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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Automotive Manufacturers/Suppliers (A-G)
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1769 - Nicolas Joseph Cugnot of France built first automobile (road vehicle self-powered by steam vs. gasoline-powered); recognized as first by British Royal Automobile Club, Automobile Club de France.

April 25, 1794 - George Washington granted U.S. letters patent to John J. Staples, Jr., of New York, for what the inventor described as a "Carriage to be Propelled by the Mechanic Powers" (not steam power); text of the patent shows that the specifications were vague, invention wholly impractical.

December 24, 1801 - Richard Trevithick drove three-wheeled steam-powered vehicle carrying seven passengers up a hill in Camborne, Cornwall, England; one of first automobiles in history; high-pressure steam engine was lighter, more powerful than low-pressure engine invented by James Watt; used to hoist loads in mines, drive locomotives and ships, run rolling mills. Trevithick  sometimes called "Father of the Steam Locomotive."

March 29, 1806 - Congress appropriated $30,000 for Army's Corps of Engineers to begin surveying for construction of Great National Pike, also known as Cumberland Road, first highway funded by national treasury; road stretched from Cumberland, MD through Appalachian Mountains to Wheeling, VA, on Ohio River; over $6 million appropriated for highway; 1811 - construction began, Corps of Engineers built road (important precedent for military's involvement in building transportation routes that would be used for non-military purposes); 1818 - 130-mile road completed; 1850 - National Road reached all way to Indianapolis; 1856 - states through which Pike ran took control of highway; resulting network of roads greatly facilitated American expansion into western territory.

April 1, 1826 - Samuel Morey of New Hampshire received a patent for the internal combustion engine.

August 29, 1828 - Robert Turner, of Ward, MA (now Auburn, MA), received patent for a "Self-Regulating Wagon Brake".

February 25, 1837 - Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, VT,  received a patent for an "Electric Motor" ("Improvement in Propelling Machinery by Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism"); probably the first commercially successful electric motor; first to secure a US patent for his direct current motor.

March 27, 1841 - Paul Rapsey Hodge gave public test of steam fire engine; 8-ton weight too heavy, its fire showered sparks,  abandoned.

May 12, 1847 - William Clayton invented roadometer (odometer); attached to wagon wheel, counted revolutions of wheel as wagon traveled (320 revolutions = mile).

1850 - Ignaz Schustala set up wagon shop, Ignaz Schustala & Co., in  Moravian town of Nesselsdorf, in Austro-Hungarian Empire; 1853 - formed  partnership with Adolf Raschka, wealthy businessman; produced wagons,  carriages, prospered for over two decades; 1881 - Stauding-Stramberger Railroad requested manufacture of railway cars; 1891 - name changed to Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau Fabriks Gesellschaft (Nesselsdorf Wagon Works); managed by Hugo von Roslerstamm; 1897 - built 'President', first car,  largely based on design of Benz (2.7-litre water-cooled two-cylinder Benz engine mounted in rear of chassis, top speed of 35 km/h); shown publicly in late 1897 at exhibition in Vienna; 1899 - Hans Ledwinka (23), formerly employed in railway division of Nesseldorf Wagon Works, put himself into unofficial position as chief of automobile design; 1919 - Moravian town of Nesselsdorf became Koprivnice, Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau called Koprivnicka Vozovka a.s. (Koprivnice Wagon Works); name Tatra (named after Tatra High Mountains, higher peaks of Carpathian mountain range) replaced Nesselsdorfer marque; 1921 - Ledwinka returned to Tatra for good (had left twice); became chief engineer responsible for design of numerous Tatra automobiles; signaled emergence of company as maker of very technically significant, advanced automobiles; late 1920s - Ledwinka became technical director; third oldest car maker in world after Daimler Mercedes-Benz, Peugot.

Hans Ledwinka - Tatra (

February 16, 1852 - Henry and Clement Studebaker founded H. & C. Studebaker, blacksmith and wagon building business, in South Bend, IN; 1868 - incorporated as Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company; became world's largest manufacturer of horse-drawn carriages during Civil War; 1902 - entered automotive business with electric vehicles; 1904 - partnered with other manufacturers to offer gasoline vehicles; 1913 - introduced first gasoline powered automobiles under Studebaker brand; became one of larger independent automobile manufacturers; 1954 - acquired by Packard Motors Corporation; 1956 - formed "joint program" agreement with Curtiss-Wright Corporation (ran Studebaker-Packard, took option on Studebaker stock for future merger); 1966 - left automobile business.

January 1, 1853 - First successful U.S. steam fire engine, named  Uncle Joe Ross after city councilman who championed it, began service in Cincinnati, OH; invented by Abel Shawk and Alexander Latta (nine months to build at a cost of $10,000), four horses pulled three-wheeled, five-ton carriage; propelled up to six water streams up to 240 ft range; 1928 - largest German carmaker (37.5% market share).

December 15, 1854 - First practical street cleaning machine put into operation in Philadelphia; chain driven by turning of cart's wheels turned series of brooms attached to cylinder mounted on cart.

January 24, 1860 - French inventor Etienne Lenoir received a patent for first successful internal-combustion engine; 1862 - built first automobile powered by internal-combustion engine; capable of making six-mile trip in two to three hours.

1862 - Adam Opel founded Adam Opel AG to make household goods (sewing machines); April 10, 1863 - advertised sewing machines for first time; 1886 - expanded production to sell fully assembled bicycles in Germany; 1895 - made 2,000 bicycles a year, led Europe in sewing machine sales; 1899 - started to build cars; first Opel automobile named "Opel-Patent-Motorwagen System Lutzmann"; 1906 - one-thousandth Opel automobile left factory; 1920s -  world’s largest bicycle producer; 1928 - Germany’s largest automobile manufacturer (37.5% market share);  March 17, 1929 - 80% interest  acquired by General Motors for just under $26 million (100% control acquired by 1931; part of Alfred Sloan's corporate policy of buying existing companies in countries with desirable markets vs. entering foreign markets by setting up manufacturing subsidiaries a la Ford).

July 5, 1865 - Locomotives and Highways Act in Britain lowered speed limit (2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country); required three drivers for each vehicle - two on the vehicle and one to walk ahead carrying a red flag; 1896 - repealed, after nearly two decades of strong support from horse interests (celebrated by a 60 mile car run from London to Brighton, at the new and previously illegal speed of 12mph).

1868 - Thomas Humber founded Humber cycle company in Sheffield , UK; 1898 - produced 3.5 horsepower Phaeton, three-wheeled tricar; 1901 - introduced Voiturette, first conventional four-wheeled car; 1913 - second largest manufacturer of cars in United Kingdom; 1925 - acquired Commer Cars Ltd (truck builders) to produce commercial vehicles; 1928 - acquired Hillman; 1931 - control acquired by Rootes Brothers; late 1930s - known for Humber Snipe, Super Snipes models (lasted until 1964); 1975 - name disappeared as all Hillmans named Chryslers.

December 10, 1868 - First traffic control light in London used  gas-lighted lantern.

1871 - William Hillman, qualified engineer, joined John Kemp Starley (later formed Rover) in cycle business; soon formed his own bicycle building company, Auto Machinery; millionaire before turn of twentieth century; 1907 - entered auto industry, launched 24HP Hillman-Coatalen (named after its designer); 1913 - first success with 9HP car (sold into1920s); 1926 - launched 14HP car; 1928 - acquired by Humber.

1872 - George N. Pierce bought out two partners, created George N. Pierce Company; 1896 - added bicycles to range of household products; 1901 - Pierce built its first single-cylinder two-speed (no reverse) Moterette production car; 1904 - built four-cylinder Great Arrow, sold for $4,000, a luxury car; 1909 - company name changed its name to Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company; U.S. President William Howard Taft ordered two Pierce-Arrows to be used for state occasions (first official automobiles of the White House); 1914 - most enduring styling hallmark, headlights moved from the traditional placement on either side of the radiator to flared housings molded into the front fenders of the car; 1915 -  Pierce-Arrow had established itself at the highest echelon of the luxury car market; 1928 - Studebaker acquired controlling interest in Pierce-Arrow; 1938 - company declared insolvent, ordered into liquidation.

1872 - Truckson S. LaFrance, former employee of Elmira Union Iron Works, Elmira, NY, John Vischer, head of Iron Works, started company to manufacture fire apparatus (hand pumps, rotary steam engines based on LaFrance’s patents; designs began winning major national competitions; April 1873 - acquired by Alexander S. Diven, wealthy Elmira businessman, his four sons; renamed LaFrance Manufacturing Company; 1880 - reorganized; renamed LaFrance Steam Engine Company, to take advantage of company's reputation as leading manufacturer of rotary, nest-tube boilers (invented, patented by LaFrance, used for fire engines); 1882 - manufactured extension ladder truck; considered major technological advancement; 1891 - American Fire Engine Company formed by merger of five companies; 1900 - International Fire Engine Company organized by New York investors; included American Fire Engine Company, LaFrance Fire Engine Company, Thos. Manning Jr. & Co., several other support equipment manufacturers; 1903 - name changed to American LaFrance Fire Engine Company; 1916 - produced 6-cylinder, gas-powered pumping apparatus; end of steam engine; November 1934 - filed for protection, to reorganize under Bankruptcy Act; 1973 - launched Century Series pumper; "modern" fire engine, revolutionary features, became industry standard; America's leading manufacturer of custom fire engines; 1995 - acquired by Freightliner LLC (subsidiary of Daimler-Chrysler); 2005 - acquired by Patriarch Partners LLC; America's leading manufacturer of custom fire engines; one of oldest fire, rescue, EMS vehicle manufacturers in United States; operates 8 manufacturing/servicing facilities, two company-owned vehicle dealerships; January 28, 2008 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; July 25, 2008 - emerged.

April 2, 1872 - George B. Brayton, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Gas-Engines" "means for making practically available, as a motive power, those compounds which result from the mixture of gases obtained from light hydrocarbons with atmospheric air"); gasoline powered engine, first American commercial internal combustion engine.

1873 - Carriage Builders' National Association of the United States held first annual convention; 1890 - 13,000 companies in wagon, carriage industry; 1926 - Association met for last time; signaled automobile's final triumph over horse-drawn carriage.

1877 -  John Kemp Starley and William Sutton founded Starley & Sutton Co. to produce safer, easier to use bicycles than prevailing "ordinary" bicycles; manufacturing tricycles; 1883 - products being branded as "Rover"; 1885 - produced Rover Safety Bicycle (rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels, more stable than the previous high wheeler designs); an immediate success; 1889 - renamed J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd.; late 1890's -   renamed Rover Cycle Company Ltd.; 1902 - Harry Smyth, managing director upon Starley's death in 1901, released company's first motorcycle (motor-driven bicycle); 1904 - petrol-driven Rover 8 h.p. car released; 1948 - Land Rover introduced; 1967 - became part of Leyland Motor Corporation, which merged with the British Motor Holdings to become British Leyland; 1970 - Range Rover introduced; 1994 - Rover acquired by BMW; 2000 - BMW sold the business, retained rights to name.

August 14, 1877 - Nicolaus Otto, of Deutz, Germany, received a patent for "Gas-Motor Engines"; internal combustion engine. 

1878 - George N. Pierce founded Pierce Company as manufacturer of household items, shifted to bicycle production, then to automobiles; 1900 - designers shifted to gasoline engines from steam power; November 24, 1900 - First gasoline-powered Pierce automobile (modified one-cylinder deDion engine capable of producing nearly three horsepower, christened Pierce Motorette) taken on test drive through streets of Buffalo, NY; 1901-1903 - roughly 170 Pierce Motorettes made; 1903 - Pierce Arrow introduced; 1908 - Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company officially launched; 1909 - U.S. president William Howard Taft ordered two automobiles, Brougham and Landaulette, for use by White House.

a.jpg George N. Pierce - Pierce Arrow  (

April 23, 1878 - Benjamin H. Taylor, of Rosedale, MI, received a patent for a "Rotary-Engine" ("construction and arrangement of a rotary engine").

1880 - Georges Thadee Bouton, Charles-Armand Trepardoux (brother-in-law) established Trépardoux et Cie, ingénieurs-constructeurs" in Paris; manufactured small models for Ducretet, scientific toys for toy sellers Giroux; 1882 - with Comte Albert de Dion, formed company called De Dion-Bouton et Trépardoux et Cie; 1883 - produced first steam quadricycle; May 1883 - received French patent on it; 1884 - produced second steam quadricycle; 1887 - produced first steam tricycle; 1893 - produced first steam tractor; Trepardoux left company; 1894 - formed  "De Dion-Bouton et Cie" company; 1897 - 200 workers; 1899 - produced first De Dion Bouton petrol engine four wheel car - type D; 1900 - world's largest carmaker with annual production of 400 cars, 3,200 engines; 1901 - 1,300 employees; December 1901 - front engine car exhibited for first time; 1906 - 2,3500 employees; 1907 - "Société Anonyme des Taxis-Autos De Dion-Bouton" formed; 1908 - first V8 engine; 1914 - more than 6,000 employees; 1932 - de Dion withdrew from company (had stopped making cars).

Marquis Albert de Dion - De Dion-Bouton (

April 18, 1882 - Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach (protege), agreed to create high-speed internal combustion engine to propel vehicles; 1883 - finished their first gas-powered engine; 1887 - constructed first water-cooled, gas-powered internal combustion engine.

October 1883 - Karl Benz founded Benz & Cie. in Mannheim, Germany. 

1884 - Rinaldo Piaggio (24) founded Piaggio (manufacturer of Vespa motor scooters) in Genoa, Italy for luxury ship fitting; 1946 - Corradino D'Ascanio, Piaggio's chief aeronautical engineer, designed aircraft-inspired two-wheel vehicle built on unibody steel chassis; "Sembra una Vespa" ("it looks like a wasp'); 1949 - 35,000 Vespas manufactured, 1959 - one million.  

April 3, 1885 - Gottlieb Daimler received German patent for 1-cylinder water-cooled engine design (solved problem posed by  tremendous heat produced by internal combustion engines).

August 29, 1885 - Gottlieb Daimler received patent for "vehicle with gas or petroleum drive machine"; first motorcycle; very popular after 1910 (used heavily by all branches of armed forces during World War I), lagged during the Great Depression, regained popularity after World War II.

November 10, 1885 - Paul Daimler, son of German engineer Gottlieb Daimler, became first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new invention for six miles; frame and wheels made of wood; leather belt transferred power from engine to large brass gears mounted to rear wheel; no suspension (front or rear); single cylinder engine had bore of 58mm, stroke of 100mm giving a displacement of 264cc's, gave 0.5hp at 700 rpm, top speed was 12 km/h.

