shield from asymptomatic women because of risk of pelvic inflammatory disease; August 21, 1985 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1989 - acquired by American Home Products Company.

October 26, 1866 - Hervey Coke Parke, Dr. Samuel P. Duffield formed partnership in small drugstore in Detroit. MI; 1867 - George S. Davis joined partnership; 1869 - Suffield withdrew; 1871 - named Parke-Davis & Company; 1873 - built original research laboratory built; 1875 - incorporated; 1876 - first profit; developed first organized, systematic method of clinically testing new drugs; 1902 - built first industrial laboratory devoted exclusively to pharmacological research; marked institutionalization of pure science research activity (responsible for many "wonder drugs"); 1976 - acquired by Warner Lambert.

   Hervey Coke Parke - Parke-Davis (

1871 - Leopold Gerstle founded Gerstle Medicine Co. in Union, TN; manufactured St. Joseph's Aspirin; 1920 - acquired by Plough Inc.; November 22, 1927 - Plough Inc. registered "St. Joseph's Pure Aspirin" trademark first used April 22, 1926 (medicinal preparation-namely aspirin); 1971 - merged with Schering Corporation; 2000 - acquired by McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc. (Johnson & Johnson).

1873 - Joseph Nathan (38) established Joseph Nathan and Co.,  general trading company (colonial produce, fancy goods, clocks, jewelry, ironmongery, patent medicines) at Wellington, New Zealand (foundation for Glaxo); 1884 - pioneer frozen meat exporting, became chairman of Wellington Meat Export Company; November 1886 - Nathan-financed Wellington - Manawatu  Railway opened; built or bought into about 17 creameries in Manawatu; 1899 - established Joseph Nathan and Company London Ltd (capital raising mechanism); 1904 - secured, refined drying process for milk (countered growing concern about fresh milk bacterial disease, "the liquid scourge", Tuberculosis); October 27, 1906 - registered "Glaxo' trademark for dried milk (had tried 'Lacto' bu too close to other names); 1908 - Glaxo department opened in London, Glaxo Baby Book published (million copies sold by 1922); 1913 - became British public company; 1918 -  'Glaxo' dominated  sales of Nathan and Co Ltd; 1927 - Alec Nathan (based in London) named Chairman; 1935 - Glaxo Department renamed Glaxo Laboratories; 1947 - Glaxo absorbed Nathan and Co., became parent company; August 6, 1957 -  Glaxo Laboratories Ltd. registered "Glaxo" trademark in U. S.  (pharmaceutical preparations); 1958 - acquires Allen and Hanburys Ltd.; 1968 - merged with British Drug Houses (BDH); 1995 - merged with Wellcome, formed  Glaxo Wellcome; December 27, 2000 - merged with SmithKline Beecham, renamed GlaxoSmithKline, world's largest pharmaceutical company by market share (at time of merger).

1873 - Alexander Clavel sold dye factory to new company, Bindschedler & Busch; 1884 - reorganized as joint-stock company with name "Gesellschaft für Chemische Industrie Basel" (Company for Chemical Industry Basel); 1945/ - abbreviation, "Ciba", so widespread, adopted as company's name.

Alexander Clavel - founder CIBA (

May 10, 1876 - Colonel Eli Lilly (38), pharmaceutical chemist, opened for business at 15 W. Pearl St., downtown Indianapolis, IN; staff of three: drug compounder, bottler and finisher, Josiah K. Lilly, Sr. (14-year-old son); 1886 - hired young chemist to function as full-time scientist, one of first companies to initiate bona fide pharmaceutical research program; 1923 - introduced Iletin, world's first commercially available insulin product; 2006 - sales of $15.6 billion; average cost to discover, develop new drug - $800 million to $1.2 billion; average length of time from discovery to patient - 10 to 15 years; 2007 - approximately 41,350 employees worldwide (about 8,000 engaged in research and development), clinical research conducted in more than 50 countries, research and development facilities located in 9 countries, manufacturing plants located in 13 countries, products marketed in 143 countries.

Colonel Eli Lilly (

March 17, 1879 - Robert McNeil (23), graduate of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, paid $167 for drugstore (with fixtures, inventory, soda fountain, retail pharmacy) in Kensington section (mill district) of Philadelphia, PA; $5.79 in first-day sales; 1904 - Robert Lincoln McNeil (son) joined business; 1914 - McNeils (father and son) formed partnership, called Firm of Robert McNeil; 1920s - abandoned retail business, shifted to direct marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals to doctors and hospitals; 1933 - incorporated as McNeil Laboratories; 1938 - Robert Lincoln McNeil Jr. joined family business as first member of research department; 1955 - McNeil Laboratories introduced Tylenol Elixir for Children; first product under Tylenol name (compound first discovered by French chemist Charles Gerhardt in 1852), first aspirin-free pain reliever (available by prescription only); April 10, 1962 - McNeil Laboratories registered "Co-Tylenol" trademark first used February 8, 1961 (Pediatric Cold Preparations); 1959 - acquired by Johnson & Johnson; 1960 - Tylenol approved for sale without prescription; 1978 - McNeil Laboratories divided into McNeil Pharmaceutical, McNeil Consumer Products Company; 2001 - McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed name to McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals; 2004 - annual sales of $2.1 billion, 2,600 employees.

1880 - Two young Americans, Silas Mainville Burroughs and Henry Solomon Wellcome, established a pharmaceutical company, Burroughs Wellcome & Co. in London, UK, to promote new form of compressed pill; 1895 - Burroughs died, the company flourished under Wellcome's leadership; 1936 - Wellcome Trust established, at his death, for medical research; 1995 - merged with Glaxo, formed Glaxo Wellcome.

