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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Banking
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1672 - Richard Hoare founded Hoares Bank, at sign of the Golden Bottle in Cheapside, London.

1690 - John Freame and Thomas Gould founded goldsmith-banking business in Lombard Street, England; 1736 - James Barclay became partner (married Freame's daughter); 1896 - 20 private banks formed new joint-stock bank (connected by family, business, religious relationships); named Barclay and Company; became known as Quaker Bank (family tradition of founding families); 182 branches, mainly in East and South East, deposits of £26 million (173 banks taken over after 1896);  1918 - merged London, Provincial, South Western Bank, became one of UK's 'big five' banks; 1925 - merger of three banks (Colonial Bank, Anglo Egyptian Bank, National Bank of South Africa) formed Barclays international operations (Africa, the Middle East, West Indies); 1926 - 1,837 outlets; 1969 - acquired Martins Bank, largest UK bank with head office outside London; 1981 - first foreign bank to file with SEC, raised long-term capital on the New York market; 1986 - first British bank to list shares on Tokyo and New York stock exchanges; 1995 - acquired fund manager Wells Fargo Nikko Investment Advisers, merged with BZW Investment Management, formed Barclays Global Investors; 2000 - acquired Woolwich, leading mortgage bank and former building society (founded in 1847).

1695 - Act of Scots Parliament established Bank of Scotland; 2001- merged with Halifax plc; formed HBOS plc (fifth largest British retail bank, UK's largest mortgage lender); January 19, 2009 - acquired by Lloyds TSB plc; renamed Lloyds Banking Group plc.

June 1765 - John Taylor, Sampson Lloyd II founded Taylors & Lloyds, private banking business, in Birmingham, England; 1865 - converted to joint-stock status, incorporated as Lloyds Banking Company Limited; 1884 - acquired Barnetts, Hoares, Hanbury & Lloyd (began bank’s association with famous black horse, inherited by Barnetts, Hoares & Co., originally used by Lombard Street goldsmith as early as 1677); 1973 - formed Lloyds Bank International; 1995 - merged with TSB Group plc (formed in 1986 as holding company for Trustee Savings Bank, established in 1810; 6th largest bank in UK); renamed Lloyds TSB plc; January 19, 2009 - acquired HBOS plc (formed by 2001 merger of Halifax plc, Royal Bank of Scotland); renamed Lloyds Banking Group plc.

December 31, 1781 - Robert Morris organized Bank of North America, first modern bank in U.S.; received charter from Confederation Congress;  January 7, 1782 - opened in Philadelphia, nation's first commercial bank; soon after opening, Pennsylvania legislature outlawed private banks in state, led prospective bankers to set up in New York City.

1784 - Massachusetts Bank received charter (John Hancock signed charter); first nationally chartered bank; 1786 - financed first American ship to sail to China; 1791 - financed first ship to sail to Argentina; 1864 - became national bank, renamed Massachusetts National Bank of Boston; 1903 - merged with First National Bank of Boston; later named Bank of Boston; 1970 - reorganized under new holding company, First National Boston Corporation; 1983 - name changed to Bank of Boston Corporation; 1995 - merged with BayBank, name changed to BankBoston; 1999 -merged Fleet Financial Group; 2001 - eighth-largest U.S. financial holding company, dominant bank in New England; 2003 - acquired by Bank of America for $48 billion.

February 26, 1784 - New York citizens organized Bank of New York; March 15, 1791 - officers elected - general Alexander McDougal elected President; Samuel Franklin, Robert Bowne, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Randall, Isaac Roosevelt, John Vanderbilt, others elected directors; Hamilton enlisted to write Bank's constitution; most closely associated with Bank's organization, early years; strategy: strong fiscal policy, rapid capital turnover, produce assets which constantly generate specie; capitalized in "specie only" (foreign coins in gold and silver) to be able to circulate notes in ratio of one dollar in specie to two or more dollars in notes; extended only short-term loans (1-2 months) to merchants, manufacturers deemed sound, steady, conservative; June 9, 1784 - opened; 1789 - made first loan to U.S. government ($200,000); March 21, 1791 - received state charter, incorporated; May 18, 1791 - Gulian Verplanck elected president (replaced Isaac Roosevelt); 1792 - first corporate stock traded on New York Stock Exchange; April 23, 1798 - moved to William and Wall Streets; 1865 - changed from state to national bank; July 1922 - merged with New York Life Insurance and Trust Company; 1969 - established bank holding company; 1988 - acquired Irving Bank Corporation (created 10th largest bank in U.S.); oldest bank in United States (seven wars, 10 economic depressions).

1786 - Jean-Conrad Hottinguer founded MM Hottinger, bankers, in Paris; contributed to creation of Banque de France, Caisse d'Epargne de Paris, Compagbnie Generale des Eaux; 1989 - Jean-Philippe Hottinguer, Francois and Emmanuel Hottinguer established HR Group; 2007 - renamed Banque Jean-Philippe Hottinguer & Cie.

September 1, 1799 - Aaron Burr, committee of the Directors of the Manhattan Company, opened "Office of Discount and Deposit "("Bank" of the Manhattan Company) at 40 Wall Street in New York City (forerunner to Chase Manhattan).

October 12, 1808 - Banco do Brasil founded By decree of king, D. Joao VI; public offering of 1,200 shares aimed at substantial businessmen, wealthy individuals; 1829 - accused of depreciating the currency by competing with its own issuances (exodus of precious metals, overall rise in prices; law promulgated abolishing Banco do Brasil; 1833 - Bank liquidated; August 21, 1851 - Irineu Evangelista de Souza, Baron and Viscount of Maua, founded financial institution in Rio de Janeiro, named Banco do Brasil (founded on basis of public share offering with a capital of 10,000 contos de reis);considered to be founding father of today's Bank; 1853 - merged with the Commercial Bank of Rio de Janeiro (founded 1838); resulted in increase in Bank's capital, transformed issuing banks in interior into branches of new Banco do Brasil; 1866 - became commercial banking and mortgage institute; 1888 - appropriated first credit lines for agriculture; used to recruit European immigrants for settlements at coffee farms; September 18, 1889 - decree authorized operation of new issuing bank, Banco Nacional do Brasil; December 17, 1892 - President enacted Decree No. 1167, authorized merger between Banco do Brasil and Banco da Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil (provided majority of shareholders voted for it); new institution, with power to issue money, called Banco da Republica do Brasil; 1906 - renamed Banco do Brasil; 1971 - 975 branches in national territory, 14 abroad; November 15, 1976 - thousandth branch inaugurated; 1992 - reverted to historical position as principal agent of national economic development; 2004 - 20 million individual current account holders, registered net profit of R$3.024 billion.

Irineu Evangelista de Souza - Banco do Brasil (

February 27, 1809 - Farmers' Exchange Bank, of Gloucester, RI, controlled by Andrew Dexter, ceased operations ($86.50 in its vault); first bank failure in United States.

1810 - Rev. Dr. Henry Duncan established first trustee savings bank in Ruthwell, Scotland for people with smaller incomes who did not use big, established joint-stock banks; 1860 - as many as 600 trstee savings banks in Britain; 1965 - introduced checking accounts; 1968 - introduced unit trusts; 1976/1978 - Trustee Savings Acts freed banks to offer broader array of financial services, products.

June 15, 1812 - New York legislature chartered New York Manufacturing Company (founded by Anthony Post, John L. van Kleeck, Samuel Whittemore, Isaac Marquend, others) as manufacturer of cotton-processing equipment (iron, brass wire, cotton cards, wool cards), with banking privileges, at 24 Wall Street; 1818- switched to banking, named Phenix Bank; 1853 - renamed Phenix Bank of the City of New York; 1865 - name changed to Phenix National Bank of the City of New York; February 1911 - merged with Chatham National Bank, name changed to Chatham and Phenix National Bank of New York; March 1925 - merged with Metropolitan Trust Company, name changed to Chatham-Phenix National Bank & Trust Company; February 9, 1932 - merged with Manufacturers Trust Company; 1950 - acquired Brooklyn Trust Company; 1953 - acquired Peoples Industrial Bank; 1955 - acquired Manufacturers Safe Deposit Company; September 8, 1961 - merged with Hanover Bank, renamed Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company; 1969 - with Chemical Bank entered national credit card business as founding members of Eastern States Bankcard Association; issued cards under Master Charge Plan (now MasterCard), direct competitor of BankAmericard; 1975 - tested point-of-sale credit card terminals using common switching facilities (enabled retailers to use one terminal to authorize either MasterCard or BankAmericard transaction); greater convenience for retailers, faster transaction approvals for card users; 1985 - with Chemical Bank among founders of NYCE (New York Cash Exchange), first automatic teller network in New York metropolitan area; June 19, 1992 - merged with Chemical Banking Corp., kept that name; second-largest banking institution in United States.

June 16, 1812 - New York State chartered City Bank of New York with authorized capital of $2 million, paid­in capital of $800,000; September 14, 1812 - City Bank of New York opened, Samuel Osgood  elected president; 1856 - Moses Taylor elected president; 1865 - City Bank joined new U.S. national banking system, became The National City Bank of New York; 1891 - James Stillman elected president; 1894 - became  largest bank in U.S.; 1919 - first U.S. bank with $1 billion in assets; 1929 - largest commercial bank in world; 1939 - largest international bank (100 offices in 23 countries outside the U.S.); 1955 - changed name to The First National City Bank of New York; 1962 - shortened name to First National City Bank; 1967 - Walter B. Wriston is elected president; 1968 - First National City Corporation, bank holding company, became parent; 1974 - holding company changed name to Citicorp; 1979 - world's leading foreign­exchange dealer; 1981 - acquired Diners Club; 1989 - leading issuer of securitized credit card receivables; 1992 - Citibank, N.A. became largest bank in United States; 1993 - largest credit card, charge card issuer, servicer in world; October 8, 1998 - all Citicorp, Travelers Group divisions merged,  became Citigroup Inc.

1817 - Bank of New South Wales established; 1982 -name changed to Westpac.

November 3, 1817 - The Bank of Montreal, Canada's oldest chartered bank, opened in Montreal, Quebec.

December 4, 1819 - Sir William Congreve received a patent for colored watermark paper; triple-paper process for colored watermarks (introduction of color into interior of paper) consisted of overlaying very thin couched sheet of white paper with layer containing a design of colored pulp, overlaying that with another very thin white couched sheet; three layers pressed, dried; colored watermark only visible when paper held up to light; ; improvements in manufacture of bank-note paper for prevention of forgery.

February 24, 1823 - John C. Morrison, one of largest wholesale druggists, James Jenkins, Charles G. Haynes, Balthazar P. Melick, Mark Spencer,  Gerardus Post incorporated New York Chemical Manufacturing Company "without Banking Privileges"; produced medicines, paints, dyes at plant in Greenwich Village, New York City; April 1, 1824 - charter amended, used excess capital to obtain charter for Chemical Bank (opened August 2, 1824 at 216 Broadway); Balthazar ("Baltus") P. Melick, prosperous wholesale grocer, first president; 1832 - focused entirely on banking (away from manufacture of drugs); 1954 - merged with Corn Exchange Bank Trust Company; changed name to Chemical Corn Exchange Bank; 1959 - merged with New York Trust Company; name changed to Chemical Bank New York Trust Company (branches in all boroughs); 1969 - changed name to Chemical Bank; installed first prototype cash-dispensing machine in America; first bank in country to allow customers to withdraw cash 24 hours a day; with Manufacturers Hanover entered national credit card business as founding members of Eastern States Bankcard Association; issued cards under Master Charge Plan (now MasterCard), direct competitor of BankAmericard; 1975 - tested point-of-sale credit card terminals using common switching facilities (enabled retailers to use one terminal to authorize either MasterCard or BankAmericard transaction); greater convenience for retailers, faster transaction approvals for card users; 1983 - introduced Pronto, first major full-fledged online banking service; 1985 - with Manufacturers Hanover among founders of NYCE (New York Cash Exchange), first automatic teller network in New York metropolitan area; 1987 - acquired Texas Commerce Bancshares, largest interstate banking merger in U.S. history at time; 1991 - combined with Manufacturers Hanover Corp., kept Chemical Banking Corp. name; second-largest banking institution in United States; 1996 - merged with Chase Manhattan Corp., created largest bank holding company in United States.

  John C. Morrison - Chemical Bank (

March 29, 1824 - Merchant Monarch, King Willem I founded Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij (Netherlands Trading Society/NTS) in the Hague as  import/export company to expand existing trade relations, open new channel; played major role in developing trade between Netherlands and Dutch East Indies; 1830 - Netherlands and Belgium became separate states, NTS provided risk, loan capital to industrial enterprises; 1850 - began to finance companies operating plantations in Dutch East Indies; 1936 - took over Geldersche Credietvereeniging, branch network in Netherlands; October 3, 1964 - merged with Twentsche Bank, became Algemene Bank Nederland (ABN Bank).

March 19, 1831 - First bank robbery in America  reported, at The City Bank of New York City, which lost $245,000 in heist.

1836 - William Wilson Corcoran (formerly of Second bank of the United States) opened note brokerage house in Washington DC; 1840 - formed partnership with George Washington Riggs, Corcoran & Riggs, to offer depository, checking services; 1844 - chosen by U.S. government as sole federal depository in Washington; 1854 - Corcoran interest acquired by Riggs, name changed to Riggs & Co.; 1881 - Charles Carroll Glover took over; 1896 - accepted national banking charter, name changed to The Riggs National Bank; 1920 - accepted savings deposits, established trust department; 1980 - formed Riggs National Corporation as holding company; 2004 - acquired by PNC Financial Services Group (Pittsburgh) for $779 million; bank for twenty-one First Families.

William Wilson Corcoran - Riggs Bank (

1836 - State of New York chartered Tompkins County Bank of Ithaca (trading center for Pennsylvania coal and iron, lumber, plaster, salt, flour and lime from New York State); Col. Hermon Camp as first president; largest bank in county; 1837 - Camp personally guaranteed depositors' funds during Panic of 1837; built first headquarters at 135 E. State St. in Ithaca; 1995 - Tompkins Trust created holding company; 1999 - merged with Letchworth Independent Bancshares; May 2001 - name changed to Tompkins Trust Company.

May 26, 1846 - Monsignor Bourget, Bishop of Montreal, group of 15 prominent Montréalers established Montréal City and District Savings Bank in Montreal, QU; activities limited to City of Montréal by Act respecting Savings Banks in the Province of Québec; 1902 - launched Piggy Bank Program (bank with lock that could be opened only at Bank branches); 1965 - went public; 1970s - first bank in Canada equipped with computer system which linked branches; 1981 - inaugurated first out-of-province branch in Ottawa; 1987 - name changed Laurentian Bank of Canada (Laurentian Group Corporation as majority shareholder); 1990s - first bank in Canada to appoint woman to its board of directors; 2011 - third-largest retail branch network; more than $23 billion in assets, more than $15 billion in assets under administration; more than 3,700 employees.

 1847 - George Knight Budd established Boatmen's Bank in St. Louis to help riverboat workers.

March 5, 1849 - Elon Farnsworth founded Detroit Savings Fund Institute; August 17, 1849 - opened; six customers, $41 in deposits on first day; 1851 - more than 300 customers, $25,000 in deposits; 1870 - $1 million in deposits; 1871 - name changed to The Detroit Savings Bank; 1900 - deposits in excess of $6 million; 1936 - name changed to The Detroit Bank; 1956 - merged with Birmingham National Bank, Ferndale National Bank, Detroit Wabeek Bank & Trust Company; formed Detroit Bank & Trust; 1960s - assets over $1billion; 1973 - holding company, DETROITBANK Corporation, formed in response to changes in bank regulations; 1982 - name changed to Comerica Incorporated; 1992 - merged with Manufacturers National Corporation; Comerica name remained; became 25th largest bank holding company in U.S. (assets in excess of $20 billion); 2001 - acquired Imperial Bancorp. (became fourth largest bank in California); 2003 - consolidated bank charters; 2004 - customers could bank nationwide. 

July 10, 1850 - General James S. Wadsworth, J. P. Beekman, John Arnot, John Magee, Constant Cook, William R. Gwinn, George Palmer, James M. Ganson founded Marine Trust Company in Buffalo, NY as state-chartered bank to finance new shipping trade on Great Lakes ; August 27, 1850 - opened; prominent bank for thriving grain, milling industry on waterfront; 1897 - acquired American Exchange Bank; 1902 - acquired Buffalo Commercial Bank; became national bank, changed name to Marine National Bank of Buffalo; 1913 - acquired Columbia National Bank; 1919 - acquired Bankers Trust; became state bank again, name changed to Marine Trust Company of Buffalo; mid-1930s - acquired eight other banks; October 4, 1929 - formed Marine Midland Corporation, multi-bank holding company affiliated with 17 banks throughout New York; 1950s - renamed Marine Midland Trust Company of Western New York (11 mergers throughout Western New York); January 1, 1976 - previously independent Marine Banks merged into Marine Midland Bank, with headquarters in Buffalo (divided into regions); early 1980 - became a national-chartered bank, assets were close to $20 billion; 1980 - 51% acquired by HSBC; 1981 - nation's 13th largest commercial bank (about 300 banking offices in New York communities, about 25 offices in foreign countries); 1987 - acquired in full; December 7, 1998 - renamed HSBC (Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp., or HSBC Holdings plc), London-based parent (one of 18 business units in HSBC Group, $484 billion-asset global financial services giant).

March 18, 1852 - Henry Wells, William G. Fargo, several other New York investors created Wells, Fargo and Company to serve, profit from boom in California economy after the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1849; banking [bought gold, sold paper bank drafts as good as gold] and express [rapid delivery of gold, anything else valuable]; July 1852 - began transporting loads of freight between East Coast and isolated mining camps of California; 1869 - transcontinental railroad undermined company's dominant position in transportation, especially in mail and freight; 1905 - Wells Fargo & Co.’s Bank, San Francisco, formally separated from Wells Fargo & Co. Express; 1918 - out of express business.

1855 - The Bank of Toronto incorporated; 1856 - opened first branch on Church Street in Toronto (above); 1871 - The Dominion Bank opened first branch on King Street in Toronto; 1955 - The Bank of Toronto merged with The Dominion Bank, formed The Toronto-Dominion Bank.

1856 - Andre Oscar Wallenberg founded Enskilda Bank (SEB); Stockholm's first private bank.

1856 - Schweizerische Kreditanstalt (SKA, Swiss Credit Institution) founded in Zurich, Switzerland; 1988 - acquired controlling stake in The First Boston Corporation; 1993 - acquired Schweizerische Volksbank (People's Bank of Switzerland); 1996 - CS Holding became Credit Suisse Group (holding company for Credit Suisse and Credit Suisse First Boston); January 16, 2006 - First Boston name dropped; second-largest Swiss bank, behind UBS AG.

March 24, 1856 - Pascal Paoli Pratt (37), owner of Pratt and Co. Hardware, Pratt and Letchworth Ironworks, Bronson Case Rumsey (32) held first meeting of 13 stockholders of Manufacturers and Traders Bank in Buffalo, NY; August 29, 1856 - opened; Henry Martin, former president of Buffalo and Attica Railroad, as president; December 16, 1925 - merged with Fidelity Trust Company; name changed to Manufacturers and Traders Trust Company; 1969 - stockholders voted to create multi-bank holding company, First Empire State Corporation (assets of $2 billion, 60 offices); 1995 - formed national bank subsidiary, M&T Bank, N.A.; 1998 - 37th largest owned bank in United States ($20 billion in assets, 256 branches, more than 6,000 employees); name changed to M&T Bank Corporation; 2007 - $65 billion in assets, one of 20 largest commercial bank holding companies headquartered in U.S.

Bronson Case Rumsey - M & T Bank (

May 15, 1857 - Emilio Botin y Lopez founded Banco de Santander in city of Santander, in Spain's Cantabria region, to finance trade with Latin America; one branch, 13 employees, 72 shareholders; January 14, 1875 - incorporated; 1925 - opened his first office outside the region, in Osorno (Palencia); 1986 - 6th largest bank in Spain (assets); initiated customer-friendly retail banking strategy, acquired more than 30 banks from Bilbao to Brazil (estimated more than $40 billion in acquisitions, nearly $13 billion in Latin America); 1994 - paid $2 billion for 60% stake in Banesto, well-known retail bank; 1999 - became number one in Spain with $9.6 billion acquisition of Banco Centro Hispano; November 20, 2000 - took 33% stake in do Estado de Sao Paulo (Banespa), seventh-largest bank in Brazil, for $3.555 billion (five times book value, 281% premium above estimated minimum economic value of $945 million); September 2004 - acquired British mortgage lender Abbey National, UK's sixth largest bank, for approximately $15 billion, created Europe's fourth-largest bank in terms of market capitalization; largest cross-border banking acquisition ever in EU; December 31, 2005 - Banco Santander Central Hispano 9th largest bank in world; 2008 - largest bank in euro zone by market capitalization, seventh in world by profit.

El presidente del grupo Santander, Emilio Botín. (Foto: EFE) Emilio Botin - great grandson of founder (

August 17, 1858 - Charles Reed Bishop, from upstate New York, William A. Aldrich, opened Bishop & Co. in basement room in "Makee & Anthon's Building" on Kaahumanu Street in Honolulu, HI; ran advertisement in local newspaper: "Bishop & Co.'s Savings Bank! The undersigned will receive money at their Savings Bank upon the following terms: On sums of $300 or under, from one person, they will pay interest at the rate of 5 per cent per annum from date of receipt"; $4,784.25 in deposits at end of first business day; first successful banking partnership under laws of independent Kingdom of Hawaii; 1895 - acquired by Samuel M. Damon; 1910 - opener first branch in Hilo, total assets of $4.8 million; January 2, 1919 - incorporated as Bank of Bishop and Co., Ltd.; 1925 - $22 million in assets, half-dozen branches; January 30, 1929 - merged with First National Bank of Hawaii, First American Savings Bank, Army National Bank of Schofield Barracks, Baldwin Bank (Maui), name changed to Bishop First National Bank of Honolulu (assets over $30 million); 1933 - name changed to Bishop National Bank of Hawaii at Honolulu; 1956 - renamed Bishop National Bank of Hawaii; 1960 - changed to First National Bank of Hawaii (Hawaii became state in 1959); 1969 - name changed to First Hawaiian Bank; second largest bank holding company in Hawaii; March 1971 --introduced photo credit card; oldest photo card product in continuous production in U.S.; 1974 - First Hawaiian, Inc. formed as holding company for First Hawaiian Bank; May 3, 1991 - acquired First Interstate Bank of Hawaii; April 1992 - ranked tenth safest lender in nation by Business Week; August 6, 1993 - acquired Pioneer Federal Savings Bank (founded 1890); $7 billion assets, 92 branches in state; November 1, 1998 - merged (about $1 billion deal) with San Francisco-based Bank of the West (45% owned by Banque Nationale de Paris; renamed BancWest Corporation; largest stock deal in history by Hawaii company; December 20, 2001 - BNP Paribas completed acquisition of 55% of BancWest stock it did not already own; 2003 - First Hawaiian Bank became Hawaii's largest bank in terms of assets.