1886 - Robert Bosch (25) founded Workshop for Precision Mechanics and Electrical Engineering in Stuttgart, Germany; November 20, 1900 - Frederick Richard Simms, of London, England, and Robert Bosch, of Stuttgart, Germany, received a patent for a "Magneto-Electric Machine" ("...machines as are employed in connection with electric-ignition devices for internal combustion-engines...shall be continuously rotated instead of intermittently oscillated..."); December 11, 1900 - received a patent for a "Sparking Igniter for Explosion-Engines" (" provide means whereby the time at which ignition of he explosive charge takes place, and thereby the speed of the engines can be regulated as desired, while the engines are running"); January 7, 1902 - received second patent for an "Magneto-Electric Machine"); 1902 - introduced high-tension magneto ignition system (produced reliable spark to ignite internal combustion engines); 1906 - produced 100,000th magneto ignition device; September 6, 1906 - established Robert Bosch New York Inc. (changed name to Bosch Magneto Company in 1908); 1910 - opened U.S. production facility (factory) in Springfield, MA; 1917 - seized by American government (including factories in Springfield, Plainfield, NJ), sold to American investment group, renamed American Bosch Magneto Corporation (ABMC); 1921 - Robert Bosch Magneto Company Inc. founded in New York; two companies merged, formed United American Bosch Corporation; January 1, 1933 - Friedrich Schildberger became first official Bosch archivist; 1938 - renamed American Bosch Corporation; 1942 - seized by U.S. government; June 10, 1952 - American Bosch Corporation registered "AMERICAN BOSCH AB" trademark first used April 14, 1944 (service, maintenance, and repair of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, parts thereof and accessories); 1953 - Robert Bosch Corporation, sales office, established in New York; 1983 - Bosch Group won back trademark rights expropriated during war, regained unrestricted right to use Bosch name worldwide; 2009 - employed over 23,000 people at around 80 locations across North America.

Robert Bosch - Robert Bosch GmbH  (

September 1886 - William Crapo "Billy" Durant (24) bought Coldwater Road Cart Company (Coldwater, MI) and its September 22, 1885 patent for a "Two-Wheeled Vehicle" (received by William H. Schmedlen, of Coldwater, MI, assigned to company) for $1500; with Josiah Dallas Dort formed Flint Road Cart Co.; 1895 - incorporated as Durant-Dort Carriage Company; 1900 - largest producer of road carts in country, produced almost 150,000 carriages a year. Josiah Dallas Dort - partner of GM founder (Billy Durant)  (

January 29, 1886 - Karl Benz received a German patent for a "Vehicle Propelled by a Gas Engine" (first functional unit of an engine with a chassis) called "Patent-Motorwagen", three-wheeled automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine, first practical internal-combustion vehicle ever constructed; one cylinder, output at 400 rpm produced a top speed of 10 mph; July 3, 1886 - first public test-drive in and around Mannheim, maximum speed 10 mph; 1893 - Benz completed first four-wheeled motorcar, Benz Velo, became the world's first inexpensive, mass-produced car.

March 4, 1887 - Gottlieb Daimler (Carl Benz's major competitor) made test run of his first four-wheel motor vehicle, "benzin motor carriage", in Esslingen and Cannstatt, Germany (one-cylinder engine, top speed of 10 miles per hour); 1885 - patented first gasoline-powered, water-cooled, internal combustion engine (water circulated around the engine block, prevented engine from overheating); 1899 - Emile Jellinek offered to buy 36 vehicles from Daimler if he built a more powerful model, requested that car be named after his daughter, Mercedes; first Mercedes had four-cylinder engine, generally considered the first modern car; 1905 - Mercedes cars reached speeds of 109 mph; 1926 - Daimler and Benz corporations merged, two founders never met.

Karl Benz's first auto ( 790751_1449829_800_530_benz_patent_motorwagen_1886.jpg)

July 27, 1888 - Philip W. Pratt demonstrated first electric automobile in Boston; tricycle powered by six Electrical Accumulator Company cells, weighed 90 pounds.

October 6, 1888 - William Steinway, car enthusiast, son of Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (Henry Steinway, piano manufacturer), acquired licensing rights from Gottlieb Daimler to manufacture Daimler cars in U.S.; founded the "Daimler Motor Company", began producing Daimler engines, importing Daimler boats, trucks, other equipment to North American market; 1901 - introduced new line, christened it Mercedes (feared the German-sounding Daimler would not sell well in France).

  William Steinway - Daimler rights in U.S. ( steinway/WilliamSteinway_90.jpg)

1889 - Armand Peugeot introduced steam-driven three-wheel vehicle at 1889 World Fair; 1890 - produced first Peugeot gas-powered four-wheel car, Type 2, fitted with Daimler engine, at Valentigney factory; 1892 - produced 29 cars, first company to fit rubber tires to gas-engine four-wheel car; 1896 - split with cousin, created Société des Automobiles Peugeot, produced the first Peugeot engine; 1928 - Jean-Pierre Peugeot (Eugene's grandson) took over; 1976 - merged with Citroën SA, formed PSA Peugeot Citroën as single holding company.

September 30, 1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Propelling Device for Electric Cars" ("an efficient means for transferring the reciprocating motion of the propelling mechanism to the axle of the car or to other axles or shafts").

November 28, 1890 - Max Duttenhofer, managing director of Koln-Rottweiler Pulverfabrik, Wilhelm Lorenz and Gottlieb Daimler formed Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, joint-stock company, Wilhelm Maybach chief engineer (left on February 11, 1891 over terms of contract); 1893 - Daimler forced to sell his stake in company, rights to his inventions for 66,666 marks to avoid bankruptcy; 1895 - group of British industrialists, fronted by Frederick R. Simms, looked to acquire license rights to Maybach-designed Phoenix engine for Britain for 350,000 marks only if Daimler and Maybach returned to company; Daimler returned as expert advisor, general inspector; stake in company returned (worth 200,000 marks) additional 100,000 mark bonus paid; November 8, 1895 - returned as chief engineer; received shares worth 30,000 marks that he was entitled to through 1882 contract with Daimler.

1891 - Peter Petersson, works manager for steel company Surahammars Bruk, convinced Board of Directors to initiate carriage-production line at plant in Södertälje, near Stockholm (Vagnfabriksaktiebolaget i Södertelge); asked engineer Gustaf Erikson to develop engines, engine-powered carriages; 1903 - first order for Vagnfabriken vehicle, fitted with one-cylinder 3.5-bhp petrol engine, 2-speed gearbox; 1904 - Swedish State Railways allocated manufacturing of 150 carriages per year; Vagnfabriken acquired by Per Alfred Nordeman, Managing Director for Malmo-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania; formed AB Scania-Vabis; moved car, light utility vehicle production to Södertälje, kept truck department in Malmo; 1919 - focused completely on truck-production, abandoned other commercial-purposed vehicle manufacturing (cars, buses, firefighting vehicles); 1921 - reorganized; 1922 - Swedish Post Office, first customer, ordered 15 buses (12-seat capacity, later with rubber tracks for winter use); 1940 - Carl-Bertel Nathhorst new managing director; 1943 - redirected production process towards civilian-truck, bus sectors, developed new chassis for upcoming line; 1948 - became Volkswagen's importer on Swedish market, extend production line; 1954 - became one of strongest players on Swedish haulage market, export sector; created several partnerships with independent importers worldwide; 1969 - acquired by Saab; 1995 - company split, bus and truck division's name changed to Scania AB; 2000 - built millionth vehicle; Volkswagen AG became lead owner; March 2008 - agreed to acquire shares owned by Investor and the Wallenberg Foundations; became main owner of Scania.

Peter Petersson Peter Petersson - Scania


November 1891 - Albert Eadie, Robert Walker Smith, brought in by financiers to assume control of George Townsend and Company Ltd.; bicycles, needles manufacturerd at Givry Needle Works (founded 1851 as Givry Works in village of Hunt End, near Worcestershire town of Redditch to produce sewing needles, various small machine parts; George Jr. had invented saddle in 1880s that used only one length of wire in two springs, in frame work - patented, marketed as "Townsend Cyclists Saddle And Springs"); 1892 - renamed Eadie Manufacturing Company Limited; took contract to supply arms factory in Enfield with precision parts; October 1892 - Enfield name first used for series of bicycles built in Birmingham Small Arms Factory (BSA), in Enfield, Middlesex; 1893 - "Royal" added to capitalize on firearms association; Royal Enfield trademark 'Made Like a Gun' appeared; July 1896 - New Enfield Cycle Company Ltd. name registered; took over production of Enfield Manufacturing Company Ltd., cycle section of Eadie manufacturing Company Ltd.; November 1897 - name changed to Enfield Cycle Company Ltd.; 1899 - advertised first mechanical vehicle (available in both tricycle, quadricycle form, powered by De Dion 1.5 hp engine); 1901 - first Royal Enfield 8hp cars built using a DE Dion engine (on road in 1902); 1914 - Royal Enfield supplied motorcycles to British War Department; awarded contract to build bikes for Imperial Russian Government; 1928 - one of first companies to adopt saddle tanks, center-spring girder front forks; 1931 - introduced four-valve, single-cylinder motorcycle; 1932 - christened 'Bullet' (inclined engine, exposed valve gear); 1949 - Madras Motor Company (India) won order from Indian Army for supply of motorcycles, 350cc Bullet launched in India; arrived in kits, then assembled; 1962 - English company acquired; 1967 - Redditch factory closed; small production unit continued name; 1970 - English company defunct; name and rights acquired by Indian company, ensured Royal Enfield remained in continuous production; 1980s - Enfield Bullets found strong niche market in UK, Europe; March 1994 - Enfield India Company acquired by Eicher Group (established in April 1959, by Joseph and Albert Eicher of Gebr Eicher Tractorenfabrik W. Germany, as Eicher Tractor Corporation of India Private Ltd.; produced India's first tractor); name changed to Royal Enfield Motors Limited; Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle - longest production run of any motorcycle in history, continuously produced since 1948, roots to 1932.

July 30, 1898 - Scientific American magazine carried first automobile advertisement for Winton Motor Car Company of Cleveland, OH; invited readers to "dispense with a horse".

September 29, 1888 - William Steinway, car enthusiast, negotiated North American licensing agreement with Gottlieb Daimler to manufacture Daimler cars in the U.S.; founded  "Daimler Motor Company", began producing Daimler engines (also imported Daimler boats, trucks, other equipment).

1890 - Packard brothers established Packard Electric Company in Warren, OH.

November 1890 - Gottlieb Daimler formed Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG); December 22, 1900 - 'Mercedes', developed by Wilhelm Maybach, chief engineer at DMG, delivered.

April 19, 1892 - Charles E. Duryea and his brother, Frank, in Springfield, MA, completed prototype of first commercially successful American automobile.

July 5, 1892 - Andrew Beard, of Woodlawn, AL, received a patent for a "Rotary Engine".

February 23, 1893 - Rudolf Diesel received a patent in Germany for diesel engine; burns fuel oil rather than gasoline, uses high compression of the gases in the cylinder  to ignite the fuel; greater fuel efficiency is counter-balanced by its higher emissions of soot, odor, and air pollutants; July 16, 1895 - Rudolf Diesel received a U. S. patent for the Diesel engine.

August 14, 1893 - World's first automobile license plates issued in Paris, France; not issued in the United States for a few more years, finally instituted as a safety measure; city of Boston first to require its motorists to hold a license, register their vehicle; owner made his own plate with corresponding registration numbers; Massachusetts soon began issuing registration plates made of iron, covered with a porcelain enamel.

September 20, 1893 - Charles and Frank Duryea, bicycle makers, drove (believed to be) first gasoline-powered automobile, "horseless carriage", in United States; built in rented loft space in Springfield, MA. Charles never received credit for having been first American to design, run gas-powered vehicle until after his death because date was disputed (initial credit given to Elwood Haynes for having made America's first car).

J. Charles Duryea, J. Frank Duryea (

December 24, 1893 - Henry Ford completed his first useful gas motor; at the time Ford was chief steam engineer at the main Detroit Edison Company plant with responsibility for maintaining electric service in the city 24 hours a day; June 4, 1896 - Ford's first automobile took its inaugural drive powered by a later version of the engine with two cylinders.

1894 - Heinrich and Wilhelm Hildebrand (steam-engine engineers), partner Alois Wolfmüller, designed all metal hollow tube-frame, two-cylinder four-stroke, water-cooled 1488cc engine Hildebrand & Wolfmüller; world's first mass-production two-wheeled motor vehicle  dubbed "motorcycle," or "motorrad" in German; January, 20 1894 - received patent; 1919 - company closed. 

Heinrich and Wilhelm Hildebrand - Hildebrand & Wolfmüller (

July 4, 1894 - Elwood Haynes successfully tested one-horsepower, one-cylinder vehicle at 6 or 7 mph at Kokomo, IN; one of the first automobiles built; oldest American-made automobile in existence (on exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); May 25, 1898 - Haynes and Elmer Apperson organized  Haynes-Apperson Company in Kokomo, IN; first man (Haynes) to outfit cars with all-aluminum engines, to build car bodies of nickel-plated steel; fulfilled terms of a buyer's agreement by delivering car from Kokomo to New York City in first 1,000-mile car trip undertaken in the United States.

Photo of Elwood Haynes in his first car Elwood Haynes - oldest American car in existence (

December 11, 1894 - World's first auto show, Exposition Internationale de Velocipidie et de Locomotion Automobile, opened in Paris, France; four makes of automobiles on display.

1895 - William Metzger opened Huber & Metzger, bicycle shop located in center of downtown Detroit; became one of largest in country; 1897 - opened first U. S. automobile retail showroom; sold electric, steam, and gasoline brands (included Oldsmobiles); June 1899 - sold first automobile built by the company; helped organize Detroit Auto Show, second of its kind; promoted racing; 1900 - organized Northern Motor Car Co.; 1902 - one of organizers of Cadillac Motor Car Co. ; 1903 - had only produced 3 cars; took orders for 2700 Cadillacs at New York Auto Show, ensured company's fortunes; 1908 - Northern merged with Wayne Automobile Company; formed E-M-F  Company (Everitt-Metzger-Flanders; Byron Everitt and Walter Flanders); sold cars through Studebaker; 1909 - EMF-Studebaker produced almost 8000 cars;  fifth largest auto maker in US.; mid-1909 - Metzger left company; took Byron Everitt and $362,500 settlement with him; began Metzger Motor Car Co.; produced a car substantially similar to E-M-F's model (called the Everitt); 1911 - produced 26,000 automobiles, second only to Ford; 1912 -acquired by United States Motor Co.; became affiliated with other automotive companies (Columbia Motor Car, Wills Sainte Claire, Federal Motor Truck Co., Rickenbacker, Auto Parts Manufacturing Co. (took over as president from Alfred Dunk); appointed to executive committee of American Automobile Association; elected president of Detroit Board of Fire Commissioners. 

June 11, 1895 - Charles E. Duryea received a patent for a "Road Vehicle", first US patent granted to an American inventor for a gasoline-driven automobile; September 21, 1895 - The Duryea Motor Wagon Company became the first auto manufacturer; unofficially gave birth to the auto production line and the American automobile industry.

July 12, 1895 - First recorded motor journey of any length (56 miles) in Britain.

November 1, 1895 - American Motor League, first automobile club in United States, held preliminary meeting in Chicago, IL with 60 members; Dr. J. Allen Hornsby named president; Vice Presidents - Charles Edgar Duryea, car manufacturer, and Hiram P. Maxim, car designer and inventor; Treasurer - Charles King (constructed one of first four-cylinder automobiles in 1896).

November 5, 1895 - George B. Selden, a patent lawyer from Rochester, NY, received a patent for a "Road Engine", first U.S. patent for a gasoline-powered automobile; patent described engine as well as complete automobile with features such as a clutch, compressed air self-starter, steering system; = monopoly on concept of combining an internal combustion engine with a carriage; every automaker had to pay Selden and his licensing company a significant percentage of profits for right to construct a motor car; 1899 - sold patent rights to William C. Whitney (proposed manufacturing electric powered taxicabs as Electric Vehicle Company (EVC) for royalty of $15 per car with minimum annual payment of $5,000); negotiated 3/4 of 1 % royalty on all internal combustion engine cars sold by Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (ALAM); 1903 - newly formed Ford Motor Company refused to pay royalties, sued for infringement on patent; 1909 - New York court upheld validity of Selden's patent; January 9, 1911 - New York Court of Appeals again ruled in favor of Selden's patent, but with twist: patent was restricted to particular outdated construction it described; since every important automaker used a motor significantly different from that described in Selden's patent, major manufacturers never paid Selden again.