1880 - Dr. John Samuel Carter (Carter's Little Liver Pills), Brent Good established Carter Medicine Company; 1929 - Harry Hoyt, Sr. (son-in-law of Good's son's brother-in-law) became managing director; acquired controlling interest; 1935 - introduced Arrid antiperspirant; October 15, 1935 - Feminine Products, Inc. registered "Arrid" trademark first used May 23, 1935 (deodorant cream); company sales exceeded $1 million; 1937 - renamed Carter Products, Inc.; 1955 - introduced Miltown tranquilizer (developed by Dr. Frank M. Berger of company's Wallace Laboratories division); May 3, 1955 - registered "Miltown" trademark first used June 19, 1954 (medication for use as a muscular relaxant and hypnotic); became best-selling drug ever marketed in U. S.; 1957 - went public; November 3, 1959 - registered "Carter's Pills" trademark first used [in another form] in 1891 (laxative); Federal Trade Commission ruled company could not use 'liver' in pill advertising; 1965 - name changed to Carter-Wallace, Inc. (reflected contribution of Wallace Laboratory division); 1970 - sales exceeded $125 million (toiletries, proprietary drugs, prescription drugs); 1985 - acquired Youngs Drug Products Corporation (maker of Trojan-brand condoms); 1991 - acquired Dramamine from Procter & Gamble (sales of $13 million); August 1993 - introduced Felbatol (for control of epileptic seizures); January 1994 - first Felbatol-related death reported; December 1995 - class action lawsuit filed against company; October 1996 -  Marvin Davis bid $835 million for company; blocked; March 1997 - introduced ASTELIN, antihistamine for treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis; September 1999 - introduced Trojan Supra condom (first polyurethane condom); September 28, 2001 - Wallace Laboratories (pharmaceutical unit), Wampole Laboratories (diagnostics unit), rights to Carter-Wallace name acquired by MedPointe Capital Partners, The Carlyle Group, The Cypress Group for approximately $408 million; consumer products business aquired for approximately $739 million by Armkel (partnership of consumer goods company Church & Dwight, private equity group Kelso & Company.

1884 - Dr. Franklin Miles, specialist in treatment of eye and ear disorders, with interest in connection of nervous system to patient overall health, founded Dr. Miles Medical Company in Elkhart, IN; home remedies (Restorative Nervine) became  base of growing product line; 1935 - name changed to Miles Laboratories; 1979 - acquired by Bayer AG for $253 million (most expensive acquisition by foreign chemical,  pharmaceutical company ever made in U. S.)

October 14, 1884 - William E. Upjohn, of Hastings, MI, received a patent for a "Process for Making Pills"; machine produced "friable" pills, (easily crumble and dissolve); 1886 - with brothers (Henry, Frederick Lawrence, James Townley) founded Upjohn Pill and Granule Company in Kalamazoo, MI; 1902 - name changed to The Upjohn Company; 1909 - W.E. Upjohn bought out remaining brothers, took sole control; May 1930 - Dr. Lawrence N. Upjohn (nephew) became President of company; 1953 - Everett G. Upjohn (Lawrence's son) became President, Chairman; 1959 - listed on NYSE; 1985 - sales of $2 billion; November 1995 - merged with Pharmacia AB of Sweden; renamed Pharmacia & Upjohn, Inc., world’s ninth largest pharmaceutical firm (more than 30,000 employees, sales of  $7 billion, annual research budget of more than $1 billion); April 2000 - merged with Monsanto and Searle, renamed Pharmacia Corp.; April 16, 2003 - acquired by Pfizer.

1886 - Robert Wood Johnson, James Wood Johnson,  Edward Mead Johnson began operations in New Brunswick, NJ in surgical dressings industry; 14 employees on fourth floor of former wallpaper factory; October 28, 1887 - Johnson & Johnson incorporated.

James Wood Johnson James Wood Johnson - J & J (

Edward Mead Johnson Edward Mead Johnson - J & J (

1886 - Dr. Alfred Kern and Edouard Sandoz established Kern & Sandoz, chemical company, in Basel, Switzerland; 1895 - produced first pharmaceutical substance, antipyrine, fever-controlling-agent; partnership reorganized as joint-stock company "Chemische Fabrik vormals Sandoz".

December 13, 1887 - William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers officially incorporated, invested $5,000 into a failing drug manufacturing, Clinton Pharmaceutical Company (Clinton, NY); Bristol as president, John Myers as vice president; May 1898 - company renamed Bristol, Myers Company (hyphen replaced the comma after Myers’s death in 1899, when the company became a corporation); 1900 - Bristol-Myers turns profitable; first nationally recognized product is laxative mineral salt.

1888 - Gideon D. Searle, young druggist, founded G .D. Searle & Company in Omaha, NE; April 10, 1908 - incorporated in Chicago; 1934 - laxative Metamucil is introduced; 1949 - introduced Dramamine, first motion sickness treatment; 1951 - Enovid, first contraceptive of its kind to reach the market; 1965 - discovered aspartame, artificial sweetener; 1973 - merged with Will Ross (included optical retailing unit, Vision Centers [(later Pearle Vision Centers[; 1977 - Donald H. Rumsfield, former U.S. secretary of defense, named president and CEO (first outsider to lead company); July 1981 - FDA approved aspartame as table top sweetener and food additive in a number of items; 1985 - Pearle Vision Centers divested; acquired by Monsanto Company for $2.7 billion.