Charles Reed Bishop - First Hawaiian (

Samuel M. Damon - First Hawaiian (

1859 -  John Thompson, Myron Clark, Theodore Hall organize a bank in Detroit  (Myron's son,  Lorenzo Clark,  as president; 1865- named 1st National Bank of Detroit.

June 1860 - Joseph A. Donohoe, William Ralston, Eugene Kelley, Ralph Fretz opened The Bank of Donohoe, Ralston & Company in San Francisco; June 15, 1864 - The Bank of California incorporated; first incorporated commercial bank in West; June 30, 1864 - Donohoe, Ralston & Company dissolved, continued under name of Fretz & Ralston;  July 5, 1864  - Bank of California opened (in former offices of Fretz & Ralston); Darius Ogden Mills, respected Sacramento banker, president; William Ralston named Cashier; August 26, 1875 - Bank of California forced to close after news of William Ralston's failed mining investments, loans sparked run on bank; August 27, 1875 - Ralston's body found in San Francisco bay; October 2, 1875 - Bank, reorganized, reopened; April 1, 1996 - merged with Union bank, formed Union Bank of California.

Darius Ogden Mills - First president, Bank of California (

November 23, 1860 - As the "Banking Panic" of 1857 stretched into next decade, New York Clearing House made its first loan of $7.375 million worth of certificates to nation's ailing banks.

June 24, 1861 - Twentsche Bankvereeniging established in Amsterdam as partnership; October 1869 - name changed to Twentsche Bankvereeniging B.W. Blijdenstein & Co. (TBV); January 1, 1917 - became limited liability company, renamed Twentsche Bank (TB); had developed from family-run business to full merchant bank; January 1, 1931 - branches of local banks converted to TB branches; October 3, 1964 - merged with Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, formed Algemene Bank Nederland (ABN Bank).

1862 - Bank in Winterthur, Switzerland, opened (east of Zurich); initial share capital of 5 million Swiss Francs; 1863 - Toggenburger Bank opened in Lichtensteig (small town in Eastern Switzerland); initial share capital of 1.5 million Swiss Francs; 1912 - The Bank in Winterthur merged with Toggenburger Bank, formed Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft; French name - Union de Banques Suisses (UBS); total assets of 202 million Swiss francs, shareholders' equity of 46 million Swiss francs, profit of 2.4 million Swiss francs; 1920 - employed more than 1,000 persons (1289); 1921 - name changed to Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS); 1962 - largest bank in Switzerland; assets of 6.96 billion Swiss francs; 1995 - Credit Suisse Group became number one in Switzerland (total assets of 412 billion Swisss francs) after acquisition of Swiss Volksbank and Winterthur Insurance; June 27/28, 1998 - merged with Swiss Bank Corporation (SBC); renamed UBS AG; one of largest banks in Europe, world's largest Private Banking and Asset Management institution (client funds of 1,320 billion Swiss francs), among four largest financial services companies in world (market capitalization of 85 billion Swiss francs); August 2004 - named world's 45th most valuable brand (worth $6.5 billion) in Global Brand Scoreboard published in BusinessWeek.

1863 - John Thompson applied for charter, under National Banking Act, to be called First National Bank of the City of New York (now Citibank); stockholders included Samuel Thompson (President), Frederick Thompson (Vice President), George Baker, (paying teller); after panic of 1873 Frederick Thompson and George Baker remained in control; Baker subsequently became president, built the First National into the second largest bank of New York; now known as Citicorp.

February 25, 1863 - President Abraham Lincoln signed National Banking Act of 1863 (Currency Act ); established Office of the Comptroller of the Currency; set chartering standards for national banks, permitted these banks to issue currency; dual system of federally-chartered, state-chartered banks; June 3, 1864 - National Bank Act of 1864 revised chartering, reserve requirements for national banks.

May 1, 1863 - Edmund Aiken, Samuel Nickerson, Byron Rice, Samuel W. Allerton, Benjamin P. Hutchinson adopted formal articles of association; May 7, 1863 - elected board of directors; June 22, 1863 - First National Bank of Chicago received approval (# 8) from Comptroller of the Currency; July 1, 1863 - opened; Edmund Aiken (of Aiken & Norton, private bankers) as President; 1902 - nation's second-largest bank; 1972 - installed two ATMs in headquarters lobby; 1973 - established offices in 25 countries; 1974 - highest usage of any ATMs in United States; 1984 - acquired Chicago-based American National Corporation, holding company for Chicago’s fifth-largest bank (leader in middle-market banking); 1987 - acquired First United Financial Services Inc., five-bank holding company in western, northwestern Chicago suburbs; acquired Beneficial National Bank USA (Wilmington, DE); became third-largest issuer of bank credit cards in United States; 1995 - merged with NBD Bancorp., formed First Chicago NBD, largest banking company based in Midwest; October 2, 1998 - merged with Bank One Corp.; nation's 5th largest bank holding company.

May 16, 1863 - Group of businessmen, bankers founded Rotterdamsche Bank (RB) to establish credit institution modeled on Britain's Colonial Bank to meet growing borrowing requirements of companies operating in Dutch East Indies; April 19, 1911 -merged with Rotterdam's Deposito- en Administratie Bank (est. 1900), formed Rotterdamsche Bankvereeniging (Robaver); grew into one of largest banks in country; 1924 - Dutch Minister of Finance, Hendrik Colijn, instructed Nederlandsche Bank, central bank, to assist Robaver (obliged to sell all its interests in banks with foreign branches); 1947 - renamed Rotterdamsche Bank; 1964 - merged with Amsterdamsche Bank (AB), formed Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank (Amro Bank), registered in Amsterdam.

June 20, 1863 - First national bank charter issued to First National Bank of Philadelphia; National Bank of Davenport, Iowa (organized under Currency Act of 1863) first National Bank in America to open (by mistake); banks under the new charter system instructed to start business on Monday (June 22); notice arrived on Saturday (June 20), bank opened, beat everyone else by 48 hours.

May 4, 1864 - Napoleon III signed decree authorizing founding of Societe Generale as limited company; 1870 - 15 branches in Paris, 32 in the French provinces; 1894 - branches started to provide short-term operating credits for industrialists, traders; 1920s - France's leading bank: 864 seasonal offices in 1930 to penetrate provincial market, 1,457 sales outlets in 1933; 1945 - nationalized (State as sole shareholder); 1966/1967 - distinction between deposit, investment banking reduced, home mortgage market created; acquired leading positions in new financing techniques designed primarily for companies (finance leasing), setting up specialized credit subsidiaries; 1971 - introduced automatic cash machines, credit card; July 29, 1987 - privatized (excellent risk-coverage, equity, productivity ratios); 1997 - acquired Credit du Nord; 2004 - created GIMS Global Investment Management and Services; January 24, 2008 - lost $7.15 billion dollars in credit derivatives trading by rogue trader (Jerome Kerviel); February 21. 2008 - reported record fourth-quarter loss of $4.95 billion (after absorbing rogue trading loss), potential takeover target.

March 3, 1865 - Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Company Limited opened in Hong Kong; based on prospectus written by Thomas Sutherland, Hong Kong Superintendent of Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, and initial capital of HK$5 million raised at provisional meeting on August 6, 1864; April 1865 - Shanghai office opened; December 1866 - assumed name The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation by incorporating under special Hong Kong ordinance allowing Bank to maintain local head office without losing responsibility for issuing banknotes, holding government funds; 1989 - registration under Hong Kong Companies Ordinance completed, name changed to The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited.

September 1, 1868 - Isaias William Hellman founded Hellman, Temple and Co., Los Angeles's second (but first successful) bank; April 3, 1871 - with John G. Downey founded Farmers and Merchants Bank (lent money to Harrison Gray Otis to buy the Los Angeles Times, to Henry Huntington to build Pacific Electric line); first incorporated bank in Los Angeles; 1956 - merged with Security First National Bank (formed by 1929 merger of Security Bank with Los Angeles First National Trust and Savings Bank, 8th largest bank in US); later named Security Pacific National Bank; 1992 - acquired by Bank of America.

1870 - Dexter Horton founded Seattle's first bank, later named Seafirst.

1871 - J. P. Morgan, Anthony Drexel (Philadelphia) formed merchant bank Drexel, Morgan & Co. as agent for European investors in U. S.; 1935 - last bank in United States to combine broad range of commercial, investment banking capabilities; 1959 - J.P. Morgan & Co. merged with Guaranty Trust Company; created Morgan Guaranty Trust Company, one of world's largest trust operations; 1989 - granted authority by Federal Reserve Board to underwrite corporate debt; July 13, 1989 - offered 9.20% notes for Xerox Corporation, first corporate debt securities offering underwritten by commercial bank affiliate in United States since Glass-Steagall signed into law in 1933; 1990 - application to underwrite stocks approved by Federal Reserve Board; 1997 - fourth largest securities underwriter in world; 2000 - merged with Chase Manhattan Corp. (combined four of largest, oldest money center banking institutions in New York City; renamed J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.; July 2004 - merged with Bank One Corp.; 2005 - 2,641 retail branches in 17 states under Chase name; 2008 - assets of $1.2 trillion, operations in more than 50 countries.

December 5, 1871 - Group of mainly German banks, led by Bank fur Handel und Industrie of Darmstadt, established Amsterdamsche Bank (AB) in Amsterdam to create Dutch bank that would be instrumental in bonding Dutch, German money markets; 1911 - took over number of local banks, turned them into branches; October 1947 - Amsterdamsche Bank merger agreement with Incasso-Bank; considerably expanded AB's branch network; 1964 - AB merged with Rotterdamsche Bank, created Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank (Amro Bank), registered in Amsterdam.

1872 - Basler Bankverein opened in Basle; nominal share capital of 30 million Swiss Francs (6 million paid-up); 1896 - merged with Zurrcher Bankverein, established Basler and Zurrcher Bankverein; after take-over of Basler Depositen-Bank, name changed to Schweizerischer Bankverein; 1917 - name changed to Swiss Bank Corporation (SBC); 1918 - assets exceeded one billion Swiss francs (1001.5 million) for first time; June 27/28, 1998 - merged with UBS; renamed UBS AG; one of largest banks in Europe, world's largest Private Banking and Asset Management institution (client funds of 1,320 billion Swiss francs), among four largest financial services companies in world (market capitalization of 85 billion Swiss francs).

July 11, 1874 - John W. Hinds, W. L. Tisdale, G. P. Starks founded Farmers National Gold Bank in San Jose, CA; 1880 - name changed to First National Bank of San Jose; 1979 - name changed to Bank of the West; 1998 - merged with Honolulu-based First Hawaiian Bank; new holding company named BancWest Corporation; May 2002 - BNP Paribas, largest shareholder, acquired balance of stock; merging United California bank (UCB) into Bank of the West, formed institution with $25 billion in assets, 6,000 employees; 2006 - operated nearly 680 banking locations in 19 Western, Midwestern states; third-largest Western-based commercial bank in U.S.

September 12, 1877 - John Thompson, Samuel C.  Thompson (son), Isaac W. White (dry goods), Francis G. Adams (banker), Lewis E. Ransom (drug importer) established bank in one-room office on ground floor at 117 Broadway in lower Manhattan (25 feet wide, $150/first month's rent); named Chase National Bank of the City of New York (after Salmon Portland Chase, Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury, father of National Banking System); September 20, 1877 - bank opened; Colonel Samuel C. Thompson as president (died in 1884); 1886 - Henry White Cannon, former Comptroller of the Currency, succeeded John Thompson; 1911 - Alonzo Barton Hepburn (also former Comptroller of the Currency), Albert Henry Wiggin built Chase into third largest bank in New York; 1930 - world's largest bank (assets of $2.7 billion); merged with The  Equitable Trust Company of New York (controlled by Rockefeller family); world's largest bank (assets, deposits); 1947 - established first post-war branches in Germany, Japan; January 13, 1955 - merged with Bank of Manhattan Company; formed Chase Manhattan Bank; 1958 - introduced Chase Manhattan Charge Plan, first New York City bank, one of first in nation to offer customers single retail charge account that provided credit at citywide network of stores; late 1970s - introduced Chase Money Card, first Visa debit card offered by bank in New York; 1979 - among first to introduce NOW checking accounts (after regulatory approval); 1984 - acquired Lincoln First Bank (Rochester, NY); 330 branches across state, largest branch network in New York; 1987 - first commercial banking institution to receive Federal Reserve Board approval to underwrite commercial paper (underwrite, deal in paper for its own account); 1996 - merged into Chemical Banking Corp., created largest bank holding company in United States; 1999 - acquired Hambrecht & Quist, San Francisco investment bank (specialist in technology industry); 2000 - acquired The Beacon Group, merger and acquisition advisory and private investment firm, London-based Robert Fleming Holdings Ltd., asset management and investment banking firm; 2000 - merged with J. P. Morgan & Co.

John Thompson - founder, Chase National Bank (

Albert Henry Wiggin - President, Chase National Bank ( 7/75/Alber_Henry_Wiggins_ca1913.jpg/220px-Alber_Henry_Wiggins_ca1913.jpg)

June 6, 1879 - William A. Lemly, president of Bank of Salem since 1874, moved bank to Winston-Salem, NC; renamed Wachovia National Bank; 1911 - merged with Wachovia Loan and Trust (founded June 15, 1893 by Francis H. Fries as North Carolina's first trust company); formed Wachovia Bank and Trust Company; largest bank in South, largest trust operation between Baltimore and New Orleans (deposits of $4 million); December 12, 1986 - acquired First Atlanta (founded as Atlanta National Bank on September 14, 1865; later renamed First National Bank of Atlanta); September 4, 2001 - merged with First Union Corporation; renamed Wachovia Corporation; November 1, 2004 - acquired SouthTrust Corporation (Birmingham, AL) for $14.3 billion; largest bank in the southeast, fourth largest bank in United States (in terms of holdings), second largest bank (in terms of number of branches); March 1, 2006 - acquired WFS Financial Inc., ninth-largest auto finance lender in U.S. auto finance market; 2007 - fourth largest bank holding company in United States (based on assets), third largest U.S. full-service brokerage firm based on client assets.

1886 - Colonel Samuel Pomeroy Colt founded Industrial Trust Company of Providence, RI (first president); 1954 - Providence Union merged with Industrial Trust, formed Industrial National Bank; 1968 - formed holding company, Industrial Bancorp; 1970 - renamed Industrial National Corporation; 1982 - renamed Fleet Financial Group, Inc.; 1988 - acquired Norstar (formerly Union Bank), formed Fleet/Norstar Financial Group; 1992 - name reverted to Fleet Financial Group, Inc.; 1999 - acquired BankBoston, renamed Fleet Boston Corporation; 2000 - renamed FleetBoston Financial Corporation; 2001 - eighth-largest U.S. financial holding company, dominant bank in New England; 2003 - acquired by Bank of America for $48 billion.

Samuel Pomeroy Colt - Fleet Financial ( b/bd/Samuel_Pomeroy_Colt.jpg/140px-Samuel_Pomeroy_Colt.jpg)

October 1886 - William H. Crocker (son of Charles Crocker), R. C. Woolworth, W. E. Brown incorporated Crocker-Woolworth National Bank (founded 1883 as Crocker-Woolworth & Co. private bank); 1893 - Crocker succeeded as President; September 1, 1906 - became The Crocker National Bank of San Francisco; 1986 - acquired by Wells Fargo.

March 12, 1887 - Iberia Building Association founded in New Iberia, LA (Iberia Parish covered area of 575 square miles); Fred Gates, president; first lending institution in area; assets of $4,341; 1956 - name changed to Iberia Savings & Loan; 1971 - assets of $50 million; 1985 - state dropped restrictions on thrifts' opening branches in more than one parish; permitted Louisiana-chartered, commercial bank holding companies to open branches anywhere in state; 1988 - renamed Iberia Savings Bank; assumed deposits of Acadia Savings & Loan (branches in two more parishes-Acadia and Lafayette); 1995 - formed ISB Financial Corporation, holding company, to acquire capital stock of Iberia Savings; April 1995 - went public; December 1997 - converted Iberia Savings to Louisiana-chartered commercial bank; renamed IBERIABANK; 2000 - ISB Financial renamed IBERIABANK Corporation; 2011 - $9.9 billion in assets, 786 employees at 103 locations; Louisiana's major financial institution.

July 1, 1891 - Officers, directors from Third National Bank (founded 1863, merged with Shawmut bank in 1901) chartered State Street Deposit & Trust Company in Boston, MA; 1897 - name changed to State Street Trust Company; 1899 - Allan Forbes joined bank, deposits grew from less than $2 million to more than $187 million (1955); 1924 - named custodian of first U.S. mutual fund; 1925 - merged with National Union Bank of Boston (chartered June 25, 1792 by Governor John Hancock as third bank chartered in Massachusetts; national charter in 1865); 1955 - State Street merged with Second National Bank; 1960 - incorporated as State Street Boston Financial Corp. (one-bank holding company); 1961 - merged with Rockland-Atlas National Bank (chartered in 1863), formed State Street Bank and Trust Company; 1975 - changed focus to securities processing; 1977 - name changed to State Street Boston Corporation; 1991 - assets under custody surpassed $1 trillion; 37th largest holding company in United States; 1992 - assets under management reached $100 billion; 1997 - name changed to State Street Corporation; 1999 - total assets under custody of $6 trillion, assets under management exceeded $600 billion; 2001 - 24th consecutive year of double-digit operating EPS growth; 2003 - acquired substantial parts of Deutsche Bank's Global Securities Services (GSS); largest U.S. mutual fund custodian (responsible for more than 40% of more than $1 trillion in securities held by America's mutual funds).

March 10, 1902 - Attorney General Philander Knox filed an anti-trust suit against J. P. Morgan's Northern Securities Company; case revolved around whether or not Northern Securities, New Jersey-based holding concern for Morgan's western railroad business, violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act; early 1904 - Supreme Court ruled against Northern Securities, handed Theodore Roosevelt and Knox high-profile victory in war on trusts.

August 9, 1904 - Libanus McLouth Todd, of Rochester, NY received patent for a "Printing Stamp" ("particularly adapted for marking or embossing on checks, drafts, and similar instruments words or figures indicating a limiting amount beyond which such instrument is not good"); the protectograph; protected against check forgers; March 14, 1905 - received a second patent for a "Printing-Stamp" ("construction of the device is simplified, but the operations necessary to effect the marking of the check may be readily accomplished and the marking surfaces or forms readily changed to bring one or the other of the series contained on the printing-wheel in position for printing.    

October 17, 1904 - Amadeo Peter Giannini, former director of Columbus Savings and Loan Society, opened Bank of Italy in former saloon space of Anania Quilici (bought lease for $1,200) on Montgomery Avenue in North Beach (later renamed Columbus Avenue), San Francisco, CA; capitalized at $300,000 (all that he had, his spouse's entire patrimony, his step father's major contribution, money from partners of Italian origin); bank for "people who had never used one"; first day's deposits totaled $8,780; 1906 - rescued $80,000 in cash before bank building burned during San Francisco earthquake (hid it in wagon full of oranges, brought it to his house for safekeeping); used money to reopen bank days before any other bank, began making loans from plank-and-barrel counter on waterfront; 1909 - bought first branch, struggling San Jose bank; 1910 - assets of $6.5 million; 1920 - assets totaled $157 million, far outstripping growth of any other California bank, dwarfed onetime benefactor, Crocker National; sidestepped Federal Reserve system regulation which did not allow member banks to open new branches (establishing separate state banks for southern and northern California, in addition to Bank of Italy, as well as another national bank, put them all under control of a new holding company, BancItaly; 1927 - California regulations changed to permit branch banking, Giannini consolidated four banks into Bank of America of California; 1928 - created another holding company to supplant BancItaly; called Transamerica to symbolize what Giannini hoped to accomplish in banking; 1929 - assets exceeded $1 billion mark; 1936 - fourth-largest banking institution in United States (second-largest savings bank), assets of $2.1 billion; 1945 - assets of $5 billion, passed Chase Manhattan to become world's largest bank; 1957 - Federal Reserve forced Transamerica to separate from Bank of America; 1959 - first bank to fund a small-business investment company; first U.S. bank to adopt electronic, computerized recordkeeping; 1960 - assets totaled $11.9 billion; 1961 - operations completely computerized; 1968 - BankAmerica Corporation created as holding company to hold assets of Bank of America N.T. & S.A., to help bank expand, better challenge archrival, Citibank; 1971 - A. W. "Tom" Clausen succeeded Rudy Peterson as chief executive officer (CEO); 1971-1978 - only one of 20 largest U.S. banks to average 15% growth; 1981 - $112.9 billion in assets; 1986 - First Interstate Bancorp offered $2.78 billion in unsolicited bid for nation's second-largest banking group - rejected; April 22, 1992 - merged with Security Pacific Corporation, largest merger in history of banking; became nation's second-largest bank with nearly $190 billion in assets, $150 billion in deposits; September 30, 1998 - merged with NationsBank in $65 billion deal; largest bank in United States, $572 billion in total assets.printing.

1905 - Edward M. Downer founded Bank of Pinole (CA) with a small floor safe in a one-room office as an independent community bank; took title of Cashier; 1915 - became Second Vice President of The Mechanics Bank; 1919 - acquired controlling interest, became its President; 1939 - E.M. Downer Jr. became President; 1941-1945 - Bank's assets increased nearly 450%; 1971 - E. M. Downer III took over; 1995 - over $1 billion in assets; one of largest banks headquartered in San Francisco Bay Area (over $2.5 billion in assets).

November 23, 1907 - C. J. and Carrie Walker founded Farmers and Merchants Bank in Long Beach, CA (assets of $25,000); 1938 - Gus Walker (son) became President; 1979 - Kenneth G. Walker (grandson) named President; largest sector - commercial real estate lending; 2007 - assets of $3 billion.

June 2, 1908 - H. M. Victor opened Union National Bank behind a roll-top desk in the lobby of Charlotte's Buford Hotel; July 18, 1958 - merged with First National Bank and Trust Company of Asheville, NC, became First Union National Bank of North Carolina; 1964 - merged with Cameron Brown; one of first banks to offer full line of mortgage, insurance products; first bank in country to link its branches by satellite for data transmission; April 1998 - acquired CoreStates Financial Corporation; September 4, 2001 - merged with Wachovia; renamed Wachovia Corporation.

December 1, 1909 - Pennsylvania Trust Company (Carlisle, PA) became the first financial institution in the country to set up Christmas Club accounts for customers looking to put their earnings into a savings account.