  George B. Selden - first patent for gasoline-powered automobile (

November 28, 1895 - Chicago Times-Herald Publisher Herman H. Kohlstaat organized "Great Chicago Race" between Chicago and Waukegan, IL; first automobile race featuring gasoline-powered automobiles; six vehicles competed: two electric cars, three German Benz automobiles, one American-made two-cylinder Duryea automobile; $5,000 in prizes, first-place prize of $2,000; Frank Duryea won in 10 1/2 hours (no other car in sight), average speed of 7.5mph; 2nd place - German Oscar Mueller, completed race in 12 hours.

1896 - Armand Peugeot founded automobile manufacturing company.

1896 -James Sumner and Henry Spurrier founded Lancashire Steam Motor Company in Leyland, England; first vehicle was1.5-ton-capacity steam powered van; 1907 - took over rival Coulthard's of Preston, renamed Leyland Motors; three generations of Spurriers controlled company; 1951 - took over Albion Motors (Glasgow); 1955 - acquired Scammell Lorries, Standard Triumph International; Leyland Trucks claimed to be world's biggest truck producer; 1962 - renamed Leyland Motor Corporation; 1968 -  merged (effectively took over) with British Motor Corporation (former Austin and Nuffield companies), created British Leyland, third-biggest vehicle manufacturer in world; 1981 - created Austin Rover Group as mass-market car manufacturing subsidiary; 1982 - renamed Austin Rover Group; 1986 - British Leyland renamed Rover Group PLC.

January 28, 1896 - The first speeding fine handed to British motorist for exceeding 2mph in a built-up area.

March 6, 1896 - Auto first appeared on streets in Detroit when Charles Brady King drove "Horseless Carriage" up and down Woodward Avenue; when auto broke down, speculators responded by telling him to "get a horse". 

May 30, 1896 - First recorded auto accident occurred: Duryea Motor Wagon, driven by Henry Wells from Springfield, MA, collided with bicycle ridden by Evylyn Thomas of New York City.

June 4, 1896 - Henry Ford, employee of Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit, made successful pre-dawn test run of horseless carriage, called a Quadricycle (500-pound, two-cylinder vehicle), through streets of Detroit (down Bagley Avenue to Grand River Avenue, to Washington Boulevard); first automobile he ever designed or drove.

1897 - William E. Metzger opened first independent U. S. automobile retail showroom; sold electric cars; added steam, gasoline brands; June 1899 - sold first Oldsmobile; helped organize the Detroit Auto Show; 1900 - organized Northern Motor Car Co.; 1902 - co-organizer of Cadillac Motor Car Co. (had produced only 3 cars in 1903; Metzger took orders for 2700 Cadillacs at New York Auto Show, ensured company's future); 1908 - Northern merged with Wayne Automobile Company (controlled by Byron Everitt and Walter Flanders); formed E-M-F (Everitt-Metzger-Flanders) Company (sold cars through Studebaker); 1909 - EMF-Studebaker fifth largest auto maker in US; Metzger left company, $362,500 settlement; started Metzger Motor Car Co.; acquired by United States Motor Co.

William E. Metzger - First Independent Auto Dealer (

March 1, 1897 - Alexander Winton organized Winton Motor Carriage Company in Cleveland, Ohio (after 12 years in bicycle manufacturing business); 1901 - Henry Ford passed over for a mechanic's job with Winton's company; 1903 - Winton drove his car from San Francisco to New York to prove the reliability of his vehicles.

August 10, 1897 - C. Harrington Moore, Frederick R. Simms founded Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland, later known as the Royal Automobile Club; oldest auto club.

August 21, 1897 - Ransom Eli Olds formed Olds Motor Vehicle Company in Lansing, MI with capital of $50,000; November 23, 1897 - received his first patent, for a "Motor-Carriage" ("the motive power is produced by a gasolene-motor...road-vehicle that will meet most of the requirements for the ordinary uses on the road without complicated gear or requiring engine of great power and to avoid all unnecessary weight"); gasoline-powered vehicle constructed year before; May 8, 1899 - incorporated Olds Motor Works; formed by merger of Olds Motor Vehicle and Olds Gasoline Engine Works; 1901 - produced Olds Runabout, small, motorized buggy with curved dashboard, lightweight wheels, powered by one-cylinder engine capable of reaching 20mph; sold 425 Runabouts in first year, 2,500 in next; February 15, 1902 - ran its first national automobile advertisement in Saturday Evening Post; 1904 - sales peaked above 5,000 vehicles.

September 10, 1897 - George Smith became first person arrested for drunken driving (in Britain).

November 3, 1897 - Ransom E. Olds received his first patent for a "Motor Carriage" ("in which the motive power is produced by a produce a road vehicle which will meet most of the requirements for the ordinary uses on the road, without complicated gear or requiring engine of great power and to avoid all unnecessary weight").

1898 - Five Opel brothers began converting sewing machine,  appliance factory of Adam Opel into automobile works in Russelheim, Germany; January 21, 1899 - acquired rights to  Lutzmann automobile, began production; 1902 - introduced first original car, 2-cylinder runabout;  1928 - Germany’s largest automobile manufacturer (37.5% market share);  March 17, 1929 - 80% interest  acquired by General Motors for just under $26 million; 2007 - produces about quarter of all German cars, exports heavily to South America, Africa.

1898 - Francis E. (F. E.) and Freelan O. (F. O.) Stanley (twins from Kingfield, ME) founded Stanley Motor Carriage Company to manufacture steam engineered carriages which they had invented in 1897 (small engine, boiler slung beneath a carriage, immediate success); April 1899 - sold company to John Walker (editor, Cosmopolitan magazine) and Amzi Lorenzo Barber (America's sheet-asphalt tycoon) for $240,000; created Locomobile name brand (sold for $600, noiseless, odorless; water tanks had to be refilled every 20 miles); August 31, 1899 - F.O. Stanley and his wife, Flora, climbed Mt. Washington (NH) Carriage Road in 4.5-horsepower Locomobile in 2 hours, 10 minutes; 1900 - sales of Locomobile peaked at 1,600 (replaced by gasoline-powered automobiles); 1904 - last Locomobile steamers produed.

February 12, 1898 - Henry Lindfield, Brighton, UK business agent for International Cars, involved in first car crash resulting in fatality; electric car's steering gear failed, ran through wire fence, hit iron post, cut main artery in his leg, died of shock from operation following day; August 17, 1896 - first pedestrian fatally struck by a car; February 25, 1899 - first petrol-fuelled fatal car crash.

March 24, 1898 - Winton Motor Carriage Company made first commercial sale of American-built automobile in U.S.

May 31, 1898 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Governor for Motors", a "means for adjusting the governor for any desired speed, and with the means, such as centrifugal governor-balls, for regulating the friction members to maintain a constant speed".

August 9, 1898 - Rudolf Diesel, of Berlin, Germany, received a U.S. patent for an "Internal Combustion Engine" ("improvements in apparatus for regulating the fuel supply in slow-combustion motors and, in particular to internal combustion engines".

August 30, 1898 - Henry Ford, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Carbureter" ("especially designed for use in connection with gas or vapor engines").

December 24, 1898 - Louis Renault (21) drove his A-type Voiturette, with first direct-drive variable-ratio transmission (3-speed gearbox allowed more power in lower gears, more speed in higher gears vs. chain - drive system), up steep (13% slope) Rue Lepic in Montmartre, Paris; resulted in first 12 orders; 1899 - Marcel, Fernand Renault founded Societe Renault Freres n Avenue du Cours in Boulogne-Billancourt (outside Paris); 1900 - victory in Paris-Bordeaux race generated 350 new orders (price of 3,000 francs); 1902 - introduced standard drum brake (more reliable braking in forward, reverse); 1905 - switched from craft production to mass production to fill order for 250 taxis; 1909 - Louis Renault (32) sole owner (brothers died); renamed Louis Renault Automobile Company; 1918 - factory employed 5,000, produced 4,200 vehicles a year.

Renault brothers - Renault (

1899 - James and William Packard, along with George Weiss, formed the "Automobile Division" of New York and Ohio Company; November 6, 1899 - James Ward Packard road tested first automobile in Warren, OH; one-cylinder engine capable of producing 12hp, single-seat buggy with wire wheels, steering tiller, automatic spark advance, chain drive built around engine; sold five in first two months; 1902 - renamed Packard Motor Company.

January 3, 1899 - Editorial in The New York Times made  reference to an "automobile" on this day; first known use of word.

March 8, 1899 - Olds Motor Works formed; June 1896 - Ransom Olds completed a prototype of gas-burning horseless carriages; incorporated Olds Motor Vehicle Works separately from  P.F. Olds & Son; largely speculative investment made by the rich Lansing businessmen; Olds merged his family business with the Olds Motor Works, sold new shares of combined stock to raise the money.

May 20, 1899 - Jacob German, operator of taxicab for Electric Vehicle Company, became first driver arrested for speeding when he was stopped by Bicycle Roundsman Schueller for driving at  "breakneck" speed of 12mph on Lexington Avenue in Manhattan; booked, jailed at East Twenty-second Street station house; not made to hand over his license and registration, neither required in State of New York until two years later.

May 24, 1899 - W. T. McCullough, of Boston, MA, opened first public garage, Back Bay Cycle and Motor Company, as a "stable for renting, sale, storage, and repair of motor vehicles."

July 11, 1899 - Company charter of Societa Anonima "Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino” (FIAT) signed at Palazzo Bricherasio; 1900 - first factory was opened in Corso Dante, employed 150 workers, produced 24 cars (3 1/2 HP, not yet fitted with reverse gear).; 1902 - Giovanni Agnelli stood out in the group of investors, became Managing Director; 1904 - Fiat logo, oval on blue background, designed by Biscaretti, adopted.

July 24, 1899 - Detroit Automobile Company organized; January 12, 1900 - finished delivery wagon, first commercial vehicle, designed by young engineer, named Henry Ford; February 7, 1901 - company dissolved (Ford had already produced operable car in 1899; desribed in Detroit Journals as "mechanical engineer", built cars in converted wagon factory at 688-692 Mack Avenue in Detroit.

August 15, 1899 - Henry Ford resigned as chief engineer at main Detroit Edison Company plant in order to concentrate on automobile production.

September 13, 1899 - Arthur Smith struck, killed Henry Bliss, 68-year-old real estate broker, at corner of Central Park West and 74th Street in New York City; first recorded fatality in U. S. from automobile accident; Smith arrested, held on $1,000 bail; Henry Bliss taken to Roosevelt hospital, died.

October 14, 1899 - Literary Digest declared that "the ordinary horseless carriage is at present a luxury for the wealthy; and although its price will probably fall in the future, it will never, of course, come into common use as a bicycle".

1900 - John M. ("Jack") and Augustus F. ("Gus") Mack incorporated Mack Brothers Company in Brooklyn, NY; introduced first vehicle (40-horsepower, 20-passenger bus); 1905 - first to mount cab directly over engine (increased driver visibility, maneuverability); July 24, 1906 - Gus Mack received a patent for a "Transmission-Gear" ("variable speed transmission in which the use of sliding gears is avoided and the burning, stripping and undue noise attending such use eliminated and, further, to produce a transmission mechanism which can be readily connected and disconnected from motor and that at the same time is certain in action, convenient in operation, and compact and strong in construction"); received a second patent for a "Friction-Clutch" ("motion of the driving-shaft may be imparted at will to either of two driven shafts, both of said driven shafts being rotated in the same direction"); August 1911 - sold company, operation continued as International Motor Company (holding company for Mack Brothers Motor Car Company, Saurer Motor Company); 1916 - International Motor Truck Corporation formed; 1917 - bulldog trademark earned during World War I (British soldiers called Company's Mack AC model the Bulldog Mack because of its pugnacious, blunt-nosed hood, coupled with its durability, January 4, 1921 - International Motor Company registered MACK trademark first used October 13, 911 (motortrucks); June 3, 1921 - Bulldog as symbol first drawn; sheet metal plate with symbol riveted to each side of the cab; 1922 - name changed to Mack Trucks, Inc.

John M. Mack -  MACK Truck (

1900 - First Gordon Bennett Cup Race, from Paris to Lyon, France, won by Fernand Charron driving a Panhard; sponsored by James Gordon Bennett Jr., publisher of the New York Herald; premier auto race in the world between 1900-1905; Bennett established car racing's first set of rules; created color scheme for national racing teams (has remained more or less intact to this day): Italian racing Red, British racing Green, French Blue, German Silver, and American White and Blue; inability to control race crowds, spectator casualties led European countries to ban public road races; cancellation of Bennett Cup led to creation of Vanderbilt Cup sponsored by William K. Vanderbilt.

March 31, 1900 - W.E. Roach Company, of Philadelphia, PA, ran first car advertisement in a national magazine, Saturday Evening Post; featured its jingle, "Automobiles That Give Satisfation".

June 24, 1900 - Oliver Lippincott became first motorist in Yosemite National Park; drove there in his Locomobile steamer.

July 3, 1900 - Clyde J. Coleman, of New York City, received 5  patents for a "Motor-Vehicle" ("controlling means for electrically-propelled vehicles"); controlling, reversing, and braking mechanisms and connections for electric vehicles.

September 3, 1900 - Charles Wisner introduced first car built in Flint, MI; beginning of town's central role in automotive history; town's thriving carriage industry at turn of century evolved into body, spring, wheel suppliers for the Buick Motor Company; 1908 - W.C. Durant consolidated Flint's manufacturers into the General Motors Company (GM); 1950s - second only to Detroit in automobile manufacturing.

September 11, 1900 - Francis E. (F. E.) and Freeland O. (F. O.) Stanley, of Newton, MA, received a patent for a "Motor-Vehicle" ("to simplify and improve the construction of the operating apparatus of automobiles or motor-vehicles"); placing of parts; assigned to the Stanley Automobile Company; July 23, 1901 - received a patent for a "Steam-Generating Apparatus" ("whereby the steam after passing the throttle-valve will be additionally heated or superheated before it reaches the steam-chest of the such an extent that it will possess the requisite energy"); end of 1901 - reacquired factory sold in 1899; May 1, 1902 - began manufacture of Locomobile-type Stanley Steamer, first production steam-powered car (10,000 between 1897-1914); founded Stanley Motor Company; June 9, 1903 - received a patent for a "Steam Motor-Vehicle"; arrangement of engine on axle and housing; July 28, 1903 - received a patent for a "Steam Generator"; burner for vaporizing fuel from steam; manufactured Stanley Steamers until the brothers retired during World War I; 1908 - 800 Steamers produced; 1906 - set world record for fastest mile in 28.2 seconds (127 mph); 1917 - sold their interests to Prescott Warren; 1924 - last full year of production, 101 cars (high price, no advertising...let the Steamer "advertise itself", no mass production...individually-created, no internal-combustion engine).

Francis E. Stanley, Freelan O. Stanley - Stanley Steamer  ( 

November 3, 1900 - Automobile Club of America organized first U.S. "Horseless Carriage Show" (automobile) at Madison Square Garden; fifty-one exhibitors displayed 31 automobiles and various accessories.

December 22, 1900 - Daimler built new 35hp car from design by Emil Jellinke was completed; named for Jellinek's daugher, Mercedes.