1888 - Isaac E. Emerson, a Baltimore pharmacist, created a headache remedy, granular effervescent salt, named "Bromo-Seltzer"; became so successful that he abandoned his retail business to devote his time to the manufacture of his product; 1891 - incorporated Emerson Drug Company in Maryland; 1956 - merged with Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.

1888 - Dr. Wallace C. Abbott, practicing physician, began manufacturing dosimetric granules in an apartment in Chicago; one of founders of modern pharmacy; 1894 - acquired, became editor of The Alkaloidal Clinic; 1900 - officially incorporated Abbott Alkaloidal Company; 1906 - established company’s sales force to reach more physicians; 1910 - established first European agency in London, branches in New York, San Francisco, Seattle, Toronto India; 1915 - name changed to Abbott Laboratories to reflect commitment to new areas of research, beyond alkaloids; 1946 - first pharmaceutical company to have special laboratory for radioactive pharmaceuticals, lead to creation of what will become world’s leading immunodiagnostics business; 1959 - introduced new logo (featured a stylized "a" symbol still in use today).

May 1, 1889 - Bayer introduced aspirin in powder form (Germany).

October 1, 1896 - Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche founded F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co as successor company to Hoffmann, Traub & Co. in Basel, Switzerland; 1905 - established Hoffmann-La Roche Chemical Works Inc. in New York City, first offices in US; 1934 - first 50 kilograms of vitamin C produced, start of vitamin manufacturing at Roche; first vitamin preparation, Redoxon, launched; 1938 - vitamins as  company’s mainstay; 1960 - Librium launched as first of new class of agents known as benzodiazepines; 1962 - introduced Fluoro-uracil Roche, company's first anticancer drug; 1963 - introduced Valium Roche, sedative and anxiolytic drug (benzodiazepine family); 1964 - acquired French fragrance company Roure Bertrand Dupont; 1968 - opened Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, one of first centers for Research and Development; 1982 - introduced Rocephin, antibiotic of cephalosporin class (outsold all other Roche products world-wide by 1987); 1986 - launched Roferon-A (interferon alfa-2a), Roche's first genetically engineered drug, for the treatment of hairy cell leukaemia; 1989 - formed Roche Holding AG, holding company; 1990 - acquired controlling interest in Genentech for $2.1 billion; 1991 - formed Givaudan-Roure, fragrances and flavors division; 1994 - acquired Syntex; June 1999 - completed acquisition of Genentech for $4.2 billion ($82.50/share); July 20, 1999 - offered 16% of Genentech stock in public offering; raised nearly $2 billion (total of 42% of shares eventually sold); 2000 - spun Givaudan-Roure off as separate company; 2003 - sold Vitamins & Fine Chemicals Division (world's leading supplier of vitamins, carotenoids) to Dutch Life Science and Performance Materials company; 2004 - sold consumer health business (over-the-counter medicines) to Bayer Consumer Care; July 21, 2008 - made surprise $43.7 billion ($89/share) bid for 44.1% of Genentech it doesn't own; rejected; Roche’s three biggest-selling drugs (cancer medicines Rituxan, Herceptin, Avastin = $15 of $45 billion in sales) produced by Genentech.

Fritz Hoffmann and Adele La Roche - Roche AG ( re7300002/re7300004/MultimediaImported_1118849922886.jpg)

August 10, 1897 - Dr. Felix Hoffmann, chemist in chemical laboratory at Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co.;  created chemically pure, stable form of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin); better pain-relieving, fever-lowering, anti-inflammatory substance for his father's rheumatoid arthritis than salicylic acid previously used; improved on earlier work of French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt who derived acetylsalicylic acid from plants, though only in impure, unstable form (1853); 1899 - launched under trade name Aspirin, initially as powder supplied in glass bottles.

1899 - First Edition of the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy published under the title: "Merck's Manual of the Materia Medica", a 192-page book based on the United States Pharmacopoeia; intent - to provide clinically relevant material to meet the needs of practicing physicians; now in 17th edition.

March 6, 1899 - Chemist Felix Hoffman (of Elberfeld, Germany) received a German patent for aspirin; registered as a trademark; February 27, 1900 -  received U.S. patent for "Acetyl Salicylic Acid" (aspirin"), a "new and useful Improvement in the Manufacture or Production of Acetyl Salicylic Acid."

Felix Hoffmann - aspirin ( konzern/felix_hoffmann.jpg)

1900 - Pfizer filed official certificate of incorporation in the state of New Jersey, with authorized capital of $2 million; 1905 - Emile Pfizer, Charles Pfizer's youngest son, appointed President; last member of the Pfizer/Erhart family to be actively involved with the company; June 22, 1942 - went public, offered 240,000 shares of new common stock.

1901 - Haim Salomon, Moshe Gutel Levin bought small store near Old City walls in Jerusalem, Israel; distributed imported medicines  to Jewish hospitals, local organizations of Jewish settlements for their pharmacies; 1915 - Israel Asher Elshtein joined company, name changed to to "Salomon Levin Elshtein Ltd.; pharmaceutical marketing arm of Teva in Israel; 1935 - Elsa Kuver, Dr. Gunter Friedlander established Teva ((Hebrew for nature); February 13, 1944 - Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Incorporated; 1951 - went public; 1964 - Assia Chemical Laboratories, Zori Pharmaceuticals Inc. merged, acquired controlling interest in Teva; 1976 - three companies merged, formed Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; Eli Hurvitz (CEO of Assia) named CEO, President; Israel’s largest company; 1980 - acquired Ikapharm, second largest Israeli drug manufacturer; 1982 - granted FDA approval for Kfar Saba (Ikapharm) manufacturing plant; 1988 - acquired Abic, second largest Israeli pharmaceutical company; 2000 - acquired Novopharm in Canada (r with its Hungarian subsidiary Teva Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. Hungary), became largest generic pharmaceutical company in North America; July 18, 2008 - signed a definitive agreement to acquire Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc., fourth largest generic drug company worldwide.