1910 - Group of Dixon, CA residents organized Northern Solano Bank, state-chartered savings bank; opened 12 days later in remodeled former ice cream parlor with a staff of two; May 1911 - moved to new bank building, shared space withhaberdashery, harness maker, cigar maker, Wells Fargo Express Company, Pacific Telephone; 1962 - $7,700,000 in deposits; January 1, 1980 - relinquished Federal Charter in favor of State Charter (reduced Federal Reserve requirements, operated with higher lending limits); name changed to First Northern Bank of Dixon; 2000 – Board of Directors voted to create First Northern Community Bancorp, bank holding company; 2002 – received Trust Powers from California Department of Financial Institutions and FDIC.

March 21, 1910 - First National Bank of Deerwood (Deerwood Bank) incorporated in Deerwood, MN (pop. 590), along Northern Pacific Railway; 1997 - acquired from Skone family by Luke Spalj; July 2005 - acquired Northland Community Bank; June 30, 2008 - assets of $231,223,000; 2010 - 9 locations; privately owned for over 98 years.

June 22, 1914 - Kaspere Cohn established Kaspere Cohn Commercial and Savings Bank in Los Angeles, CA, managed by Ben R. Meyer, Milton E. Getz (sons-in-law); March 1918 - name changed to Union Bank and Trust Company of Los Angeles; January 1958 - name changed to Union Bank; 1967 - Union Bancorp, one-bank holding company, established; 1979 - acquired by Standard Chartered PLC; 1988 - acquired by California First Bank (subsidiary of The Bank of Tokyo California); April 1996 - Bank of California, Union Bank consolidated into UnionBanCal Corporation, bank holding company, primary subsidiary Union Bank of California, N.A.; 1999 - UnionBanCal Corporation went public, majority-owned by The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.; among 25 largest banks in U.S.

Kaspere Cohn - Union Bank of Los Angeles (

May 1, 1927 - Recordak Corporation, newly-formed subsidiary of Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, began commercial manufacture of Recordak, the first check photographing device designed to  make permanent film copies of all bank records; photographed checks on a conveyor belt onto 16mm motion picture film before they were returned to customers; invented by George Lewis McCarthy who called it a Checkograph; January 15, 1929 - Recordak Corporation registered "Recordak" trademark first used March 7, 1928 (photographic recording machines, viewing devices for photographs and projected images, photographic film, [and photographic spools]); February 25, 1930 - George L. McCarthy, of Rye, NY, New York City banker, and Abraham Novick, of Flushing, NY, received a patent  for a "Photographing Apparatus", the 'Checkograph';  1935 - used in libraries to make microfilm records; New York Public Library photographed New York Times of the WWI period. 

January 20, 1930 - Second Hague Peace Conference established (Owen) Young Plan to address issue of reparation payments imposed on Germany by Treaty of Versailles following First World War; created Bank for International Settlements as trustee for Dawes and Young Loans (international loans issued to finance reparations), to promote central bank cooperation in general; oversaw functions previously performed by Agent General for Reparations in Berlin: collect, administer, distribute annuities payable as reparations; Bank's name derived from this original role; world's oldest international financial institution, principal centre for international central bank cooperation. 

December 11, 1930 - New York's branch of Bank of the United States announced that it had gone belly-up; held the savings of some 400,000 depositors, including a number of immigrants; imperiled the finances of roughly one-third of New York and stood as the nation's single worst bank failure.

1931 - Collapse of German banking system; 3,000 banks closed.

February 2, 1932 - Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) opened; initially equipped with $500 million, license to borrow up to $2 billion in tax exempt bonds; charged with making loans to banks, insurance companies, other institutions to spark nation's ravaged economy; bulwark of New Deal.

June 16, 1933 - President Roosevelt signed the banking Act of 1933; established Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); January 1, 1934 - FDIC insurance started at $2,500 level; 1935 - Banking Act of 1935 provided for permanent deposit insurance, started at $5,000 level; 1950 - coverage increased to $10,000 ($15,000 in 1966; $20,000 in 1969; $40,000 in 1974; $100,000 in 1980); 1989 - largest number of bank failures in FDIC history (206); January 2004-February 2007 - longest period in FDIC history without bank failure; 2005 - Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act provided increased coverage of $250,000 for certain retirement accounts.

January 25, 1937 - Mary Roebling (31) assumed job as newly elected president of Trenton Trust (family's bank, after husband's death at 45; unanimously elected by board); assets of $11 million, 14-story office building, $4 million in debt, struggling to stay afloat during Great Depression; 1951 - assets increased nearly fourfold ($70 million); landed account of U.S. Steel; first woman governor of American Stock Exchange; 1972 - bank merged National State Bank of Elizabeth (Roebling chairman of consolidated bank); 1978 - founder of first female-owned bank (Woman's Bank of Denver); first woman to head major U.S. bank.

December 27, 1945 - 28 nations signed agreement to create The World Bank; International Monetary Fund,  Bank for Reconstruction and Development also created.

November 12, 1946 - Exchange National Bank of Chicago, Illinois, instituted first drive-in banking service in America (drive-through teller window); featured tellers' windows protected by heavy bullet-proof glass, sliding drawers that enabled drivers to conduct their business from comfort of their vehicle.

April 15, 1952 - Franklin National Bank issued first bank credit card.

January 13, 1955 - Chase National, Bank of Manhattan agreed to merge, resulted in second largest U.S. bank.

1956 - BankAmerica issued its first credit card, BankAmericard; March 1, 1977 - card name changed to  VISA.

May 9, 1956 - Congress passed Bank Holding Company Act of 1956; prohibited company from owning both banking, non-banking entities; allowed holding companies that owned one bank to diversify into some non-banking activities.

July 1956 - Stanford Research Institute demonstrated Magnetic Ink Character Reading (MICR), techniques of machine reading of characters printed in magnetic ink (in code of bars and Arabic numbers) to Bank Management Committee of American Bankers' Association; recommended adoption of principle of MICR as standard for all member banks; September 12, 1961 - Kenneth R. Eldredge, of Palo Alto, CA, received a patent for an "Automatic Reading System" ("...apparatus for reading characters in human language and providing therefrom signals representative thereof in machine language"); assigned to General Electric Company; 1963 - universally employed in U.S.; major MICR fonts used around world: E-13B and CMC-7 (at bottom of checks).

September 1959 - Origin of electronic banking (nearly decade in design, testing, manufacture before installation) as Bank of America, largest bank in world, pioneer of branch banking, installed 32 ERMA systems (Electronic Recording Method of Accounting) in cities throughout California to automate labor intensive job of handling customers' checks; first system of automation for commercial banking; one of first large scale data processing machines for business vs. scientific, military use (Stanford Research Institute gave public, press demonstration of prototype electronic accounting machine in September 1955; B of A selected General Electric Corporation to manufacture production models in April 1956); each machine processed up to 33,000 accounts per hour (output of about 135 experienced bookkeepers); allowed bank to continue to keep pace with rapid population growth of California; 1967 - replaced by an IBM 360.

June 19, 1962 - Luther G. Simjian, of Greenwich, CT, received a patent for a "Subscriber Controlled Apparatus" ("caused to be operative upon insertion of subscriber identification means...and establishing validity of the identification means during a pre-determined period of time"); ATM; assigned to Universal Match Corporation; May 2, 1966 - Anthony Ivan Olievera Davies, of Gerrards Cross, UK, and James Goodfellow, of Paisley, Scotland (development engineer with Smiths Industries Ltd), received a British patent for "Access-Control Equipment" ("money-dispensing system dispenses a pack of money upon request by an authorized bank-customer, the request involving presentation to a card-reader of the customer's individually-allotted punched-card, and operation of a set ten push-buttons in accordance with the customer's personal identification number"); ATM.

1966 - City National Bank & Trust Company of Columbus, Ohio (dating to 1868 forming of Sessions and Company, renamed by McCoy family), became one of first banks outside California to introduce BankAmericard (precursor of Visa); 1968 - with Farmers Saving & Trust Company (Mansfield, OH) created First Banc Group of Ohio (multi-bank holding company); 1971 - involved with first major national test of point-of-sale terminals for processing credit card transactions; 1979 - name changed to Banc One Corporation; 1984 - acquired Purdue National Corporation (Lafayette, IN), first out-of-state acquisition; 1994 - owned 81 banks with more than 1,300 branches in 13 states; 1998 - merged with First Chicago NBD, took Bank One Corp. name; merged subsequently with Louisiana’s First Commerce Corp.; became largest financial services firm in Midwest, fourth-largest bank in U.S., world’s largest Visa credit card issuer; 1999 - integrated  banks in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois into single bank; changed name to Bank One; 2004 - nation’s sixth-largest bank holding company; July 2004 - merged with J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.

 June 27, 1967 - John Shepherd-Barron, managing director of De La Rue Instruments, installed self-service banking device, first modern ATM machine, outside Barclays PLC branch in Enfield, North London, UK.

March 28, 1972 - Marion R. Karecki and Thomas R. Barnes, both of Dallas, TX, received a patent for a "Credit Card Automatic Currency Dispenser" ("automatically delivers a medium of exchange in packets in response to a coded credit care presented thereto"); assigned to Docutel Corporation; ATM; May 9, 1972 - Kenneth S. Goldstein, of Dallas, TX, and John D. White, of Garland, TX, received a patent for a "Credit card Automatic Currency Dispenser"; assigned to Docutel Corporation; August 22, 1972 - Marion R. Karecki, of Dallas, TX, George R. Chastain, of Irving, TX) Thomas R. Barnes, of Dallas, TX, received a patent for a "Credit Card Automatic Currency Dispenser"; September 25, 1973 - Thomas R. Barnes, George R. Chastain, Don C. Wetzel, of Dalals, TX, received a patent for a "Credit Card Automatic Currency Dispenser"; assigned to Docutel Corporation; September 16, 1975 - Anthony Ivan Olievera Davies, of Gerrards Cross, UK, and James Goodfellow, of Paisley, Scotland, received a U. S. patent for "Access-Control Equipment"; ATM.

1974 - Central Bank Governors of the Group of Ten countries created Basel Committee on Banking Supervision to provide forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters, to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues, improve quality of banking supervision worldwide; formulates broad supervisory standards and guidelines; recommends statements of best practice; members come from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States; represented by central bank, by authority with formal responsibility for prudential supervision of banking business where this is not central bank; 12 member permanent fifteen person Secretariat located at Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland; 1988 - Committee introduced capital measurement system (Basel Capital Accord); provided for implementation of credit risk measurement framework with minimum capital standard of 8% by end-1992; June 1999 - issued proposal for revised Capital Adequacy Framework (minimum capital requirements, supervisory review of an institution's internal assessment process and capital adequacy; effective use of disclosure to strengthen market discipline as complement to supervisory efforts); June 26, 2004 - Basel II (revised framework) issued; rules for measuring bank risk, determining capital adequacy to absorb risk.

December 31, 1975 - Congress passed Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975 (effective June 28, 1976; implemented by the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation C); provided public loan data that could be used to determine whether financial institutions were serving housing needs of their communities; assist public officials in distributing public-sector investments so as to attract private investment to areas where needed; identify possible discriminatory lending patterns ('redlining').

October 12, 1977 - Congress enacted Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operated; established affirmative action requirement in federal law that banks provide credit to entire service area,. including low and moderate income neighborhoods, required bank regulators to assess bank performance in meeting requirement; authorized, required bank regulators to use supervisory authority to encourage banks to comply with Act requirements to meet community credit needs.

March 31, 1980 - President Jimmy Carter signed Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (To facilitate the implementation of monetary policy, to provide for the gradual elimination of all limitations on the rates of interest which are payable on deposits and accounts, and to authorize interest-bearing transaction accounts, and for other purposes); forced all banks to abide by rules of Federal Reserve; allowed banks to merge; removed power of Federal Reserve Board of Governors under Glass-Steagall Act and Regulation Q to set interest rates of savings accounts; raised deposit insurance of US banks, credit unions from $40,000 to $100,000; allowed credit unions, savings and loans to offer checkable deposits; phased out all savings rate ceilings on consumer accounts over six-year period; deregulated banking industry.

September 1, 1982 - Mexico President Lopez Portillo nationalized banks.

1986 - Rate ceilings imposed by Glass-Steagall Act  completely removed.

July 29, 1988 - FDIC bailed out First Republic Bank, Dallas ($3.6 billion); NCNB Corporation took bank over with federal assistance.

October 3, 1994 - President Clinton signed federal Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act, made national banking law of land; fall 1995 - permitted bank holding companies to buy banks throughout United States; June 1997 - permitted nationwide branching (branch offices owned, operated by single bank).

March 28, 1995 - Japan's Mitsubishi Bank, world's largest bank, merged with Bank of Tokyo.

April 6, 1998 - Citibank announced agreement to merge with Travelers Insurance; $166 billion merger largest ever to date; October 8, 1998 - completed, renamed Citigroup (net revenues of nearly $50 billion, assets of almost $700 billion); became first ``universal bank'' since Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 (prohibited commercial banking, underwriting under same roof); announced while Glass-Steagall, The Banking Act of 1956 in full effect.

April 13, 1998 - NationsBank, BankAmerica announced $62.5 billion merger.

August 12, 1998 - Swiss banks agreed to pay $1.25 billion as restitution to Holocaust survivors to settle claims for their assets.

1999 - Congress passed Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, removed remaining barriers, allowed financial companies to compete fully across market segments; allowed banks to acquire full-service brokerage, investment banking firms.

March 28,  2003 - HSBC Holdings plc completed acquisition of Household International, Inc., biggest American finance company (consumer loans, credit cards; had settled predatory lending suit, over lending practices in  "subprime" market for home loans, with attorneys general in 46 states for $484 million in October 2002) for $14.8 billion; HSBC's biggest acquisition; considered deal that fueled growth in subprime mortgage lending market; March 2009 - wrote off most of value of sub-prime business (charge of $10.6 billion in United States, 44% jump in bad debts to $24.9 billion); shut U.S. consumer lending business (800 Household Financial, Beneficial offices).

January 14, 2004 - J.P. Morgan Chase agreed to buy Bank One Corporation for $58 billion.

October 13, 2006 - Muhammad Yunus, Bangladeshi economist and founder of Grameen Bank, Bangladesh, won the Nobel Peace Prize for pioneering work in giving tiny loans to millions of poor people no commercial bank would touch — destitute widows and abandoned wives, landless laborers and rickshaw drivers, sweepers and beggars; made microcredit, as the loans are called, a practical solution to combating rural poverty in Bangladesh and inspiring similar schemes across the developing world; 1976 - reached into his own pocket to give his first loan, $27, to 42 villagers living near Chittagong University where he said he was then teaching "elegant theories of economics"; borrowers invested the money and repaid him in full, though they had no collateral and signed nothing; 2005 - more than 100 million people received small loans from more than 3,100 institutions in 130 countries, according to Microcredit Summit, Washington-based nonprofit advocacy group that Mr. Yunus helped found.; average loan from Grameen Bank was $130.

November 16, 2006 - Citigroup Inc., biggest U.S. financial institution, won yearlong bidding war by overseas suitors for stake in China's 500-branch Guangdong Development Bank; consortium led by Citigroup will pay US$3.1 billion for an 85.6 percent stake; Citigroup will have a 20 percent share of the bank, which is owned by the provincial government (complies with a 25 percent cap on foreign ownership in the banking sector); first time a foreign-led consortium has won right to manage mid-size Chinese bank.

July 2007 - The Bank of New York Company, Inc. merged with Mellon Financial Corporation of Pittsburgh; renamed Bank of New York Mellon.

November 5, 2007 - Citicorp reported fourth-quarter  write-down of between $8 billion to $11 billion related to subprime mortgages, on top of a $5.9 billion dollar writedown announced in October; sold $7.5 billion stake to Abu Dhabi Investment Authority to shore up its capital base; Charles O. Prince III fired as CEO (since October 2003); January 14, 2008 - reported fourth-quarter results - $18.1 billion write-down on subprime mortgage-related exposures (much higher than early November estimate of $8 - $11 billion); disclosed $12.5 billion investment - sold $6.6 billion stakes
to foreign investors (including Korean, Kuwaiti governments); $9.83 billion loss for quarter, largest quarterly loss in bank's history; 41% dividend cut planned. 

December 10, 2007 - UBS, world’s largest provider of banking services to wealthy, wrote down a further $10 billion in value of its mortgage-backed assets, on top of $3.7 billion charge in October (reported first quarterly loss in 5 years); biggest casualty of American home-mortgage crisis among banks outside United States; sold more than 10% stake to investors from Singapore, Middle East (Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, G.I.C., will invest $9.7 billion, unnamed Middle Eastern investor will inject $1.8 billion into bank); January 30, 2008 - warned it would mark down additional $4 billion in securities, brought total subprime-related residential mortgage write down to about $18 billion, first annual loss since was formed in 1998 merger; March 31, 2008 - wrote down
another $19 billion related to "U.S. real estate and related structured credit positions" (total of more than  $37 billion); Marcel Ospel, chairman, stepped down. sought new capital of about $15 billion (second plan to raise new funds since credit crisis began).

February 17, 2008 - reported that cash machine (A. T. M.) owners charged 'out-of-network' customers $1.78 per A. T. M. transaction, on average in 2007 (vs. $.89 in 1997). Americans paid almost $4.4 billion in A. T. M. fees in 2007.

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April 21, 2008 - Final Subprime Tally - $300 billion in losses; $160 billion raised?


May 10, 2008 - Estimated 9 million American households (10.3% of all single-family homes) owe more on their homes than their homes are worth; 4.8%  of home loans were in foreclosure or delinquent by 60 days or more at end of 2007 (source: Mortgage Bankers Association).


July 16, 2008 - Assets at failed banks highest since 1990s; of 52 fund-raising efforts by banks in 2008, investors have gains in only two bank stocks; average deal down 45%.


July 19, 2008 - 52-week change in S & P 500 Financial stocks since autumn 1990: 1) absolute performance of S & P index of financial stocks in S & P 500 (excluding dividends); 2) how many percentage points financial index outperformed or underperformed full S & P 500; July 15. 2008 - worst 52 weeks ever (in absolute, relative terms) since S & P began calculating financial index (1989), down 53% (absolute) at low (previous record down 44% in fall 1990; subsequent 52 weeks, financials rose 58%); down 31% (relative) more than overall S & P 500 (two equivalent underperformances in 1990, March 2000; previously signaled buy opportunity).


July 23, 2008 - Rising mortgage rates: 12-month high on conforming 30-year mortgages; rates on jumbo loans ($729750 or less) returned to December 2000 levels.


September 27, 2008 - Change in banking landscape - JP Morgan, largest US commercial bank ($905 billion).


October 14, 2008 - Banking industry recapitalization - most sweeping government move into U. S. capital markets since Great Depression: 1) invest $250 billion in preferred stock of 9 banks; 2) guarantee new senior debt issued by banks over next 3 years; 3) provide unlimited FDIC insurance to all noninterest-bearing accounts.

December 31, 2008 - The average rate on 30-year fixed-rate mortgages fell for ninth week in row, third consecutive all-time low since Freddie Mac started Primary Mortgage Market Survey of conventional, conforming mortgages in April 1971; averaged 5.10%, down from 5.14% last week, 6.07% year ago; 15-year fixed-rate mortgages averaged 4.83%, down from 4.91% last week, 5.68% year ago (lowest since average rate of 4.70% on March 25, 2004); since end of October 2008 - rates have declined by about 1.33 percentage points (payment savings of approximately $173 a month for $200,000 loan).

May 2009 - Loan quality at American banks worst in at least quarter century, deteriorating at fastest pace ever (source: FDIC); unprecedented volume of old-fashioned loans going bad (charts include loans more than 30 days behind in payments; percentage at least 90 days overdue, or on which the bank has stopped accruing interest or written off, higher than at any time since 1984 when FDIC began collecting data - annual rate of 7.79% for charge-offs for bad consumer debt = about one in seven classified as troubled). Total book of loans, leases at all U.S. banks (as of 3/31/09) totaled $7.7 trillion; 7.75% showed some sign of distress (up from 6.9% as of December 31, 2008, up from 4.1% year earlier - highest year-to-year increase ever); proportion of troubled loans at historic low in mid-2006.


February 2010 - Total end of 2009 volume of loans, leases outstanding of $7.3 trillion (peaked in mid-2008 at just under $8 trillion); more than $1 in every $10 in outstanding American bank loans lent to troubled borrower = ratio far higher than in previous quarter-century (source: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation); construction loans for single-family homes = greatest difficulty: nearly 40% of loans either delinquent or written off as uncollectible; mortgage loans for single-family homes - $1 in every $8 of loans in trouble; commercial real estate loans - 6.3% either behind in payments or being classified by banks as doubtful for repayment; banks charged off 2.9% of outstanding loans (highest rate since 1934); 5.4% of all loans at least 90 days behind, another 1.9% more than 30 days overdue; fewer loans going bad:. lower proportion of loans 30 to 89 days behind in payments since peak earlier in 2009; higher percentage of loans more than 90 days behind.


(ABN AMRO Bank), Ton van Nimwegen (2002). Global Banking, Global Values: The In-House Reception of the Corporate Values of ABN AMRO. (Delft, Netherlands: Eburon, 300 p.). ABN AMRO Bank--Management; ABN AMRO Bank--Employees--Attitudes; Banks and banking, Dutch; Corporate culture; Multiculturalism.

(ABN AMRO Bank), Jeroen Smit; [translated by Donald Gardner ... et al.] (2010). The Perfect Prey: The Fall of ABN Amro, or What Went Wrong in the Banking Industry. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Prometheus, 431 p.). Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the Business Weekly (FEM Business). ABN AMRO Bank; Banks and banking --Netherlands; Bank mergers --Netherlands; Bank failures --Netherlands; Global Financial Crisis, 2008-2009. October 9, 2007 - Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) celebrated leading role in biggest deal in banking history, record 71 billion euros acquisition of Dutch bank ABN Amro; dismantled bank at heart of Netherlands economy for 183 years; 2008 - RBS forced into largest rights issue in British corporate history (underwritten by Government); downfall of Dutch institution (disguised by paper profits of billions every year); one of Europe's largest, longest established banks -from powerful predator to perfect prey in little more than decade.

(Acleda Bank plc), Heather A. Clark (2006). When There Was No Money: Building Acleda Bank in Cambodia’s Evolving Financial Sector. (New York, NY`: Springer, 256 p.). Trials, triumphs of people who  built employment generating project for demobilized soldiers in 1992 into largest commercial retail bank branch network in Cambodia by 2003.

(Adirondack Trust Company), Field Horne; associate editors Douglass M. Mabee, Charles V. Wait (2002). With the Strength of the Adirondacks: A History of the Adirondack Trust Company, 1901-2001. (Saratoga Springs, NY: The Adirondack Trust Company, 319 p.). Adirondack Trust Company (Saratoga Springs, N.Y.)--History; Banks and banking--New York (State)--Saratoga Springs; Saratoga County (N.Y.)--Commerce.