1901 - Frank Meguiar, Jr. opened simple furniture polish laboratory and plant in garage; made one bottle of polish at a time using an eggbeater; made easy transition from furniture to automobiles (made of wood, initially coated with same finishes that were applied to furniture); Meguiar's Cleaner Wax - No.1 selling liquid car wax in America; 1950 - Maurice, Malcolm, Kenneth (sons) took over; July 8, 1952 - Mirror Bright Polish Co. registered "Mirror Bright" trademark first used in June 1923 (cleaners, polishes, and finish preservers for use on finished surfaces for cleaning, polishing, and preserving the finish; June 8, 1971 - Mirror Bright Polish Co. registered "Meguiar's" trademark first used February 17, 1960 (mold release waxes); October 3, 2008 - acquired by 3M (Automotive Aftermarket Division); one of world's leading surface care products companies, providing highly specialized cleaners, polishes, waxes, conditioners and protectants for almost every conceivable type of surface.

1901 - George Hendee, Oscar Hedstrom (maker of motorized pacing bicycle), formed partnership, Hendee Manufacturing Company in Springfield, MA, to manufacture "motor bicycles" (motorcycle with 1.75 bhp, single cylinder engine); 1902 - introduced first Indian motorcycles, featured innovative belt-drives, streamlined styling; 1903 - Hedstrom set world motorcycle speed record (56 mph); 1912 - Indian Motocycle Company world's largest motorcycle manufacturer; 1913 - production peaked at 32,000 units; Hedstrom left after disagreements with Board of Directors regarding dubious practices to inflate company's stock price; 1916 - Hendee retired; 1930 - merged with duPont Motors; November 1, 1945 - controlling interest acquired by group headed by Ralph B. Rogers; 1953 - manufacture of all products halted; 1962 - went into liquidation; entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using Indian name, apparently without purchasing it from last known legitimate trademark holder; 1970 - alleged Indian trademark acquired by Los Angeles attorney Alan Newman; October 5, 1971 - Indian Motorcycles, Inc. registered "Indian" trademark first used October 28,. 1968 (motorcycles); January 1977 - declared bankruptcy; December 1998 - Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, CO awarded trademark to IMCOA Licensing America Inc.; 1999 - merged with eight companies, formed Indian Motorcycle Company of America in Gilroy, CA; July 2004 - trademarks, related intellectual property acquired by Stellican Limited, London-based private equity firm; July 20, 2006 - newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company relocated to Kings Mountain, NC; America's oldest motorcycle brand.

George Hendee - Indian Motorcycles (

Oscar Hedstrom - Indian Motorcycles (

February 12, 1901 - James Ward Packard received three patents: for an "Igniting Device for Hydrocarbon-Engines"; William A. Hatcher and James W. Packard for a "Motor-Vehicle Frame" ("of simple and cheap construction having its parts so constructed and related to each other that the frame will readily accommodate itself to irregular and rough surfaces and at the same time maintain the wheels and axels in proper running relation"); William A. Hatcher and James W. Packard for a "Mixer and Vaporizer for Explosive Engines" ("for effectively regulating the admission of gas and air to the mixing-chamber"); other automotive innovations included "H" gear-slot pattern, gas pedal.

March 25, 1901- Gottlieb Daimler introduced Mercedes at five-day "Week of Nice" in Nice, France; 1904 - Mercedes clocked 97 mph over one-kilometer stretch.

April 25, 1901- New York became first state to require automobile license plates; owners obliged to register their names, addresses, description of their vehicle with the office of the secretary of state; state sent small license plate to each owner (at least three inches high, bore owner's initials); $1 registration fee; generated revenues of $954 to state. 

May 21, 1901 - Connecticut State General Assembly passed bill submitted by Representative Robert Woodruff that stipulated  speed of all motor vehicles should not exceed 12mph on country highways, eight mph within city limits; first state to enact speeding-driver law.

June 1901 - Henry Martyn Leland (formerly of Leland and Faulconer Manufacturing Co., maker of precision gears) developed 10.25 horsepower engine for Ransom Olds (supplied transmissions for Olds Runabouts); rejected by Olds (didn't want to retool  manufacturing equipment); August 22, 1902 - advised William Murphy, Lemuel W. Bowen, financial backers of Henry Ford, to keep existing manufacturing facilities, use his engine in new automobile (three times  horsepower of Olds's engines) = birth of Cadillac Automobile Company (named after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, founder of Detroit); Leland and Faulconer supplied engines, transmissions, steering gears; October 17, 1902 - first prototype Cadillac completed; March 1903 - production began; first car produced with fully-interchangeable parts (precision manufacturing); first car company to introduce self-starting mechanism, electric lights, dimmable headlights; produced 2,500 by end of 1903; 1904 - Leland became president, general manager; October 1905 - Cadillac, Leland and Faulconer merged, formed Cadillac Motor Car Company; 1908 - acquired for $4.4 million by Will Durant's General Motors Company; 1914 - introduced Cadillac with V-8 engine (two four-cylinder engines in V-shaped formation), great success, standard in Cadillac until 1927; August 4, 1925 - registered "Cadillac" trademark first used in 1903 (automobiles).

September 30, 1901 - Compulsory car registration for all vehicles driving over 18mph took effect throughout France; 1910 - dividing lines appeared, followed by traffic signs, traffic lights, one-way streets.

1902 - Henry Bourne Joy (President of Packard Motor Car Company), Frederic Smith (Olds) formed Manufacturer's Mutual Association (MMA), to threaten monopoly of Electric Vehicle Company (holder of 1895 Selden patent) on manufacture of internal combustion engine vehicles; called for much lower royalty payments, legal and license rights to be controlled by the MMA; 1903 - name changed to Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (ALAM) as exclusive licensee of the Selden patent; secured favorable royalty rights from the Electric Vehicle Company (1.25% royalty on all cars produced, 1/2 of 1% of which went directly into ALAM legal, operating funds).

February 15, 1902 - Oldsmobile ran its first national automobile advertisement in Saturday Evening Post; sales rose 100 percent to 5,000 cars by 1904; December 2, 1902 - Olds Motor Works Corporation registered "Oldsmobile" trademark first used in December 1900 (automobiles).

March 4, 1902 - Nine auto clubs formed American Automobile Association in Chicago to deal with concerns of motorists (vs. those of car manufacturing, engineering); 1907 - established  bureau of touring information to supply members with all available data on roads, hotels, service facilities, motor vehicle laws; 1927 - foreign travel department established in 1927 to handle steamship tickets, shipment of members' cars;  1940 - membership passed one million.

August 1902 - William Murphy, Henry Leland formed Cadillac - produced 2,500 by the end of 1903; established a reputation for exacting quality under Leland's detail-oriented supervision; November 1908 - Benjamin Briscoe made bid for Cadillac, but unable to get enough backing to complete deal; William Durant purchased Cadillac for cash, kept Leland on as management;  said, "I want you to continue to run Cadillac exactly as though it were still your own. You will receive no directions from anyone."

November 4, 1902 - James W. Packard, William Hatcher, of Warren, OH, received a patent for a Controlling Mechanism for Motor-Vehicles" ("means whereby the vehicle may be stopped, started, and reversed and its speed controlled by the simple forward-and-back movement of a controlling-lever"); "H" gear shift pattern (reverse, neutral, drive, second gear, low operating mode of transmission).

December 2, 1902 - French engine designer Leon-Marie-Joseph-Clement Levavasseur received French patent for first working V-8 engine; engine block was first to arrange eight pistons in the V-formation that allowed a crankshaft with only four throws to be turned by eight pistons.

1903 - William S. Harley, Arthur Davidson produced first Harley-Davidson® motorcycle (3-1/8 inch bore and 3-1/2 inch stroke) in 10 x 15-foot wooden shed with words "Harley-Davidson Motor Company" crudely scrawled on door; October 19, 1920 - Harley-Davidson Motor Co. registered "Harley-Davidson" trademark first used June 1906 (motorcycles, bicycles, side cars and parcel cars).

1903 - William Phelps Eno developed first city traffic code in world for New York City, first traffic plans for New York City, London, and Paris; 1921 - founded Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control (credited with developing 'stop sign'); pioneered field of traffic management in United States, Europe; sought to promote safe mobility by ensuring that traffic control became accepted role of government, traffic engineering recognized professional discipline.

1903 - Jonathan Dixon Maxwell and Benjamin Briscoe (sheet metal contractor) founded Maxwell Briscoe Motor Co. (Tarryown, NY); 1908 - Hugh Chalmers recruited to E.R.Thomas-Detroit Co. (founded 1905) from National Cash Register; renamed Chalmers-Detroit (changed to Chalmers in 1910); 1910 - Briscoe formed United Motors out of Columbia Motor Car Co. (founded 1897 by Albert Augustus Pope to manufacture gas, electric vehicles), Brush Motor Car Co. (founded 1907 by Frank Briscoe, brother, and Alanson P. Brush to build one cylinder engine, chain drive, wooden frame, wooden axles Brush Runabout), and Maxwell Briscoe; 1912 - United Motors collapsed; 1914 - Maxwell reorganized Maxwell Briscoe into Maxwell Motors (only firm to emerge from United Motors); August 1920 - Walter Chrysler joined company; 1922 - Chalmers merged with Maxwell; development of new car to bear Chrysler name began; Chalmers discontinued.

Jonathan Dixon Maxwell - Maxwell Motors (

Hugh Chalmers (

February 28, 1903 - Henry Ford hired John F. and Horace E. Dodge to supply chassis, running gear for 650 Ford automobiles; 1910 - Dodge Brothers had become largest parts-manufacturing firm in U.S., manufactured car bodies for Henry Ford, Ransom Olds; 1914 - founded Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company, began work on first automobiles.

May 16, 1903 - George Wymann began first transcontinental motorcycle trip from San Francisco.

May 19, 1903 - Clarence Spicer received a patent for a "Casing for Universal Joints"; first practical universal joint to power automobile (vs. chain-and-sprocket drives); 1904 - started manufacturing u niversal joints; May 20, 1905 - incorporated Spicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company in New Jersey; 1906 - customers included Buick, Wayne, Mack, Olds, Stevens-Duryea, American Motor Car, Diamond T, E.R. Thomas; November 30, 1909 - name changed to Spicer Manufacturing Company; 1914 - Charles Dana (33, lawyer) joined company; 1916 - became president, treasurer; April 27, 1922 - listed on New York Stock Exchange; 1944 - employed about 10,000 people; July 12, 1946 - renamed Dana Holding Corporation; 1954 - record sales of $203 million; October 14, 1974 - broke the $1 billion in sales; 1987 - exceeded $4 billion in annual sales; May 7, 1998 - acquired Echlin Inc. (founded 1924), largest-ever merger of automotive-related companies.

Clarence W. Spicer  - founder Dana Corporation (

May 19, 1903 - David Dunbar Buick, former plumbing inventor and manufacturer, incorporated Buick Motor Co. in Detroit, MI (formed in 1902 when Buick agreed to partnership with Briscoe Manufacturing Company in exchange for writing off Buick's debts, establishing $100,000 capitalization for Buick's car company); summer 1903 - began production with Model B (37 by end of 1904); September 11, 1903 - acquired by Flint Wagon Works for $10,000; hired William Durant to turn business around; kept Buick on as manager until 1908; January 22, 1904 - Buick Motor Co. Of Detroit dissolved; January 30, 1904 - Buick Motor Co. Of Flint incorporated; July 27, 1904 - Dr. Herbert Hills of Flint, MI purchased first Buick automobile ever sold; November 1, 1904 - financial problems, acquired by William C. "Billy" Durant, Flint's carriage "king"; 1905 - took orders for 1,000 Buicks at New York Auto Show (before company had built 40); 1906 - Buick (52) severed his link with company; 1908 - No. 1 producer of automobiles (8,000) --surpassed combined production of Ford and Cadillac, closest competitors (basis for founding of General Motors); June 2, 1925 - General Motors Corporation registered "Buick" trademark first used in January 1904 (motor-driven vehicles).

June 16, 1903 - Articles of Association filed for organization of Ford Motor Company (capital of $28,000, Ford's patents, knowledge and engine); John S. Gray  President, Henry Ford Vice President; 12 stockholders: Henry Ford, Alexander Malcomson, John W. Anderson, C.H. Bennett, James Couzens, Horace E. Dodge, John F. Dodge, Vernon C. Fry, John S. Gray, Horace H. Rackham, Albert Strelow and Charles J. Woodall (Ford had already produced operable car in 1899; had been described by Detroit Journals as "mechanical engineer"; planned to build cars in converted wagon factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit); July 23, 1903 - Ford Motor Co. sold its first car, Model A (twin-cylinder internal combustion engine), to Detroit physician; July 20, 1909 - registered "Ford" trademark first used February 15, 1895 (automobiles and their parts); January17, 1956 - went public (10.2 million shares, raised more than $600 million dollars, Goldman Sachs lead underwriter).

James Couzens - original Ford stockholder (

July 23, 1903 - Ford delivered first twin-cylinder internal combustion engine Ford Model A to Dr. Ernst Pfenning of Chicago; Model A was result of partnership between Henry Ford, Alexander Malcolmson, Detroit coal merchant; designed primarily by C. Harold Wills, Ford's assistant C. Harold Wills, was affordable runabout Ford needed to begin marketing company's stock; November 1927 - second Model A, released, great success; 1927-1931 - produed 4.3 million Model A Fords.

Alexander Malcomson (

August 31, 1903 - Packard automobile completed 52-day journey from San Francisco to New York; first car to cross U.S. under its own power.

October 22, 1903 - Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (ALAM) filed suit against Ford Motor Company as an unlicensed (by ALAM) manufacturer of internal combustion vehicles (controlled 1895 Selden patent); claimed patent applied to all gasoline-powered automobiles; ALAM launched PR campaign, threatened to sue those who bought Ford automobiles; September 15, 1909 - presiding Judge Merrill Hough of US District Court for southern district of New York found Selden patent legitimate; January 9, 1911 - court of appeals overturned ruling, found in favor of Ford; ALAM did not contest ruling.

November 24, 1903 - Clyde J. Coleman, of New York City, received patent for a "Means for Operating Motor Vehicles" ("for starting the engine by the application of power thereto and for utilizing the power of the engine when the engine is self-actuated for the purpose of storing energy"); automobile electric self-starter (invented by him in 1899, but impractical); assigned to Rockaway Automobile Company; liense acquired by Delco Company, subsequently acquired by General Motors Corporation; 1911 - Charles Kettering installed modified self-starter in Cadillac cars; eliminated dangerous job of cranking engine; put women behind wheel in greater numbers.

December 24, 1903 - England issued its first automobile license plate, number A1, to Earl Russel, brother of philosopher Bertrand Russell.

1904 - Henry Ford opened plant in Windsor, ON; start of Canada's car manufacturing industry.

1904 - Carl Fisher, Fred Avery (held patent for pressing carbide gas into tanks) formed Presto-O-Lite Corporation to manufacture car headlamps.

1904 - Rand McNally published first automobile road map, New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity.

January 1, 1904 - The Motor Car Act 1903 came into force in Britain; required registration of motor vehicles with local council (1 pound for a motor car licence, 5 shillings for a motor cycle licence, vehicles were to display registration marks in a prominent position); speed limit raised to 20 mph (or 10 mph by Local Government Boards; intgroduced heavy fines for speeding, reckless driving.

January 19, 1904 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electrical Automobile" ("electrical automobile in which the driving-motor may be conveniently and effectively utilized for the purpose of charging the batteries"); small steam engine connected to the armature of electric motor; converted to generator for charging the batteries when rotation of the motor-armature reversed.