July 9, 1902 - Patent is obtained for barbituric acid - hope for insomniacs; 1864 - Adolf von Baeyer, twenty-nine-year-old assistant of Friedrich August Kekule (discoverer of the molecular structure of benzene) in Ghent, synthesized barbituric acid, first barbiturate; 1903 - German chemist Emil Fischer and his collaborator Joseph von Mering modified a class of drugs originally synthesized in 1864 in a way that made them effective as sedatives and hypnotics; realized that their new drug, "diethyl barbituric acid," or barbital (colorless crystalline organic compound. used in medicine as a soporific), was a sedative - did not taste unpleasant, had few side effects, acted at therapeutic levels far beneath the toxic dose.

1905 - Edward Mead Johnson, Sr. founded Mead Johnson & Company in Jersey City, NJ (had previously founded Johnson & Johnson with his brothers; had formed The American Ferment Company in 1896 to manufacture product designed to aid digestion); 1907 - assigned first Mead Johnson sales representative in Canada; 1910 - introduced its first major infant feeding product; 1911 - introduced carbohydrate milk-modifier, Dextri-Maltose®; first clinically supported, physician recommended infant feeding product in United States; 1924 - introduced Cod Liver Oil (first standardized cod liver oil, source of vitamins A and D); October 4, 1932 - registered "Pablum" trademark first used June 4, 1932 (specially prepared cereal food consisting of a mixture of wheat meal, oatmeal, and yellow corn meal, to which have been added wheat embryo, dried yeast, powdered dehydrated alfalfa leaf, and powdered beef bone prepared for human use); 1933 - launched Pablum; first precooked, vitamin- and mineral-fortified instant cereal for babies; 1934 - Lambert Johnson (son) took over; 1955 - D. Mead (grandson) assumed control; March 12, 1963 - Mead Johnson & Company registered "Metrecal" trademark first used April 24, 1959 (special food product of high and complete nutritive value for use in weight reducing diets and where concentrated and complete foods are desired, and consisting principally of nonfat milk solids, soya flour, whole milk, solids, sucrose, starch, and corn oil, with added vitamins and minerals); 1967 - acquired by Bristol-Myers Squibb; 2003 - adult nutrition lines acquired by Novartis.

Edward Mead Johnson - Mead Johnson (

1908 - Abe Plough (16), Memphis entrepreneur, founded Plough, Inc.; borrowed $125 from his father, started as one man business; created product called Plough's Antiseptic Healing Oil (linseed oil, carbolic acid, camphor); 1918 - incorporated as Plough Chemical Co. (later changed to Plough, Inc.); 1920 - acquired St. Joseph Company (Chattanooga, TN), children's aspirin; 1951 - incorporated; 1954 - net sales of $254.5 million; 1971 - merged with Schering Corporation, primarily manufacturer of prescription pharmaceuticals; Plough was Chairman of both Plough, Incorporated, and Schering-Plough.

January 1, 1915 - Bayer pharmaceuticals in Germany made aspirin available for the first time in tablet form (vs. powder); 1829 - Salicin, the parent compound of the salicylate drug family isolated from willow bark; 1875 - sodium salicylate used as commercial pain reliever, side effects (bleeding of stomach lining); 1897 - Felix Hoffman, German chemist working for Bayer, found suitable, less acidic medication - acetylsalicylic acid (marketed by Bayer under the name "Aspirin"); became biggest selling drug in world as analgesic (anti-pain), anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (fever-reducing) medication; May 30, 1922 - Bayer Company, Inc. registered "Bayer" trademark first sued January 2, 1895 (Preparations or Medicines for Pains and Aches of Nervous or Organic Origin and for Rheumatic, Neuralgic, and Gouty Conditions).

August 5, 1924 - H. A. Metz Laboratories, Inc. (New York, NY) registered trademark "Novocain" (anaesthetics); September 8, 1917 - trademark first used.

February 4, 1926 - Group of managers from Sterling Products, Household Products founded American Home Products as diversified holding company; 1930 - acquired Anacin, became company's leading product; 1931 - acquired John Wyeth & Brother from Harvard University for $2.9 million; 1943 - six companies merged into Wyeth Laboratories; 1944 - one of 22 companies selected by government to manufacture penicillin; 1958 - Dristan Tablets launched; 1984 - Advil introduced (first non-prescription ibuprofen in U. S.); most famous prescription-to-OTC switch in product history; 1989 - acquired A. H. Robins (ChapStick, Robitussin); 1994 - Effexor introduced (first serotonin and norepinephrene reuptake inhibitor for treatment of depression); 1994 - acquired American Cyanimid (Centrum); March 11, 2002 - American Home Products changed name to Wyeth to reflect change to global pharmaceutical company.

February 14, 1929 - Sir Alexander Fleming, young bacteriologist, introduced mold by-product called penicillin to cure bacterial infections; had left plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered, noticed a mold had fallen on culture, killed many of the bacteria; identified mold as penicillium notatum (similar to kind found on bread).

