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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Consumer Non-Cyclical
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1772 - Henry Nock founded gun manufacturing company in London, UK; 1890s - James Wilkinson (son-in-law) joined business; began producing rifle bayonets; commissioned to produce 10,000 flintlocks for British army (largest order ever placed by British government at the time); 1804 - appointed official gum maker to King George III; Wilkinson took over; 1824 - Henry Wilkinson (son) took over; 1840s - improved company's sword and bayonet designs; named official Sword and Gun Maker to Queen Victoria; 1857 - British government took over entirety of its firearm production needs; 1858 - company focused exclusively on sword-making; 1889 - formally incorporated as Wilkinson Sword; 1890 - started to produce cut-throat, straight-edge, razors; developed other cutting edges, one of first safety razor designs; 1898 - launched hollow, rounded singe-edged blade, known as Pall Mall; 1950s - developed new generation of shaving blades using stainless steel; January 13, 1954 - Wilkinson Sword GmbH (joint-venture with Germany's Osberghaus KG ) registered "Wilkinson Sword" trademark in Britain (razors, safety razor blades, swords, scabbards, scissors and optical pliers; registered trademark in U.S. on September 27, 1955); 1956 - launched first stainless steel blade; 1961 - introduced blade with thin Teflon coating for comfort and safety; first with coated blade, entered top ranks of the world's shaving accessories makers; June 1964 - went public; 1965 - shaving products represented 75% of revenues; 1970 - launched first bonded blades (encased in plastic housing); 1973 - acquired Scripto, leading name in disposable pens (registered trademark of Atlantic Manufacturing Company on December 9, 1924); May 1973 - acquired by British Match for £19.4 million; renamed Wilkinson Match; 1980s - 1% market share in U.S.; 1978 - acquired by Allegheny International; 1986 - acquired by Swedish Match; 1988 - acquired by Stora Kopparberg; 1989 - Swedish Match consumer products division, including Wilkinson Sword, acquired by Netherlands-based consortium, Eemland Holdings (22% owned by Gillette); 1993 - acquired by Warner-Lambert (had owned Schick razor brand since 1970s); renamed Schick-Wilkinson-Sword; 1999 - introduced FX Diamond, diamond coated blade; 2000 - acquired by Pfizer; 2001- world's number two spot in razor market (18% share, sales of more than $620 million); March 2003 - acquired for $930 million by Energizer Holdings (makers of Eveready and Energizer brands, formed in 2000 from spinoff from Ralston Purina); May 2003 - launched four-bladed Quatro safety razor system.

1777 - William Kent, of Yorkshire, founded Kent brushes, in reign of George III, on Tylers Street London (handmade brushes with bristles stitched into brush by hand); 1807 - William Kent, Jr. (oldest son) took over; 1836 - John James Kent & Co. (younger son); 1854 - G. B. (George Barton) Kent & Co. (grandson); 1880 - G. B. Kent & Sons (three sons entered partnership); 1900 - G. B. Kent & Sons LTD (went public); 1908 - one of first wholesale houses to use motor delivery van (24 horse power 2 ½ ton 'Commercial Car'); February 17, 1931 - Kent Brush Sales Corporation registered "Kent" trademark first used in 1878 (toothbrushes, hairbrushes, hand brushes, bath brushes, cloth brushes, hat brushes, shaving brushes, complexiomn brushes, and military brushes); 1932 - Eric L.H Cosby, owner of Cosby Brushes Ltd, entered into an association with G.B Kent & Sons (ended 6 generations of Kent family ownership); 1936 - G. B. Kent & Sons PLC; 1978 - Alan H.L Cosby, (grandson) took over as Managing Director and Chairman; make over 250 different brushes, export to 52 countries; one of oldest established companies in Great Britain; longest established UK manufacturer of hairbrushes; granted Royal Warrants for nine reigns.

April 12, 1799 - Phineas Pratt received a patent for a "Machine for Making Combs".

1806 - William Colgate, English immigrant, Francis Smith established Smith and Colgate, starch, soap, candle business at 6 Dutch Street in New York City; 1813 - Bowles Colgate (brother) acquired Smith's interest; renamed William Colgate & Company; 1820 - opened wheat-starch factory in Jersey City, NJ (converted to corn starch factory in 1842); 1857 - Samuel Colgate (son) assumed control, reorganized as Colgate & Company; 1869 - Cashmere Bouquet brand first used commercially; 1873 - first aromatic dental cream in jars; February 28, 1893 - Colgate & Co. registered "Cashmere Bouquet" trademark (soap, perfumery, and toilet preparations); first milled perfumed toilet soap; 1896 - introduced collapsible toothpaste tubes; June 19, 1906 - Richard M. Colgate, Gilbert Colgate, Sidney M. Colgate, Austen Colgate registered "Colgate's" trademark first used in 1850 (soaps for toilet, laundry, and household use); 1908 - incorporated by five sons of Samuel Colgate; 1910 - moved headquarters to Jersey City, NJ; 1928 - merged with Palmolive-Peet-Company; renamed Colgate-Palmolive-Peet-Company; 1930 - went public; 1939 - $100 million in sales of consumer products; 1947 - Ajax cleanser launched; 1953 - name changed to Colgate-Palmolive Company; 1966 - Palmolive dishwashing liquid introduced; 1989 - sales exceed $5 billion; 1992 - acquired Mennen Company; 2006 - sales in excess of $12 billion.

William Colgate (

Samuel Colgate ( ACfU3U0dyj1QcRa8VZWO0MgW0k5nZ-H-qw&h=824&w=570)

1819 - Charles H. Phillips entered retail drug business in New Jersey; 1849 - acquired land in Glenbrook, CT, established Phillips Camphor and Wax Company; manufactured white wax, refined camphor, high grade of essential oils, cod liver oil emulsion, wheat phosphates; July 2, 1873 - Charles H. Phillips and Lawrence Reid, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Improvement in Making a Hydrate or Milk of Magnesia" ("...a superhydrate of the oxide of magnesium or superhydrate of magnesia...being intended to be administered by an aqueous mixture, termed by us 'milk of magnesia'..."); assigned to Charles H. Phillips; 1885 - incorporated as The  Chas. H. Phillips Chemical Company; managed by four sons (A. N. Phillips, C. E. H. Phillips, W. D. Phillips, J. B. Phillips); January 16, 1894 - Charles H. Phillips Chemical Company registered "Milk of Magnesia" trademark first used in April 1885 (Preparation of Magnesia); 1923 - acquired by Sterling Products; 1924 - launched Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia Toothpaste; 1925 - launched Phillips’ Dental Magnesia & Tooth Powder; 1931 - introduced Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia Tablets; 1976 - production at Glenbrook ceased.