May 31, 1904 - Byron J. Carter, of Jackson, MI, received a U.S. patent for "Transmission-Gearing"; "friction-drive" mechanism replaced conventional transmission to provide more precise control of a car's speed; never really caught on, proved susceptible to poor road conditions; technology involved in the friction-drive is, however, related to today's disc brakes.

August 27, 1904 - Newport, Rhode Island, imposed first jail sentence for speeding violation.

November 22, 1904 - Mathias Pfatischer of Phildadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Variable Speed Motor" ("applicable to direct-current shunt-wound motors...which will effect commutation without sparking with a variable load as well as at a variable speed and which is capable of rotation in either direction").

1905 - Albert Joseph Champion, Frank D. Stranahan, Spencer Stranahan started Albert Champion Company at Cyclorama building in Boston, MA; sold imported ignition items, manufactured magnetoes, spark plugs; October 26, 1908 - incorporated Champion Ignition Company, in Flint, MI, with backing of Buick Motor Co., for manufacturing of spark plugs; Stranahans refused to sell rights to "Champion" name; 1922 - name changed to AC Spark Plug Company; April 28, 1931 - registered "A C" trademark first used in 1912 (spark plugs and spark-plug porcelains); 1933 - became division of GM.  

Albert J. Champion - A C Spark Plugs (

1905 - Herbert Austin, former manager of the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company, founded The Austin Motor Company at Longbridge, South Birmingham, England; first car - chain-driven 25/30HP; 1922 - Austin Seven introduced; 1952 - merged with Nuffield Organisation (parent company of Morris), formed British Motor Corporation (later British Leyland) with Leonard Lord in charge.

March 1905 - John Marston (63) formed Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited with starting capital of £40,000; cars made at Moorfield Works, off Villiers Street in Wolverhampton, UK; introduced 12 hp Sunbeam, powered by 2.66 litre, 4 cylinder engine (about 172 built, old for £451.10s.); 1918 - Thomas Cureton succeeded as Chairman; 1920 - merged with Darracq (built first car in 1900), Talbot (established in 1902 as Clement-Talbot Company, acquired by Darracq in 1919); formed S.T.D. group (Sunbeam, Talbot, Darracq); July 1935 - acquired by Rootes Securities.

John Marston - Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited (

January 13, 1906 - First automobile show of the American Motor Car Manufacturers Association (AMCMA) opened in New York City at the 69th Regiment Armory.

March 15, 1906 - Charles Stewart Rolls, Frederick Henry Royce registered Rolls-Royce Ltd.; launched six-cylinder Silver Ghost; hailed as 'the best car in the world' within year (Royce had sold cars in Mayfair, London, had met Royce in Manchester, UK in 1904).

October 22, 1906 - Henry Ford became President of Ford Motor ompany.

1907 - Louis Chevrolet became team driver for Buick; 1910 - Chevrolet,  William Durant formed Chevrolet Motor Company; 1914 - formed Frontenac Motor Corp., ostensibly to produce high-class touring cars; March 31, 1914 - Chevrolet Motor Company registered "Chevrolet" trademark first used July 22, 1913 (automobiles, motor-vehicles, and parts thereof).

1907 - Walden W. Shaw formed Walden W. Shaw Livery Company (separate from Walden W. Shaw Co. he had established in 1906 to manufacture automobiles, accessories; 33% interest in company acquired by John D. Hertz in 1907 for $2,000; Shaw as president, Hertz as secretary, treasurer); September 1910 - merged with City Motor Cab (Chicago's two largest taxicab livery companies), reorganized as Maine Corporation, named Walden W. Shaw Livery Co.; December 25, 1914 - introduced specially designed taxicabs; August 1915 - formed Yellow Cab Company to manufacture new taxis; August 2, 1915 - introduced initial fleet of 40 Yellow Cabs (Model J) to Chicago  streets; 1916 - 80 employees produced average of 1 cab per day; October, 30, 1916 - reorganized, recapitalized, incorporated in New York as Walden W. Shaw Corporation (125 seven-passenger limousines operated by livery subsidiary, 270 smaller type automobiles operated by Yellow Cab Co.); first company to use automatic windshield wipers, ultrahigh frequency two-way radios, passenger seat belts; June 29, 1920 - Walden W. Shaw Auto Livery Co. renamed Yellow Cab Manufacturing Co.; 1925 - Yellow Cab Manufacturing Co. merged with General Motors Truck Corp., formed Yellow Truck & Coach Manufacturing Co.; April 12, 1929 - Hertz’s interest in Yellow Cab acquired by Charles A. McCulloch, head of Parmelee Transfer Company (Hertz's longtime friend, business partner); 1930 - acquired by Morris Markin (Checker Cab Manufacturing Co., founded 1919); 1996 - acquired by  Patton Corrigan; 2005 - controlling interest acquired by Michael Levine (third-generation taxicab operator from New York City).

Walden W. Shaw - Yellow Cab Company (oo1908_WW_Shaw_01.jpg)

John D. Hertz - Yellow Cab Company (

1907 - Cavaliere Ugo Stella, aristocrat from Milan, and French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, founded Darracq Italiana; partnership collapsed, company renamed ALFA (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili); 1916 - Nicola Romeo, Procurator General of the Banca di Sconto, took over; 1919 - took complete control of ALFA, car production resumed; 1920 - name changed to Alfa Romeo; 1928 - Nicola Romeo left, company went broke after defense contracts ended; 1933 - rescued by government.

Nicola Romeo - ALFA Romeo (

1907 - Traffic island introduced; 1911 - dividing lines appeared; 1916 - "No Left Turn" sign debuted.

August 1907 - Edward M. Murphy, founder of Pontiac Buggy Company (established in 1893), group of businessmen, formed Oakland Motor Car Company on Oakland Avenue in Pontiac MI; April 16, 1908 - first car, Model A, rolled off assembly line (first year production of approximately 200 cars); January 1909 - 50% acquired by General Motors; April 1909 - acquired by William C. Durant, absorbed into holding company, General Motors (GM); became division; 1926 - first Pontiac, Series 6-27, debuted at New York Auto Show (almost 50,000 sold in first year); 1932 - Oakland ceased operations; 1933 - renamed Pontiac Motor Car Company; only company to introduce offspring car so popular it lead to its own demise.  

August 8, 1907 - Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost passed its 15,000-mile official trial (seven-liter engine, four-speed overdrive gearbox); made "the Ghost's" reputation, gave Rolls-Royce the name "The Best Car in the World"; total of 6,173 Silver Ghosts produced.

November 20, 1907 - McLaughlin Motor Car Company Limited  formed in Ontario with capital of 5,000 shares valued at C$100 each; R.S. "Sam" McLaughlin as President; signed manufacturing agreement with Billy Durant, partner in Buick Motor Company; 1908 - turned out 154 cars, called McLaughlins, with Buick engines; Durant personally acquired 1,000 shares in trust for Buick Company; September 19, 1909 - Durant exchanged $500,000-worth of Buick stock for $500,000 of McLaughlin stock, exchanged Buick stock for GM stock, GM controlled almost half of company; 1918 - acquired by GM.

1908 - John North Willys, successful car dealer of Overland vehicles in Elmira, NY, bought Overland Automotive Company (founded 1903 in Terre Haute, IN as automotive division of Standard Wheel Company; developed supply problems in 1907); 1912 - renamed Willys-Overland Company; 1915 - second largest carmaker in U.S.; 1916 - produced over 140,000 cars; 1920 - company $46 million in debt; hired Walter Chrysler for $1 million per year salary to turn company around; 1921 - Chrysler left company to go into business for himself after failed takeover attempt; March 1930-May 1932 - Willys appointed U.S. Ambassador to Poland; 1933 - bankruptcy reorganization; 1936 - emerged from bankruptcy, renamed Willys-Overland Motors, Inc.

July 22, 1908 - Frederic and Charles Fisher established Fisher Body Company to manufacture carriage and automobile bodies; quickly abandoned carriage building to concentrate on car frames; 1910 - supplied some car bodies to General Motors (GM); 1919 - controlling interest acquired by GM to shore up supplier for its car bodies; July 10, 1923 - registered "Body by Fisher" trademark first used in August 1922 (automobile bodies); June 30, 1926 - remaining 40 percent of Fisher Body acquired by GM for $136 million; became Fisher Body Division of GM; 1944 - Fisher family relinquished control of Division; brothers Lawrence, Edward on board of directors until 1969; 1919 - 1944 - every GM body passed approval of Fisher man; family's impact on automotive industry second only to that of Ford family.

August 12, 1908 - Henry Ford's first Model T ("Tin Lizzie") rolled off assembly line in Detroit; result of five years of research and development, 20 attempts, to produce inexpensive car for mass market; christened Model T after 20th letter in alphabet (representing 20 attempts); affordable, reliable car for average American; cost only $850, seated two people(low cost due to Ford's control of all raw materials, mass production); October 1, 1908 - went on sale; 1915 - electric lights introduced; 1919 - electric starter introduced as an option; 1927 - production discontinued after manufacture of nearly 15 million cars with Model "T" engine; longest run of any single model apart from Volkswagen Beetle (car for masses). 

September 16, 1908 - Former carriage-maker William Crapo "Billy" Durant (Durant-Dort Carriage Company) founded General Motors (GM), as a holding company, incorporated with  capital of $2,000  September 29, 1908 - GM merged Buick, Oldsmobile (Lansing, MI) into GM; added Cadillac (Detroit) for $4.4 million cash, Oakland (Pontiac predecessor), dozens of parts suppliers (AC Spark Plug); 1908-1910 - added more than 30 companies to GM; 1910 - Chevrolet and William Durant formed the Chevrolet Motor Company; September 26, 1910 - overextended, Durant lost control of the company; July 22, 1911 - General Motors Truck Company (later GMC) organized; November 1911 - Chevrolet incorporated; 1912- Cadillac introduced electric self-starter, quickly made hand crank obsolete, propelled sales; 1915-1916 - Durant regained control of GM, used Chevrolet profits to repurchase stock; May 2, 1918 - General Motors (GM) acquired Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware for about $32 million in  GM stock; Durant regained control of GM;  November 8, 1918 - McLaughlin Carriage and Motor Company Limited and Chevrolet Motor Company of Canada Limited merged, formed General Motors of Canada Limited  (President: R.S. "Sam" McLaughlin); GM already owned 49% of company; 1920 - Durant resigned as GM president, overextended in stock market; May 10, 1923 - Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. elected GM president, Chairman of Executive Committee; 1929 - GM surpassed Ford to become  leading American passenger-car manufacturer; 1941 - largest automotive manufacturer in world; May 29, 2009 - relinquished control of Opel, its German-based European arm since 1929, to Magna International, large but little-known Canadian auto-parts maker with global ambitions (acquisition financed with German government loans, Russian bridge financing); June 1, 2009 - declared bankruptcy.

December 29, 1908 - Otto Zachow and William Besserdich, of Clintonville, WI received a patent for a "Power-Applying Mechanism" ("whereby the power may be applied to front and rear axles"); four-wheel braking system, prototype of all modern braking systems.

1909 - Charles Kettering organized Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), with backing from Col. Edward A. Deeds, to work on developments in automotive field; improved lighting and ignition systems, lacquer finishes, antilock fuels, leaded gasoline; May 1916 - General Motors created United Motors Corp., combination of five parts, accessories manufacturers (Hyatt Roller Bearing, led by Alfred P. Sloan, and Dayton Engineering Laboratories, led by Charles F. Kettering. in exchange for $9 million); February 26, 1924 - Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company registered "DELCO" trademark first used in 1911 (Electrical Starting, Lighting, and Ignition Apparatus and Parts Thereof Employed with Internal-Combustion Engines for Use on Automobiles, Motor Boats, Aircraft, and the Like); 1971 - United Motors Service renamed United Delco Division; 1974 - United Delco , AC Spark Plug sales organizations combined, formed AC-Delco Division.

1909 - Ettore Bugatti opened manufacturing plant in Molsheim, France (had presented first self-made automobile at  international exhibition in Milan in 1901); 1910 - built, sold 10 automobiles, 5 aircraft engines; March 20, 1920 - delivered  first 16-valve car to  customer in Basel, Switzerland; built total of 7900 cars between 1910-1939.

1909 - Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan ecided to make his own cars in town of Malvern, Worcestershire, UK; 1910 - unveiled Runabout, Three-Wheeler, one seat model at  Olympia Motor Show in London; 1911 - introduced two-seater Runabout with wheel steering, hood; 1912 - officially formed Morgan Motor Company as private limited company, with HFS Morgan as managing director, George Morgan (father), who had invested considerably in son’s business, as first chairman; 1913 - won International Cyclecar Grand Prix at Amiens in France; registered  fastest average speed of 22 mph at celebrated Shelsley Walsh Hill Climb; 1921 - introduced four-seater family ‘Runabout’; 1933 - launched Morgan F-4 at Olympia Motor Show; 1936 - exhibited first four-wheel car, 4-4 sports car (four wheels, four cylinders) at London, Paris; 1950 - launched Morgan Plus 4; 1959 - Peter Morgan (son) took over; 1968 - launched Morgan Plus 8 (one of  most successful cars for company, produced for 36 years); 2000 - introduced Aero 8, first new Morgan design since 1948, first Morgan vehicle with aluminium chassis, frame (vs. traditional aluminium skinned wooden body tub on steel chassis); 2011 - reintroduced Threewheeler at Geneva motor show (80bhp S&S 1983cc V-twin engine, capable of close to 115 mph); 2013 - Charles Morgan (grandson), former chairman, dismissed.

Henry F. S. Morgan - Morgan Motor Company (

January 15, 1909 - H. D. Ludlow, Chicago funeral director, used motorized hearse for first time in funeral procession; stately horse-drawn hearses had been in use for centuries.

February 9, 1909 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation (private closed course in American tradition of oval-track racing) incorporated with Carl G. Fisher as president; August 19, 1909 - first race; built new track of brick, cheapest and most durable appropriate surface available to him (Speedway later called "the Brickyard"); 1912 - total prize money available at grueling Indy 500 was $50,000, highest paying sporting event in world; 1945 - track acquired by Tony Hulman for $750,000; May 1946 - American Automobile Association ran its first postwar Indy 500, preserved American tradition; largest single-day sporting event in world.

February 24, 1909 - Joseph L. Hudson, Detroit department store entrepreneur, Howard E. Coffin incorporated Hudson Motor Car Company in Detroit, MI; July 3, 1909 - began production with Model 20; company had several 'firsts' for auto industry: self starter, dual brakes, first balanced crankshaft (allowed the Hudson straight-6 engine to work at higher rotational speed while remaining smooth, developed more power than lower-revving engines); 1929 - peak production year (300,000 cars produced), third in the industry behind Ford and Chevrolet; 1951 - introduced Hornet, became dominant force on NASCAR circuit (won 29 of 34 events in 1952); January 14, 1954 - merged with Nash Motors, became American Motors; 1957 - name discontinued.

Joseph L. Hudson - Hudson Motor Car Co. (

June 27, 1909 - Mercedes Benz introduced three-pointed star symbol.