February 21, 1931 - Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer in the U.S.; Hub Beardsley, president of Miles Laboratories asked chief chemist, Maurice Treneer, to develop an effervescent tablet to ward off illness, with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and sodium bicarbonate as the main ingredients (had worked for staff members of the local newspaper);  June 9, 1931 - Dr. Miles Medical Company (Elkhart, IN) registered "Alka-Seltzer" trademark first used December 20, 1930 (antic-acid effervescent preparations); 1951 -  Speedy Alka-Seltzer character created; featured Alka-Seltzer tablet body with hat,  "effervescent" wand; 1953 - Paul Margulies wrote the "Plop, Plop, Fizz, Fizz" theme song; 2005 - Alka-Seltzer sold over 300 million tablets.

May 12, 1938 - Sandoz Labs manufactured LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).

1943 - Dr. George Rieveschl, chemical engineer (organic chemist), synthesized antihistamine compund (beta-dimethylaminoethyl-benzhydryl ether hydrochloride) at University of Cincinnati, tested it at laboratories of Parke-Davis; renamed Benadryl; September 4, 1945 - Parke, Davis & Company registered "Benedryl" trademark first used November 27, 1944 (pharmaceutical preparations containing diphenhydamine hydrochloride); May 1946 - Pfizer Corporation bought rights, marketed it as presecription drug; June 3, 1947 - George Rieveschl, Jr, of Grosse Point Woods, MI, received a patent for "Dialkylaminoalkyl Benzhydryl Ethers and Salts Thereof" ("new class of chemical compounds of therapeutic value"); early 1960s - sales of about $6 million/year; 1980s - FDA allowed Benadryl to become generic over-the-counter drug (sales rose to $180 million/year).

April 16, 1943 - Albert Hoffman, Swiss chemist working at  Sandoz pharmaceutical research laboratory in Basel, Switzerland,  accidentally absorbed through his skin some Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25), synthetic drug he had created in 1938 as part of his research into the medicinal value of lysergic acid compounds; experienced restlessness, dizziness, "extreme activity of imagination"; April 19 - consumed 250 micrograms of the drug; was disturbed by unusual sensations and hallucinations; 1960's - widespread use of the so-called "mind-expanding" drug began when counterculture figures (Albert M. Hubbard, Timothy Leary, Ken Kesey) publicly expounded on benefits of using LSD as recreational drug; 1965 - made illegal in United States.

April 10, 1944 - Dr. Robert Burns Woodward and Dr. William von Eggers Doering produced the first synthetic quinine at the Converse Memorial Laboratory, Harvard University (anti-malarial drug, organic chemical).

May 15, 1945 - Wallace & Tiernan Products Inc. registered "Desenex" trademark first used June 20, 1944 (fungicidal composition for therapeutic use).

May 25, 1948 - Andrew J. Moyer, of Peoria, IL, received a patent for a "Method of Production of Penicillin" ("method of increasing the penicillin content of culture liquors of a penicillin-producing mold"); method of mass production of penicillin; assigned to the United States of America (as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture).

September 21, 1948 - Selman A. Waksman, of New Brunswick, NJ, and Albert Schatz, of Passaic, NJ, received a patent for ""Streptomycin and Process for Preparation" ("by cultivation under particular controlled conditions of strains of the microorganism Actinomyes griseus"); assigned to Rutgers Research and Endowment Foundation.

January 27, 1950 - Science magazine announced the new antibiotic terramyacin (made by Charles Pfizer & Co.); isolated from Indiana soil, and found effective against pneumonia, dysentery, and other infections; first pharmaceutical discovered and developed exclusively by Pfizer scientists.

March 15, 1950 - United States Food and Drug Administration approved Terramycin® (oxytetracycline), a broad-spectrum antibiotic; Pfizer's first branded drug; July 18, 1950 - Ben A Sobin, of New York, NY, Alexander C. Finlay, of Long Island City, NY and Jasper H. Kane, of Garden City, NY received a patent for "Terramycin and Its Production"; assigned to Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc.

July 18, 1950 - G. D. Searle & Co. registered "Dramamine" trademark first used December 31, 1948 (dimenhydrinate tablets  useful in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting, and a histamine antagonist). 

May 29, 1951 - James W. Clapp and Richard O. Roblin received a patent for "Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Methods of Preparation Thereof" (improved sulfonamide drugs, synthetic antibacterial drugs containing the sulfanilamide molecular structure); first chemical substances systematically used to cure, prevent bacterial infections in humans (fewer than 20 off 5,000 sulfa drugs prepared and tested continue to have therapeutic value because resistant strains of bacteria develop; useful in the treatment of urinary tract infection); more potent antibacterial drugs have largely replaced the sulfa drugs. 

June 22, 1954 - American Chicle Company, Long Island City, NY, registered "Rolaids" (antacid mints) trademark.

January 11, 1955 - Lloyd H. Conover, of Oakdale, CT, received a patent for "Tetracycline" )"concerned with the preparation of the hitherto undescribed compounds derived from chlor-tetracycline"); antibiotic.

May 9, 1960 - The Food and Drug Administration approved use of world's first commercially produced birth-control bill--Enovid-10, made by the G.D. Searle Company of Chicago, IL; Margaret Sanger (opened the first birth-control clinic in the United States in 1916) commissioned development of "the pill"; 1953 - gave $150,000 to Dr. Gregory Pincus (biochemist at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology) and John Rock (gynecologist at Harvard Medical School) to continue his prior research and develop a safe and effective oral contraceptive for women; 1954 - clinical tests of the pill, which used synthetic progesterone and estrogen to repress ovulation in women, were initiated; original version contained at least five times the estrogen that it does today, and ten times the progestin; about 99 percent effective in preventing pregnancy; women still need a doctor's prescription, available over-the-counter in many other countries.