April 12, 1837 - William Procter, James Gamble started making,  selling soap and candles; August 22, 1837 - formalized their business relationship by pledging $3,596.47 apiece; October 31, 1837 - formal partnership agreement signed; 1850 - Moon and Stars began to appear in 1850s as the unofficial trademark; 1859 - P&G sales reached $1 million; 1890 - incorporated; William Alexander Procter assumed leadership.

1846 - John Dwight, Dr. Austin Church (brother-in-law), started making baking soda in Dwight's kitchen in New York City; 1847 - established John Dwight & Company; 1876 -introduced "Cow Brand Baking Soda (aerated salt)"; Church formed Church & Company to compete in manufacture of baking soda; 1867 - James A. Church (son) joined business, adopted "Arm & Hammer" logo ('arm of Vulcan' used previously in son's spice and mustard business, Vulcan Spice Mills); 1896 - firms merged, formed Church & Dwight Co., Inc.; November 28, 1905 -  registered "Arm & Hammer " trademark first used in 1874 (saleratus, bicarbonate of soda, and sal-soda).

May 2, 1854 - Hugh Rock, of Boston, MA, received a design patent (#D645) for a "Design for a Hair Brush"; assigned to H. Rock and Francis McLaughlin; first U.S. hairbrush patent.

November 17, 1857 - H. Nichols Wadsworth, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Tooth-Brush" ("...separating the bunches of bristles more than in the common brush so as to give more elasticity and enable them to enter between the interstices of the teeth-having the brush wide that it may be imperative on the part of the patient to brush the gums thoroughly..."); 1880s - Florence Manufacturing Company (Northampton, MA) one of first to produce toothbrushes in U.S.; 1885 - began manufacturing a popular model called Pro-phy-lac-tic Brush; May 11, 1897 - registered "Keep Clean" trademark first used in October 1895 (brushes); July 8, 1902 - registered "Prophylactic" trademark first used April 21, 1902 (hair-brushes, nail-brushes, flesh-brushes, and tooth-brushes); 1924 - became first to box brushes to prevent contamination; 1938 - first nylon toothbrushes made by Du Pont.

May 1, 1860 - Thomas E. Hughes, of Birmingham, PA, received a patent for a "Shaving Cup"; shaving mug.

August 22, 1865 - William Sheppard, of New York City, received a patent for "Improved Liquid Soap" ("by the addition of comparatively small quantities of common soap to a large quantity of spirite of ammonia or hartshorn is thickened to the consistency of molasses, and a liquid soap is obtained of superior detergent qualities").

1866 - Pro Brush Company (Florence, MA), well-established manufacturer of brushes (dating to 1843), changed name to the Florence Manufacturing Company; 1880s - began to produce toothbrushes in U.S.; 1884 - began to manufacture popular model called Pro-phy-lac-tic Brush; May 11, 1897 - registered "Keep Clean" trademark first used in October 1895 (brushes); July 8, 1902 - registered "Prophylactic" trademark first used April 21, 1902 (hair-brushes, nail-brushes, flesh-brushes, and tooth-brushes); 1924 - name changed to Pro-phy-lac-tic Brush Company; became first to box brushes to prevent contamination; 1938 - Du Pont introduced first nylon toothbrushes.

1872 - Arinobu Fukuhara (23), former chief pharmacist in navy hospital, established Shiseido, Japan's first western-style pharmacy in Ginza district of Tokyo to separate medical, dispensary practice in Japan; 1888 - introduced Japan's first toothpaste; 1897 - introduced Shiseido's Eudermine (skin lotion still sold today); marked shift from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics; 1937 - organized Camellia Club for loyal customers (grew to ten million, or one in six of all Japanese women); published Hanatsubaki, monthly magazine, to provide them with beauty information (still published); October 6, 1959 - Shiseido Company. Limited registered "Shiseido" ('all things are created by heaven') trademark in U. S. (dentifrices, perfumes, cosmetic skin creams and lotions, toilet waters, powders for the face and body...preparations for the hair..., etc.); 1965 -established Shiseido Cosmetics (America) Ltd.; 1989 - helped to jointly create The Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Cutaneous Biology Research Center, world's first comprehensive center dedicated to dermatological research (findings from here, our international laboratories incorporated into products); fifth largest cosmetics company in world (subsidiaries in approximately 65 countries).

Arinobu Fukuhara - Shiseido (

September 26, 1876 - Fritz Henkel (28) and two partners founded Henkel & Cie in Aachen, Germany; first product was washing powder based on water-glass; 1878 - brand name Henkel's Bleich-Soda and lion, together with paper bag package, formed legally "deposited" trademark; 1884 - started to sell merchandise in addition to detergents (colorant ultramarine [laundry bluing agent], gloss starch, liquid cleaning agent, pomade for cleaning, beef extract, hair pomade); 1896 - traveling sales staff active throughout Germany; 1893 - Fritz Henkel (17) joined company; 1896 - Henkel's Bleich-Soda and lion picture registered as trademark; 1900 - sales exceeded 10 million 500-gram packets; 1904 - transformed into general commercial partnership; June 6, 1907 - Persil (per-borate + sil-icate), world's first self-acting detergent, launched (housewives could obtain clean, dazzling white laundry after boiling it just once, without rubbing and bleaching); April 23, 1935 - registered Persil as trademark (preparation for washing, bleaching, and disinfecting purposes); 1960 - entered USA chemical products market with acquisition of Standard Chemical Products Inc.; 1977 - acquired General Mills Chemicals Inc. and its international subsidiaries in Japan, Brazil Ireland (world market leader in natural-sourced vitamin E, leading manufacturer of copper extraction products, polyamides, epoxy hardeners in the US); 1984 - took over adhesives business of Monarch/Adams Adhesives Ltd., became market leader in Great Britain; 1988 - sales exceeded 10 billion DM for first time; 1997 - acquired Loctite Corporation, major supplier of do-it-yourself, household adhesives, leading specialist in engineering adhesives worldwide; sales exceeded 20 billion DM; 2002 - standardized worldwide image, used its slogan "Henkel: A Brand like a Friend", new corporate design; 2004 - acquired The Dial Corporation, manufacturer of detergents, consumer products; biggest acquisition in history of company to date; about 25% of sales now generated in the US.

Fritz Henkel - founded Henkel & Cie (

1878 - Gerhard Heinrich Mennen, German immigrant, established company in Newark, NJ; sold fragrances, "borated" talc; April 23, 1918 - Gerhard Mennen Chemical Co. registered "Mennen's" trademark first used in July 1889 (bath-powder); introduced first canned talcum powder, shaving cream in a tube, stick deodorant; June 2, 1959 - Mennen Company registered "Speed Stick" trademark first used September 30, 1957 (men's deodorant); 1992 - acquired by Colgate-Palmolive for $670 million.