July 16, 1909 - August Horch established Horch Automobil-Werke GmbH in Zwickau, Germany (had founded A. Horch & Cie in Ehrenfeld, Cologne, Germany on November 14, 1899, built first car in 1901); changed company name due to legal dispute over Horch trademark; August 25, 1910 - renamed company Audi Automobilwerke GmbH (Audi - Latin translation of Horch); August 1928 - Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen of DKW acquired majority holding in Audiwerke; June 29, 1932 - Audiwerke, Horchwerke,  Zschopauer Motorenwerke - DKW, Automobile Division of Wanderer merged, formed Auto Union AG (second-largest motor vehicle manufacturer in Germany); new company's logo, four interlinked rings, one for each of founder companies; Horch was on  supervisory board of Auto Union; December 13, 1960 - Auto Union G.M.B.H. registered "Audi" trademark in U. S. (Automobiles, Including Motor Cars for Personal Use and Trucks, and Structural Parts Thereof, Including Automobile Heaters and Ventilators, Locks and Closures for Automobile Coolers, and Automobile Safety Locks).

August Horch - founder Audi (

July 29, 1909 - Buick Motor Company acquired Cadillac Motor Company (formed by William Murphy, Henry Leland in 1902) on behalf of General Motors for $4.5 million;

September 15, 1909 - New York judge ruled that Henry Ford had infringed on George Selden's 1895 patent for a "Road Engine"; decision later overturned when it became plain that Selden had never intended to actually manufacture his "road engine." Selden's own "road engine" prototype, built in the hope of strengthening his case, only managed to stagger along for a few hours before breaking down.

1910 - William Morris, bicycle manufacturer, founded Morris Motor Company (MMC); 1913 - opened factory Cowley, Oxford, UK; produced first cars, two-seater Oxford model; 1920s - Oxford, Cowley models became best selling cars in UK; 1924 - overtook Ford, became UK's biggest car manufacturer (51% share of home market); 1927 - acquired Wolseley Motor Company, 1929 - Morris Minor introduced to compete with Austin Seven; powered by an 847cc OHC engine; August 22, 1933 - M. G. Car Company Ltimited registered "MG" trademark first used May 1, 1924 [automobiles and structural parts thereof] structural parts of automobiles; 1935 - launched popular 918cc Morris Eight (more than 250,000 sold); 1938 - William Morris became Viscount Nuffield; merged MCC and MG with newly acquired Riley, formed Nuffield Organisation; 1948 - Morris Minor re-engineered; first BMC car to sell more than a million; 1952 - Nuffield Organisation (Morris, MG, Riley, Wolseley) merged with rival Austin Motor Company, formed British Motor Corporation (BMC);  Austin's Leonard Lord in charge, dominated organization; 1960s -  employed 250,000 people, Longbridge factory one of biggest in world; April 8, 2005 - collapsed under  debts of $1.7 billion, loss of more than 5,000 jobs; July 22, 2005 - MG Rover Group acquired by Nanjing Automobile for $97 million; March 27, 2007 - revived MG brand, began production of MG sports cars.

1910 - "Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", A.L.F.A., founded, under direction of Cavalier Ugo Stella.

1910 - Pierce-Arrow introduced Touring Landau at Madison Square Garden; first recreational vehicle - back seat folded into bed, chamber pot toilet, sink folded down from back of seat of chauffeur (connected to passengers via telephone); Los Angeles Trailer Works and Auto-Kamp Trailers launched camping trailers, 1967 - Winnebago Industries began mass-producing "America’s first family of motor homes" (five models from 16 to 27 feet long, from $5,000); 2005 - University of Michigan study estimated RV owners traveled for 26 days, averaged 4,500 miles annually; 2010 - about 8.2 million households owned RVs (source: Recreational Vehicle Industry Association); 60% of RVs manufactured in United States originated in Elkhart, IN.

July 2, 1910 - Robert A. Stranahan (former manager of Albert Champion Company in Boston, MA in 1909 - spark plug production less than 50,000; [Albert Champion left company in late 1908, moved to Flint, MI, started Champion Ignition Company, later renamed A-C Spark Plugs]), Frank D. Stranahan (former treasurer of Albert Champion Company) incorporated Champion Spark Plug Company ($22,000 in debt, manufacturing equipment in two boxes) in Toledo, OH (in accordance with manufacturing contract with Willys-Overland Company - second largest producer of automobiles in United States, behind Ford Motor Company, from 1912-1918); July 18, 1911 - James D. Robertson, of Toledo, OH, received a patent  for a "Terminal Clamp"; assigned to Champion Spark Plug Company; company's first patent; 1912 - supplied reliable spark plugs for 75% of American cars;  August 12, 1913 - registered "Champion" trademark first used in April 1907 (spark plugs); 1964 - sales of $124 million; 1989 -  acquired for $600 million by Dana Corporation.

Robert A. Stranahan - Champion Spark Plug (

September 26, 1910 - William C. Durant, founder of General Motors (GM), lost control of company due to financial difficulties; joined forces with Louis Chevrolet to establish Chevrolet Motor Company; five years later reacquired control of GM,  served as president; 1920 - lost permanent control of GM. 

November 1910 - Henry Frederick Stanley (H.F.S) Morgan began manufacture of automobiles with capital for some machine tools, extension to Malvern Garage (Warwickshire, UK) provided by his father (had opened garage and motor works in Malvern Link in 1906 at age 25; ran successful bus service, built single-seat, 7 hp twin-cylinder Peugeot engine 3-wheeler, Morgan Runabout, with rigid frame, independent front-wheel suspension and light weight, in 1909); August 17, 1911 - received design patent for "Improvements in the Design and Construction of Tri-cars or other Light Automobile Vehicles"; 1911 - Morgan made first public appearance at Olympia Motor Show; 1912 - Morgan Motor Company formed as private Limited Company with Reverend H.G. Morgan as Chairman, H. F. S. Morgan (son) as Managing Director; showed several two-seaters at Olympia; 1915 - built four- seater model (later marketed as Family Runabout); 1931 - introduced model with three speeds and reverse, one chain, detachable wheels; 1936 - introduced 4/4, four wheeled car, four cylinders, four wheels; July 29, 1952 - produced last 3-wheeler, Ford-engined "F"-Super; 1968 - introduced Morgan Plus 8, with 3.5 liter V8 Rover engine (original design of engine made by Buick) with gearbox mounted into same basic chassis as Plus 4 and 4/4 models; 2000 - launched Aero 8 (BMW 4.4 litre quad cam V8, aluminium honeycomb construction techniques); 2004 - Plus 8 model ceased production (non-availability of suitable engines).

H.F.S. Morgan - Morgan Motor Company (

November 29, 1910 - Ernest E. Sirrine, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for a "Street Traffic System"; first patent issued for traffic signal design.

January 9, 1911 - United States Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Ford Motor Company was not infringing on George Selden's internal-combustion automobile patent; beginning of end for Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (A.L.A.M.), organized to gather royalties on Selden patent from all auto makers, and Selden's royalties.

February 6, 1911 - Rolls-Royce adopted "Spirit of Ecstasy" mascot, silver-winged hood ornament that has become the company's symbol.

February 17, 1911 - Charles F. Kettering delivered first operating self-starting mechanism to Cadillac; installed in t1912 Cadillac; relied on storage battery that supplied  24-volt charge to starter to ignite engine, battery then switched to six volts to feed back into battery, recharge it (received patent in 1915); gave women access to cars for first time, broadened market for  automobile 

March 15, 1911 - Gustave Otto, son of internal combustion engine pioneer Nikolaus Otto, organized Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik Muchen, Munich-based aero-engineering firm; March 7, 1916 -  merged with Karl Rapp, licensed manufacturer of Austro-Daimler airplane engines; formed Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG (Bavarian Aircraft Works) or BFW; 1922 - acquired by Franz-Josef Popp and Max Friz; merged with BFW to form Bayerische Motoren Werke AG or BMW; 1923 - built first motorcycle.

Gustav Otto - BMW ( Gustav_Otto_with_an_Argus_aircraft_engine.jpg)

May 9, 1911 - Thomas H. Flaherty, of Pittsburgh, PA, received a patent for a "Signal for Crossing" ("particularly at the crossings of street car tracks, at the intersection of two or more streets"); first U. S. patent application for a traffic signal design.

May 30, 1911 - First Indianapolis 500 auto race run; Ray Harroun won 200 lap race in Marmon Wasp after 6 hours, 42 minutes, 8 seconds, average speed of 74.59 miles per hour.

July 22, 1911 - General Motors organized General Motors Truck Company later GMC) to handle sales of GM's Rapid and Reliance produts.

November 1911 - Louis Chevrolet, William Little, Edwin Cambell (William Durant's son-in-law) incorporated Chevrolet Motor Company of Michigan to compete with Ford Model T; 1913 - first used "bowtie" logo.

Louis Chevrolet (standing without hat), William C. Durant (standing with derby hat) - first Chevrolet in 1912 (

1912 - Masujiro Hashimoto founded Kwaishinsha Motor Car Company, produced experimental automobile called DAT in honor of three financial backers ("D" was for Kenjoro Den who helped organize the original company; "A" was for Rokuro Aoyama, childhood friend, "T" was for Meitaro Takeuchi, cousin of a former prime minister who helped arrange financing; roughly translated  means "hare", "fast rabbit", or "very fast"); 1917 - company restructured due to financial difficulties; taken over by its sales agency, renamed Dat Motor Vehicle Co. 1926 - merged with Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo ('Practical Automobile Company'), formed Dat Automobile Manufacturing Co. of Osaka; concentrated on building trucks; 1930 - company reorganized, renamed DATSON ("the son of DAT"); spelling later changed to DATSUN; 1931 - assets and shares of the DAT Jidosha Seizo company acquired by THE TOBATA IMONO COMPANY (foundry company owned by Yoshisuke Ayukawa, founder of NISSAN conglomerate in 1928); operated as division; 1933 - separated from parent company, established as independent company named Jidosha Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha; May 1934 - name of independent auto company changed to NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY LIMITED; 1935 - NISSAN exported first automobiles to Australia; 1944 - renamed Nissan Heavy Industries (held until 1949); 1958 - entered U.S. market (sold 83 cars); September 28, 1960 - Nissan Motor Corp U.S.A. formed in Gardena, CA; 1968 - introduced 510 (made Nissan, or Datsun, name in US, many other nations; balance of engineering, styling, cost); October 1969 - production started on Datsun 240 Z; September 8, 1986 - Nissan opened plant in Sunderland, England, first Japanese automobile factory in Europe.

Masujiro Hashimoto Masujiro Hashimoto - DATSUN (

Yoshisuke Ayukawa - NISSAN (

January 23, 1912 - William E. Stephens, of Chicago. IL, received a patent for an "Automobile Horn"; multiple-pipe horn powered by engine exhaust that played chord like a church organ; assigned to Aeromore Manufacturing Company.

July 22, 1912 - Edward G. Budd formed Edward G. Budd Mfg. Philadelphia, with $75,000 of his own savings, $15,000 from family friend named A. Robinson McIlvaine, $10,000 from another friend, J.S. Williams; Budd as president, McIlvaine, secretary; first product - all-metal truck body for Philadelphia coal distributor; 1913 - built truck bodies for Packard, Peerless, fenders for Cadillac, Franklin, Jeffery, Willys-Overland, stamped panels and interior trim for Cincinnati Car Co., Pullman Mfg. Co.; revenue totaled $574,000 (vs. $6,000 in 1912); June 22, 1915 - Joseph Lewinka, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an "Automobile-Body"; design, construction of welded all-steel touring-car body; assigned to Edward G. Budd Mfg. Co. (Budd's most valuable patent); 1916 - formed Budd Wheel Corp. to produce wire wheels for auto industry (John North Willys principal investor); 1923 - planned Citroën’s new all-metal body manufacturing facility, signed royalty agreement; 1924 - signed royalty agreement with MG; built most of Ford's new line of factory commercial Model T and TT bodies; 1932 - helped develop third revolutionary unit-bodied vehicle (Chrysler Imperial Airflow CW, Chrysler's first unit-bodied car); largest customer; 1934 - introduced stainless-steel clad train, three-car "Zephyr", first stainless steel train in America, weighed same as single Pullman Car; 1941 - 20,000 employees; 1946 - Edward G. Budd Jr., became president; Budd Wheel Co., Edward G. Budd Mfg Co., merged into Budd Co.; 1967 - introduced automotive disc brakes on Chrysler and Imperial; 1978 - acquired by Thyssen AG of Germany, withdrew from non-automotive businesses; 1999 - Thyssen AG merged with Krupp AG, formed Thyssen Krupp Automotive AG, one of largest automotive suppliers in world with revenues approaching $6 billion.

Edward G. Budd - Budd Company (

September 12, 1912 - Carl G. Fisher, President of Prest-o-lite, James A. Allison. co-founder of Indianapolis Speedway, announced plan for America's first transcontinental highway, Coast-to-Coast Rock Highway, 3,000 of graveled road from New York to San Francisco, to be finished in time for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, at a cost of  $10,000,000, collected from private sources; failure to win Henry Ford's support for project jeopardized fund-raising efforts; Henry Joy, president of Packard, supported highway project, proposed naming road after Abraham Lincoln (would garner $1.7 million in federal funds for projecct).

November 1912 - Giovanni Bertone (28) opened workshop in Turin, Italy; specialised in construction, repair of horse-drawn carriages (three workers); 1920 - opened new offices (20 employees); 1920s - formed partnerships with Fiat and Lancia; 1933 - Nuccio (son, 19) joined company; 1952 - orders from MG and Bristol; 1957 - produced NSU Sport Prinz; 1959 - 550 employees; 1960s - began work on Simca 1000 Coup, BMW 3200 CS limited series; 1965 - Fiat 850 Spider launched (140,000 produced between 1965-1972); end of 1960s - began partnership with Ferruccio Lamborghini; 1970 - 1500 employees; 1976 - began working for Volvo; 1987 - commercial agreement with General Motors Europe for production of Opel Kadett Cabrio; 1994 - first manufacturer in Italy awarded ISO 9001 quality certification; 2007 - filed for bankruptcy protection; August 6, 2009 - won bid to take over bankrupt Italian car company Bertone (to design cars for Chrysler).

1913 - Robert Bamford, Lionel Martin founded Bamford and Martin Limited in London; 1914 - Aston Martin name created after racing success at Aston Hill Climb; 1915 - first Aston Martin registered; 1926 - Aston Martin Motors Limited formed in Feltham, UK; 1937 - built 140 cars, highest pre-war production; 1947 - acquired by David Brown; 1964 - Aston Martin DB5 appeared in "Goldfinger"; December 12, 1967 - Aston Martin Lagonda Limited registered "Aston Martin" trademark (automobiles and parts thereof); 1981 - acquired by Victor Gauntlett, Pace Petroleum; 1983 - Gauntlett backed by Livanos (shipping) family; 1987 - 75% control acquired by Ford; 1994 - Ford acquired 100% control; 2003 - built 7,000th DB7; 2006 - sold 7,000 cars; 2007 - controlling interest aquired by group of investors (David Richards, John Sinders, Investment Dar, Adeem Investment Co.) for $848 million.

Lionel Martin, Robert Bamford - co-founders Aston Martin (

Sir David Brown - Aston Martin (

January 11, 1913 - World's first 'hardtop' (closed production) car introduced: Hudson Motor Car Company's Model 54 sedan; (earlier automobiles had open cabs or convertible roofs).

January 16, 1913 - Frank Duryea introduced first closed car for four passengers at Stanley Motor Show.

July 1, 1913 - Carl Fisher, President of Prest-o-lite, formed Lincoln Highway Association with headquarters in Detroit, MI (Henry Joy, President of Packard Motor Cars, came up with the idea of naming the highway after Abraham Lincoln) to build coast-to-coast paved road; envisioned improved, hard-surfaced road that would stretch almost 3400 miles from coast to coast, New York to San Francisco, over shortest practical route; promoted road using private, corporate donations; Henry Joy elected as president. Carl Fisher elected vice-president; September 10, 1913 - Lincoln Highway opened; first paved coast-to-coast road in U.S.; October 31, 1913 - Lincoln Highway dedicated; March 1925 - American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) started planning a federal highway system; 1927 - association ceased activity.