(Allied Irish Banks Limited), Bob Ryan (2001). With a Tap on the Knee: Memoirs of a Reluctant Banker. (Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin, IR: MIS Books, 157 p.). Ryan, Bob, 1931- ; Allied Irish Banks Limited--Biography; Bankers--Biography; Banks and banking--Ireland--History.

(Amarillo National Bank), Thomas Thompson (1978). The Ware Boys: The Story of a Texas Family Bank. (Canyon, TX: Staked Plains Press, 293 p.). Amarillo National Bank--History.

(American Bank Note Company), William H Griffiths (1959). The Story of American Bank Note Company. (Trevose, PA: The Company, 92 p.). American Bank Note Company. 

(American National Bank and Trust), John Longwith (1984). Building to Last: The Story of the American National Bank and Trust Company (Chattanooga, Tennessee). (Chattanooga, TN: The Company, 163 p.). American National Bank and Trust Company (Chattanooga, Tenn.)--History; Banks and banking--Tennessee--Chattanooga--History.

(American National Bank of Brunswick), Edwin H. Ginn (1989). The First Hundred Years: A History of the American National Bank of Brunswick. (Brunswick, GA: Glover Printing Co., 134 p.). American National Bank of Brunswick--History; Banks and banking--Georgia--Brunswick--History.

(Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company), J.D. Bailey (1966). A Hundred Years of Pastoral Banking: A History of the Australian Mercantile Land & Finance Company, 1863-1963. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 292 p.). Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company.

(Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company), Heather B. Ronald (1987). Wool Before the Wind: A History of the Ronald Family and the Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company. (South Yarra, Vic.: Landvale Enterprises, 248 p.). Ronalds family; Australian Mercantile Land and Finance Company--History; Land banks--Australia--History; Australia--Biography.

(ANZ), S.J. Butlin (1961). Australia and New Zealand Bank; the Bank of Australasia and the Union Bank of Australia Limited, 1828-1951. (London, UK: Longmans, 459 p.). Bank of Australasia; Union Bank of Australia Limited; Banks and banking -- Australia; Banks and banking -- New Zealand; Australia -- Economic conditions; New Zealand -- Economic conditions.

(ANZ), D.T. Merrett (1985). ANZ Bank: A History of the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited and Its Constituents. (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 325 p.). Australia and New Zealand Banking Group History; Banks and banking Australia History; Banks and banking New Zealand History.

(Banca Nazionale del Lavoro), Valerio Castronovo (1983). Storia di Una Banca: La Banca Nazionale del Lavoro e lo Sviluppo Economico Italiano, 1913-1983. (Torino, IT: G. Einaudi, 386 p.). Banca nazionale del lavoro--History--20th century; Banks and banking--Italy--History--20th century; Banks and banking, Cooperative--Italy--History--20th century.

(Banca Nazionale del Lavoro), Saggio di Valerio Castronovo; documenti a cura di Maria Rosaria Ostuni (2002). La BNL: Una Banca a Dimensione Internazionale, 1964-1980. (Firenze, IT: Giunti, 687 p.). Banca nazionale del lavoro.

(Banca Nazionale del Lavoro), Valerio Castronovo (2003). Storia di Una Banca: La Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Nell’Economia Italiana : 1913-2003. (Torino : G. Einaudi: Torino : G. Einaudi, 451 p.). Banca nazionale del lavoro--History--20th century; Banks and banking--Italy--History--20th century; Banks and banking, Cooperative--Italy--History--20th century.

(Banco Santander), Mauro F. Guillen, Adrian Tschoegl (2008). Building a Global Bank: The Transformation of Banco Santander. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 266 p.). Director of the Lauder Institute, Dr. Felix Zandman Professor at the Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania); Lecturer in Management at the Wharton School. Banco Santander Central Hispano --History; Family corporations --Spain --Case studies. How once-sleepy, family-run provincial bank in developing economy transformed itself into financial-services group with more than 66 million customers on three continents; one of ten largest financial institutions in world; only large bank in world where three successive generations of one family have led top management, board of directors.

(Bank for Savings), Charles E. Knowles; introduction and illustration by Herbert Manchester (1936). History of the Bank for Savings in the City of New York, 1819-1929. (New York, NY: Bank for Savings, 197 p. [2nd ed.]). Bank for Savings in the City of New York--History; Banks and banking--New York (State)--New York--History; New York (N.Y.)--History.

(Bank of Baroda), Dwijendra Tripathi, Priti Misra (1985). Towards a New Frontier: History of the Bank of Baroda, 1908-1983. (New Delhi, India: Manohar, 313 p.). Bank of Baroda.

(Bank of British West Africa), Richard Fry (1976). Title Bankers in West Africa: The Story of the Bank of British West Africa Limited. (London, UK: Hutchinson, 270 p.). Bank of British West Africa, ltd.

(Bank of California), Cecil G. Tilton (1935). William Chapman Ralston, Courageous Builder. (Boston, MA: The Christopher Publishing House, 474 p.). Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875; Bank of California; Banks and banking--California--San Francisco.

William Chapman Ralston - Bank of California  (

William Sharon - Bank of California (

(Bank of California), Julian Dana (1936). The Man Who Built San Francisco; A Study of Ralston's Journey with Banners. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 397 p.). Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875; San Francisco (Calif.).

(Bank of California), George D. Lyman (1937). Ralston's Ring; California Plunders the Comstock Lode. (New York, NY: Scribner, 368 p.). Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875.; Sutro, Adolph, 1830-1898; Comstock Lode (Nev.); California--History.

(Bank of California), Neill C. Wilson (1964). 400 California Street; the Story of the Bank of California, National Association, and its First 100 Years in the Financial Development of the Pacific Coast. (San Francisco, CA: The Company, 87 p.). Bank of California.

(Bank of California), David Lavender; foreword by J. E. Wallace Sterling (1975). Nothing Seemed Impossible: William C. Ralston and Early San Francisco. (Palo Alto, CA: American West Pub. Co., 415 p.). Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875; Bankers--California--San Francisco--Biography.

(Bank of California), Michael J. Makley (2006). The Infamous King of the Comstock: William Sharon and the Gilded Age in the West. (Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 291 p.). Sharon, William, 1821-1885; United States. Congress. Senate--Biography; Virginia and Truckee Railroad--History; San Francisco Stock and Exchange Board--History; Legislators--United States--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Nevada--Biography; Comstock Lode (Nev.)--History; Nevada--Biography; West (U.S.)--History--1860-1890--Biography. 1864 - Bank of California selected Sharon to represent its interests on the Comstock - undercut competition, foreclosed on mines and mills when loans defaulted, lowered prices, acquired more properties; revived the collapsed Bank of California, established Bank as primary Comstock monopoly.

(Bank of Ceylon), The Bank (1989). Expanding Horizons: Bank of Ceylon's First 50 Years. (Colombo, Sri Lanka: The Bank, 258 p.). Bank of Ceylon -- History; Banks and banking -- Sri Lanka -- History.

(Bank of Kentucky), Basil W. Duke (1980). History of the Bank of Kentucky, 1792-1895. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 140 p. [orig. pub. 1895]). Bank of Kentucky--History. 

(Bank of Lebanon), Abdul-Amir Badrud-Din (1984). The Bank of Lebanon: Central Banking in a Financial Centre and Entrepôt. (Dover, NH: F. Pinter, 230 p.). Masrif Lubn¯an; Banks and banking -- Lebanon; Money -- Lebanon.

(Bank of London & South America), David Joslin (1963). A Century of Banking in Latin America; To Commemorate the Centenary in 1962 of the Bank of London & South America Limited. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 307 p.). Bank of London & South America; Banks and banking -- Latin America; Banks and banking -- South America.

(Bank of Mississippi), Doug Woolfolk (1982). The Coast of Mississippi: Its Past and Progress. (Baton Rouge, LA: Moran Pub., 119 p. [4th ed.]). Gulf Coast (U.S.)--History; Mississippi--Gulf Coast (U.S.)--History.

(Bank of Montreal), Merrill Denison (1966). Canada's First Bank: A History of the Bank of Montreal. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 2 vols.). Bank of Montreal.

(Bank of New South Wales), Keith Sinclair and W. F. Mandle (1961). Open Account; A History of the Bank of New South Wales in New Zealand, 1861-1961 (Wellington, NZ: Whitcombe & Tombs, 266 p.). Bank of New South Wales; Banks and banking -- New Zealand.

(Bank of New South Wales), R.F. Holder (1970). Bank of New South Wales, a History (Sydney, AU: Angus and Robertson, 2 vols., 985 p.). Bank of New South Wales -- History.

(Bank of New York), Edward Streeter (1959). Window on America: The Growth of America as Seen by New York's First Bank, 1784-1959. (New York, NY: Bank of New York, 123 p.). Bank of New York. Published on the occasion of the 175th anniversary of the Bank of New York.

Alexander Hamilton (Bank of New York) (

(Bank of New York), Henry W. Domett (1969). A History of the Bank of New York, 1784-1884. Compiled from Official Records and Other Sources at the Request of the Directors. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 139 p. [3rd ed.]). Bank of New York.

(Bank of New York), Allan Nevins (1976). History of the Bank of New York and Trust Company, 1784 to 1934. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 156 p. [orig. pub. 1934)]. Bank of New York. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of its founding.

(Bank of New Zealand), N.M. Chappell (1961). New Zealand Banker's Hundred; A History of the Bank of New Zealand, 1861-1961. (Wellington, NZ: Bank of New Zealand, 408 p.). Bank of New Zealand; Banks and banking -- New Zealand.

(Bank of North America), Robert C. Alberts (1969). The Golden Voyage; The Life and Times of William Bingham, 1752-1804. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 570 p.). Bingham, William, 1752-1804.

(Bank of North Dakota), Alvin Samuel Tostlebe (1924). The Bank of North Dakota: An Experiment in Agrarian Banking. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 210 p.). Bank of North Dakota; Agricultural credit--North Dakota.

(Bank of Scotland), Richard Saville (1996). Bank of Scotland: A History, 1695-1995. (Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 1089 p.). Lecturer in Modern History (University of St. Andrews). Bank of Scotland--History; Banks and banking--Scotland--History. 

(Bank of Sturgeon Bay), Bill Meindl (1989). Bank of Sturgeon Bay: The First Century, 1889-1989: One Hundred Years of Banking in Door County. (Sturgeon Bay, WI: The Bank, 282 p.). Banks and banking--Wisconsin--History.

(Bank of the Manhattan Company), Gregory S. Hunter (1989). The Manhattan Company: Managing a Multi-Unit Corporation in New York, 1799-1842 (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 332 p.). Bank of the Manhattan Company--Management--History; Bank management--New York (State)--New York--History; Banks and banking--New York (State)--New York--History.

Aaron Burr - Bank of the Manhattan Company (

(Bank of the State of Missouri), John Ray Cable (1923). The Bank of the State of Missouri. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 321 p.). Bank of the State of Missouri, St. Louis; Banking--Missouri--History.

(Bank of the State of South Carolina), J. Mauldin Lesesne (1970). The Bank of the State of South Carolina: A General and Political History. (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 211 p.). Bank of the State of South Carolina, Charleston.

(Bank of Upper Canada), Edited with an introduction by Peter Baskerville (1987). The Bank of Upper Canada: A Collection of Documents. (Toronto, ON: The Champlain Society in cooperation with the Ontario Heritage Foundation, 400 p.). Bank of Upper Canada--History--Sources; Bank of Upper Canada--Ontario--History; Banks and banking--Ontario--History--Sources; Banks and banking--Ontario--History.

(Bank of Virginia), John H. Wessells (1973). The Bank of Virginia: A History. (Charlottesville, VA: University Press orf Virginia, 192 p.). Bank of Virginia-Central.

(BankAmerica), Julian Dana (1947). A. P. Giannini, Giant in the West, A Biography. (New York, NY: Prentice-Hall, 345 p.). Giannini, Amadeo Peter, 1870-1949.

A. P. Giannini - BankAmerica  (

(BankAmerica), Marquis James and Bessie Rowland James (1971). Biography of a Bank; The Story of Bank of America N.T. & S.A. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 566 p. (Reprint of 1954 ed.)). Giannini, Amadeo Peter, 1870-1949; Bank of America National Trust and Savings Association.

(BankAmerica), Gary Hector (1988). Breaking the Bank: The Decline of BankAmerica. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 363 p.). BankAmerica--Management.

(BankAmerica), Moira Johnston (1990). Roller Coaster: The Bank of America and the Future of American Banking. (New York, NY: Ticknor & Fields, 417 p.). Bank of America--History.

(BankAmerica), Gerald D. Nash (1992). A.P. Giannini and the Bank of America. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 162 p.). Giannini, Amadeo Peter, 1870-1949; Bank of America--History; Bankers--United States--Biography; Banks and banking--West (U.S.)--History.

(BankAmerica), Felice Bonadio (1994). A.P. Giannini: Banker of America. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 429 p.). Giannini, Amadeo Peter, 1870-1949; Bank of America--History; Bankers--United States--Biography; Banks and banking--United States--History.

(Bankers Life), Joseph Frazier Wall (1979). Policies and People: The First Hundred Years of the Bankers Life. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 192 p.). Bankers Life Company -- History.

(Bankers Trust Australia), Gideon Haigh (1999). One of a Kind: The Story of Bankers Trust Australia, 1969-1999. (Melbourne, AU: Text Pub., 499 p.). Bankers Trust Australia; Investment banking; Investment banking -- Australia -- History.

(Banque de l'Indochine), Marc Meuleau; prefaces de Maurice Levy-Leboyer et d'Antoine Jeancourt-Galignani (1990). Des Pionniers en Extreme-Orient: Histoire de la Banque de l'Indochine, 1875-1975. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 646 p.). Banque de l'Indochine--History--19th century; Banque de l'Indochine--History--20th century; Banks and banking--Indochina--History--19th century; Banks and banking--Indochina--History--20th century; Banks and banking--East Asia--History--19th century; Banks and banking--East Asia--History--20th century.

(Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas), Eric Bussiere (1996). Horace Finaly, Banquier: 1871-1945. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 460 p.). Finaly, Horace, 1871-1945; Bankers--France--Biography; France--Economic conditions--1918-1945; France--Economic policy--1918-1945. CEO Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas (1919 -1937).

(Banque Nationale de Paris), Frederic Lordon (2002). La Politique du Capital. (Paris, FR: Odile Jacob, 347 p.). Banque Nationale de Paris; Paribas (Firm); Bank mergers--France. 

(Banque Nationale d’Haiti), Frederic Marcelin; avec un avant-propos de Jean-Claude Sanon (1985). La Banque Nationale d’Haiti: Une Page d’Histoire. (Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Editions Fardin, 118 p. [2nd ed.]). Banque Nationale d’Haiti--History; Banks and banking, Central--Haiti--History; Banks and banking--Haiti--History.

(Banque Pallas Stern), Irene Inchauspe (1999). Une Faillite si Convenable: Histoire de la Banque Pallas Stern. (Paris, FR: Calmann-Levy, 201 p.). Banque Pallas Stern--History; Banks and banking--France--History--20th century; Bank failures--France--Case studies.

(Banque Populaire de Lorraine), Rene Bour (1989). Histoire de la Banque Populaire de Lorraine. (Metz, FR: Editions Serpenoise, 406 p.). Banque Populaire de Lorraine--History; Banque commericale et industrielle de l’Est de la France--History; Banks and banking, Cooperative--France--Lorraine--History. Des origines locales a une dimension regionale.

(Banque Populaire Savoisienne de Credit), Paul Guichonnet (1994). 75 Ans d'Economie Regionale: Histoire de la Banque Populaire Savoisienne de Credit, 1919-1994. (Haute-Savoie, FR: La Banque. 215 p). Banque Populaire Savoisienne de Credit--History; Banks and banking, Cooperative--France--Savoie--History--20th century.

(Barclays), compiled by P. W. Matthews. ed. by A. W. Tuke (1926). History of Barclays Bank Limited, Including the Many Private and Joint Stock Banks Amalgamated and affiliated with It. (London, UK: Blades, East & Blades Ltd., 441 p.). Barclays Bank; Banks and banking--Great Britain--History; Bankers--Great Britain.

(Barclays ), Barclays Bank (1938). A Banking Centenary / Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) 1836-1936. (Plymouth, UK: W. Brendon & Son, 269 p.). Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial, and Overseas); Banks and banking -- Great Britain; Banks and banking -- History.

(Barclays), Anthony William Tuke and Richard J. H. Gillman (1972). Barclays Bank Limited, 1926-1969. Some Recollections. (London, UK: Barclays Bank, 167 P.). Barclays Bank.

(Barclays), Martin Vander Weyer (2000). Falling Eagle: The Decline of Barclays Bank. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 277 p.). Former Barclays Executive. Barclays Bank -- History; Banks and banking -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.

(Barclays), Margaret Ackrill and Leslie Hannah (2001). Barclays: The Business of Banking, 1690-1996. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 481 p.). London School of Economics and Political Science. Barclays Bank International--History; Banks and banking--Great Britain--History. 

(Barclays), E. A. Kathleen Monteith (2008). Depression to Decolonization: Barclays Bank (DCO) in the West Indies, 1926-1962. (Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press, 355 p.). Senior Lecturer in History (University of the West Indies, Jamaica). Barclays Bank--History. Operations of Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) in West Indies; then world’s largest multinational bank; performance, strategies during periods of crisis, change in West Indies; performance during Depression years, economic expansion in region after 1940; products, services, competitive challenges ffrom Canadian banks, regulatory environment; recruitment practices, organizational structure.

(Bar Harbor Banking and Trust Company), Edward Lee Marmon (1987). Taking Care of Business Down East: The History of the Bar Harbor Banking and Trust Company, 1887-1987. (Boston, MA: Graphic Chronologies, 168 p.). Bar Harbor Banking and Trust Company--History; Banks and banking--Maine--Bar Harbor--History.

(Barnett Banks), David J. Ginzl; foreword by Allen L. Lastinger Jr. (2001). Barnett: The Story of Florida's Bank. (Tampa, FL: University of Tampa Press, 441 p.). Former Employee, Historian. Barnett Banks--History; Banks and banking--Florida--History. 

WilliamB.jpg (16272 bytes) William Boyd Barnett - Barnett Banks of Florida (

(Belfast Banking Company), Noel Simpson (1975). The Belfast Bank, 1827-1970: 150 Years of Banking in Ireland. (Belfast, IR: Blackstaff Press, 361 p.). Belfast Banking Company ltd.

(Boatmen's Bancshares), Russ Banham (1998). Heading in New Directions: A History of Boatmen's Bancshares. (Greenwich, CT: Greenwich Publishing Group, 120 p.). Boatman's Bancshares.

(British Bank of the Middle East), Geoffrey Jones; research by Frances Bostock, Grigori Gerenstein, Judith Nichol (1986-1987). The History of the British Bank of the Middle East (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2 vols.).

(Caldwell and Company), John Berry McFerrin (1969). Caldwell and Company; A Southern Financial Empire. (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 284 p.). Caldwell and company. Rogers Caldwell - called "J. P. Morgan of the South". Company controlled largest chain of banks in the South.

(CIBC), Victor Ross (1920-). A History of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, with an Account of the Other Banks Which Now Form Part of Its Organization. (Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press, 4 vols.). Canadian Bank of Commerce; Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce; Banks and banking -- Canada.

(Central Guaranty Trust Corporation), Reuben Cohen (1998). A Time To Tell: The Public Life of a Private Man. (Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books, 232 p.). Cohen, Reuben, 1921- ; Central Guaranty Trust Corporation -- Biography; Capitalists and financiers -- Canada -- Biography.

(Chartered Bank of India Australia and China), Compton Mackenzie (1954). Realms of Silver. One Hundred Years of Banking in the East. (London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 338 p.). Chartered Bank of India Australia and China; Banks and banking, British--India--History; Banks and banking, British--Asia--History.

(Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China), Stuart Miurhead (1996). Crisis Banking in the East: The History of the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London, and China, 1853-93. (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Pub. Co., 379 p.). Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London, and China--History; Banks and banking, British--India--History; Banks and banking, British--Asia--History.

(Chase), Mark Hulbert (1982). Interlock: The Untold Story of American Banks, Oil Interests, the Shah's Money, Debts and the Astounding Connections Between Them. (New York, NY: Richardson & Snyder, 272 p.). Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 1919- ; Chase Manhattan Bank; Banks and banking -- United States; United States -- Foreign economic relations -- Iran; Iran -- Foreign economic relations -- United States.

Salmon P. Chase  (

David Rockefeller ( media/lists/10/2006/MJ03.jpg)

(Chase), John Donald Wilson (1986). The Chase: The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A., 1945-1985. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 432 p.). Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A.--History--20th century; Banking--History.

(Chase), David Rockefeller (2002).  Memoirs. (New York, NY: Random House, 560 p.). Former Chairman, Chase Manhattan Corp. Rockefeller, David, 1915- ; Chase Manhattan Bank; Bankers--United States--Biography; Banks and banking--United States--History.

(Chemical), Frank Wilson Nye (1956). Knowledge Is Power; The Life Story of Percy Hampton Johnston, Banker. (New York, NY: Random House, 347 p.). Johnston, Percy Hampton, 1881- ; Chemical Corn Exchange Bank, New York.

(Chemical), Chemical and Corn Exchange Bank (1980). History of the Chemical Bank, 1823-1913. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 167 p. [orig. privately printed 1913]). Chemical Corn Exchange Bank--History. 

(China), Linsun Cheng (2003). Banking in Modern China: Entrepreneurs, Professional Managers and the Development of Chinese Banks, 1897-1937. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 277 p.). Banks and banking--China--History; Finance--China--History.

(China), Zhaojin Ji (2003). A History of Modern Shanghai Banking: The Rise and Decline of China's Finance Capitalism. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 325 p.). Program Co-ordinator (Johns Hopkins University SAIS). Banks and banking--China--Shanghai--History; Banks and banking, Foreign--China--Shanghai--History; Finance--China--Shanghai--History.

(China), Brett Sheehan (2003). Trust in Troubled Times: Money, Banks, and State-Society Relations in Republican Tianjin. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 269 p.). Banks and banking--China--Tianjin--History; Tianjin (China)--Economic conditions.

(Citibank), Anna Robeson Burr (1927). The Portrait of a Banker: James Stillman, 1850-1918. (New York, NY: Duffield & Company, 370 p.). Stillman, James, 1850-1918. First Citibank chairman in 1909.

James J. Stillman (

Photograph:George Fisher Baker George Fisher Baker ( image?id=6187&rendTypeId=4)

Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Walter Wriston, former President and Chairman of Citibank Walter Wriston (

Sandy Weill - CitiGroup (

(Citibank), John K. Winkler (1934). The First Billion; The Stillmans and the National City Bank. (New York, NY: The Vanguard Press, 277 p.). Stillman, James, 1850-1918; Stillman, James Alexander, 1873-1944; First National City Bank of New York.