1879  - James N. Gamble, son of founder of Procter & Gamble, developed Ivory Soap - by mistake; too much air was mixed in with a batch of the company's White Soap; it floated; Harley Procter, founder’s son, named soap "Ivory"; read the words "out of ivory palaces" in the Bible one Sunday in church, seemed a perfect match for the white soap's purity, mildness, and long-lasting qualities; first bar sold for about $.10; 1882 -  advertised Ivory Soap as "99 and 44/100% pure" ('unpure' = uncombined alkali, 0.11%; carbonates, 0.28%; and mineral matter, 0.17%); 1891 - "it floats" adopted as slogan; January 7, 1908 - P & G registered "Ivory Soap" trademark first used July 18, 1879 (soap for laundry, toilet, and general use).

February 21, 1879 - Zeboim Cartter Patten, Fred F. Wiehl (President), H. Clay Evans, Lew Owen, Theodore G. Montague founded Chattanooga Medicine Company with $25,000 in capital in small unpretentious 2-story brick building located on muddy, unpaved Market Street in heart of downtown Chattanooga; first product was Thedford's Black Draught, senna based laxative developed in 1840 by Dr. A.Q. Simmons of Snow Hill, Georgia (first year sales of $35,488); 1882 - acquired rights to second product called Dr. McElree's Wine of Cardui, preparation or tonic for women based on sedative, antispasmodic; 1895 - nephews John A. Patten (joined company in 1884), Zeboim Charles Patten acquired all outstanding shares; pioneered direct-marketing, advertising techniques (distribution of tens of millions of Cardui wall calendars, church fans); recognized value of outdoor advertising; became charter member of United States Chamber of Commerce; 1939 - Lupton Patten (31), son of John A. Patten, took over as President; 1941 - formed Brayten Pharmaceutical Company (products promoted to physicians through medical journals, medical mailings, detail crew); December 1958 - Alexander Guerry, Jr. (40, nephew) succeeded; name changed to Chattem Drug and Chemical Company, two divisions created (Chattem Chemicals, Chattem Consumer Products); 1957 - annual sales of $5 million; September 1978 - name changed to Chattem, Inc.; 1990 - Zan Guerry (son) assumed Presidency; 1991 - sales exceeded $100 million; 1995 - Chattem Chemicals acquired by Elcat, Inc.; 1996 - acquired Gold Bond, leading brand of medicated cream and powder, from Martin Himmel, Inc.; 1998 - acquired Ban Anti-Perspirant & Deodorant from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; annual sales exceeded $200 million; largest manufacturer of topical analgesics in U.S.; 2000 - Ban acquired by The Andrew Jergens Company; 2002 - acquired Selsun Blue from Abbott Laboratories; 2004 - adjusted net income of $34.3 million; international sales of approximately $25 million (about 8% of total revenues).

Zeboim Cartter Patten - Chattem Inc. (

June 15, 1880 - Frederic and Otto F. Kampfe, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Safety-Razor" ("simple and durable in construction, of small first cost, compact in form, and adapted to be used without soiling the fingers of the user").

1885 - William Hesketh Lever, James D'Arcy Lever purchased soap factory of Winser & Co in Warrington, UK; established Lever Brothers; manufactured soap from vegetable oils (had introduced Lever's Pure Honey soap in 1874); first product was Sunlight, world's first packaged branded laundry soap; 1887 - acquired 56 acres in Wirral peninsula, between railway line and Mersey; 1889 - began production at factory named Port Sunlight (model community designed to house, support workers of Lever Brothers); 1894 - launched Lifebuoy, desinfectant soap; 1899 - introduced Sunlight Flakes; 1906 - established monopoly soap trust, with Joseph Watson of Leeds and several other large soap manufacturers; 1914 - formed Planter's Margarine Co., joint venture with its major competitor, Watson, for production of margarine (governemnt had anticipated warime syupply disruption); 1915 Lever assumed full control of company; margarine sales boomed during waryears, declined when Netherlands, Denmark resumed production; September 2, 1929 - merged with Margarine Unie NV - Margarine Union Limited in Britain (formed in 1927, by union of Antonius Johannes Jurgens's Jurgens & Prince Margarine Works in Goch and Samuel van den Bergh's Van den Bergh Margarine Works in Kleve - both in northwest of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near Dutch border and River Rhine; formed large group of European businesses involved in production of almost all goods created from oils and fats); January 1, 1930 - Unilever officially established; September 22, 1955 - aired first advertisement on UK commercial TV (for Gibbs SR toothpaste); 1959 - introduced margarine in tub, replaced traditional block wrapped in greaseproof paper; 1961 - acquired Good Humor ice cream in U.S.; 1969 - aired UK's first color TV commercial (for Birds Eye peas); 1971 - acquired Lipton International; 1977 - nearly 177,000 employees in 200 offices, factories; 1978 - acquired National Starch, leading U.S. producer of adhesives, starch, speciality organic chemicals; 1986 - acquired Naarden International (doubled business in fragrances, food flavours); Chesebrough-Pond's (Pond's and Vaseline); 1989 - acquired Calvin Klein and Elizabeth Arden/Fabergé; 1993 - acquired Breyers ice cream; 1996 - acquired Helene Curtis hair care business in U.S.; merged Hindustan Lever, Brooke Bond Lipton India, created India’s largest private sector company; 2000 - acquired Bestfoods, Ben & Jerry's; 2001 - 900 brands (down from 1,600); 2005 - Unilever Cosmetics International, global prestige fragrance business, acquired by Coty Inc.; January 1, 2009 - Paul Polman named Chief Executive Officer (first external candidate).

1885 - Mason Pearson, engineer and inventor from Yorkshire, Northern England, former employee of British Steam Brush Works (later known as Raper Pearson and Gill, small hand-made brush company), invented automatic brush-boring machine to speed process of brushmaking and "pneumatic" rubber-cushion hairbrush; June 22, 1905 - received British patent (#GB190506181) for "Improvements in Hair and other Brushes" ("...bristles are fixed in a rubber pad which is held down by its edges in an undercut back so as to provide a cushion of air between the pad and the wooden back of the brush...").