August 23, 1913 - Automobiles legally allowed to enter Yosemite National Park, California, for first time; marked huge change in national park system.

October 7, 1913 - Ford introduced continuously moving assembly line to assemble chassis (automobile's frame) in Highland Park automobile factory; assembly divided into 29 operations performed by 29 men spaced along moving belt, cut man-hours to complete one "Model T" from 12 1/2 hours to six (reduced to 93 man-minutes in a year; eventually, one Model T produced every 24 seconds); drastically reduce the cost of the Model T, made car affordable to ordinary consumers; December 1, 1913 - assembly line delivered car every 2-minutes, 38-seconds; three subassemblies (magnetos, motors, transmissions) on moving lines using conveyor belts produced subassemblies faster than main production line could take them; moving chassis line replaced "push" assembly line; Ford Motor Co. became world's largest car manufacturer; 1916 - price of Model T fell to $360, sales more than triple 1912 level.

1914 - John and Horace Dodge founded Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company; November 14, 1914 - completed first Dodge vehicle, known as "Old Betsy"; test drove it, shipped to buyer in Tennessee (began their business career in 1897 as bicycle manufacturers; entered automotive industry in 1901 as auto parts manufacturers (largest parts-manufacturing firm in United States by 1910); awarded 25 dealerships to sell $785 Dodge cars; 1917 - fourth-largest automobile manufacturer in U. S.; 1919 - Dodge brothers among richest men in America; 1920 - John died from respiratory problems, Horace died from pneumonia; 1925 - acquired from Dodge widows by Dillon Read & Company for $146 million; May 28, 1928 - acquired by Chrysler Corporation for $170 million.

January 5, 1914 - Henry Ford introduced 'social justice' plan of profit sharing, minimum wage, 8-hour work day: 1) $10,000,000 of company's 1914 profits given to company's employees, payments made semi-monthly, added to pay checks; 2) factory (able to produce 2,000 autos a day) ran continuously instead of only eighteen hours a day, gave employment to several thousand more men by employing three shifts of eight hours each, instead of two nine-hour shifts; minimum wage scale of $5 per day established (even for boy who swept floors); no employee discharged except for proved unfaithfulness, inefficiency; about 26,000 employees affected.

January 14, 1914 - Henry Ford announced newest advance in assembly line production of 'modern' cars, continuous motion method; reduced assembly time per car from over 12 hours to 93 minutes.

August 5, 1914 - Lighting ceremony held for first electric traffic lights, used to control flow of different streams of traffic, at  intersection of Euclid Ave. and E. 105th St. in Cleveland, OH; signals were red and green lights on street-corner poles, wired to manually operated switch housed inside control booth beside  road; switch design prevented conflicting signals; bell warned drivers of color change; American Traffic Signal Co. installation modeled after traffic control system developed by James B. Hoge of Cleveland (September 22, 1913 - applied for patent, received on January 1, 1918).

December 14, 1914 - Alfieri Maserati rented garage on Via de Pepoli in Bologna; started Società Anonima Officine Alfieri Maserati; brothers Carlo, Bindo, Alfieri, Mario, Ettore, Ernesto became involved in engineering; 1933 - first European manufactory to introduce hydraulic brakes on race cars; 1937 - taken over by Orsi family; 1968 - acquired by Citroën; August 8, 1975 - acquired by Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI; 1998 - Ferrari acquired control.

Alfieri Maserati (

1915 - Stop sign originated in Detroit, MI (black letters on white background); 1922 - American Association of Highway Officials standardized stop sign; devised unique octagonal shape to alert drivers to stop; 1924 - National Conference on Street and Highway Safety changed sign color to black on yellow (mounted two or three feet above ground; 1935 - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices published (MUTCD, 166 pages, recommended black letters on yellow background); 1954 - sign color changed to white on red (similar to railroad signs); 1935-1971 - MUTCD stop sign altered eight times (mounting height, reflectorization); 1971 - modern US stop sign, white on red, mounted 2.1 meters (7 ft) above ground, 30" long with a 3/4" white line around edge, passed into law.

August 17, 1915 - Charles F. Kettering, of Dayton, OH, received a patent for an "Engine-Starting Device"; electric automobile self-starter (assigned to Dayton Engineering Laboratories, Inc. - Delco); Cadillac first car to use it; February 8, 1916 - received a patent for an "Engine Starting, Lighting, and Ignition System"; assigned to Delco.

December 1, 1915 - John D. Hertz founded original Yellow Cab taxicab service in Chicago; color (and name) yellow selected as result of survey by University of Chicago which indicated it was  easiest color to spot; 1929 - acquired by Checker Cab Co.; Hertz left to found rental car company, Hertz Rent-a-Car (still uses yellow logo).

December 10, 1915 - Ford produced 1,000,000th Model T.

March 7, 1916 - Manufacturing firms of Karl Rapp (Rapp-Motorenwerke) and Gustav Otto (Otto-Werke) merged, formed Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke AG (BFW, Bavarian Aircraft Works); July 21, 1917 - Rapp-Motorenwerke renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH (Bavarian Motor Works or BMW); August 13, 1918 - converted to stock corporation (one-third financing from Camillo Castiglioni (Austrian financier,  banker); Franz Josef Popp named General Manager); 1922 - sold engine production operations, BMW name to Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke, moved to BFW site; 1923 - built first motorcycle (BMW R12, first to have telescopic hydraulic front fork); 1929 - built ifirst car, Dixi; 1936 - Flugmotorenfabrik Eisenach GmbH established; 1939 - BMW incorporated into name; 1945 - lost control of assets (until 1949); 1948 - BMW R24 motorcycle first post-war product (18% exported by 1950); 1951 - completed first postwar car, 501; December 9, 1959 - Herbert Quandt, head of battery manufacturer Accumulatorenfabrik AG (AFA), later named Varta AG, 30% owner (acquired by his father, Gunther Quandt),  rejected acquisition overture of Daimler-Benz, increased share ownership to 50%; 1960 - restructured company; 1961 - introduced 1500 model, first sporty family sedan, in Frankfurt (4-door sedan, 4-cylinder engine, independent suspension,  MacPherson struts at front, semi-trailing arms at rear,  traditional BMW "kidney" grilles); 1969 -Eberhard von Künheim (40) named managing director; transformed BMW into premium brand.

Gustav Otto, Franz-Josef Popp, Karl Rapp - BMW ( bmw/bmw/history/1916.gif)

Eberhard von Künheim (center) - BMW (

May 11, 1916 - Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds (formerly of National Cash Register Company where Kettering invented motor that made the electric cash register possible) agreed to sell  Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco) for $9 million to the United Motors Corporation, a holding company of what would become some of GM's most vital parts suppliers, founded by William C. Durant in his attempt to regain control of General Motors (GM). Delco began manufacturing in order to meet the demand for the self-starter that Kettering invented for Durant's Cadillac Corporation (sold self-starters to anyone who ordered them).

July 11, 1916 - President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Aid Road Act, the first grant-in-aid enacted by Congress to help states build roads; included the stipulation that all states have a highway agency staffed by professional engineers who would administer the federal funds as they saw fit. The bill on offer leaned in the favor of the rural populations by focusing on rural postal roads rather than interstate highways; cornerstone for U.S. highway system, precedent for all highway legislation to come; source of rural road improvement, helped rural Americans participate more efficiently in the national economy; 1907 - legal issue of the federal government's role in road-building was settled in the Supreme Court case Wilson vs. Shaw. Justice David Brewer wrote that the federal government could "construct interstate highways" because of their constitutional right to regulate interstate commerce.

August 1916 - Charles W. Nash, former General Manager of Buick and President of General Motors, bought Jeffery-Rambler Motor Company; 1917 - re-incorporated company as Nash Motors; one of few, profitable independent automobile manufacturers to compete successfully; became foundation for American Motors Corporation; January 4, 1937 - Nash Motors merged with Kelvinator Corporation (manufacturer of high-end refrigerators and kitchen appliances); new company named Nash-Kelvinator Corporation (George W. Mason, President).

Charles W. Nash - Nash Motors (

George W. Mason - Nash-Kelvinator (

June 1, 1917 - Henry Leland, founder of Cadillac Motor Car Company, resigned as Cadillac president, started Lincoln Motor Car Company with his son; won first contract to manufacture Liberty engines for war effort; worked closely with British, French, American engineers to design high-production, high-powered twelve-cylinder airplane engine; by war's end, had manufactured more Liberty engines than any other single company; February 4, 1922 - acquired from Henry Martyn Leland by Ford Motor Company for $8,000,000; Henry Ford's son, Edsel, named president; July 17, 1923 - Lincoln Motor Company registered "Lincoln" trademark first used August 3, 1920 (motorcars).

1918 - Les Kelley (21) leased part of lot from another car dealer in Los Angeles, started Kelley Kar Company with three Model T Fords for sale; became largest dealership in world; early 1920s - distributed to other dealers, banks a list of automobiles he wished to buy, prices he was willing to pay; spawned need to place value on used, new cars; 1926 - expanded list of automobile values, published first Blue Book of Motor Car Values (named after Social Register, meant valuable information inside); showed factory list price, cash value on thousands of vehicles (Cadillacs, Duesenbergs, Pierce-Arrows, Hupmobiles); became authoritative source for car values; 1962 - exited car business, published Blue Book as "trade" publication (sold only to businesses involved in automotive industry - car dealers, financial institutions, insurance companies); first publication to show effect of high or low mileage on car's value; December 9, 1980 - Kelley Blue Book Partnership registered "Kelley Blue Book" trademark first used November 1, 1954 (Booklets in the Nature of Price Lists for Used Cars, New Cars, Mobile Homes, and Motorcycles); 1966 - began publishing other value guides; industry's leading provider of pricing services; 1993 - published Consumer Edition of Blue Book (15 years of used car values on more than 10,000 models of cars, trucks, vans); 1995 - launched web site.

Les Kelley - Kelley Blue Book (

January 1918 - Sakichi Toyoda founded Toyota Spring and Weaving Co., Ltd.; November 1926 - established Toyota Automatic Loom works LTD; August 1937 - Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. founded as division; August 1957 - Toyota Crown first car exported to U.S.A.; October 1957 - established Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A Inc.

Sakichi Toyoda - Toyota ( images/Sakichi.gif)

January 1, 1918 - James B. Hoge, of Cleveland, OH, received a patent for a "Municipal Traffic-Control System" ("relates to municipal signalling, and has for its object the provision of a complete system of communicating with and controlling fire and police agencies and also the traffic through public streets and roads.

February 5, 1918 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Starting and Current-Supplying System for Automobiles".

May 2, 1918 - General Motors (GM) acquired Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware for about $32 million in GM stock.

May 15, 1918 - Nantucket Island voted to lift controversial 12-year ban on automobiles.

August 9, 1918 - U. S. government ordered automobile production to halt by January 1, 1919, convert to military production; factories manufactured shells; engineering lessons of motor racing produced light, powerful engines for planes; manufacturers turned out staff cars, ambulances by hundreds;  World War I - described as war of machines.

1919 - William Rootes founded car sales company with sons, William and Reginald; 1928 - largest distributor in England; began manufacturing; acquired Humber, Hillman, Commer companies; 1936 - first company to enter Government's Shadow Factory Scheme for volume manufacture of aeroplanes, sero engines; 1964 - 30% interest in company acquired by Chrysler; 1967 - balance acquired.

January 1, 1919 - Edsel Ford (son) succeeded Henry Ford as president of Ford Motor Company; announced company would increase minimum wage to $6.00 per day.

February 3, 1919 - Clessie Lyle Cummins incorporated Cummins Engine.

February 25, 1919 - Oregon became first state to impose 1% tax on gasoline; funds used for road construction, maintenance.

March 29, 1919 - Hans Ledwinka completed first Tatra vehicle, TL4 truck (division of newly named Koprivnicka Wagenbau of Czechoslovakia); named for Tatra High Mountains in Carpathian Mountain Range; 1923 - offered first official Tatra automobile, Tatra T11, affordable "people's car"; 1934 - Tatra 77 introduced, world's first aerodynamically styled automobile powered by rear-mounted air-cooled engine.

July 9, 1919 - Ford Motor Company reorganized as Delaware corporation with Edsel Ford as company president; step in Henry Ford's drive to gain 100% of company's stock for his family; borrowed heavily to buy out minority shareholders; 1923 - Ford 60% of domestic car market.roads").

October 1919 - Walter Owen Bentley created  3-litre engine at service shop in New Street Mews in London, UK; 1920 - introduced first complete Bentley, hand-built EXP1 prototype (powered by new 3-litre engine); September 21, 1921 - Noel van Raalte, wealthy and influential playboy, bought first Bentley; November 1931 - acquired by Rolls-Royce; May 21, 1957 - Bentley Motors Limited registered "Bentley" trademark first used in 1919 (internal combustion engines and parts therof).

Walter Owen Bentley - Bentley Motors (

October 5, 1919 - Enzo Ferrari (21) made racing debut; finished 11th in  Parmo-Poggia di Berceto hill climb in Costruzioni Meccaniche Nazionali (CMN) vehicle; 1920 - moved to Alfa Romeo; November 16, 1929 - founded Scuderia Ferrari (had begun as racing club, took over race-engineering division at Alpha Romeo in 1933); November 1939 - Alpha took back control of its racing division from Ferrari for financial reasons; 1940 - transformed Scuderia into independent manufacturing company, Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari; March 2, 1947 - introduced Ferrari 125S to racing world, won prestigious Coppa Enrico Faini; 1949 - Ferrari's 166 won 24 Hours at Le Mans, Europe's most famous car race; over 40 years - Ferrari vehicles earned 25 world titles, won over 5,000 events at race tracks around world; December 31, 1968 - Ferrari S.P.A. registered "Ferrari" trademark first used November 14, 1965 (automobiles).

October 18, 1919 - Rolls-Royce America, Inc. established.

1920 - Frederick S. Duesenberg and his brother Augie created Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company in order to release Duesenberg Model A,  first car equipped with both straight-eight, hydraulic front-wheel brakes; car did not sell; 1924 - company failed; rescued by financier E.L. Cord, acquired, financed Duesenberg Motors while allowing brothers to continue their work; 1937 - Cord's business collapsed, Duesenberg Company disappeared.

January 26, 1920 - Lincoln Motor Car Company was founded; February 4, 1922 – acquired by Ford Motor Companyfor $8 million; Edsel Ford (Henry Ford's son) named president of Lincoln; diversification seen as desirable marketing strategy.

January 30, 1920 - Jujiro Matsuda, group of investors took over failing Abemaki tree cork company; renamed Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd., founded in Hiroshima, Japan; 1921 - Jujiro Matsuda named president; 1927 - renamed Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.; 1931 - began production of three-wheel trucks, Mazdago; 1951 - Tsuneji Matsuda took over as president; 1960 - introduced Mazda R360 Coupe, first Mazda 2-door passenger car; November 1, 1960 - Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. registered "Mazda" trademark (land vehicles - namely busses, passenger cars [motorcycles, motorscooters,] trucks [trailers,] and component parts thereof, except lamps, signals, and similar lighting equipment for land vehicles); 1970 - Kouhei Matsuda became president; 1979 - 25% equity interest acquired by Ford; 1984 - renamed as Mazda Motor Corporation; 1986 - cumulative total exports reached 10 million units; 1988 - established Mazda Motor of America Inc. to consolidate importation, distribution functions in U.S.; 1990 - cumulative production reached 25 million units.