(Citibank), Sheridan A. Logan (1981). George F. Baker and His Bank, 1840-1955: A Double Biography. (St. Joseph, MO: Stinehour Press: Meriden Gravure Co., 472 p.). Baker, George F. (George Fisher), 1840-1931; First National City Bank of New York--History; Bankers--United States--Biography.

(Citibank), David Leinsdorf & Donald Etra. Foreword by Ralph Nader (1974). Citibank : Ralph Nader's study Group Report on First National City Bank. (New York, NY: Grossman Publishers, 406 p.). First National City Bank (New York, N.Y.).

(Citibank), Harold van B. Cleveland, Thomas F. Huertas with Rachel Strauber ... [et al.]. (1985). Citibank, 1812-1970. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 456 p.). Citibank (New York, N.Y.)--History; Banks and banking--United States--History; Financial institutions--United States--History.

(Citibank), Robert A. Hutchison (1986). Off the Books: Citibank and the World's Biggest Money Game. (New York, NY: Morrow, 416 p.). Banks and banking--Corrupt practices; Citibank (New York, N.Y.)--Corrupt practices.

(Citibank), George S. Moore (1986). The Banker's Life. (New York, NY: Norton, 328 p.). Former Chairman of First National City Bank of New York (Citibank). Moore, George S. (George Stevens), 1905-2000; Bankers--New York (State)--New York--Biography.

(Citibank), Walter B. Wriston (1986). Risk & Other Four-Letter Words. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 243 p.). Money; Banks and banking; International economic relations; Risk; United States--Economic policy.

(Citibank), Richard B. Miller (1993). Citicorp: The Story of a Bank in Crisis. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 208 p.). Citicorp--History.

(Citibank), Phillip L. Zweig (1995). Wriston: Walter Wriston, Citibank, and the Rise and Fall of American Financial Supremacy. (New York, NY: Crown, 952 p.). Former Wall Street Journal Reporter. Wriston, Walter B.; Citibank (New York, N.Y.) -- History; Bankers -- United States -- Biography.

(Citibank), Text by Peter Starr; special photography by Luis Ascui ... [et al.] (2002). Citibank: A Century in Asia. (Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 216 p.). Citibank (New York, N.Y.)--History; Citigroup (firm)--History; Banks and banking--Asia--History.

(Citibank), Eric L. Grant (2003). Peregrinations: A Man's Journey. (Omaha, NE: iUniverse, 268 p.). Grant, Eric L.; Citibank (New York, N.Y.) -- History. 

(Citigroup), Amey Stone and Michael Brewster (2002). King of Capital: Sandy Weill and the Making of Citigroup. (New York, NY: Wiley, 306 p.). Weill, Sandy; Citigroup (Firm)--Biography; Bankers--United States--Biography; Financial services industry--United States.

(Citigroup), Sandy Weill and Judah S. Kraushaar (2006). The Real Deal: My Life in Business and Philanthropy. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 544 p.). CEO, Chairman of Citigroup. Weill, Sandy; Citigroup (Firm)--Biography; Bankers--United States--Biography; Financial services industry--United States. Forty-year career from days at American Express to creation, chairmanship of CitiGroup (2,600% return to investors--better than Welch, Buffett). 

(Citigroup), William R. Rhodes (2011). Banker to the World: Leadership Lessons from the Front Lines of Global Finance. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 249 p,). Retired Senior Vice-Chairman of Citigroup. Rhodes, William R.; Bankers --United States --Biography; Banks and banking, International; International finance; Leadership; Decision making. Lifetime of lessons about managing amid crises, how to lead prudently, decisively, effectively to prevent crises from happening; collected wisdom, best-practices, analysis, anecdotes on creation of value through leadership, importance of leading by one's values: 1) lead boldly, decisively: 2) know when to disregard caution for caution's sake (always insist on neutral negotiating atmosphere; 3) anticipate problems by visualizing their impact: 4) get ahead of risk by taking comprehensive view of potential obstacles; 5) confront problems directly, proactively: 6) when faced with critical situation, go directly to its epicenter, turns crisis into opportunity.

(City Bank in New York), Daniel Hodas (1976). The Business Career of Moses Taylor: Merchant, Finance Capitalist, and Industrialist. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 356 p.). Taylor, Moses; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(City Bank in New York), Donald L. Kemmerer (1977). The Life of John E. Rovensky: Banker and Industrialist: From the Gilded Age to the Atomic Age. (Champaign, IL: Stipes Pub. Co., 350 p.). Rovensky, John Edward, 1880-1970; Bankers--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(Clydesdale Bank Limited), J.M. Reid (1938). The History of the Clydesdale Bank, 1838-1938. (Glasgow, Scotland: Blackie and Son, Limited, 299 p.). Clydesdale Bank Limited, Glasgow.

(Comerica), Eleanor Luedtke (1999). Promises Kept: The Story of Comerica 1849-1999 (Detroit, MI: Comerica Incorporated, 120 p.). Comerica bank--History; Bank holding companies; Banking; Financial institutions; Mortgage banks.

(Commerzbank), Christoph Kreutzmuller (2005). Handler und Handlungsgehilfen: der Finanzplatz Amsterdam und die deutschen Grossbanken (1918-1945). (Stuttgart, Germany: Steiner, 349 p.). Commerzbank--History; Hugo Kaufmann & Co’s Bank--History; Banks and banking, International--Netherlands--History--20th century; Banks and banking, German--Netherlands--History--20th century; Netherlands--History--German occupation, 1940-1945.

(Consolidated Bank and Trust Company), Gertrude Woodruff Marlowe (2003). A Right Worthy Grand Mission: Maggie Lena Walker and the Quest for Black Economic Empowerment. (Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 286 p.). Walker, Maggie Lena, 1867-1934; African American women--Virginia--Richmond--Biography; African Americans--Virginia--Richmond--Biography; Businesswomen--Virginia--Richmond--Biography; Bankers--Virginia--Richmond--Biography; Civic leaders--Virginia--Richmond--Biography; African Americans--Virginia--Richmond--Economic conditions; Richmond (Va.)--Biography; Richmond (Va.)--Race relations. 

(Continental), Jaffray Peterson (1980). Sixty-five Years of Progress and a Record of New York City Banks. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 135 p. [orig. pub.1935]). Rise of commercial banking: Continental Bank & Trust Company of New York--History; Banks and banking--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Continental Illinois Bank), James P. McCollom (1987). The Continental Affair: The Rise and Fall of the Continental Illinois Bank. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 393 p.). Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company of Chicago; Bank failures--Illinois--Chicago.

(Credit Agricole de la Gironde), Hubert Bonin (1992). Le Credit Agricole de la Gironde: La Passion d’Une Region (1901-1991). (Bordeaux, FR: Horizon Chimerique. Credit agricole de la Gironde--History; Agricultural credit--France--Gironde--History; Banks and banking--France--Gironde--History; Agriculture--France--Gironde--History; Gironde (France)--Economic conditions.

(Credit Agricole du Sud-Est), Charles Andre (1992). La Banque des Quatre Saisons: Histoire du Credit Agricole et du Credit agricole du Sud-Est. (Lyon, FR: Editions Lyonnaises d’Art et d’Histoire, 369 p.). Credit agricole du Sud-Est--History; Caisse nationale de cre?dit agricole (France)--History; Agricultural credit--France--History.

(Credit Foncier d’Algerie & de Tunisie), Hubert Bonin (2004). Un Outre-mer Bancaire Mediterraneen: Histoire du Credit Foncier d’Algerie et de Tunisie, 1880-1997. (Paris, FR: Societe? Francaise d’Histoire d’Outre-mer, 369 p.). Credit foncier d’Algerie & de Tunisie--History; Banks and banking--Algeria--History; Banks and banking--Tunisia--History.

(Credit Mobilier), Elisabeth Paulet (1999). The Role of Banks in Monitoring Firms: The Case of the Crédit Mobilier. (New York, NY: Routledge, 178 p.). Crédit mobilier (France)--History; Corporations--Finance--Case studies; Business enterprises--Finance--Case studies; Banks and banking--Case studies; Credit--Case studies.

(Crédit Mutuel Océan), Alain Gerard (2000). L'Argent Solidaire: des Caisses Rurales au Crédit Mutuel Océan: Vendée, Deux-Sèvres, Charente-Maritime. (La Roche-sur-Yon, FR: Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 341 p.). Crédit mutuel Océan--History; Banks and banking, Cooperative--France--Vendée--History; Banks and banking, Cooperative--France--Deux-Sèvres--History; Banks and banking, Cooperative--France--Charente-Maritime--History; Rural credit--France--Vendée--History; Rural credit--France--Deux-Sèvres--History; Rural credit--France--Charente-Maritime--History.

(Detroit Bank & Trust), Arthur M. Woodford (1974). Detroit and Its Banks: The Story of Detroit Bank & Trust. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 298 p.). Detroit Bank and Trust Company -- History.

(Deutsche Bank - founded 1870), Fritz Seidenzahl; im Auftrag des Vorstandes der Deutschen Bank Aktiengesellschaft (1970). 100 Jahre Deutsche Bank 1870-1970. (Frankfurt am Main: J. Weisbecker, 457 p.). Deutsche Bank (1957- )--History; Banks and banking--Germany--History.

Adelbert Delbrück Adelbert Delbrück - regarded as true founder of Deutsche Bank (

(Deutsche Bank), Hans Otto Eglau (1990). Wie Gott in Frankfurt: Die Deutsche Bank und Die Deutsche Industrie. (New York, NY: Econ, 318 p.). Deutsche Bank (1957- )--History; Industries--Germany--History.

(Deutsche Bank), Lothar Gall et al. (1995). The Deutsche Bank, 1870-1995. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 946 p.). Deutsche Bank (1870-1945), (1957), Monetary Policy-Germany, Banks-Germany. 

(Deutsche Bank), Harold James (2001). The Deutsche Bank and the Nazi Economic War Against the Jews: The Expropriation of Jewish-Owned Property. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 268 p.). Deutsche Bank (1957- )--Political activity; World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects--Germany; World War, 1939-1945--Jews--Germany.

(Deutsche Bank), Harold James (2004). The Nazi Dictatorship and the Deutsche Bank. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 296 p.). Deutsche Bank--History; National socialism--Economic aspects; Germany--Economic policy--1933-1945.

(Deutsche Bank), Christopher Kobrak (2007). Banking on Global Markets: Deutsche Bank and the United States, 1870 to the Present. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 624 p.). Deutsche Bank--History; Banks and banking--Germany--History; Banks and banking, Foreign--United States--History. U.S. business, political dealings of Germany's largest bank illuminate developments in globalization of major financial institutions: transnational markets, cross-border flows of information, capital.

(Drummonds Bank), Hector Bolitho and Derek Peel (1967). The Drummonds of Charing Cross. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 232 p.). Drummond family.

(El Paso National Bank), Joseph Leach (1989). Sun Country Banker: The Life and the Bank of Samuel Doak Young. (El Paso, TX: Mangan Books, 303 p.). Young, Samuel Doak, 1896-1987; El Paso National Bank--History; Texas Commerce Bank--History; Bankers--Texas--El Paso; Banks and banking--Texas--El Paso; El Paso (Tex.)--Biography.

(Export-Import Bank), William H. Becker, William M. McClenahan, Jr. (2003). The Market, the State, and the Export-Import Bank of the United States, 1934-2000. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 340 p.). Export-Import Bank of the United States; Export credit--United States; United States--Commercial policy.

(Farmers and Merchants Bank), Jackson A. Graves (1927). My Seventy Years in California, 1857-1927. (Los Angeles, CA: The Times-Mirror Press, 478 p.). President Farmers & Merchants National Bank of Los Angeles. Ethnic groups --California; Law --Political aspects --California; Agriculture --California; Business --California; California. Boyhood, education in northern California, Los Angeles from 1875: politics, Hispanic citizens, land claims, railroad interests, legal profession, social life, farming; 1904 - vice president, president of Farmers & Merchants Bank.

Isaias William Hellman -Farmers and Merchants Bank (

(Farmers and Merchants Bank), Robert Glass Cleland and Frank B. Putnam (1965). Isaias W. Hellman and the Farmers and Merchants Bank. (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 136 p.). Hellman, Isaias William, 1842-1920; Farmers and Merchants Bank of Los Angeles; Farmers and Merchants National Bank of Los Angeles.

(Farmers and Merchants Bank), Frances Dinkelspiel (2008). Towers of Gold: How One Jewish Immigrant Named Isaias Hellman Created California. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 384 p.). Great Great Granddaughter. Hellman, Isaias W. (Isaias William), 1842-1920; Jews --California --Los Angeles --Biography; Jews, German --California --Los Angeles --Biography; Jewish bankers --California --Los Angeles --Biography; Capitalists and financiers --California --Los Angeles --Biography; Banks and banking --California --History --19th century; Banks and banking --California --History --20th century. Transformation of California from frontier society whose economy was driven by barter of hides, exchange of gold dust into vibrant state with strongest economy in nation, 5th largest economy in world; almost single-handedly brought California into modernity. 

(First and Merchants National Bank), Frances Leigh Williams (1965). A Century of Service; Prologue to the Future, A History of the First & Merchants National Bank. (Richmond, VA: The Bank, 141 p.). First and Merchants National Bank, Richmond; Richmond. First National Bank.

(First Colonial Bankshares), C. Paul Johnson with Jim Bowman (2004). Good Guys Finish First: Reflections of a CEO and How To Start a De Novo Community Bank. (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris, 373 p.). Johnson, C. Paul; First Colonial Bankshares--History; Bankers--Illinois--Chicago--Biography; Community banks--Illinois--Chicago.

(First Hawaiian Bank), Edward Joesting (1983). Tides of Commerce. (Honolulu, HI: First Hawaiian, 180 p.). First Hawaiian Bank--History; Hawaii--Commerce--History.

(First Interstate Bank of Nevada), R.T. King (1996). Let's Get Going: From Oral History Interviews with Arthur M. Smith, Jr.: A Narrative Interpretation. (Reno, NV: University of Nevada Oral History Program, 220 p.). Smith, Arthur M., 1922- ; First Interstate Bank of Nevada--History; Bankers--Nevada--Biography; Banks and banking--Nevada--History.

(First New Haven), Rollin G. Osterweis (1963). Charter Number Two: The Centennial History of the First New Haven National Bank. (New Haven, CT: First New Haven National Bank, 103 p.). New Haven. First National Bank.

(First Security Corp.), Sidney Hyman (1978). Challenge and Response: the First Security Corporation, First Fifty Years, 1928-1978. (Salt Lake City, UT: Graduate School of Business, University of Utah, 462 p.). First Security Corporation.

(FNB - Black Hills), Robert Edward Driscoll (1948). Seventy Years of Banking in the Black Hills: First National Bank of the Black Hills, 1876-1946. (Rapid City, SD: Gate City Guide, 87 p.). First National Bank of the Black Hills; Banks and banking--Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.); Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.)--Industries.

(FNB Boston), Norman S.B. Gras (1976). The Massachusetts First National Bank of Boston, 1784-1934. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 768 p. [Reprint of 1937 ed.]). Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School). First National Bank of Boston. One of best attempts to analyze operations of a single bank.

(FNB Boston), Ben Ames Williams (1984). Bank of Boston 200: A History of New England's Leading Bank, 1784-1984. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 480 p.). First National Bank of Boston--History; Banking--New England.

(FNB Chicago), Henry C. Morris (1902). The History of the First national Bank of Chicago, Preceded by Some Account of Early Banking in the United States, Especially in the West and at Chicago. (Chicago, IL: R.R. Donnelley, 210 p.). First National Bank of Chicago.

Edmund Aiken - First President of FNB-Chicago (

(FNB Chicago), Guy Wickes Cooke (1913). The First National Bank of Chicago: Charter Number Eight: A Brief History of Its Progress from the Day on Which It Opened for Business, July 1, 1863. (Chicago, IL: M.A. Donohue, 87 p.). First National Bank of Chicago--History; Banks and banking--United States; Finance--United States; Finance.

(FNB Chicago), Edited by Sidney Hyman (1975). Gaylord Freeman of First Chicago: [speeches and letters]. (Chicago, IL: First National Bank of Chicago, 624 p.). Banks and banking--United States; Finance--United States; Finance.

(FNB Davenport Iowa), Albert F. Dawson (1913). The History of the First National Bank in the United States: A History of the First National Bank of Davenport, Iowa. (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 176 p.). Davenport, Ia; Banking

(FNB Denver), Eugene H. Adams, Lyle W. Dorsett and Robert S. Pulcipher (1984). The Pioneer Western Bank: First of Denver, 1860-1980. (Denver, CO: First Interstate Bank of Denver : State Historical Society of Colorado, Colorado Heritage Center, 219 p.). First National Bank of Denver--History; Banks and banking--Colorado--Denver--History.

(FNB Glens Falls), Joseph E. Barnes (1990). Profiles in Banking: A History of First National Bank of Glens Falls and Its Years of Service to the North Country. (Glens Falls, NY: First National Bank of Glens Falls, NY, 293 p.). First National Bank of Glens Falls--History; Banks and banking--New York (State)--Glens Falls--History.

(FNB Houston), William A. Kirkland (1975). Old Bank--New Bank: The First National Bank, Houston, 1866-1956. (Houston, TX: Pacesetter Press, 115 p.). First National Bank in Houston--History.

(FNB Los Angeles), Rockwell Hereford (1985). A Whole Man, Henry Mauris Robinson, and a Half Century, 1890-1940. (Pacific Grove, CA: Boxwood Press,, 272 p.). Robinson, Henry Mauris, 1868-1937; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Bankers--United States--Biography; Lawyers--United States--Biography; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

(FNB Omaha), Stephen Szmrecsanyi (1996). The First National Bank Story. (Omaha, NE: First National Bank of Omaha, 192 p.). First National Bank (Omaha, Neb.)--History; First National of Nebraska; Banks and banking--Nebraska.

(FNB Scranton), Thomas F. Murphy (1938). History of the First National Bank of Scranton, PA. (Scranton, PA: International Textbook Press, 154 p.). First National Bank (Scranton, Pa.). Issued by the authority of the directors commemorative of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of the bank. Supplement to first history issued 1906. 1863 to 1938.

(FNB Shelby NC), U.L. "Rusty" Patterson and Barry E. Hambright (2004). First National Bank Hometown Banking Since 1874. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). First National Bank (Shelby, NC); Banks and banking--North Carolina--Shelby. 1874 - Jesse Jenkins, H.D. Lee organized J. Jenkins and Company, private bank, in Shelby, NC;  Blanton family has headed bank for nearly 130 years.

(First National Bank and Trust Company of Wyoming), The Bank (1982). Our First 100 Years: The Stock Growers and First National Bank, 1882-1982. (Cheyenne, WY: The Bank, 91 p.). First National Bank and Trust Company of Wyoming --History.

(Generale Bank), Herman Van der Wee, Monique Verbreyt; translation, Frank Parker (1997). The Generale Bank: 1822-1997: A Continuing Challenge. (Tielt, Belgium: Lannoo, 448 p.). Generale Bank (Belgium)--History; Banks and banking--Belgium--History.

(Girard Bank), Girard Trust Company (1936). Girard Trust Company; A Century of Financial Activity, 1836-1936. (Philadelphia, PA: E. Stern & Co., 191 p.). Girard Trust Corn Exchange Bank, Philadelphia.

Stephen Girard (

(Girard National Bank), Harry Emerson Wildes (1943). Lonely Midas; The Story of Stephen Girard. (New York, NY: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 372 p.). Girard, Stephen, 1750-1831.

(Girard National Bank), Josiah Granville Leach (1969). The History of the Girard National Bank of Philadelphia, 1832-1902. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 120 p.). Girard National Bank of Philadelphia.

(Girard National Bank), Donald R. Adams, Jr. (1978). Finance and Enterprise in Early America: A Study of Stephen Girard's Bank, 1812-1831. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 163 p.). Girard, Stephen, 1750-1831; Girard Bank--History; Banks and banking--United States--History.

(Girard National Bank), George Wilson (1995). Stephen Girard: America's First Tycoon. (Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 400 p.). Girard, Stephen, 1750-1831; Bankers--United States--Biography; Merchants--United States--Biography.

(Golembe Associates), Carter H. Golembe (2009). But I Never Made a Loan: My Career in Banking - The Early Years. (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 164 p.). Leading Authority on the Banking Industry and Its Regulation. Golembe, Carter H.; Banking law --United States; Banking industry -- history. Involvement in banking since end of World War II; no greater divide in banking than that between those who have spent much of their careers deciding on creditworthiness of potential borrowers and those who have not; of crucial assessments that could thwart careers of potential bank presidents, never more damning phrase than "but he never made a loan."

(Grameen Bank), Edited by Abu N.M. Wahid (1993). The Grameen Bank: Poverty Relief in Bangladesh. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 305 p.). Grameen Bank; Rural credit--Bangladesh; Bank loans--Bangladesh; Rural poor--Bangladesh.

Professor Muhammad Yunus - Grameen Bank (

(Grameen Bank), David Bornstein (1996). The Price of a Dream: The Story of the Grameen Bank and the Idea That Is Helping the Poor To Change Their Lives. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 370 p.). Grameen Bank; Banks and banking--Bangladesh; Rural poor--Bangladesh--Economic conditions; Women--Bangladesh--Economic conditions. 

(Grameen Bank), Muhammad Yunus and Alan Jolis (2001). Banker to the Poor: The Autobiography of Muhammad Yunus, Founder of Grameen Bank. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 313 p.). Founder, Grameen Bank. Yunus, Muhammad, 1940- ; Grameen Bank--History; Bankers--Bangladesh--Biography; Social reformers--Bangladesh--Biography; Microfinance--Bangladesh--History; Rural poor--Bangladesh--History. 

(Grameen Bank), Mark Schreiner (2003). The Performance of Subsidized Microfinance Organizations: BancoSol of Bolivia and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 283 p.). Banco Solidario--Evaluation; Grameen Bank--Evaluation; Microfinance--Bolivia--Case studies; Microfinance--Bangladesh--Case studies.

(Grameen Bank), Asif Dowla and Dipal Barua (2006). The Poor Always Pay Back: The Grameen II Story. (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 293 p.). Professor of Economics (St. Mary's College of Maryland); Deputy Managing Director of Grameen Bank, Managing Director of the Grameen Shakti in Bangladesh. Grameen Bank; Microfinance--Developing countries; Poor--Services for--Developing countries. How major financial institution was able to change its system in response to needs of its borrowers, how Grameen redefined and continues to redefine basic assumptions of credit worthiness.