Mason Pearson - brush maker (

1886 - Samuel Curtis Johnson bought parquet flooring business of Racine Hardware Company (Racine, WI); 4 employees, first year net profits: $268.27; 1888 - introduced Johnson's Prepared Wax, first national advertising; 1892 - Herbert F. Johnson, Sr. (son) joined company; 1906 - name changed to S.C. Johnson & Son; 1956 - launched Glade (to banish cooking, tobacco odors from homes); March 12, 1957 - registered "Glade" trademark first used March 18, 1956 (household deodorant); 1970 - introduced Edge; entered personal care product market; August 18, 1970 - registered "Edge" trademark first used August 21, 1968 (shave cream); October 1987 - went public; sales exceeded $2 billion; January 1993 - acquired Drackett Co. from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. for $1.15 billion (ten times larger than any previous acquisition) - Windex®, Drano®, Vanish® brands; January 1998 - acquired DowBrands unit from Dow Chemical Co. for $1.13 billion (Ziploc®, Saran Wrap®, Fantastik® brands); altered logo, ads: "S.C. Johnson--A Family Company" (vs. "S.C. Johnson Wax").

Samuel Curtis Johnson - founder S. C. Johnson (

1886 - J.T. Robertson and Gurdon Hicks Childs introduced Bon Ami brand household soap (original formula of feldspar and soap), made by Robertson Soap Co. of Manchester, CT; 1892 - William H. Childs, William Henry Harrison Childs (cousin) formed Childs and Childs, acquired exclusive rights to Bon Ami; 1897 - company name changed to Bon Ami Co.; 1903 - Ben Austrian, artist, created trademark 'chick'; October 1, 1912 - registered "Bon Ami" trademark first used July 5, 1892 (scouring-soap); 1955 - acquired by United Dye & Chemical Corp.; 1963 - acquired by Lestoil Products, Inc.; 1970 - entire advertising budget under $200,000 (1950s - $1 million annually); 1971 - acquired by Faultless Starch Co. for about $1 million (market share around 1%); 1974 - company name changed to name to Faultless Starch/Bon Ami Co., stressed environmentalism as a selling point for product; 2002 - third place in cleanser market, about 5% share.

1887 - Two German immigrants, Ferdinand Claus, Georges Schweder opened Claus & Schweder, soap factory, in Portugal; 1903 - Achilles de Brito Alves replaced Schweder (illness); stole market share from crude soap market; 1918 - closed due to WW II; Achilles de Brito and brother (Affonso), created Ach Brito & Co., Ltd. (kept Claus Porto label for luxury soaps); invested in aroma, texture, look, price of products; 2008 - rich, fragrant and creamy soaps sold for up to 15 euros ($18.86) a bar at luxury retail outfits (Harrods, SAKS Fifth Avenue, Galeries Lafayette in Paris); January 2009 - acquired Saboaria e Perfumeria Confiança S.A., main Iberian rival (founded October 12, 1894 by Silva Almeida e Santos Pereira for making of Offenbach soaps, first manufactured soaps).

1887 - Tomiro Nagase opened Nagase Store in Tokyo, Japan (introduced Kao Soap, quality toiletry soap); 1940 - established Nihon Yuki Company; 1949 - renamed Kao Soap Company; 1985 - renamed Kao Corporation.

1895 - Frederic Martin Sr. founded Columbus Washboard Company, built washboards for resale in his backyard in Columbus, OH; February 5, 1907 - received a patent for a "Washboard" ("improved metallic plate having a series of staggered projections upon the face thereof...adapted for use as a rubbing-plate for as to effetcually wash the clothes rubbin thereon"); 1925 - Frederic Martin Jr. acquired assets of Company from his father; 1941 - peak year, sold 1,287,757 washboards; 1926 to 1955 - total washboards produced, sold exceeded 15,000,000; 1955 to 1975 - washboard sales declined to total of 5,000,000; 1926 to 1987 - produced, sold over 23,000,000 washboards; late 1960s - only original washboard manufacturer in United States; 1987 - Pat Taylor (niece) inherited business; 1998 - acquired by George K. Richards, president of Columbus-based wholesale-pharmaceutical company, in partnership with six friends.

February 22, 1895 - Lever Brothers, Limited registered Lifebuoy Common Soap trademark.

February 18, 1896 - Black American inventor, Henry Grenon received a patent for a "Razor Stropping Device"; designed to handle razor while stropping it, provided for razor to automatically turn on its back when direction of motion of travelers reversed.

December 29, 1896 - William Waltke & Co., St. Louis, MO,  registered "Lava" trademark first used September 1893 (soap).

1898 - B. J. Johnson Soap Company of Milwaukee, WI introduced a soap made of palm and olive oils (named Palmolive); July 18, 1916 - registered "Palmolive" trademark (face and greaseless creams, talcum and face powders, and shampoo preparations);  1917 - name changed to Palmolive product so successful); 1927 - merges with Peet Brothers Co. (Palmolive-Peet).

September 28, 1901 - King Camp Gillette (traveling salesman for Baltimore Seal Company), William Emery Nickerson (MIT-trained inventor) founded American Safety Razor Company to sell razor blades (stamped steel disposable blades vs. forged blades) in multiple packages, with razor handle a one-time purchase; July 1902 - name changed to Gillette Safety Razor Company; October 1903 - first ad appeared in Systems Magazine; November 15, 1904 - King C. Gillette, of Brookline, MA, received patent for a "Razor" ("particularly applicable to razors of the safety type"); safety razor and safety blade; sold 90,000 razors, over 12 million blades; September 1, 1908 - Gillette Safety Razor Co. registered "Gillette" trademark first used May 16, 1908 (shaving brushes).

November 3, 1903 - Lambert Pharmacal Company (St. Louis, MO) registered "Listerine" trademark first used may 1, 1881 (liquid chemical or medical preparation manufactured by us under a private formula and more especially known as an antiseptic [disinfectant, or germacide, and as such it is employed in dental practice as a tooth and mouthwash for its antiseptic and prophylactic effect, and also as a detergent and medical wash and lotion in treating diseased conditions of the skin and as a toilet preparation in all matters of personal hygiene]).

November 28, 1905 - Church & Dwight Company registered "Arm & Hammer " trademark first used in 1874 (saleratus, bicarbonate of soda, and sal-soda).

1908 - Dr. John Breck developed one of first liquid shampoos in United States, in Springfield MA; 1930 - introduced first ph-balanced shampoo; 1932 - advertising for brand began; sold exclusively to beauty salons in New England; 1936 - Edward Breck (son) assumed management control; 1946 - began national advertising, mass distribution; introduced "Breck Girls" advertising art campaign (original drawings by Charles G. Sheldon; ran until 1978); August 23, 1949 - John H. Breck, Inc. registered "Breck Brilliant" trademark first used December 1941 (preparation for the treatment of the hair); August 22, 1950 - registered "Breck" trademark first used February 4, 1931 (hair shampoos); 1963 - acquired by American Cyanamid; 1990 - acquired by Dial Corp; July 2002 - licensing rights acquired by Himmel Group.

April 28, 1908 - Reckitt & Sons, Limited registered "Brasso" trademark first used in September 1905 (metal-polish).