August 18, 1960 - Searle Drug Company marketed first oral contraceptive in America.

April 10, 1962 - McNeil Laboratories, Incorporated registered "Co-Tylenol" trademark first used February 8, 1961 (Pediatric Cold Preparations); May 5, 1970 - registered "Tylenol" trademark first used April 5, 1955 (analgesic antipyretic preparations).

October 6, 1966 - LSD declared illegal in the United States.

1970 - Ciba and Geigy merged, formed Ciba-Geigy Ltd.

December 9, 1975 - SmithKline Corporation registered "Tagamet" trademark first used on June 16, 1974 (pharmaceutical preparation for gastrointestinal disorders); 1976 - introduced Tagamet (cimetidine), H2 blocker, in UK (1977 in US); revolutionized treatment of peptic ulcers.

January 16, 1980 -Scientists in Boston produce interferon, a natural virus-fighting substance through genetic engineering.

September 3, 1985 - Eli Lilly and Company registered "Prozac" trademark first used January 28, 1985 (pharmaceutical products, namely antidepressants).

March 20, 1987 - The FDA approved the sale of AZT (azidothymidine), an antiviral drug believed to prolong the lives of some AIDS patients; first authorized antiretroviral AIDS drug; 1964 - originally developed by Dr. Jerome Horowitz of the Michigan Cancer Foundation as a possible treatment for cancer; February 1985 - National Cancer Institute, under the direction of Dr. Samuel Broder, tested AZT and found that it was a potent inhibitor of AIDS.

January 21,1988 - American Medical Association said that Retin-A, anti-acne drug, could also reduce wrinkles caused by exposure to sun.

October 28, 1988 - French manufacturer Roussel Uclaf states that it will resume distribution of abortion drug RU-486.

May 28, 1991 - Alice A. Christen (Metairie, LA), Donna M. Gibson (New Orleans, LA) and John Bland (Kenner, LA) received a patent for the "Production of Taxol or Taxol-Like Compounds in Cell Culture" ("procedures will provide a supply of chemotherapeutic agents"); important break-through in cancer treatment; only existed naturally in the bark of the Pacific Yew, Taxus Brevifolia, found solely in the Pacific Northwest, where the number of trees is limited; vast number of trees must be felled in order to collect the large amount of bark necessary for commercial drug production; patent assigned to U.S. Dept of Agriculture.

1996 - Ciba Geigy merged with Sandoz,  formed Novartis AG, world's second-largest drugmaker.

February 24, 1997 - The Food and Drug Administration named six brands of birth control as safe and effective ''morning-after'' pills for preventing pregnancy.

September 15, 1997 - Two popular diet drugs, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, were withdrawn from the market by their manufacturers after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a possible link between heart-valve damage and these drugs - often used in combination with another appetite suppressant, phentermine.

March 27, 1998 - The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Viagra, made by Pfizer, to fight male impotence.

January 17, 2000 - British pharmaceutical companies Glaxo Wellcome PLC and SmithKline Beecham PLC agreed to  merger that would create world's largest drug maker.

September 28, 2000 - Capping a 12-year battle, the government approved use of the abortion pill RU-486.

December 30, 2003 - The federal government announced it would ban the sale of ephedra, an herbal stimulant linked to 155 deaths and dozens of heart attacks and strokes.

September 30, 2004 - Merck, maker of Vioxx, heavily promoted arthritis drug, pulled it from the market after a study found it doubled the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

October 5, 2004 - Americans' supply of flu vaccine was abruptly cut in half as British regulators unexpectedly shut down Chiron Corp., a major supplier.

October 15, 2004 - The Food and Drug Administration ordered that all antidepressants carry strong warnings that they ''increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior'' in children who take them.

April 7, 2005 - Painkiller Bextra taken off market; FDA said all similar prescription drugs should strongly warn about possible risk of heart attacks and strokes.



October 14, 2008 - Money follows power; health care industry splits political campaign contributions evenly between Democrats and Republicans (vs. 2-to-1 contribution edge to Republican party in last decade):


October 22, 2008 - Number of prescriptions filled (3.8 billion in 2007) increased 72% between 1997-2007; average number of prescriptions filled by each American increased from 8.9 in 1997 to 12.6 in 2007 (source: IMS):


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Franklin Miles M.D.





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Eds. Tom Blackett and Rebecca Robins (2001). Brand Medicine: The Role of Branding in the Pharmaceutical Industry. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 308 p.). Group Deputy Chairman of Interbrand; Senior Consultant of Interbrand Healthcare. Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Drugs--United States--Marketing; Brand name products--United States; Brand choice--United States. 

Jorg Blech; translated by Gisela Wallor Hajjar (7/30/2006). Inventing Disease and Pushing Pills: Pharmaceutical Companies and the Medicalisation of Normal Life. (New York, NY: Routledge, 176 p.). Molecular Biologist, Science Editor of Der Spiegel. Drug utilization; Pharmaceutical industry; Drugs--Social aspects; Drug Industry; Marketing; Sociology, Medical. How pharmaceutical industry is redefining health; many normal life processes systematically reinterpreted as pathological to create new markets for treatments. 

Thea Cooper and Arthur Ainsberg (2010). Breakthrough: Elizabeth Hughes, the Discovery of Insulin, and the Making of a Medical Miracle. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press 320 p.). Gossett, Elizabeth Hughes, 1908-1981 --Health; Insulin --History; Diabetes --Treatment --History. 1919 - Elizabeth Hughes, 11-year-old daughter of Charles Evans Hughes, America's most-distinguished jurist and politician, had been diagnosed with juvenile diabetes (essentially a death sentence); starvation - only accepted form of treatment (whittled her down to 45 pounds skin, bones); Frederick Banting, Charles Best (Canadian researchers) identified, purified insulin from animal pancreases, spawned scientific jealousy, intense business competition, fistfights; Elizabeth became one of first diabetics to receive insulin injections – while discoverers, little known pharmaceutical company struggled to make it available to rest of  world; Elizabeth Hughes died in 1981 (73).