(Greymac Trust Company), Terence Corcoran and Laura Reid (1984). Public Money, Private Greed: The Greymac, Seaway and Crown Trusts Affair. (Toronto, ON: Collins, 384 p.). Greymac Trust Company; Crown Trust Company; Seaway Trust Company; Financial institutions -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Case studies; Real estate business -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Finance -- Case studies; Trust companies -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Case studies.

(Hoares Bank), Victoria Hutchings (2005). Messrs Hoare Bankers: A History of the Hoare Banking Dynasty. (London, UK: Constable, 240 p.). Banking; Banking--Private; Banking--Personal; Banking--High Net Worth. Sole survivor of private deposit banks established in 17th and 18th centuries.

NPG D3059 Richard Hoare - Hoares Bank (

(Honesdale), Marie R. Freund (1936). One Hundred Years of Banking; A History of the Origin and Development of the Honesdale National Bank. (Scranton, PA: International Textbook Press, 119 p.). Honesdale, Pa. National Bank.

(HSBC), Frank H.H. King with Catherine E. King and David J.S. King (1987). The Hongkong Bank in Late Imperial China, 1864-1902: On an Even Keel (Vol. 1). (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 701 p.). Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation--History--19th century; Banks and banking--China--History--19th century.

Sir Thomas Sutherland (1834-1922), founder of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Thomas Sutherland (founder HSBC) (

(HSBC), Frank H.H. King with David J.S. King and Catherine E. King (1988). The Hongkong Bank in the Period of Imperialism and War, 1895-1918: Wayfoong, the Focus of Wealth (Vol. 2). (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 720 p.). Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation--History; East Asia--Economic conditions.

(HSBC), Frank H.H. King with Catherine E. King and David J.S. King (1988). The Hongkong Bank Between the Wars and the Bank Interned, 1919-1945: Return from Grandeur (Vol. 3). (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 705 p.). Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation--History--20th century; Economic history--1918-1945; East Asia--Economic conditions. 

(HSBC), Frank H.H. King (1991). The Hongkong Bank in the Period of Development and Nationalism, 1941-1984: From Regional Bank to Multinational Group (Vol. 4). (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 991 p.). Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation--History; Hongkong Bank Group--History; Banks and banking--China--Hong Kong--History. Full-scale study of a modern financial institution.

(HSBC Holdings plc- founded 1865), Frank H. H. King with Catherine E. King and David J.S. King (1987-1991). The History of the HongKong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 4 vols.). Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation--History; Banks and banking--History. 

(HSBC), Roberta Allbert Dayer (1988). Finance and Empire: Sir Charles Addis, 1861-1945. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 431 p.). Addis, Charles, Sir, 1861-1945; Capitalists and financiers--Great Britain--Biography; Statesmen--Great Britain--Biography; Great Britain--Economic policy--1918-1945.

(HSBC), Stephen Green (2010). Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World. (New York, NY: Allen Lane, 207 p.). Former CEO and current chairman of HSBC. Wealth --Moral and ethical aspects; Banks and banking; Capitalism; Bank failures; Financial crises. Globalization, urbanization, market economy; importance of corporate, personal responsibility in increasingly interdependent world; three ambiguities in search for personal peace: human imperfection, uncertainty, hope or belief that something better is possible.

(Industrial National Bank of Rhode Island), Frank Weston (1966). The Passing Years, 1791 to 1966. (Providence, RI: Industrial National Bank of Rhode Island, 144 p.). Industrial National Bank of Rhode Island.

(Institute of Bankers), Edwin Green (1979). Debtors to Their Profession: A History of the Institute of Bankers, 1879-1979. (London, UK: Methuen for the Institute of Bankers, 245 p.). Institute of Bankers (Great Britain)--History.

(Kaupthing Bank), Armann Thorvaldsson (2009). Frozen Assets: How I Lived Iceland's Boom and Bust. (Chichester, West Sussex, UK, Wiley, 266 p.). Former CEO at Iceland’s Kaupthing Bank in UK. Banks and banking -- Iceland -- History -- 21st century. How one man, one bank, one country experienced, was affected by course of world economic history; bank grew from small brokerage house to £6 billion international bank; represented money behind household names as Iceland, Matalan, easyJet, Karen Millen. He travelled most frantic efforts to save bank were fruitless.

(Kellner Mortgage Investments), Richard Bitner (2008). Confessions of a Sub Prime Lender: How Greed, Fraud &Ignorance Caused the Greatest Business Debacle in US History. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 208 p.). Former President of Kellner Mortgage Investments (Dallas). Bitner, Richard; Kellner Mortgage Investments; subprime lending; Mortgage banks. How industry started out helping disadvantaged customers buy houses, lost its way; roles played, tactics used by borrowers, brokers, appraisers, investment banks in one of greatest business disasters in history.

(Korea First Bank), Robert A. Cohen (2010). Turning Around a Bank in Korea, a Business and Cultural Challenge. ( 232 p.). Former President and Chief Executive Officer of First Bank Korea Ltd. Only non Korean CEO of large Korean Bank; directed turnaround effort of 400-branch corporate, retail lender; reduced non-performing loan ratio to lowest among Korean banks, tripled number of loans in portfolio; 2005 - acquired by Standard Chartered.

(Lloyds Bank), R.S. Sayres (1957). Lloyds Bank in the History of English Banking (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 381 p.). Lloyds Bank.

Sampson Lloyd II ( Blloyd.jpg)

(Lloyds Bank), J.R. Winton (1982). Lloyds Bank, 1918-1969. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 210 p.). Lloyds Bank--History.

(Lloyds Bank), Written and Researched by Richard Hart (1989). Lloyds Bank: A Pictorial History with Text and Staff Anecdotes. (Leighton Buzzard, UK: Farnon, 144 p.). Lloyds Bank -- History -- 20th century; Great Britain Commercial banks; Lloyds Bank history.

(Long-Term Credit Bank), Gillian Tett (2003). Saving the Sun: A Wall Street Gamble To Rescue Japan from Its Trillion-Dollar Meltdown. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 320 p.). Former Tokyo Bureau Chief (Financial Times). Financial crises--Japan; Bank failures--Japan; Financial institutions--Japan; Structural adjustment (Economic policy)--Japan; Japan--Economic policy--1989-. 

(Lucas, Turner & Co.), Dwight L. Clarke (1969). William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker. (San Francisco, CA: California Historical Society, 446 p.). Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891; Banks and banking--California--San Francisco--History; California--Gold discoveries. 

(Marshall & Ilsley Bank), Ellen D. Langill (1997). Powered by Our Past: 150 Years of Marshall & Ilsley Bank, 1847-1997 (Milwaukee, WI: M&I Corp., 151 p.). Banks and banking--Wisconsin--Milwaukee--History.

(House of Medici), Raymond A. DeRoover (1963). The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank, 1397-1494. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 500 p.). Medici, House of; Banks and banking--Italy--Florence--History.

Cosimo di Medici (Bronzino).jpg Cosimo Medici il Vecchio - Medici (

Lorenzo de Medici2.jpg Lorenzo the Magnificent - Medici (

(House of Medici), Tim Parks (2005). Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Medici, House of; Medici, House of--Art patronage; Banks and banking--Italy--Florence--History; Art, Italian--Italy--Florence; Art, Renaissance--Italy--Florence; Artists and patrons--Italy--Florence. 

(Mediobanca S.p.A.), Giancarlo Galli (1995). Il Padrone Dei Padroni: Enrico Cuccia, Il Potere di Mediobanca e Il Capitalismo Italiano. (Milano, IT: Garzanti, 271 p.). Cuccia, Enrico, 1907- ; Mediobanca; Capitalists and financiers--Italy--Biography; Finance--Italy--History--20th century; Italy--Economic conditions--1945-.

(Mediobanca), Guiseppe Leuzzi (1997). Mediobanca Editore: Potere di Fine Millennio: Giornalismo e Affari Nella Crisi Gemina-Rizzoli Corriere Della Sera /. (Roma, IT: SEAM, 256 p.). Rizzoli Corriere della sera--Finance--History; Gemina (Firm : Milan, Italy)--Finance--History; Mediobanca--History; Periodicals--Publishing--Italy--Finance--History--20th century; Banks and banking--Italy--History--20th century.

(Mellon), Harvey O'Connor (1933). Mellon's Millions, The Biography of a Fortune; The Life and Times of Andrew W. Mellon. (New York, NY: The John Day Company, 443 p.). Mellon, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1855-1937; Mellon family.

Andrew W. Mellon ( namedprofessorships/images/Peabody6.jpg)

(Mellon), William Larimer Mellon in collaboration with Boyden Sparkes (1948). Judge Mellon's Sons. (Pittsburgh, PA: Private Printing, 570 p.). Mellon family; Mellon, Thomas, 1813-1908.; Mellon, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1855-1937.

(Mellon), Thomas Mellon; foreword by David McCullough; preface to the second edition by Paul Mellon; edited by Mary Louise Briscoe (1994). Thomas Mellon and His Times. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 478 p. [2nd ed]). Mellon, Thomas, 1813-1908; Mellon family; Capitalists and financiers -- United States -- Biography.

(Mellon), David Cannadine (2006). Mellon: An American Life. (New York, NY: Knopf, 800 p.). Institute of Historical Research (University of London). Mellon, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1855-1937; United States. Dept. of the Treasury--Officials and employees--Biography; Politicians--United States--Biography; Cabinet officers--United States--Biography; Diplomats--United States--Biography; Bankers--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography; United States--Politics and government--1901-1953. One of America’s greatest financiers.

(Mellon), James Mellon (2011). The Judge: A Life of Thomas Mellon, Founder of a Fortune. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 592 p.). Mellon, Thomas, 1813-1908; Mellon family; Capitalists and financiers --United States --Biography. Lawyer, judge, banker, classics professor, councilman; greatly influenced fortunes of his hometown, Pittsburgh, throughout 19th century; became one of city's most important business leaders, laid foundation for family that would contribute considerably to city's growth, welfare for much of the next hundred years; became one of world's most recognizable names in industry, innovation, philanthropy.

(Mercantile), Edwin Green and Sara Kinsey (1999). The Paradise Bank: The Mercantile Bank of India, 1893-1984. (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 242 p.). Mercantile Bank of India--History; Banks and banking, British--India--History.

(Merchants National Bank), Philip G. Hubert, Jr. (1980). The Merchants' National Bank of the City of New York. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 206 p. [Reprint 1903 ed.]). Merchants' National Bank of the City of New York--History.

(Merchants’ National Bank), Bill Menner (2007). Louis Sullivan’s Merchants National Bank. (San Francisco, CA: Pomegranate, 71 p.). Sullivan, Louis H., 1856-1924; Merchants’ National Bank (Grinnell, Iowa); Grinnell (Iowa) --Buildings, structures, etc.

(Merchants National Bank of Syracuse), Crandall Melvin, Sr. (1969). A History of the Merchants National Bank and Trust Company of Syracuse, New York; One Hundred Eighteen Years (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, 158 p.). Merchants National Bank and Trust Company of Syracuse.

(Michigan National), Richard D. Poll (1980). Howard J. Stoddard, Founder, Michigan National Bank. (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 257 p.). Stoddard, Howard J., 1901-1971; Michigan National Bank--History; Bankers--United States--Biography.

(Midland Bank), A.R. Holmes & Edwin Green (1986). Midland: 150 Years of Banking Business. (London, UK: B. T. Batsford, 352 p.). Midland Bank plc.

(Mitsui Bank), edited by Japan Business History Institute (1976). The Mitsui Bank: A History of the First 100 Years. (Tokyo, Japan: Mitsui Bank, 192 p.). Mitsui Gink¯o.

(Morgan), Lewis Corey (1930). The House of Morgan; A Social Biography of the Masters of Money. (New York, NY: G.H. Watt, 479 p.). Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913; J.P. Morgan & Co.; Finance--United States.

Junius Spencer Morgan - J.S. Morgan & Co. (

J. P. Morgan ( JohnPierpontMorgan.png/175px-JohnPierpontMorgan.png)

20o.jpg (137029 bytes) Henry P. Davison (h

Thomas Lamont on the cover of Time Magazine (November 11, 1929) Thomas W. Lamont (

(Morgan), John K. Winkler (1930). Morgan the Magnificent; The Life of J. Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913). (New York, NY: Vanguard Press, 313 p.). Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913.

(Morgan), Herbert L. Satterlee (1939). J. Pierpont Morgan; An Intimate Portrait. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 595 p.). Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913.

(Morgan), John Arthur Garraty (1960). Right-Hand Man; The Life of George W. Perkins. (New York, NY: Harper, 433 p.). Perkins, George Walbridge, 1862-1920.

(Morgan), Edwin P. Hoyt, Jr. (1966). The House of Morgan. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 428 p.). Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913; J.P. Morgan & Co.; Finance--United States--History.

(Morgan), John Douglas Forbes (1974). Stettinius, Sr.: Portrait of a Morgan Partner. (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 244 p.). Stettinius, Edward Reilly, 1865-1925; J.P. Morgan & Co.

(Morgan), Thomas W. Lamont (1975). Henry P. Davison: The Record of a Useful Life. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 373 p. [orig. pub. 1933]). Davison, Henry Pomeroy, 1867-1922; Bankers--United States--Biography.

(Morgan), Henry L. Loucks (1975). The Great Conspiracy of the House of Morgan and How To Defeat It. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 296 p. [orig. pub. 1916]). J.P. Morgan & Co.; Banks and banking -- United States; Currency question -- United States; Agricultural credit -- United States.

(Morgan), Vincent P. Carosso with the assistance of Rose C. Carosso (1987). The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854-1913. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 888 p.). Morgan, Junius Spencer, 1813-1890; Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913; J.P. Morgan & Co.--History; Bankers--Biography; Banks and banking, International--History.

(Morgan), Ron Chernow (1991). The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 812 p.). Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York--History; Banks and banking--United States--History.

(Morgan), Edward M. Lamont (1994). The Ambassador from Wall Street: The Story of Thomas W. Lamont, J.P. Morgan's Chief Executive: A Biography. (Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 564 p.). Lamont, Thomas W. (Thomas William), 1870-1948; Bankers--United States--Biography.

(Morgan), Jean Strause (1999). Morgan: American Financier. (New York, NY: Random House, 796 p.). Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913; Bankers--United States--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Art--Collectors and collecting--United States--Biography.

(Morgan), James L. Hunt (2009). Relationship Banker: Eugene W. Stetson, Wall Street, and American Business, 1916-1959. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 386 p.). Associate Professor of Law at the Eugene W. Stetson School of Business and Economics and Walter F. George School of Law (Mercer University). Stetson, Eugene W. (Eugene William), 1881-1959; Guaranty Trust Company of New York; Bankers --United States --Biography; Capitalists and financiers --United States --Biography; Banks and banking, American --History --20th century. Strategies, relationships that determined who received capital in 20th-century America. 1916 - became vice-president with Guaranty Trust Company of New York; became president, chairman of Guaranty; 1958 - spearheaded merger of Guaranty and Morgan; Stetson's skill - creating, sustaining personal relationships.

SEE ALSO: Capitalists

(JP Morgan Chase & Co.), Patricia B. Crisafulli (2009). The House of Dimon: How JPMorgan's Jamie Dimon Rose to the Top of the Financial World. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 242 p.). Former Chicago Correspondent (Reuters America). Dimon, Jamie; J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.; Capitalists and financiers --United States --Biography. Events that shaped Dimon's career; how he successfully acquired, integrated companies; reorganized underperforming units; created efficiencies; grew bottom-line results; management style, ability to inspire outstanding performance, talent for taking calculated risks allowed him to excel where many others failed.

(JP Morgan Chase), Duff McDonald (2009). Last Man Standing: The Ascent of Jamie Dimon and JPMorgan Chase. (New York, NY, Simon & Schuster, 352 p). Dimon, Jamie; J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.; Capitalists and financiers --United States --Biography. Dimon's tumultuous rise: joined Sandy Weill at American Express (fresh from Harvard Business School), built Citigroup, unceremoniously ousted, rescued Bank One, ascended to top post at JPMorgan Chase (age 48); transformed bank from broken institution to global banking powerhouse in five years; dedicated family man, uncanny facility with numbers, tireless work ethic, fierce loyalty, unrelenting aversion to office politics.

Jamie Dimon - JP Morgan Chase (

(J. P. Morgan Chase & Co.), Gillan Tett (2009). Fool's Gold: How the Bold Dream of a Small Tribe at J.P. Morgan Was Corrupted by Wall Street Greed and Unleashed a Catastrophe. (New York, NY: Free Press, 304 p.). Journalist (Financial Times). J.P. Morgan & Co.; Credit derivatives --United States --History; Housing --United States --Finance; Financial crises --United States. "Shadow banking" world; how Morgan team's bold ideas for new kind of financial alchemy in 1994 helped to ignite revolution in banking, escalated wildly out of control; created credit derivatives; catapulted Morgan to top of derivatives trade, fueled extraordinary banking boom beyond limits of acceptable risk; how Morgan leaders engineered bank's escape from carnage, how possible for larger banking world, regulators, rating agencies to have spotted, heeded terrible risks of meltdown.

(National and Grindlays Bank Limited), Geoffrey Tyson. (1963). 100 Years of Banking in Asia and Africa 1863-1963. (London, UK: National and Grindlays Bank, 246 p.). National and Grindlays Bank Limited.

(National Bank of Alaska), Terrence Cole and Elmer E. Rasmuson (2000). Banking on Alaska: The Story of the National Bank of Alaska. (Anchorage, AK: National Bank of Alaska, 403 p. [2 vols.]). Professor of History (University of Alaska Fairbanks); Retired President, CEO (National Bank of Alaska from 1943 to 1977). Rasmuson, Elmer E.--Anecdotes; Rasmuson, Elmer E.--Career in banks and banking; National Bank of Alaska--History; Banks and banking--Alaska--History; Bankers--Alaska; Alaska--Economic conditions.

(National Bank of Australasia), Geoffrey Blainey, Geoffrey Hutton (1983). Gold and Paper, 1858-1982: A History of the National Bank of Australasia Ltd. (South Melbourne, AU: Macmillan, 354 p. [rev. ed.]). National Bank of Australasia--History; Banks and banking--Australia--History.

(National Bank of Commerce of Seattle), Elliot Marple & Bruce H. Olson (1972). The National Bank of Commerce of Seattle, 1889-1969; Territorial to Worldwide Banking in Eighty Years, including the Story of the Marine Bancorporation. (Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 277p.). National Bank of Commerce of Seattle; Marine Bancorporation, Seattle.

(NB New Zealand), Frank Holmes Hawke and Gary Richard (1997). The Thoroughbred Among Banks in New Zealand. (Wellington, NZ: National Bank of New Zealand, 225 p.). National Bank of New Zealand, Ltd.; Banks and Banking--New Zealand--History.

(National Farmers’ Bank), Larry Millett (1985). The Curve of the Arch: The Story of Louis Sullivan’s Owatonna Bank. (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 203 p.). Sullivan, Louis H., 1856-1924; Elmslie, George Grant, 1871-1952; Bennett, Carl Kent; National Farmers’ Bank (Owatonna, Minn.); Public buildings--Minnesota--Owatonna.

(Nationsbank), Howard E. Covington, Jr. & Marion A. Ellis; foreword by L. William Seidman (1993). The Story of NationsBank: Changing the Face of American Banking. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 328 p.). Nationsbank--History; Banks and banking--United States--History.

Hugh McColl ( hughmccoll_168x256.jpg)

(Nationsbank), Ross Yockey (1999). McColl: The Man with America's Money. (Atlanta, GA: Longstreet, 636 p.). McColl, Hugh L.; Bank of America--History; Bankers--United States--Biography; Banks and banking--United States--History.

(Northern Rock), Alex Brummer (2009). The Crunch: The Scandal of Northern Rock and the Escalating Credit Crisis. (London, UK: Random House, 244 p.). City Editor at the Daily Mail. Financial crises; Bank failures; Bankers -- Malpractice; Monetary policy; International finance. Financial crisis from origins in U.S. subprime market to explosion onto international scene; entire population of UK co-opted to guarantee Northern Rock (one of top five mortgage lenders in United Kingdom in terms of gross lending; nationalized on February 22, 2008) with 30 billion of public money.

(Northland Bank), Arthur Johnson (1986). Breaking the Banks. (Toronto, ON: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 256 p.). Canadian Commercial Bank -- History; Northland Bank -- History; Bank failures -- Canada -- History; Banks and banking -- Canada -- History.

(Orion Royal Bank), Richard Roberts with Christopher Arnander. (2001). Take Your Partners: Orion, the Consortium Banks and the Transformation of the Euromarkets. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 359 p.). Reader in Business History, School of Social Sciences (University of Sussex). Orion Royal Bank; Bank consortia--Europe; Euro-dollar market; Euro-bond market.  

(Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation), Dick Wilson (1972). Solid as a Rock: The First Forty Years of the Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation. (Singapore: The Corporation, 133 p.). Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation--History. 

(Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation), Grace Loh, Goh Chor Boon, Tan Teng Lang (2000). Building Bridges, Carving Niches: An Enduring Legacy. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 280 p.). Tan, Chin Tuan; Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation--History; Banks and banking, Chinese--Singapore--History; Bankers--Singapore--Biography. 

(Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation), Mike Macbeth (2003). Quiet Achiever: The Life and Times of Tan Sri Dr. Tan Chin Tuan. (Singapore: Times Editions, 215 p.). Tan, Chin Tuan; Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation--History; Bankers--Singapore--Biography; Banks and banking, Chinese--Singapore--History.

(Paribas), Jean Baumier (1988). La Galaxie Paribas. (Paris, FR: Plon, 273 p.). Paribas (Firm)--History; Banks and banking--France--History.

(Penn Square), Mark Singer (1985). Funny Money. (New York, NY: Random House, 221 p.). Penn Square Bank; Bank failures--Oklahoma--Oklahoma City.

(Penn Square), Phillip L. Zweig (1985). Belly Up: The Collapse of the Penn Square Bank. (New York, NY: Crown, 500 p.). Penn Square Bank; Bank failures -- United States.

(Peoples), Barry Provorse; edited by Alex Groner; contributing editor, Elliot Marple. (1987). The PeoplesBank Story. (Bellevue, WA: Documentary Book Publishers Corp., 245 p.). Peoples Savings Bank--History; Peoples Bank and Trust Company--History; Peoples National Bank of Washington--History; Peoples Bancorporation--History; Banks and banking--Washington (State)--History.

(Philadelphia NB), Nicholas B. Wainwright (1976). History of the Philadelphia National Bank: A Century and a Half of Philadelphia Banking, 1803-1953. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 263 p. [Reprint of 1953 ed.]). Philadelphia National Bank; Banks and banking--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History.

(Puget Sound Bancorp), Barry L. Provorse (1990). Banking on Independence: The First Century of Puget Sound Bancorp. (Seattle, WA: Documentary Book Pub., 156 p.). Puget Sound Bancorp.