1910 - Phillip Drackett (56), former pharmacist, enetered bulk chemical brokerage business in Cincinnati, OH; 1915 - incorporated P. W. Drackett & Sons Co.; sold chemicals (lye, ammonia, epsom salt); 1922 - introduced Drano - first consumer product, developed from lye (corrosive cleaner made by leaching wood ashes); name changed to Drackett Chemical Co.; 1933 - name changed to Drackett Co.; 1935 - introduced Windex, first successful glass cleaner on market; 1957 - launched Twinkle brass and silver polishes; 1958 - acquired Judson Dunaway Corp. (Vanish, toilet bowl disinfectant, Delete stain remover); 1965 - sales of $58.5 million, acquired by Bristol-Myers; 1966 - introduced Liquid Drano; 1969 - acquired, aggressively promoted Renuzit solid air freshener; 1992 - acquired by S. C. Johnson for $1.5 billion = merger of 1st and 5th competitors in polishes, sanitation goods.

May 3, 1913 - Edward Hughes (seller of wood, coal, grain hay), Charles Husband (bookkeeper at paper-bag factory), William Hussey (miner, only one with any practical knowledge of chemistry), Rufus Myers (lawyer), Archibald Taft (president of local Harbor Bank) invested $100 apiece to set up Electro-Alkaline Company, America's first commercial-scale liquid bleach factory in Oakland, CA; plan was to convert brine available in abundance from nearby salt ponds of San Francisco Bay into sodium hypochlorite bleach, using a sophisticated and technologically demanding process of electrolysis; August 13, 1913 - Abel M. Hamblet, engineer for equipment supplier, suggested name "Clorox" for new product, from words "chlorine" and "sodium hydroxide" (combination formed bleach's active ingredient); 1914 - named their product Clorox® bleach; February 16, 1915 - Electro-Alkaline Company registered "Clorox Liquid Bleach Cleanser Germicide" trademark first used July 15, 1914 (bleaching, cleansing, and antiseptic compounds); 1916 - distribution throughout San Francisco Bay Area; sales of $14,237; 1921 - went public; 1922 - reincorporated as Clorox Chemical Corporation; 1928 - name changed to Clorox Chemical Co.; 1953 - first television commercials aired; largest share of U.S. household bleach market; 1957 - name changed to The Clorox Company; annual sales over $40 million; August 1957 - acquired by Procter & Gamble Company; January 2, 1969 - company gained full, formal autonomy as publicly held corporation (U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Procter & Gamble had to sell The Clorox Company because of monopoly in production, sale of household liquid bleaches); 1974 - minority position acquired by Henkel to facilitate production, sale of products for household, bulk consumers in the US, Canada, Puerto Rico.

September 23, 1913 - Philip J. Brady, aluminum pan salesman, registered "Brillo" trademark first used January 15, 1913 (aluminum cleansers); October 25, 1927 - Crosby Field, of Brooklyn, NY, received two patents for a "Cleaning Pad" and for a "Scrubbing Device and Material Therefor"; Brillo pads; both assigned to Brillo Manufacturing Company, Inc.; 1962 - company acquired by Purex; 1985 - acquired by Greyhound Corporation; 1997 - acquired by Church & Dwight; 2010 - acquired by Armaly Brands.

October 7, 1913 - P. Beiersdorf & Co,. (Dr. Oscar Troplowitz , Otto Mankiewicz) registered "Nivea" tradermark first used June 23, 1905 (cosmetic powder, cosmetic paste, creme, and preparations for the hair).

September 19, 1916 - George A. Bunting (Baltimore, MD) registered "Noxema Skin Cream" trademark first used November 1, 1914 (medicine for the skin); 1920 - first Noxzema Chemical Company factory opened in Baltimore; 1960 - launched CoverGirl Cosmetics; 1966 - name changed to Noxell; February 28, 1967 - Noxzema Chemical Company registered "Cover Girl" trademark first used September 10. 1959 (medicated makeup); 1989 - acquired by Procter & Gamble for $1.3 billion.

1917 - Irwin W. Cox, aluminum pot salesman, invented pre-soaped steel-wool pad to clean pots; his wife gave name S.O.S. (Save Our Saucepans); January 20, 1920 - registered "SOS" trademark first used January 1, 1919 (cleanser and polish).

March 19, 1918 - J. B. Williams Company registered "Aqua Velva" trademark first used October 27, 1917 (face lotions and after-shaving preparations).

September 30, 1919 - Kimberly-Clark Corporation registered "Cellucotton" trademark first used November 14, 1917 (a fibrous material made from paper-stock in the form of a very tenuous web and used for surgical dressings); September 21, 1920 - The Cellucotton Products Company registered "Kotex" trademark first used August 15, 1919 (sanitary napkins); wadding for surgical dressings during WW II used by nurses as sanitary pads during menstruation; 1926 - Montgomery Ward advertised Kotex in catalogue, millions of women began to use, accept sanitary napkins as way of life; 1955 - merged with Kimberly-Clark Corporation.

1921 - Engineer Max Braun founded engineering shop in Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 1923 - began producing components for radio sets; 1929 - one of first to combine receiver, loudspeaker in single unit; became leading radio manufacturer; 1932 - incorporated radio, record player in one set; 1938 - 1,000 employees; 1950 - first electric shaver; 1951 - Albert, Erwin Braun (sons) took over; January 3, 1961 - registered "Braun" trademark in U. S. (Electric ((al ))Apparatus-Namely, Radio ((and Television ))Receivers, Electrical Kitchen Mixers, Electrical Coffee Grinders, and Electric Juicing Machines); 1962 - introduced "sixtant" electric shaver; broke sales records; 1963 - began oral care product line; December 1967 - acquired by Gillette Company; 1988 - 100 millionth Braun shaver produced; 1991 - introduced electric toothbrush; sales exceed 2 billion DM; 1998 - Braun AG converted to GmbH; 2005 - acquired by Procter & Gamble.

 Max Braun - Braun GmbH (

August 15, 1922 - P. W. Drackett & Sons Company registered "Drano" trademark first used January 1921 (Use Upon a Chemical for Cleansing Drains, Sinks, Washbowls, etc.).

1923 - Clinton Odell, lawyer and insurance agent, founded Burma-Vita Corporation in Minneapolis, MN (named for cajeput oils, camphor, cassia from Malay peninsula, Burma in liniment product created by Robert Odell, father, for use by sick customers); formulated brushless shaving cream, Burma-Shave (created by chemist Carl Noren to improve upon Lloyd's Euxesis, British product, first brushless shaving cream); 1925 - Allan Gilbert Odell (son), starting with $200, advertised product on six small, red wooden roadside signs, with rhymes, arranged in sequence (about 100 feet apart) along Minnesota highways 65 and 61;  1926 - sales rose from virtually nothing to $68,000; 1930s - sales topped $3 million; December 21, 1948 - Burma-Vita Corporation registered "Burma-Shave" trademark first used January 1, 1926 (shaving cream to be used before shaving); became number two seller of men's shaving cream; February 1963 - acquired by Phillip Morris; 1966 - Burma-Shave signs disappeared from America's highways; 1979 - Burma-Shave Division acquired by American Safety Razors (Leonard Odell, son,  president).