Richard Davenport-Hines (2002). The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics. (New York, NY: Norton, 466 p.). Drug abuse--History; Narcotics--History; Drugs of abuse--History; Drug traffic--History; Narcotics, Control of--History.

Richard A. Epstein (2006). Overdose: How Government Regulation Stifles Pharmaceutical Innovation. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 296 p.). James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law (University of Chicago), and Peter and Kirstin Bedford Senior Fellow (Hoover Institution). United States. Food and Drug Administration; United States. Food and Drug Administration; Pharmaceutical industry--Government policy--United States; Drug Industry--United States; Public Policy--United States; Government Regulation--United States. Tortuous course of  new drug from early development to final delivery; regulatory framework that surrounds all aspects of drug making. 

Alfonso Gambardella (1995). Science and Innovation: The US Pharmaceutical Industry During the 1980s. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 199 p.). Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Pharmaceutical industry--Technological innovations--United States--History--20th century; Drugs--Research--United States--Costs; Pharmacy--Research--United States--Costs.

Paul Gootenberg (2009), Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 442 p). Professor of History (Stony Brook University in New York). Cocaine industry --Peru --History; Drug traffic --Peru. Rise of one of most spectacular, now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine; drug's transformations from origins as medical commodity in 19th century to repression during early 20th century, dramatic reemergence as illicit good after World War II, American cocaine epidemic of 1980s, seemingly endless U.S. drug war in Andes; people, products, processes (Sgmund Freud, Coca-Cola, Pablo Escobar; Andean actors - Peruvian pharmacist who developed techniques for refining cocaine on industrial scale, creators of original drug-smuggling networks later taken over by Colombian traffickers). 

Merrill Goozner (2004). The $800 Million Pill: The Truth Behind the Cost of New Drugs. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 297 p.). Former Chief Economics Correspondent (Chicago Tribune). Prescription pricing; Drugs--Prices; Pharmaceutical industry; Consumer education. 

Dan Hurley (2006). Natural Causes: Death, Lies, and Politics in America’s Herbal Supplement Industry. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 324 p.). Herbs--Toxicology; Dietary supplements--Toxicology; Herb industry--United States; Dietary supplements industry--United States. $20 billion/year industry despite lack of evidence that products are safe,  effective. 

John L. LaMattina (2008). Drug Truths: Dispelling the Myths About Pharma R&D. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 136 p.). Former Senior Vice President, Pfizer, Inc. and President, Pfizer Global Research and Development. Drug development --United States; Pharmaceutical industry --United States; Drugs --Research --United States; Drug Industry --economics --United States; Drug Design --United States; Research Design --United States. Insider's account of pharmaceutical industry drug discovery process, real costs of misperceptions about industry, high stakes of developing drugs, triumphs when new compounds reach market, save lives, despair when new compounds fail.

Jacky Law (2006). Big Pharma: How Modern Medicine is Damaging Your Health and What You Can Do About It. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf, 256 p.). Pharmaceutical industry; Drug Industry; Marketing; Sociology, Medical; Drugs--Marketing; Advertising--Drugs. Small number of corporations dominate global healthcare agenda, crowd out public good.

Jonathan Liebenau (1987). Medical Science and Medical Industry: The Formation of the American Pharmaceutical Industry (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 207 p.). Pharmaceutical industry--United States--History; Pharmaceutical policy--United States--History; Medical innovations--United States--History; Drug Industry--history--United States; Technology, Pharmaceutical--history--United States.

Du Liping (2005). The Marketing of Traditional Medicines in China: The Case of Guangzi Province. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 277 p.). Lecturer in Chinese (University of Melbourne). Drugs--China--Marketing--History; Medicine, Chinese--History; Pharmaceutical industry--China--History; Marketing--China--History; Drugs--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Marketing--History; Medicine, Chinese--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies; Pharmaceutical industry--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies; Marketing--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies. Marketing system distinct from well-known rural marketing system for trade in non-specialized goods.

Tom Mahoney (1959). The Merchants of Life; An Account of the American Pharmaceutical Industry. (New York, NY: Harper, 278 p.). Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Drug trade--United States.

Ray Moynihan and Alan Cassels (2005). Selling Sickness: How the World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All into Patients. (New York, NY: Nation Books, 254 p.). Pharmaceutical industry; Drug Industry; Marketing; Sociology, Medical; Drugs--Marketing; Advertising--Drugs. More and more ordinary life is "medicalized". 

Melody Petersen (2008). Our Daily Meds: How the Pharmaceutical Companies Transformed Themselves into Slick Marketing Machines and Hooked the Nation on Prescription Drugs. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 448 p.). Covered Pharmaceuticals for The New York Times. Drugs--United States--Marketing; Drug Industry--economics--United States; Drug Industry--ethics--United States; Biomedical Research--economics--United States; Marketing--ethics--United States; Physician’s Practice Patterns--ethics--United States; Prescriptions, Drug--economics--United States. Industry with promise to help so many is now leaving legacy of needless harm: how corporate salesmanship has triumphed over science;  inside biggest pharmaceutical companies, how promotion driven industry has taken over practice of medicine, changing American life; selling dangerous medicines as if they were Coca-Cola or Cadillacs.