(Reconstruction Finance Corporation), Jesse H. Jones with Edward Angly (1951). Fifty Billion Dollars: My Thirteen Years with the RFC, 1932-1945. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 631 p.). Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

(Reconstruction Finance Corporation), James Stuart Olson (1977). Herbert Hoover and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1931-1933. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 177 p.). Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964; Reconstruction Finance Corporation; Depressions--1929--United States. 

(Reconstruction Finance Corporation), James S. Olson (1988). Saving Capitalism: The Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the New Deal, 1933-1940. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 246 p.). Reconstruction Finance Corporation -- History; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States -- Economic policy -- 1933-1945.

(Republic Bank [Trinidad and Tobago]), The Bank (1987). From Colonial to Republic: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Business and Banking in Trinidad and Tobago, 1837-1987. (Newtown, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, W.I.: The Bank, 206 p.). Republic Bank (Trinidad and Tobago)--History; Colonial Bank--History; Banks and banking--Trinidad and Tobago--History.

(Republic National Bank of Dallas), H. Harold Wineburgh; foreword by Willis M. Tate (1981). The Texas Banker: The Life and Times of Fred Farrel Florence. (Dallas, TX: H.H. Wineburgh, 303 p.). Florence, Fred Farrel, 1891-1960; Bankers--Texas--Biography. President from 1929 until 1957.

(Rhode Island Hospital Trust ), Florence P. Simister (1967). The First Hundred Years. (Providence, RI: Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co., 152 p.). Rhode Island Hospital Trust Company, Providence.

(Riggs), Henry Cohen (1971). Business and Politics in America from the Age of Jackson to the Civil War; the Career Biography of W. W. Corcoran. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Pub. Corp., 409 p.). Corcoran, W. W. (William Wilson), 1798-1888; Riggs National Bank; Business and politics--United States; Finance--United States--History.

George Washington Riggs - Riggs Bank (

(Rothschild), Cecil Roth (1939). The Magnificent Rothschilds. (London, UK: R. Hale, 291 p.). Rothschild family.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild -founder (

(Rothschild), Count Egon Caesar Corti; translated from the German by Brian and Beatrix Lunn (1974). The Reign of the House of Rothschild, 1830-1871. (New York, NY: Gordon Press, 457 p. [orig. pub. 1928]). Rothschild family; Europe--Politics and government--1815-1871.

(Rothschild), Derek Wilson (1988). Rothschild: The Wealth and Power of a Dynasty (New York, NY: Scribner, 490 p.). Rothschild family; Bankers--Europe--Biography; Businesspeople--Europe--Biography; Europe--Politics and government--1789-1900.

(Rothschild), Herbert R. Lottman (1995). The French Rothschilds: The Great Banking Dynasty Through Two Turbulent Centuries. (New York, NY: Crown, 405 p.). Rothschild family; Bankers--France--Biography; Banks and banking--France--History.

(Rothschild), Amos Elon (1996). Founder: A Portrait of the First Rothschild and His Time. (New York, NY: Viking, 208 p.). Austrian-born Israeli Essayist. Rothschild, Meyer Amschel,--1744-1812; Jewish bankers--Germany--Biography; Bankers--Germany--Biography; Jews--Germany--Biography; Jews--Germany--History--18th century; Germany--Economic conditions--18th century. 

(Rothschild), Niall Ferguson (1997). The House of Rothschild: Money's Prophets, 1798-1848. (New York, NY: Viking, Vol. 1, 500p.). Teaches History (Jesus College, Oxford). Rothschild family; Bankers--Europe--Biography; Banks and banking--Europe--History--19th century; Jews--Europe--Biography. 

(Rothschild), Frederic Morton (1998). The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty (New York, NY: Kodansha International, 311 p. [orig. pub. 1962]). Rothschild family; Bankers--Europe--Biography.

(Rothschild), Niall Ferguson (1999). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker 1849-1999. (New York, NY: Viking, Vol. 2, 658 p.). Teaches History (Jesus College, Oxford). Businesspeople--Europe--Biography; Europe--Politics and government.

(Rothschild), Herbert H. Kaplan (2006). Nathan Mayer Rothschild and the Creation of a Dynasty: The Critical Years 1806-1816. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 194 p.). Professor Emeritus of History (Indiana University). Rothschild, Nathan Meyer, 1777-1836; Rothschild family; Bankers--England--London--Biography; Jewish capitalists and financiers--England--London--Biography; Banks and banking--England--London--History--19th century; Banks and banking--Europe--History--19th century; Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Participation, British. How Nathan Mayer Rothschild founded banking and financial empire that remained preeminent in Europe for more than a century.

(Royal Bank-Canada), Clifford H. Ince (1970). The Royal Bank of Canada; A Chronology 1864-1969. (Montreal, QU: Royal Bank of Canada, 152 p.). Royal Bank of Canada.

(Royal Bank-Canada), Duncan McDowall (1993). Quick to the Frontier: Canada's Royal Bank. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 478 p.). Royal Bank of Canada -- History.

(Royal Bank-Ireland), Kenneth Milne; with a foreword by F.S.L. Lyons (1964). A History of the Royal Bank of Ireland Limited. (Dublin, IR: A. Figgis, 115 p.). Royal Bank of Ireland, Ltd.

(Royal Bank-Scotland), Neil Munro (1928). The History of the Royal Bank of Scotland, 1727-1927. (Edinburgh, Scotland: R. & R. Clark, Limited, 416 p.). Royal Bank of Scotland; Banks and banking -- Scotland.

(Scotiabank), Joseph Schull and J. Douglas Gibson (1982). The Scotiabank Story: A History of the Bank of Nova Scotia, 1832-1982. (Toronto, ON: Macmillan, 421 p.). Bank of Nova Scotia--History.

(Seattle-First National Bank), Shelby Scates (1970). Firstbank... The Story of Seattle-First National Bank. (Seattle, WA: The Bank, 130 p.). Seattle-First National Bank. 

(SEB), Göran B. Nilsson (1984). André Oscar Wallenberg. (Stockholm, SW: P.A. Norstedt : Institutet för ekonomisk-historisk forskning vid Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, 1 vol.). Wallenberg, A. O.; Bankers--Sweden--Biography.

(SEB), Goran B. Nilsson, Michael F. Metcalf (Translator) (2005). Founder: Andre Oscar Wallenberg (1816-1886) Swedish Banker, Politician & Journalist. (Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 445 p.). Wallenberg, A. O.; Bankers--Sweden--Biography. Founded Stockholm's Enskilda Bank (SEB) in 1856; crisis in 1878-79 - number of too bold investments in railroads, iron foundries, and sawmill operations.

(Security Pacific Corporation), Laurance Landreth Hill (1931). La Reina, Los Angeles, in Three Centuries; A Volume Originally Published To Commemorate the Fortieth Anniversary of the Founding of the Former Security Trust & Savings Bank of Los Angeles, February 11, 1889 ... (Los Angeles, CA: Security-First National Bank, 208 p.). Trust & Savings Bank (Los Angeles, Calif.); Los Angeles (Calif.); Los Angeles (Calif.)--History.

(Security Pacific Corporation), Robert H. Smith, with Michael K. Crowley (1999). Dead Bank Walking: One Gutsy Bank’s Struggle for Survival and the Merger that Changed Banking Forever. (Winchester, VA: Oakhill Press, 426 p.). Security Pacific's Last Chairman and CEO. Security Pacific Corporation--History; Banks and banking--California; Bank mergers--California.

(Security Pacific Bank Washington), Robert  Spector (1989). Banking Without Boundaries: A History of Security Pacific Bank Washington. (Seattle, WA: Documentary Book Publishers Corp., 110 p.). Security Pacific Bank Washington.

(Seylan Bank), Seylan Bank (2009). The Case Study: A Closer Look at the Extraordinary Efforts that Restored Financial Stability to Seylan Bank. (Colombo, Sri Lanka: Seylan Bank PLC, 253 p.). Banks and banking -- Sri Lanka; Seylan Bank; Seylan Bank -- Statistics.

(Shawmut), Asa S. Knowles with the editorial collaboration of Antoinette Frederick and William H. Schoeffler (1986). Shawmut: 150 Years of Banking, 1836-1986. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 517 p.). Shawmut Bank of Boston, N. A.--History; Banks and banking--Massachusetts--Boston--History.

(Societas Riccardorum), Richard W. Kaeuper (1973). Bankers to the Crown: The Riccardi of Lucca and Edward I. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 279 p.). Edward I, King of England, 1239-1307; Riccardi (Firm); Finance, Public --Great Britain. Riccardi - partnership started operating in England around 1245, ceased at turn of century after long struggle against bankruptcy.

(Societe Bordelaise de CIC), Hubert Bonin; photographies de Jean-Luc Chapin (1991). Histoire de la Societe Bordelaise de CIC: 1880-1990. (Bordeaux. FR: L’Horizon Chimerique, 300 p.). Societe bordelaise de CIC--History; Banks and banking--France--Bordeaux--History; Bordeaux (France)--Economic conditions; Bordeaux (France)--History.

(Societe Generale de Banque), Eric Buyst ... [et al.] (1997). La Generale de Banque, 1822-1997. (Bruxelles, Belgium: Racine, 703 p.). Societe Generale de banque--History; Banks and banking--Belgium--History.

(Societe Generale de Belgique), Charles d’Ydewalle et Gauthier Bosschaert de Bouwel (1972). Une Grande Dame, la Societe Generale de Belgique. (Bruxelles, Belgium: Editions Labor, 156 p.). Societe Generale de Belgique--History.

(Societe Generale de Belgique), Bruno Dethomas, Jose-Alain Fralon (1989). Les Milliards de l’Orgueil: l’Affaire de la Societe Generale de Belgique. (Paris, FR: Gallimard, 239 p.). De Benedetti, Carlo; Societe Generale de Belgique; Consolidation and merger of corporations--Belgium.

(Societe Generale de Belgique), Xavier Mabille, Charles-X. Tulkens, Anne Vincent (1997). La Societe Generale de Belgique, 1822-1997: Le Pouvoir d’un Groupe a Travers l’Histoire. (Bruxelles, Belgium: CRISP, 334 p.). Societe? Generale de Belgique--History; Generale Maatschappij van Belgie--History.

(Societe Generale de Belgique), R. Brion and J.-L. Moreau ; [translation, Anthea Bell et al.] (1998). The Societe Generale de Belgique, 1822-1997. (Antwerp, Belgium: Fonds Mercator, 514 p.). Societe Generale de Belgique--History; Banks and banking--Belgium--History.

(Sovereign Bancorp), Jeffrey L. Rodengen, Richard F. Hubbard (2003). The Legend of Sovereign Bancorp. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 144 p.). Sovereign Bancorp, Inc.

(Standard Chartered Bank), Compton Mackenzie (1954). Realms of Silver: One Hundred Years of Banking in the East. (London, UK: Routledge & K. Paul, 338 p.). Standard Chartered Bank--History.

(State National Bank of El Paso), C. L. Sonnichsen and M. G. McKinney (1971). The State National Since 1881: The Pioneer Bank of El Paso. (El Paso, TX: Texas Western Press, 171 p.). State National Bank of El Paso.

(Sun Bank), Ormund Powers (1984). Fifty Years: The Sun Bank Story, 1934-1984 (Orlando, FL: Sun Bank, N.A., 214 p.). Banking--Florida--History; Sun Bank, N A.; First National Bank of Orlando.

(Swiss Bank Corporation), Hans Bauer (1972). Swiss Bank Corporation 1872-1972. (Zurich, SW: Swiss Bank Corporation, 541 p.). Swiss Bank Corporation.

(Texas American Bancshares), Joseph M. Grant (1996). The Great Texas Banking Crash: An Insider's Account. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 316 p.). Former Chairman and CEO of Texas American Bancshares, Inc. Texas American Bancshares, Inc.; National Bancshares of Texas of San Antonio; Bank failures--Texas; Bank holding companies--Texas; Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. 

(Texas Commerce), Walter L. Buenger and Joseph A. Pratt (1986). But Also Good Business: Texas Commerce Banks and the Financing of Houston and Texas, 1886-1986. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, 450 p.). Pratt is NEH-Cullen Professor of History and Business (University of Houston). Texas Commerce Bank--History; Banks and banking--Texas--History.

(Texas Commerce), Benton F. Love; foreword by James A. Baker, III (2005). Ben Love: My Life in Texas Commerce. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 331 p.). CEO of Texas Commerce Bank. Love, Benton F., 1924- ; Texas Commerce Bancshares--History; Bankers--Texas--Biography. From poor farm boy to  CEO of Texas Commerce, state's second-largest lending institution.

(Toronto-Dominion), Joseph Schull (1958). 100 Years of Banking in Canada; A History of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. (Vancouver, BC: Copp Clark Pub. Co., 222 p.). Bank of Toronto; Dominion Bank, Toronto; Banks and banking--Canada; Toronto (Ont.)--Dominion Bank.

(Tracy Collins Bank & Trust), Leonard J. Arrington (1984). Tracy Collins Bank & Trust Company: A Record of Responsibility, 1884-1984. (Midvale, UT: Eden Hill, 252 p.). Tracy Collins Bank & Trust Company; Banks and banking--Utah.

(Trust Company of Georgia), Harold H. Martin (1974). Three Strong Pillars: The Story of Trust Company of Georgia. (Atlanta, GA: Trust Company of Georgia, 149 p.). Trust Company of Georgia--History.

(Umpqua Bank), Ray Davis with Alan Shrader (2007). Leading for Growth: How Umpqua Bank Got Cool and Created a Culture of Greatness. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 240 p.). President & CEO - Umpqua Holdings Corporation;. Umpqua Bank; Organizational effectiveness; Corporations--Growth; Leadership. Atmosphere of competitiveness for exceptional growth - 11 years, $7 billion in assets, 128 branches." 

(Union Bank of Scotland), Norio Tamaki; foreword by S.G. Checkland (1983). The Life Cycle of the Union Bank of Scotland, 1830-1954. (Aberdeen, Scotland: Aberdeen University Press, 242 p.). Union Bank of Scotland--History; Banks and banking--Scotland--History.

(Union Bank of Switzerland), Dirk Schutz (2000). The Fall of the UBS: The Reasons Behind the Decline of the Union Bank of Switzerland. (New York, NY: Pyramid Media Group, 256 p.). Union Bank of Switzerland.

(Union Planters National Bank), John Longwith (1994). Since Before the Yellow Fever: A History of Union Planters Bank. (Memphis, TN: Union Planters Corp., 175 p.). Union Planters National Bank of Memphis--History; Banks and banking--Tennessee--Memphis--History; Memphis (Tenn.)--History.

(U.S. Bancorp), Claude Singer (1984). U.S. National Bank of Oregon and U.S. Bancorp, 1891-1984. (Portland, OR: U. S. Bancorp, 132 p.). U.S. Bancorp--History; Banks and banking--Oregon--History.

(United Virginia), Frances Leigh Williams (1951). They Faced the Future: A Saga of Growth. (Richmond, VA: Whittet & Shepperson, 105 p.). United Virginia Bank--History; United Virginia Bankshares Incorporated--History.

(United Virginia), Frances Leigh Williams (1982). They Faced the Future, II: A History of United Virginia Bank, 1951 to 1980, and of United Virginia Bankshares Incorporated, 1962 to 1980. (Richmond, VA: The Bank, 93 p.). United Virginia Bank--History; United Virginia Bankshares Incorporated--History.

(United Virginia), William K. Klingaman (1994). J. Harvie Wilkinson, Jr.: Virginian, Banker, Visionary. (Richmond, VA: Crestar Financial Corp., 173 p.). Wilkinson, J. Harvie (James Harvie), 1906-; State-Planters Bank of Commerce & Trusts; United Virginia Bankshares Incorporated; Crestar Financial Corporation; Bankers--Virginia--Biography.

(Valley National), Ernest Jerome Hopkins (1950). Financing the Frontier: Fifty Year History of the Valley National Bank (Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Printers, 271 p.). Valley National Bank, Phoenix, Arizona.

(Washington Trust Company), Ralph Bolton Cooney (1950). Westerly’s Oldest Witness; How Westerly and the Washington Trust Company Have Progressed Together for 150 Years. (Westerly, RI: Washington Trust Co., 84 p.). Washington Trust Company (Westerly, R.I.); Westerly (R.I.)--History.

(Wells Fargo), Neill C. Wilson (1936). Treasure Express; Epic Days of the Wells Fargo. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 322 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company; Express service -- West (U.S.); Brigands and robbers.

Henry Wells, William G. Fargo (

(Wells Fargo), Lucius Beebe and Charles Clegg (1949). U.S. West, The Saga of Wells Fargo. (New York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company; West (U.S.)--History.

(Wells Fargo), Edward Hungerford (1949). Wells Fargo, Advancing the American Frontier. (New York, NY: Random House, 274 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company; West (U.S.)--History.

(Wells Fargo), Noel M. Loomis (1968). Wells Fargo. (New York, NY: C. N. Potter, 340 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company.

(Wells Fargo), John and Lillian Theobald (1978). Wells Fargo in Arizona Territory. (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Historical Foundation, 210 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company--History; Frontier and pioneer life--Arizona; Arizona--History--To 1950.

(Wells Fargo), W. Turrentine Jackson (1985). Portland: Wells Fargo’s Hub for the Pacific Northwest. (Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society, 265 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company--History; Express service--Oregon--Portland--History; Portland (Or.)--Economic conditions.

(Wells Fargo), Philip L. Fradkin; foreword by J. S. Holliday (2002). Stagecoach, Wells Fargo and the American West. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 250 p.). Wells, Fargo & Company--History; Coaching--United States--History; Express service--United States--History; West (U.S.)--History.

(Wells Fargo), Robert J. Chandler (2006). Wells Fargo. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 127 p.). Senior Research Historian (Wells Fargo Bank), President of the Book Club of California. Wells, Fargo & Company--History; Coaching (Transportation)--West (U.S.)--History. Banking, express or transporting, mail-delivery agency - fastest means possible for deliveries and fund transfers: Overland Mail Company; Pony Express; 3,000-mile network of stagecoaches between California, Nebraska.

(Westminster Bank), T. E. Gregory; assisted by Annette Henderson; with a preface by Rupert E. Beckett (1936). The Westminster Bank Through a Century. (London, UK: Westminster Bank, 2 vols.). Westminster Bank; Bankers--Great Britain.

(Westpac), Keith Sinclair and W. F. Mandle (1961). Open Account; A History of the Bank of New South Wales in New Zealand, 1861-1961. (Wellington, NZ: Whitcombe & Tombs, 266 p.). Bank of New South Wales; Banks and banking--New Zealand.

Lachlan Macquarie Governor Lachlan Macquarie - signed charter of incorporation of Westpac (

(Westpac), Bob White, Cecelia Clarke (1995). Cheques and Balances: Memoirs of a Banker. (New York, NY: Viking, 275 p.). White, Bob, 1923- ; Westpac Banking Corporation--History; Bankers--Australia--Biography; Banks and banking--Australia--History.

(Westpac), Edna Carew (1997). Westpac: The Bank That Broke the Bank (New York, NY: Doubleday, 460 p.). Banks and Banking-Australia, Westpac Banking Corporation.

(Worcester County National Bank), Mildred M. Tymeson (1966). Worcester Bankbook; From Country Barter to County Bank, 1804-1966. (Worcester, MA: Worcester County National Bank, 183 p.). Worcester County National Bank (1933- ).

(World Bank), James Morris (1963). The Road to Huddersfield: A Journey to Five Continents. (New York, NY: Pantheon, 235 p.). World Bank; Economic development.

(World Bank), Robert W. Oliver (1995). George Woods and the World Bank. (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 257 p.). Woods, George D.; World Bank--Presidents--Biography; World Bank--History--20th century.

(World Bank), Jochen Kraske ... [et al.] (1996). Bankers with a Mission: The Presidents of the World Bank, 1946-91. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 333 p.). World Bank--Presidents--Biography; World Bank--History; Bankers--Biography.

(World Bank), Sebastian Mallaby (2004). The World's Banker: Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations. (New York, NY: Penguin, 462 p.). Columnist (Washington Post). Wolfensohn, Jim; World Bank--Presidents; Economic development--Finance; Financial crises; Developing countries--Economic policy.

(World Bank), Ed. Ruth Kagia (2005). Balancing the Development Agenda: The Transformation of the World Bank under James D. Wolfensohn, 1995-2005. (Washington, DC: World Bank, 156 p.). Wolfensohn, James D.; World Bank; Economic development; Economic assistance.

(World Bank), Catherine Weaver (2008). Hypocrisy Trap: The World Bank and the Poverty of Reform. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 288 p.). Assistant Professor of Political Science (University of Kansas). World Bank; Economic development --Political aspects; Poverty --Government policy; Economic assistance --Political aspects; International organization. Why there is a trap at preeminent international development agency for past sixty years, why it is not easy to avoid or escape; how characteristics of change in complex international organization make hypocrisy difficult to resolve, especially after exposure becomes critical threat to organization's legitimacy, survival.

(World Bank), James D. Wolfensohn (2010). A Global Life: My Journey Among Rich and Poor, from Wall Street to the World Bank. (New York, NY: PublicAffairs 480 p.). President of the World Bank. Wolfensohn, James D.; World Bank --Presidents --Biography; Investment bankers --United States --Biography. Olympic fencer, prominent banker in London, New York; Australian, navigated Wall Street with uncommon skill; Chairman of Carnegie Hall, Kennedy Center for many years; amateur cellist; motivated, schemed, charmed, bullied all constituencies at his command to broaden distribution of world's wealth; assessment of successes and failures, causes of continuing poverty.

(Yokohama Specie Bank), Norio Tamaki (2001). Yukichi Fukuzawa, 1835-1901: The Spirit of Enterprise in Modern Japan. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 252 p.). Professor of Japan's Economic, Social and Banking History (Keio University). Fukuzawa, Yukichi, 1835-1901; Bankers--Japan--Biography; Businessmen--Japan--Biography.

B. L. Anderson and P. L. Cottrell (1974). Money and Banking in England: The Development of the Banking System, 1694-1914. (New York, NY: David & Charles, 354 p). Banks and banking--Great Britain--History; Banks and banking--Great Britain--History--Sources; Money--Great Britain--History; Money--Great Britain--History--Sources.

Jeremy Atack, Larry Neal (2009). The Origin and Development of Financial Markets and Institutions: From the Seventeenth Century to the Present. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 472 p.). Professor of Economics and Professor of History (Vanderbilt University); Emeritus Professor of Economics (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Financial institutions; Capital market.; Banks and banking. How financial innovations from 17th century to present have challenged established institutional arrangements, forced change, adaptation by governments, financial intermediaries, financial markets.

Walter Bagehot (1999). Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market. (New York, NY: Wiley, 359 p. [orig. pub. 1873]). Editor (Economist). Banks and banking--England--London; Banks and banking--Great Britain; Finance--England--London; Finance--Great Britain.