Clinton Odell Clinton M. Odell (right) - Burma-Shave  (

Allan G. Odell (right) - Burma-Shave (

April 24, 1923 - Jacob Schick, of Jersey City, NJ, received a patent for a "Safety Razor" ("adapted to use what are commonly known as 'wafer blades'"); 1925 - founded Magazine Repeating Razor ("to use the principles of repeating firearms in a safety razor not much larger than a good-sized fountain pen") to market shaving device; May 18, 1926 - Jacob Schick, of Jersey City, NJ, received a patent for a "Razor and Blade Holder Therefor" ("improved safety razor"); assigned to Repeating Razor Company (NJ); March 1, 1927 - Schick Incorporated registered "Schick" trademark (safety razors and razor blades); December 13, 1927 - received patent  for a "Safety Razor" ("adapted to be folded to form an elongated compact form for easy packing and convenient carrying"); July 23, 1929 - Jacob Schick, of Stamford, CT, received a patent for a "Shaving Implement" ("a shear plate that rests against the skin and has a cutter operating under the plate to cut the hairs"); electric razor; March 18, 1931 - Schick Inc. marketed first electric razor; March 24, 1931 - received patent for a "Safety Razor ("to provide a blade feeding device which is not subject to jamming"); assigned to Repeating Razor Company; May 19, 1931 - received patent for "Shaving Equipment" ("to provide a neat compact razor case with a feeding means for the blades").

Col. Jacob Schick - safety razors (

June 15, 1926 - Whistle Bottling Company (Johnsonburg, PA) registered "Spic and Span" trademark (washing and cleaning compound in crystal form with incidental water-softening properties); 1945 - acquired by Procter & Gamble; August 30, 1949 - Procter & Gamble registered "Spic and Span" trademark (soluble cleaner, cleanser, and detergent), January 2001 - acquired by Shansy Group; Spic and Span Company formed (Irvington, NY).

1928 - County Chemical Co. Ltd. of Birmingham, England created Brylcreem Original (protein enriched hair cream for mature men); November 3, 1942 - County Perfumery Company, Inc. registered "Brylcreem" trademark first used June 1, 1937 (hair dressing and tonic); first mass-marketed men’s hair product.

1931 - Lawrence M. Gelb, New York chemist whose chemical manufacturing business fell victim to the Depression, found European product, hair dye, to sell in America; acquired distribution rights to European hair color preparation named Clairol (penetrated hair shaft, produced softer, more natural-looking tones); became foundation of family business; introduced Instant Clairol Oil Shampoo Tint to hair color to beauty salons; hair lightened, tinted, conditioned, shampooed in only one step, in only 20 minutes; April 18, 1933 - Friedrich Klein (of Berlin, Germany) registered "Clairol" trademark first used in January 1931 (pharmaceutical preparations-namely hair dyes and hair lotions); May 27, 1941 - Clairol, Incorporated registered "Clairol" trademark first used in January 1931 (hair tints, hair dye, hair washes, shampoo, and hair dye removers); 1950 - launched Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath; first one-step hair color product for professional (salon) use; February 26, 1952 - Clairol Incorporated registered "Miss Clairol" trademark first used March 1, 1950 (hair tinting and coloring preparations); 1956 - introduced first one-step home hair color formula, Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath; Shirley Polykoff, Foote, Cone & Belding's lone woman copywriter, wrote Clairol advertising copy "Does she . . . or doesn't she? Only her hairdresser knows for sure"; sales increased by 413% in six years, more than 50% of U.S. adult women began using hair color, up from 7%; 1959 - introduced single-step Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath; acquired by Bristol-Myers Squibb; 2001 - acquired by Procter & Gamble for $4.95 billion.

June 14, 1932 - Tampax Incorporated registered "Tampax" trademark first used December 1, 1931 (sanitary absorbent tampons);  September 12, 1933 - Dr. Earle C. Haas, of Denver, CO, received a patent for a "Catamenial Device"; tampon devised from compressed surgical cotton; October 16 , 1933 - patent, trademark acquired by group headed by Gertrude Tenderich, Denver businesswoman, for $32,000; January 2, 1934 - established Tampax Sales Corporation; 1936 - formed partnership with Ellery W. Mann; organized Tampax, Inc.; acquired rights to produce, market tampons based on Haas patent; March 7, 1936 - Tampax Incorporated; July 26, 1936 - first ad appeared in "American Weekly", Sunday newspaper supplement; 1984 - name changed its name to Tambrands Inc.; 1997 - acquired by Procter & Gamble for $1.85 billion.

January 31, 1933 - Drackett Chemical Company (Cincinnati, OH) registered "Windex" trademark first used July 22, 1932 (liquid cleaner for glass and vitreous surfaces).

October 10, 1933 - Procter & Gamble introduced Dreft, first detergent with synthetic surfactants (synthetic surface-active agents) for home use; eliminated problems associated with soap (used to clean clothes for nearly 2,000 years, but poor performance in hard water); discovery of detergent technology - result of P&G researchers' creating special two-part "miracle molecules," one end of which pulled grease and dirt out of clothes while the other clung to water, suspending dirt until it could be washed away; September 19, 1944 - registered "Dreft" trademark first used October 10, 1933 (Sudsing Cleaner, Cleanser, and Detergent).

March 9, 1937 - Jacob L. Barowsky (Adell Chemical Co.) registered "Lestoil" trademark first used September 24, 1936 (cleansing composition in liquid form added as an aid to aqueous cleansing compositions used in laundries); June 1996 - acquired by Clorox Co.

March 16, 1937 - Shulton Inc. (founded 1934 by William Lightfoot Schultz) registered "Old Spice" trademark first used August 26, 1936 (shaving cream, toilet soaps, soap pastes, shampoo soaps; June 1990 - acquired by Procter & Gamble.

July 13, 1937 - Leroy Lind, of Rockford, IL, received a patent for the "Art of Water Softening" ("improved method of and apparatus for softening water for domestic purposes using regeneratable granulated mineral"); Servi-Soft water softener.