Toine Pieters (2005). Interferon: The Science and Selling of a Miracle Drug. (New York, NY: Routledge, 264 p.). Professor of the History of Pharmacy (Groningen University), Senior Lecturer in the History of Medicine (VU Amsterdam Medical Centre, The Netherlands). Interferon--History; Interferon industry--History. Beginnings, history, fate of Interferon.

Viviane Quirke (2004). Collaboration in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Changing Relationships in Britain and France, 1935-1965. (New York, NY: Routledge, 224 p.). Pharmacy--Research--France--History--20th century; Drugs--Research--France--History--20th century; Pharmaceutical industry--France--History--20th century; Pharmacy--Research--Great Britain--History--20th century; Drugs--Research--Great Britain--History--20th century; Pharmaceutical industry--Great Britain--History--20th century; Pharmacy--Research--International cooperation; Drugs--Research--International cooperation; Pharmaceutical industry--International cooperation; Drug Industry--history--France; Drug Industry--history--Great Britain; History, 20th Century--France; History, 20th Century--Great Britain; International Cooperation--history--France; International Cooperation--history--Great Britain; Technology, Pharmaceutical--history--France; Technology, Pharmaceutical--history--Great Britain. 'British decline' after war; evolution of co-operation in Britain and France, helped to disseminate  culture of research, resulted in transformation of medical sciences, pharmaceutical industry in both countries.

Trish Regan (2011). Joint Ventures: Inside America's Almost Legal Marijuana Industry. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). CNBC Anchor. Marijuana industry --United States. Emerald Triangle Northern Californias Mendocino, Humboldt and Trinity counties where many small-time, part-time marijuana growers contribute to a trade that generates roughly a billion dollars a year; cannabis growers, dispensary owners, founder of Oaksterdam University ("the first formal school for marijuana in the United States"), cops, legalization opponents, people who've lost big after making millions; how small time growers get their start, make (or lose) fortune, struggle with violence, try to keep up with constantly changing laws and regulations, walk increasingly fine line with Feds ; inconsistencies between state and federal law; illogical hurdles that make growing legal medicinal marijuana incredibly risky; current, potential impact of legalized marijuana on local economies, link between marijuana, violent Mexican cartels; can decriminalization work on national scale (as in Portugal since 2000)?

Jeffrey Robinson (2001). Prescription Games: Money, Ego, and Power Inside the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 343 p.). Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Pharmaceutical industry--Moral and ethical aspects.

Eds. Michael A. Santoro, Thomas M. Gorrie (2005). Ethics and the Pharmaceutical Industry. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 492 p.). Associate Professorin the Business Environment Department (Rutgers Business School); Corporate Vice President, Government Affairs & Policy (Johnson & Johnson). Pharmaceutical industry; Drugs--Marketing--Moral and ethical aspects; Drugs--Research--Moral and ethical aspects; Medical innovations--Social aspects; Social responsibility of business. Growing tension between the industry and the public. Role of intellectual property rights and patent protection; moral,  economic requisites of research, clinical trials; drug pricing;  marketing.

Bernice Schacter (2006). The New Medicines: How Drugs Are Created, Approved, Marketed, and Sold. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 280 p.). Biomedical Consultant and Writer. Drug development--Popular works; Clinical trials--Popular works; Pharmaceutical industry--Popular works; Consumer education; Drug Industry--organization & administration--United States; Pharmaceutical Preparations--economics--United States; Clinical Trials--United States; Drug Design--United States; Drugs, Investigational--economics--United States; Legislation, Drug--United States. Path from bench to bedside.

Joseph F. Spillane (2000). Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace in the United States, 1884-1920. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 214 p.). Cocaine habit--United States--History; Cocaine--United States--History; Cocaine industry--United States--History; Narcotics, Control of--United States--History.

Leonard J. Weber (2006). Profits Before People?: Ethical Standards and the Marketing of Prescription Drugs. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 168 p.). Former Faculty Member (University of Detroit Mercy). Pharmaceutical industry--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Marketing--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Drug Industry--ethics--United States; Drug Industry--economics--United States; Marketing--ethics--United States; Pharmaceutical Preparations--United States. Pharmaceutical industry practices that have raised ethical concerns.

James Harvey Young (1961). The Toadstool Millionaires; A Social History of Patent Medicines in America before Federal Regulation. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 282 p.). Patent medicines; Patent medicines--Law and legislation--United States.


Business History Links

FDA Centennial, 1906-2006                                                                                  

On June 30th 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Food and Drugs Act, which prohibiting interstate commerce in misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs. Broadly understood, this action was part of the Progressive Movement in the United States which brought forth a number of substantial changes in the way that government interacted with private industry and so on. 100 years on, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to celebrate the centennial of this act by creating this site. Starting at the homepage, visitors can learn about events created to celebrate the FDA’s legacy as well as read a nice feature titled "This Week in FDA History". Visitors may also want to look through a nice graphic presentation titled "FDA’s Role in Protecting and Promoting Public Health". Through images and text, this presentation brings together some highlights of their work over the years, including information about the effects of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Finally, the site also contains a short quiz on FDA history.

Patent Medicine Trade Cards                                                            

Website for an ongoing effort to digitize a collection of 19th century "small, colorfully illustrated advertising cards touting a particular medicine and its many cures. The illustrations often have little to do with any of the ailments purported to be cured. They were pure advertising and very collectible." Searchable by keyword, such as "oil, extract, tonic, disease, ache, consumption, ague, dyspepsia, kidney, liver, heart, bowels, [and] appetite."


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