Geroge J. Benston (1990). The Separation of Commercial and Investment Banking: The Glass-Steagall Act Revisited and Reconsidered. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 263 p.). United States. Banking Act of 1933--History; Banks and banking--United States--History; Investment banking--United States--History; Banking law--United States; Securities--United States.

Niti Bhasin (2007). Banking and Financial Markets in India, 1947 to 2007. (New Delhi, IN: New Century Publications, 510 p.). Banks and banking--India--History; Financial institutions--India--History; Investments--India; Fiscal policy--India--History.

Thomas W. Blomquist (2004). Merchant Families, Banking and Money in Medieval Lucca. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 346 p.). Merchants--Italy--Lucca--History--To 1500; Banks and banking--Italy--Lucca--History--To 1500; Money--Italy--Lucca--History--To 1500; Lucca (Italy)--Commerce--History--To 1500.

Howard Bodenhorn (2000). A History of Banking in Antebellum America: Financial Markets and Economic Development in an Era of Nation-Building. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 260 p.). Associate Professor of Economics (Lafayette College). Banks and banking--United States--History.

--- (2003). State Banking in Early America: A New Economic History. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 355 p.). Associate Professor of History (Lafayette College). Banks and banking--United States--State supervision; Banks and banking--United States--History.

James C. Boyajian (1983). Portuguese Bankers at the Court of Spain, 1626--1650. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 289 p.). Banks and banking, Portuguese--Spain--History; Finance, Public--Spain--History; Spain--History--Philip IV, 1621-1665.

Louis D. Brandeis (1995). Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 168 p. [orig. pub. 1914]). Finance--United States; Banks and banking--United States.

H. Peers Brewer (1986). The Emergence of the Trust Company in New York City, 1870-1900 (New York, NY: Garland, 343 p.). Trust companies--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century. 

Ed. Ariel Buira for the G-24 Research Programme (2005). The IMF and the World Bank at Sixty. (London, UK: Anthem, 397 p.). Director of the G24 Secretariat, Special Envoy of the President of Mexico for the UN Conference on Financing for Development, Ambassador of Mexico, Member of the Board of Governors of the Bank of Mexico, and Executive Director of the IMF. International Monetary Fund; World Bank; Economic development; International finance. 

Carsten Burhop (2004). Die Kreditbanken in der Gründerzeit. (Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 279 p.). Banks and banking--Germany--History--19th century; Kredietbanken. Late 1850s - Germany's large, universal credit banks, Kreditbanken, appeared; flourished in Gründerboom; individually large institutions, usually had country-wide presence, primary source of finance for industry; central role in Germany's late, rapid industrialization.

Charles W. Calomiris (2006). U.S. Bank Deregulation in Historical Perspective. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 359 p.). Henry Kaufman Professor of Financial Institutions (Columbia University Graduate School of Business). Banks and banking --Deregulation --United States; Banking law --United States; Financial institutions --United States. How deregulation is transforming size, structure, geographic range of U.S. banks, scope of banking services, nature of bank-customer relationships; virtual elimination of fragmented geographical structure of industry; economic, political causes and consequences of process of deregulation in context of origins, persistence of unique regulations that defined U.S. banking for over century.

Avery Luvere Carlson (2007). A Banking History of Texas, 1835-1929. (Rockport, TX: Copano Bay Press, 111 p. [2nd ed., rev.]). Banks and banking--Texas--History. History of banking in Texas from Republic era through Great Depression - uncertainty, distrust, confusion; pioneering institutions, individuals that laid foundation for current system of banking in Texas, despite enormous legislative, economic obstacles.

Francesca Carnevali (2005). Europe’s Advantage: Banks and Small Firms in Britain, France, Germany, and Italy Since 1918. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 228 p.). Small business--Europe; Small business--Great Britain; Small business--Europe--Finance; Small business--Great Britain--Finance; Banks and banking--Europe; Banks and banking--Great Britain. How structure of these countries' banking systems has affected small firms' growth. 

Ed. Youssef Cassis (1992). Finance and Financiers in European History, 1880-1960. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 445 p.). Banks and banking--Europe--History--19th century--Congresses; Banks and banking--Europe--History--20th century--Congresses; Capitalists and financiers--Europe--History--19th century--Congresses; Capitalists and financiers--Europe--History--20th century--Congresses; Finance--Europe--History--19th century--Congresses; Finance--Europe--History--20th century--Congresses.

Ed. Youssef Cassis; translated by Margaret Rocques (1994). City Bankers, 1890-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 350 p.). Banks and banking--England--London--History; Bankers--England--London--History; Business and politics--England--London--History; London (England)--Social conditions. 

Ira B. Cross (1927). Financing an Empire; History of Banking in California. (San Francisco, CA: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 4 vols.). Banks and banking --California; Bankers --California.

Eds. Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Edward J. Kane and Luc Laeven (2008). Deposit Insurance Around the World: Issues of Design and Implementation. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 402 p.). Senior Research Manager, Finance and Private Sector, in the World Bank's Development Economics Research Group; James F. Cleary Professor in Finance (Boston College); Senior Economist at the World Bank. Deposit insurance. Original cross-country dataset on DI systems, design features to examine impact of DI on banking behavior, assess policy complications that emerge in developing countries; many countries would do well to delay installation of DI system - not adequately designed to control possible DI-induced risk taking by financial institutions.

Gary A. Dymski (1999). The Bank Merger Wave: The Economic Causes and Social Consequences of Financial Consolidation. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 320 p.). Professor of Economics (University of California, Riverside). Bank mergers; Consolidation and merger of corporations. Operating efficiencies are not driving bank merger mania; effects may be contrary to consumer, non-financial business interests; new policies to evaluate of prospective mergers.

Christopher Elias (1973). The Dollar Barons. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 453 p.). Banks and banking--United States.

John Erroll and David Erroll (2006). American Genius: Nineteenth-Century Bank Locks and Time Locks. (New York, NY: Quantuck Lane Press, 368 p.). Clinical Psychologist, Curator of the John Mossman Lock Collection; Attorney. Locks and keys--United States--History--19th century'; Locks and keys--United States--History--20th century. Evolution of lock technology during the nineteenth century.

Nicholas Faith (1982). Safety in Numbers: The Mysterious World of Swiss Banking. (New York, NY: Viking, 368 p.). Former Business Editor of the Sunday Times of London. Banks, Banking.

T.R. Fehrenbach (1966). The Swiss Banks. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 280 p.). Banks and banking--Switzerland.

Herbert Feis; With an introd. by Charles P. Howland and with a new introd. by the author (1964). Europe, The World's Banker, 1870-1914; An Account of European Foreign Investment and the Connection of World Finance with Diplomacy Before the War. (New York, NY: Published for the Council on Foreign Relations [by] A. M. Kelley, 469 p.). International finance; World politics; World War, 1914-1918--Causes; Europe--Politics and government--1871-1918.

J. Van Fenstermaker (1965). The Development of American Commercial Banking: 1782-1837. (Kent, OH: Kent State University, 247 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History.

Caroline Fohlin (2006). Finance Capitalism and Germany’s Rise to Industrial Power. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 300 p.). Research Professor of Economics (Johns Hopkins University). Banks and banking--Germany; Universal banks--Germany; Industrialization--Germany. Structure, performance, influence of universal banks on German securities markets, on firm governance during industrialization.

Richard N. Germain (1996). Dollars through the Doors: A Pre-1930 History of Bank Marketing in America (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 224 p.). Bank marketing -- United States -- History. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

Leo F. Goodstadt (2007). Profits, Politics and Panics: Hong Kong's Banks and the Making of a Miracle Economy, 1935-1985. (Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong University Press, 315 p.). Head of the Central Policy Unit, Chief Policy Adviser to the Hong Kong Government from 1989 to 1997. Banks and banking -- China -- Hong Kong -- History -- 20th century. Rise and fall of local Hong Kong banks, their disastrous funding of property, share 'bubbles' in 1960s, their links to gold and drug smuggling; complex financial relationship with China; struggle for autonomy from London's interference; shortcomings of distinguished personalities, costly consequences for financial system, community.

Edwin Green (1989). Banking, An Illustrated History. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 160 p.). Banks and banking--History.

Richard S. Grossman (2010). Unsettled Account: The Evolution of Banking in the Industrialized World Since 1800. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 400 p.). Professor of Economics (Wesleyan University). Banks and banking --History; Banks and banking --Government policy; Bank failures; Financial crises. How modern commercial banking system came to be, where it is headed, how its development will affect global economic growth; development of commercial banking systems over past two centuries in Western Europe, United States, Canada, Japan, Australia; four major elements that have contributed to banking evolution; why certain banking systems are more resistant to crises than others; how governments and financial systems respond to crises; why merger movements suddenly take off; what motivates governments to regulate banks; recent subprime mortgage crisis had its origins in a boom-bust economic cycle; important historical elements also at play in modern bailouts, merger movements, regulatory reforms.

Jill M. Hendrickson (2011). Regulation and Instability in U.S. Commercial Banking: A History of Crises (Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions). (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 296 p.). Visiting Associate Professor (University of St. Thomas). Banks and banking -- State supervision -- United States -- History; Bank failures -- United States -- History; Banking law -- United States -- History; Financial crises -- United States -- History. Regulation often contributes to bank instability, suppresses competition and effective response to market changes, encourages bankers to take on additional risk.

David S. Holland (1998). When Regulation Was Too Successful--the Sixth Decade of Deposit Insurance: A History of the Troubles of the U.S. Banking Industry in the 1980s and Early 1990s. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 147 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History; Deposit insurance--United States; Banks and banking--United States--State supervision; Banking law--United States--History. 

Niv Horesh (2009). Shanghai's Bund and Beyond: British Banks, Banknote Issuance, and Monetary Policy in China, 1842-1937. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 224 p.). Lecturer in School of Languages and Linguistics (University of New South Wales). Banking--history-China; Economics--history-China. British banking in pre-war Shanghai; first comparative study of foreign banking in prewar China; impact of British overseas bank notes on China's economy before outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937; favorable, unfavorable effects on two leading British banks in region of British presence in China; revision of previous assumptions about China's prewar economy.

J.T.W. Hubbard (1995). For Each, The Strength of All : A History of Banking in the State of New York. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 309 p.). Banks and banking -- New York (State) -- History.

Hazel J. Johnson (1993). The Banking Keiretsu. (Chicago, IL: Probus Pub. Co., 265 p.). Banks and banking--History--20th century; Industrial policy; Corporations--Finance; Conglomerate corporations.

--- (1993). Financial Institutions and Markets: A Global Perspective. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 560 p.). Financial institutions--United States; Financial institutions, International.

Juliet Johnson (2000). A Fistful of Rubles: The Rise and Fall of the Russian Banking System. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 244 p.). Banks and banking--Russia (Federation); Finance--Russia (Federation). 

Kimio Kase, Tanguy Jacopin (2008). CEOs as Leaders and Strategy Designers: Explaining the Success of Spanish Banks. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 288 p.). Associate Professor, IESE Business School, Spain; Co-ordinator the Banking Centre at the University of Alcalá, Spain. Bank directors--Spain; Bank management--Spain; Banks and banking, Spanish. Extraordinary development, performance of Spanish banking industry during last twenty years - based on CEO's cognition model of decision making.

Benjamin J. Klebaner (1990). American Commercial Banking: A History. (Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 283 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History--20th century.

John Jay Knox (1969). A History of Banking in the United States. (New York, NY: A.M. Kelley, 880 p. (Reprint 1900 ed.)). Banks and banking--United States--History.

Alex Konanykhin (2006). Defiance: or How To Succeed in Business despite Being Hounded by the FBI, the KBG, the INS, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Justice, Interpol and Mafia Hit Men. (Vienna, VA: Renaissance Publishing, 269 p.). Konanykhin, Alex; Russia (Federation)--Politics and government--1991-; Business and politics--Russia (Federation); Discrimination in criminal justice administration--Russia (Federation); Embezzlement--Russia (Federation). Success wealth, power under perestroika then became target of ruthless Russian Mafia, KGB, U. S. government.

Bart Lambert (2006). The City, the Duke and Their Banker: The Rapondi Family and the Formation of the Burgundian State. (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 200 p.). Research Assistant of the Research Foundation-Flanders; Rapondi family; Banks and banking--Belgium--Bruges--History; Burgundy (France)--History--House of Valois, 1363-1477. How an Italian merchant family (career of more than thirty years in money-lending business) was able to shape late medieval economic and political history.

Naomi R. Lamoreaux (1994). Insider Lending: Banks, Personal Connections, and Economic Development in Industrial New England. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 170 p.). Banks and banking--New England--History--19th century; Commercial loans--New England--History--19th century; Economic development projects--New England--Finance--History--19th century; Asset-backed financing--New England--History--19th century,.

Hope Lampert (1986). Behind Closed Doors: Wheeling and Dealing in the Banking World. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 386 p.). Banks and banking--United States--Case studies.

George Wysham Lanier (1922). A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922. (New York, NY: George H. Doran Company, 335 p.). City bank farmers trust company, New York; Banks and banking--New York (State); Capitalists and financiers--New York (State).

Darwyn H. Lumley (2009). Breaking the Banks in Motor City: The Auto Industry, the 1933 Detroit Banking Crisis and the Start of the New Deal. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 202 p.). Member of the Society of Automotive Historians. Bank failures --Michigan --Detroit --History --20th century; Automobile industry and trade --Michigan --Detroit --History; Financial crises --United States --History --20th century; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States --Economic policy --1933-1945. How automobile industry played major role in 1933 banking crisis, subsequent New Deal reforms that drastically changed financial industry; Detroit banks experienced critical emergency, precipitated federal closure of banks on March 4, 1933.

James Eliot Mason (1997). The Transformation of Commercial Banking in the United States, 1956-1991. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 161 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History--20th century; Banking law--United States--History--20th century.

Martin Mayer (1974). The Bankers. (New York, NY: Weybright & Talley, 566 p.). Banks and banking--United States; Federal Reserve banks; Banks and banking--Europe.

--- (1984). The Money Bazaars: Understanding the Banking Revolution Around Us. (New York, NY: Dutton, 394 p.). Banks and banking--United States; Finance--United States.

--- (1997). The Bankers: The Next Generation. (New York, NY: Truman Talley Books, 514 p.). Banks and banking--United States; Financial services industry--United States.

Timothy Messer-Kruse (2004). Banksters, Bosses, and Smart Money: A Social History of the Great Toledo Bank Crash of 1931. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 196 p.). Banks and banking--Ohio--Toledo--History; Bank failures--Ohio--Toledo--History; Toledo (Ohio)--Economic conditions; Toledo (Ohio)--Social conditions.

Alistair Milne (2009). The Fall of the House of Credit: What Went Wrong in Banking and What Can Be Done To Repair the Damage? (New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 366 p.). Reader in Banking at the Cass Business School (City University, London).Banks and banking --Corrupt practices; Bankers --Malpractice; Bank failures; Financial crises; Credit. How one relatively small sector in global financial system (American sub-prime mortgage market) led to most serious economic crisis in living memory; how banks misused their ability to securitize loans, exposed themselves to exceptional risks when asset prices started to fall (borrowed short, lent long); collapse in trust and confidence fuelled crisis; imperative - restore confidence through collective action (asset purchases, guarantees, recapitalization); failure - taxpayers will bear tax burden for generations.

David  Murphy & Martina Devlin (2009). Banksters: How a Powerful Elite Squandered Ireland's Wealth. (Dublin, IR: Hachette Books, 309 p.). Former Deputy Business Editor of the Irish Independent; Journalist. Banks and banking -- Ireland; Ireland -- Economic conditions -- 21st century. How corrupt elite, driven by profit and greed, brought Irish banking system to its knees; events which triggered near collapse of Ireland's banking system; how unprecedented orgy of over-borrowing caused a massively over-inflated property bubble; September 2008 - 'Ireland' became synonymous with corruption in global lending markets; key players, their motivations, personalities, lavish lifestyles.

Yuanyuan Peng (2007). The Chinese Banking Industry: Lessons from History for Today’s Challenges. (New York, NY: Routledge, 196 p.). Banks and banking --China; Banks and banking --Government policy --China. Historical development of Chinese banking industry, particularly odevelopment of Bank of China (BOC) from 1905 to 1949; evolution (corporate governance, government intervention, foreign competition, white-collar crime); how challenges met; results of efforts; lessons for policy making today.

Charles S. Popple (1944). Development of Two Bank Groups in the Central Northwest: A Study in Bank Policy and Organization. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 418 p.). Banks and banking--Minnesota--Saint Paul; Banks and banking--Minnesota--Minneapolis; Banks and banking--Northwest, Old.

Jim Powell (1989). The Gnomes of Tokyo. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 338 p.). Financial institutions--Japan; Capitalists and financiers--Japan; Investments, Japanese--United States; Japan--Foreign economic relations--United States; United States--Foreign economic relations--Japan.

Jean-Charles Rochet (2008). Why Are There So Many Banking Crises?: The Politics and Policy of Bank Regulation. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 336 p.). Researcher Professor of Mathematics and Economics (University Toulouse). Banking--crises; Bank-regulation. Does deposit insurance encourage depositors, bankers to take excessive risks? Are banking regulations poorly designed? Are banking regulators incompetent? Political interference often causes, almost always exacerbates, banking crises.

Roy C. Smith (1989). The Global Bankers. (New York, NY: Dutton, 405 p.). Banks and banking, International.

Irvine H. Sprague (1986). Bailout: An Insider's Account of Bank Failures and Rescues. (New York, NY: BasicBooks, 299 p.). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; Bank failures--United States; Deposit insurance.

Walter Stewart (1982). Towers of Gold, Feet of Clay: The Canadian Banks. (Toronto, ON: Collins, 303 p.). Banks and banking--Canada.

David Strang (2010). Learning by Example: Imitation and Innovation at a Global Bank. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 304 p.). Professor of Sociology (Cornell University). Bank management --Case studies; Banks and banking --Case studies; Diffusion of innovations; Benchmarking (Management); Organizational learning; Organizational change. How managers interpret, advocate, implement innovations; why firms benchmark, how they construct reference groups, how they learn, unlearn from examples; benchmarking initiative of major financial institution; 21 teams of managers sent to observe practices of other companies in order to develop recommendations for change in their own organization.

Norio Tamaki (1995). Japanese Banking: A History, 1859-1959. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 289 p.). Banks and banking--Japan--History.

Eds. Alice Teichova, Ginette Kurgan-van Hentenryk, and Dieter Ziegler. (1997). Banking, Trade, and Industry: Europe, America, and Asia from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 427 p.). Banks and banking--History--Congresses. 

Richard Tilly (1966). Financial Institutions and Industrialization in the Rhineland. 1815-1870. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 197 p.). Banks and banking--Germany--Rhine Province; Industrialization--Rhine River Valley.

Paul B. Trescott (1982). Financing American Enterprise: The Story of Commercial Banking. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 304 p. [orig. pub. 1963]). Banks and banking--United States--History; Finance--United States--History.

Gail D. Triner (2000). Banking and Economic Development: Brazil, 1889-1930. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 333 p.). Assistant Professor of History (Rutgers University, specializes in Latin American Economic History). Banks and banking --Brazil --History; Brazil --Economic conditions. Economic development efficiently, productively supported emerging banking system; did not equalize conditions across sectors, regions; deeply embedded institutional constraints limited banking's contribution to long-term development; effective tool in consolidation of national economy.

Kellee S. Tsai (2002). Back-Alley Banking: Private Entrepreneurs in China. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 316 p.). Professor of Political Science (Johns Hopkins University). Finance--China; Financial institutions--China; Informal sector (Economics)--China; Banks and banking--China. 'Shadow finance' and political economy of development: Chinese entrepreneurs fund their operations through variety of informal financing mechanisms (rotating credit associations, private banks disguised as other types of organizations).

Helen H. Updike (1985). The National Banks and American Economic Development, 1870-1900. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 122 p.). National banks (United States)--History--19th century; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918.

Ray Vicker (1973). Those Swiss Money Men. (New York, NY: Scribner, 340 p.). Author, Former Correspondent for the Wall Street Journal. Banks and banking--Switzerland; International finance.

Raymond B. Vickers (1994). Panic in Paradise: Florida's Banking Crash of 1926. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 312 p.). Bank failures--Florida--History; Banks and banking--Corrupt practices--Florida--History.

Elmus Wicker (1996). The Banking Panics of the Great Depression. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 174 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History--20th century; Bank failures--United States--History--20th century; Financial crises--United States--History--20th century; Depressions--1929--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

--- (2000). Banking Panics of the Gilded Age. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 160 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History; Bank failures--United States--History; Financial crises--United States--History.

Milton L. Woods (1985). Sometimes the Books Froze: Wyoming’s Economy and Its Banks. (Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press, 198 p.). Banks and banking--Wyoming--History; Wyoming--Economic conditions.

Robert E. Wright (2001). Origins of Commercial Banking in America, 1750-1800. (Lanham, MD: Madison House, 219 p.). Banks and banking--United States--History--18th century.


Business History Links

American Banker                                                               

European Association for Banking and Financial History e. V. (EABH)                                       

November 1990 - Founded in Frankfurt, Germany, as a non-profit organisation, a forum for research into banking history; awarded the European Culture Prize in 2001. May 28, 2004 - Name of the Association was officially changed to the European Association for Banking & Financial History e.V. EABH extended its objectives to promote dialogue between European bankers and financiers, academics and archivists, and to provide a network for the exchange of ideas and experiences within the interrelated fields of banking and financial history. Almost 80 banks from 25 European countries are members, financial institutions are now a welcome addition to its membership. 

Savings and Loans Industry                                                         SavingsLoans.htm 

Walter B. Wriston Archives                                                                                           

Entryway to Mr. Wriston's life and work (former chairman of Citicorp, expert on commercial banking) through writings, speeches, and photographs through website managed by Tufts University's Digital Collections and Archives and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy; features more than 200 speeches, articles, photographs, and the full text of two of Wriston's books, as well as biographical information, timelines, and links to additional resources.

The Wells Fargo History Museums                                                                               

On display are original Concord Coaches, Wells Fargo’s Banking and Express documents, artifacts, early photos, gold coins, mining tools, ore, balance scales, working telegraphs, and western fine art. Each museum also showcases Wells Fargo’s role in regional history.

The World Bank, Mapped                                                                                                         

The World Bank contains thousands of documents.  Recently teamed up with Google maps to create a very nice "mash-up" that serves as a visual entry point for visitors looking for projects, news, and statistics. Using the Google map directional arrows and zoom functions, visitors can scroll around to look for different resources. The site also contains a legend which tracks low to high income areas, along with active projects sponsored by the World Bank. Finally, visitors can also toggle the map's "satellite" and "hybrid" views on and off as they see fit. 


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