October 1, 1946 -  Procter & Gamble registered "Tide" trademark first used October 9, 1945 (sudsing, soap-like detergents in solid [non-liquid] form for household and laundry purposes); test marketed Tide detergent (combination of synthetic surfactants and "builders" created in 1943); 1949 - expanded nationally; first advertising theme, "Cleaner than any soap," replaced with "Tide's in, Dirt's out"; achieved market leadership three months after going national, has never lost that leadership; 1984 - Liquid launched; 1988 - Tide with Bleach launched; 1990s - Ultra Tide Powder and Liquid and Ultra Tide Powder and Liquid with Bleach rolled out nationally; product line expanded with Tide Compact Liquid polybag refills, Compact Liquid with Bleach.

1947 - Colgate introduced Ajax Cleanser and Fab Detergent; January 28, 1947 - Colgate-Palmolive registered "Ajax" trademark first used in 1904 (soap and household cleanser); March 14, 1950 - Colgate-Palmolive registered "Fab" trademark first used January 29, 1920 (sudsing cleaner [cleanser ] and detergent and for soaps for laundry and household use).

1949 - Ivan D. Combe founded Combe Incorporated; 1950 - created Clearasil; first effective acne medication ever introduced for teen-agers; worked a distributor, sales manager, advertising director; became number one in its industry; August 17, 1954 - Clearasil Incorporated registered "Clearasil" trademark first used March 7, 1950 (pharmaceutical preparation-namely, a greaseless medication for external application to pimples and acne); 1961 - acquired by Richardson-Vicks; June 10, 1975 - Combe Incorporated registered "Johnson's Odor-Eaters" trademark first used February 21, 1973 (foot deodorizing products-namely, deodorizing insoles); July 25, 1983 - Combe Incorporated registered "Grecian Formula 16" trademark first used December 30, 1970 (cosmetics - namely, hair coloring preparations).

Ivan D. Combe - Clearasil ( summer00images/47a_QUAD.jpg)

1955 - Procter & Gamble Co. introduced Crest toothpaste with active ingredient Fluoristan (P&G trade name for combination of stannous fluoride,  fluoride-compatible polishing agent); June 28, 1955 - registered "Crest" trademark first used July 9, 1954 (dentifrice).

July 26, 1955 - Becton, Dickinson and Company registered "Ace-Hesive" trademark first used June 11, 1954 (elastic bandages).

February 25, 1958 - Procter & Gamble Company registered "Mr. Clean" first used May 10, 1957 (sudsing cleaner, cleanser, and detergent); 1959 - early 1960s - original Mr. Clean on first television commercials for product, white-clad muscular man with bald head, a hoop earring, no-nonsense attitude toward dirt and grime, played House Peters, Jr.

December 29, 1959 - Armour and Company, Chicago, IL, registered "Dial" (bath and toilet soap) trademark.

February 2, 1960 - Gillette Company registered "Right Guard" trademark (deodorants and personal use).

April 3, 1962 - Procter & Gamble Company registered "Head & Shoulders" trademark first used January 3, 1961; (hair shampoo).

October 9, 1962 - Union Carbide Corporation registered "Glad" trademark first used March 14, 1962 (plastic bags).

March 23, 1965 - Faberge, Inc. registered "Brut" trademark" first used January 17, 1964 (after shave lotion, shaving cream, deodorant, talcum powder, toilet soap; may be translated into English as "uncultured" or "rude").

January 24, 1967 - registered "Comet" trademark first used October 1, 1965 (sudsing detergent-cleanser for cleaning and disinfecting kitchens, bathrooms, and hospital rooms and fixtures); 2001 - acquired by Prestige Brands.

April 3, 1973 - Francis W. Dorion, of Hingham, MA, received a patent for a "Dual Razor Blade Assembly"; assigned to The Gillette Company (Boston, MA).

 September 21, 1982 - Gold Bond Sterilizing Powder Co. registered "Gold Bond" trademark first used January 15, 1908 (Medicated Skin Powder); March 1990 - acquired by martin Himmel Inc. from Block Drug Company for $1 million; became #1 Medicated Powder in US (69% category share); 1995 - sales of $30 million; April 1996 - acquired by Chattem Inc. for $40 million.

1984 - Roxanne Quimby, Burt Shavitz teamed up in Maine to sell candles made from beeswax created as by-product of Burt's honey business; first year sales of $20,000; 1991 - incorporated, made half a million candles a year, natural soaps, perfumes cooked on gas stoves; introduced lip balm (best-selling product); 1994 - moved to Creedmoor, NC, focused entire product line on personal care (50 products); 1998 - annual sales over $8 million, more than 100 distinct items in product line sold in over 4,000 outlets; late 1999 - Quimby bought out Shavitz for $130,000; 2003 - 80% stake acquired by AEA Investors for $141.6 million; 2006 - sales topped $250 million; 2007 - leading manufacturer of Earth-friendly natural personal care products (150 products carried in nearly 30,000 retail outlets); November 2007 - acquired by Clorox for $913 million.

Roxanne Quimby, Burt Shavitz - Burt's Bees (

September 13, 1996 - The Gillette Company announced about $7 billion merger with battery maker Duracell (sales of $2.3 billion); became Gillette's second best-selling product line.

January 28, 2005 - Procter & Gamble announced planned acquisition of Gillette Company for $57 billion; largest consumer products company in world; largest acquisition in nation since J.P. Morgan Chase acquired Bank One for $60 billion.

(Bear Creek Ice Company), F. Charles Petrillo (1998). Albert Lewis, The Bear Creek Lumber and Ice King: The Bear Creek Ice Company. (Kearney, NB: Morris Pub., 237 p.). Lewis, Albert, 1840-1923; Bear Creek Ice Company--History; Industrialists--Pennsylvania--Biography; Ice industry--Pennsylvania--History; Lumber trade--Pennsylvania--History.

(Brillo), Michael J. Golec (2008). The Brillo Box Archive: Aesthetics, Design, and Art. (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 144 p.). Assistant Professor of Art and Design History (Iowa State University). Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987. Brillo boxes; Harvey, James (James V.), 1929-1965; Danto, Arthur Coleman, 1924- --Aesthetics; Aesthetics. Image of Brillo® box at intersection of design, aesthetics, art history, from kitchen to art world; from industrial design to artistic reinterpretation to aesthetic theory; record, archive of mid-twentieth-century visual, industrial culture; 1961 redesign by James Harvey inspired philosophical, artistic interpretation as pieces of art vs. storage device.

(Fels & Co.), Evelyn Bodek Rosen (2000). The Philadelphia Fels, 1880-1920: A Social Portrait. (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 231 p.). Fell family; Jews--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--Biography; Jewish capitalists and financiers--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--Biography; Jews, German--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--Biography; Philadelphia (Pa.)--Biography. 

(Gillette), Russell B. Adams, Jr. (1978). King C. Gillette, The Man and His Wonderful Shaving Device. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 311 p.). Gillette, King C. (King Camp), 1855-1932; Gillette Company--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

King C. Gillette ( 2OlX3JKc840/s200/KingGillette1906.png)

(Gillette), Rita Ricardo-Campbell (1997). Resisting Hostile Takeovers: The Case of Gillette (Westport, CT: Praeger, 254 p.). Gillette Company; Razor industry--United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States.

(Gillette), Gordon McKibben (1998). Cutting Edge: Gillette's Journey to Global Leadership (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 429 p.). Gillette Company; Razor industry -- United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations -- United States.

(Gillette), James M. Kilts, with John F. Manfredi and Robert Lorber (2007). Doing What Matters: The Revolutionary Old-School Approach to Business Success -- and Why It Works. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 336 p.). Former Chairman and CEO of the Gillette Company, former CEO of Nabisco and Kraft; Formerly Senior Vice President of Investor Relations and Corporate Affairs at Gillette Company, Former Executive Vice President at Nabisco; Associate Professor (University of California at Davis). Gillette; Management; Organizational effectiveness; Success in business; Executives--Biography. Business fundamentals, personal attributes for success: 1) intellectual integrity; 2) emotional engagement, enthusiasm; 3) action; 4) 'Total Brand Value' framework for achieving better, faster, more complete results than competition.

(Ice), Joseph C. Jones, Jr. (1984). America's Icemen: An Illustrative History of the United States Natural Ice Industry, 1665-1925. (Humble, TX: Jobeco Books, 169 p.). Ice industry--United States--History.

(Ice), Gavin Weightman (2002). The Frozen-Water Trade. (New York, NY: Hyperion, 254 p.). Ice industry--North America--History.

(Ice), Carl Seaburg and Stanley Paterson (2003). The Ice King: Frederic Tudor and His Circle. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Historical Society, 256 p.). Former Librarian of Crane Theological School, Tufts University; Co-minister with Kenneth Patton of the Charles Street Meeting House in Boston; and Curator of Manuscripts at the Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School. Tudor, Frederic, 1783-1864; Industrialists United States Biography; Ice industry United States. 

Can I Offer You An Ice Cold Refreshment? Frederic Tudor (

(Larkin Co.), Daniel I. Larkin (1998). John D. Larkin, Business Pioneer. (Amherst, NY: D. I. Larkin, 212 p.). Larkin, John D., 1845-1926; Larkin Co.--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Soap trade--United States--History; Cleaning compounds industry--United States--History.

(Mennen), Alfred Lief (1954). The Mennen Story. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 89 p.). Mennen Company.

(Procter & Gamble), Alfred Lief (1958). It Floats; The Story of Procter & Gamble. (New York, NY: Rinehart, 338 p.). Procter & Gamble Company.

William Procter




William Procter (candlemaker) (

James Gamble




James Gamble (soap maker) (

William Alexander Procter (

(Procter & Gamble), Oscar Schisgall (1981). Eyes on Tomorrow: The Evolution of Procter & Gamble. (Chicago, IL: J.G. Ferguson, 295 p.). Procter & Gamble Company--History; Soap trade--United States--History.

(Procter & Gamble), eds. of Advertising Age (1988). Procter & Gamble : The House That Ivory Built. (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 234 p.). Soap Trade, Procter & Gamble Company-History.

(Procter & Gamble), Alecia Swasy (1993). Soap Opera: The Inside Story of Procter & Gamble. (New York, NY: Times Business, 378 p.). Assistant Managing Editor for Business (St. Petersburg Times). Procter & Gamble Company; Soap trade--United States.

(Procter & Gamble), Davis Dyer, Frederick Dalzell, Rowena Olegario (2004). Rising Tide: Lessons from 165 Years of Brand Building at Procter & Gamble. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 467 p.). Partners (Winthrop Group), Assistant Professor of History (Vanderbilt University). Procter & Gamble Company--History; Brand name products--United States--Case studies; Product management--United States--Case studies; Soap trade--United States--History. 

(Procter & Gamble), John Pepper (2007). What Really Matters: Service, Leadership, People, and Values. (New Haven, CT: University Press, 305 p.). Former Chairman and CEO, Procter & Gamble. Pepper, John, 1938- ; Procter & Gamble Company--History; Success in business; Organizational effectiveness. 1)  continuous change, innovation, renewal - growth, sound leadership; 2) preparedness to alter perspective, rethink assumptions, change course  - central to understanding customer needs, controlling costs, developing talent, organizing global businesses, supporting communities; 3) listen to and respect the customer, engender personal accountability, passionate ownership, encourage diversity, create vibrant, trusting institution that incorporates employees and their families. 

(Procter & Gamble), A.G. Lafley & Ram Charan (2008). The Game-Changer: How You Can Drive Revenue and Profit Growth with Innovation. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 336 p.). chairman and CEO of P&G;. Procter & Gamble Company; Leadership; Management; Creative ability in business; Organizational effectiveness; Corporations -- Growth. Past 7 years: Procter & Gamble has tripled profits; significantly improved organic revenue growth, cash flow, operating margins, averaged earnings per share growth of 12%, integrated innovation, created new customers, new markets;  how P&G, companies such as Honeywell, Nokia, LEGO, GE, HP, DuPont have become game-changers.

(Spic and Span Company), Robert W. Stenglein (2004). The Spic and Span Story. (Larkspur, CA: Woolcott Press, 258 p.). "Son of Spic and Span". Spic and Span; Detergent Industry; Cleaning Supplies.  

(Christr. Thomas  & Bros.), John Somerville (1991). Christopher Thomas, Soapmaker of Bristol: The Story of Christr. Thomas & Bros., 1745-1954. (Bristol, UK: White Tree Books, 121 p.). Thomas, Christopher James, 1807-1894; Christr. Thomas & Bros.--History; Soap trade--England--Bristol--History; Soap factories--England--Bristol--History; Businessmen--England--Bristol--Biography; Bristol (England)--Economic conditions.


Business History Links

Ivory Project: Advertising Soap in America                                       

Selection of 1,600 advertisements and related ephemera, 1838-1998, features a representative sample of print advertising for Ivory soap, one of the nation's longest-lived, branded consumer products. Complementing the Ivory materials are examples of advertising, advertising cards, soap wrappers, coupons, pamphlets, and similar ephemera produced for other soap brands and related products. Like the Ivory ads, these marketing materials – for brands such as Kirkman’s, Fairbank’s Gold Dust, Breck, and Pears’ – frequently use images of housecleaning, bathing, women, and children.

Every Careful Person Should Know: Advertising Strategies of the Pro-Brush Corporation, 1886-1930 

A good advertising campaign is one that promotes consumer awareness and sells a product. A great advertising campaign is one that promotes awareness and sells a product that nobody knew they needed. The Pro-phy-lac-tic tooth brush was such a product.


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