Jujiro Matsuda - Mazda (

March 25, 1920 - Walter P. Chrysler resigned as executive vice president in charge of automotive operations for General Motors (GM) due to William Durant's micromanagement style (Buick President Charles Nash had offered position in Flint, MI to Chrysler in 1912 while employed by American Locomotive Company; had revolutionized company's mass production capabilities; William Durant had forced Nash out in 1916, had offered Buick presidency to Chrysler at $500,000/ year [had previously made $25,000 /year]; had initiated GM's purchase of Fisher Body Plant).

May 4, 1920 - Harry A. Miller, of Los Angeles, CA, received a design patent for a "Design for an Automobile"; race car design (many features incorporated into race cars in following decades: aluminum pistons and engine blocks, off-beat carburetors, inter-cooled superchargers, front-wheel drive; first man to concentrate exclusively on building race cars for sale;  Miller 91 - ultimate achievement; built for the 1926 Indy 500 (produced a minimum of 230hp at 7,000rpm, could be boosted to 300hp at 8,500rpm, 3.3hp per cubic inch vs. today's super-charged Indy cars, which produce 4.5hp per cubic inch.

1921 - William Morris opened Morris Garages (MG) in Oxford, UK; 1922 - made Cecil Kimber (33) sales manager; March 1924 - first MG car proper built (based on a Morris Oxford chassis, sports tourer with four seats; also offered four door saloon model); 1930 - MG Car Company Ltd. officially incorporated; 1935 - acquired by Morris Motors Ltd.

1921 - Morris Markin absorbed Commonwealth Motor Company into Markin Autobody Company (Joliet, IL), discontinued all passenger-car manufacturing; February 2, 1922 - established Checker Cab Manufacturing Company; moved to Kalamazoo, MI; took over factories previously used by Handley-Knight and Dort automobile companies; June 18, 1923 - produced first Checker cab; 1925 - produced over 1,000 cabs per year, largest exclusive cab maker in country; 1929 - bought 60% ownership in Yellow Cab (included all of John Hertz's holdings); October 31, 1950 - Checker Cab Manufacturing Corporation registered "Checker" trademark first used July 17, 1921 (automobiles commonly employed as taxicabs); 1959 - introduced Marathon (production never exceeded few thousand units per year, sales limited to few large cities); early 1980s - production fell to 3,000 units per year, company was losing money; 1982 - production ceased; one of few automotive manufacturing companies to boast continuous run of production from 1920s to 1980s. Morris Markin - Checker Taxi ( Essays_All_About_Kalamazoo_History/business/Markin_150.jpg)

1921 - Emanuel (Manny) Rosenfeld, Maurice L. (Moe) Strauss, W. Graham (Jack) Jackson, Moe Raditz (left after few years), Navy friends, put in $200 each, opened first "Pep Auto Supply Company" store at 7-11 North 63rd Street, Philadelphia, PA  (took name from "Pep Valve Grinding Compound", product carried in store); 1933 - Murray Rosenfeld (brother) opened West Coast operation (2 stores); February 13, 1934 - The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack registered "The Pep Boys Manny Moe Jack" trademark first used August 31, 1933 (high pressure lubricants, motor lubricating oils, transmission and differential lubricants); 1986 - about 159 stores; February 2, 2008 - operated 562 stores (552 Supercenters, 1 Service & Tire Center; 9 non-service/non-tire format Pep Boys Express stores; approximately 5,845 service bays in 36 states and Puerto Rico).

Emmanuel Rosenfeld, Maurice Strauss and 'The Boys' Manny Rosenfeld, Jack Jackson - Pep Boys (

January 3, 1921 - Studebaker Corporation announced that it would no longer build farm wagons (previously the world's single biggest manufacturer of horse-drawn carriages and carts).

January 4, 1921 - International Motor Company registered  “Mack” trademark first used October 13, 1911 (motortrucks).

March 15, 1921 - Carlo Guzzi, Giorgio Parodi, Angelo Parodi (brother) created Società Anonima Moto Guzzi, privately held silent partnership, to manufacture, sell motor cycles, other activities in relation to or connected to metallurgical, mechanical industry (had borrowed two thousand Lira from Emanuele Vittorio [Parodi's father] January 3, 1919); earliest motorcycles named G.P. (Guzzi-Parodi), soon changed to Moto Guzzi; 1946 - formally incorporated as Moto Guzzi S.p.A. (Giorgio Parodi as chairman); first engine design was horizontal single; 1950s - led world of Grand Prix motorcycle racing (with Italian factories of Gilera and Mondial); 1964 - leadership passed to Enrico Parodi (Giorgio's brother); February 1967 - control assumed by Società Esercizio Industrie Moto Meccaniche, state controlled receiver; 1973 - SEIMM acquired by De Tomaso Industries Inc. (manufactured De Tomaso sports and luxury cars, owned by Argentinian industrialist Alejandro de Tomaso; also acquired Benelli and Maserati); July 20, 1976 - S.E.I.M.M. Societa Esercizio industrie Moto Meccaniche S.p.A. registered "Moto Guzzi" trademark first used in July 1969 (motor vehicles-namely, motorcycles and automobiles and structural parts therefor); 1988 - Benelli merged with SEIMM, created Guzzi Benelli Moto (G.B.M. S.p.A. ); 1996 - De Tomaso renamed Trident Rowan Group; April 14, 2000 - Moto Guzzi S.p. A. acquired by Aprilia S.p.A. for $65 million; December 30, 2004 - Aprilla acquired by Piaggio & Co. S.p.A; formed Europe's largest motorycle manufacturer.

August 9, 1921 - George J. Murdock, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a "Self-Puncture-Sealing Covering For Fuel-Containers" ("tank that punctures made thererin by projectiles will automatically close so as to prevent the escape of gasolene, kerosene or othert liquid hydrocarbons"); self-sealing gas tank.

September 10, 1921 - Ayus Autobahn opened in Berlin (world's first controlled-access highway, part of Germany's Bundesautobahn system).

December 1, 1921 - Detroit Steam Motors Corporation announced the Trask steam car, a favorite project of automobile distributor O.C. Trask; 1926 - last steam-powered cars in the U.S. were made

1922 - George Bacon, Chief Engineer for Detroit Electric Vehicle Company, designed new milk delivery truck; could be driven from four positions, front, rear, either running board; 1925 - Detroit Industrial Vehicle Co. established to market gasoline-engine version; 1926 - introduced the "Divco", powered by 4-cylinder Continental engine with Warner 4-speed transmission. (DIVCO).

wpe41118.gif (132447 bytes) George Bacon - DIVCO (

January 1922 - Rickenbacker Car Company debuted Rickenbacker car at New York Auto Show (named for World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker); priced at $1,500, equipped with powerful V-6, flywheel at both ends of crankshaft to reduce the teeth-chattering vibration to which consumers had become accustomed; sold 1,500 units on its first day; 1924 - 19th in industry from 83rd; first model to introduce four-wheel braking in economy car class; 1925 - came with V-8; September 1926 - Rickenbacker resigned; January 1927 - company dead.

September 4, 1922 - William Lyons (21), William Walmsley (30) launched Swallow Sidecar Company in Blackpool, UK, to produce sidecars for motorcycles (financed with bank overdraft of £1000 guaranteed by their respective fathers); built wooden frames for Austin Seven car, called it Austin Swallow; Lyons began building his own cars, called Standard Swallows; 1926 - name changed to Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company; 1931 - Lyons presented two coupe models of Standard Swallows Cars Ltd. (SS Cars Ltd.) at London Motor Show; priced at 310 pounds; 1934 - SS Cars Ltd. released line of cars called Jaguars (name chosen to reflect speed, power, sleekness; suggested by Company's advertising agency); post World War II - Swallow Sidecar name dropped, politically incorrect SS initials dropped (reminded people of Nazi officers); name changed to Jaguar Cars Ltd.; September 17, 1946 - Jaguar Cars Limited registered "Jaguar" trademark first used in 1935 (automobiles, [buses, motor vans,] and parts thereof); 1948 – introduced XK120 at London Motor Show; fastest production car in world, considered by many to be one of finest sports cars ever made; 1961 - released E Type, fastest sports car in world (top speed of 150mph, zero-to-60 of 6.5 seconds, 17 miles to gallon); November 11, 1989 - became subsidiary of Ford Motor Company.

December 12, 1922 - William L. Kissel and John F. Werner, of Hartford, WI, received a patent for a "Convertible Automobile Body", removable hard top that could turn a closed car into an open touring car (precursor to convertibles); assigned to Kissel Motor Car Company.

1923 - Vincent Bendix founded Bendix Brake Company (had developed, manufactured electric starter drives since 1914); 1924 - introduced the first reliable four-wheel brake system; eventually created first four-wheel brake system for automobiles; 1928 - produced 3,600,000 brakes per year, chiefly for General Motors Corporation; 1929 - company renamed the Bendix Aviation Corporation to signify a new direction for company; 1942 - started Bendix Helicopters, Inc.; 1960 - company renamed Bendix Corporation; 1982 - acquired by Allied Corporation.

Vincent Bendix - Bendix Corporation  (

February 22, 1923 - 1,000,000th Chevy was produced; William Durant eventually made over a million dollars on Chevrolet brand, allowed him to reacquire a majority interest in General Motors (GM) stock; eventually merged Chevrolet and Buick, created GM's current configuration; Louis Chevrolet left the company before the merger, left only his name to benefit from the company's success.

May 26, 1923 - First Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance run.

November 20, 1923 - African-American Garrett A. Morgan, of Cleveland, OH, received patent for a "Traffic Signal"; automatic traffic signal to make streets safer for motorists, pedestrians (had seen an automobile crash into a horse-drawn carriage); sold technology to General Electric Corporation for $40,000.

January 5, 1924 - Walter Chrysler, former General Motors executive (left in 1920), who had pioneered introduction of all-steel bodies in automobiles (vs. wood), introduced his first motorcar, Chrysler-built Maxwell (Maxwell Motor Company); August 12, 1924 - Chrysler Motor Corporation registered "Chrysler" trademark first used January 1, 1924 (automobiles and their structural parts); June 6, 1925 - Maxwell Motor Company renamed Chrysler Corporation; June 26, 1925 - incorporated in Delaware, took over Maxwell Motor Corporation; Walter P. Chrysler president, chairman of the board.

April 15, 1924 - Rand McNally released 'Auto Chum', first comprehensive road atlas (became best-selling Rand McNally Road Atlas).

June 15, 1924 - Ford Motor Company manufactured its 10 millionth Model T automobile.

December 19, 1924 - Last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost (introduced in 1906) manufactured in England was sold in London; followed by the Twenty, the Phantom, the Silver Cloud, the Silver Shadow, and the Silver Wraith.

March 2, 1925 - Joint board of state, federal highway officials, appointed by secretary of agriculture, instituted first nationwide highway numbering system; created shield-shaped highway number markers, later improved by colored signs and the odd-even demarcation that distinguished between north-south and east-west travel respectively.

March 27, 1925 - Cecil Kimber registered his first modified Morris, prototype of MG; known for style, performance, zippy overhead cam engines
April 7, 1925 - Rolls Royce of America, Inc. registered "Rolls Royce" trademark first used on January 1, 1905 (automobiles and chassis).

April 30, 1925 - Dodge heirs sold Dodge Brothers Inc. to Dillon, Read & Company (New York investment banking firm) for $146 million plus $50 million for charity; result of unwillingness of Dodge Brothers' offspring to manage  company (brothers' deaths in 1920, brief depression in stock market in 1921 scared family members into "cashing out"); reported to be largest single cash sale in U. S. history at time.

May 1, 1925 - Ettore Bugatti registered slogan 'Le Pur Sangre Des Automobiles', thoroughbred racing horse profile, as French trademarks.

January 3, 1926 - General Motors introduced Pontiac brand name; descendant of Oakland Motor Car Company (acquired by General Motors in 1909).

June 28, 1926 -Benz & Cie., Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) merged, formed Daimler-Benz AG.

August 3, 1926 - Britain installed first traffic lights at Piccadilly Circus.

September 25, 1926 - Henry Ford announced 8-hour, 5-day work week.

October 6, 1926 - Duesenberg Company incorporated into Auburn-Cord company; Frederick (design), August Duesenberg began working toward E L. Cord's dream of ultimate luxury automobile; 1928 - Cord introduced Duesenberg Model J to American public: engine displaced 420 cubic inches, twin overhead camshafts that operated four valves per cylinders, maximum speed of 165 hp, price tag beginning around $17,000; 1937 - Duesenberg and Auburn-Cord closed.

August and Frederick Duesenberg ( apps/ pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site= D2&Date=99999999&Category= FAMOUSIOWANS&ArtNo= 40920015&Ref= AR&maxw=175&border=1)

November 11, 1926 - Official numerical designation 66 (Will Rogers Highway) assigned to Chicago-to-Los Angeles route (2,448 miles); one of nation's principal east-west arteries; diagonal course linked hundreds of predominately rural communities in Illinois, Missouri, Kansas to Chicago; enabled farmers to transport grain, produce for redistribution; diagonal configuration of Route 66 particularly significant to trucking industry (rivaled railroad for preeminence in American shipping) - traversed essentially flat prairie lands, enjoyed more temperate climate than northern highways; October 1984 - Interstate 40 bypassed final section of original road at Williams, AZ; June 24, 1985 - route officially decommissioned.

December 21, 1926 - General Motors Corporation registered "Pontiac" trademark first used December 17, 1925 (automobiles).

April 14, 1927 - Assar Gabrielsson (economist, businessman, head of SKF's subsidiary in France), Gustaf Larsson (engineer, designer) founded AB Volvo (Latin for "I roll"); had obtained guarantees, credit form SKF (Goteborg, Sweden) to build 1,000 vehicles, 500 open and 500 covered (SKF provided name); first car, "Jakob", left factory in Gothenburg, Sweden; 1936 - released its first "streamlined car" the PV36, or Carioca, heavily influenced by American designs; 1999 - acquired by Ford Motor Company for about $6.5 billion.

May 25, 1927 - Ford Motor Company announced end of Model T, replaced by Model A; May 26, 1927 - manufactured 15 millionth Model T automobile; May 27, 1927 – officially ended production of Ford Model T (15,007,033 units built; had had price tag of $850 in 1908, had sold 6,389 units; price had dropped to $690 in 1910, Tin Lizzie had sold 34,528 units; price tag of Ford's "people's car" had dropped to $350 in 1915, had sold 472,350 units); sold more units than any other car model in history (eclipsed in 1970s by Volkswagen Beetle); August 19, 1927- Henry and Edsel Ford drove fifteen millionth Model T off assembly line at Highland Park plant in Michigan, officially ended Model T production (15,458,781).

November 1, 1927 - Ford Model A production began; succeeded Model T after 19 years of production, unchanged features; "A" had elegant Lincoln-like styling on smaller scale, used 200.5 cubic-inch four-cylinder engine that produced 40hp; prices started at $460, nearly 5,000,000 Model As, in several body styles, variety of colors, sold before production ended in early 1932; November 26, 1927 - Ford Motor Company introduced Model A, first new Ford to enter market since Model T first introduced in 1908

May 6, 1928 -  Chrysler introduced DeSoto as corporation's new brand (answer to market demand for car that fit between its large cars, its popular four-cylinder models); offered improved insulation, reinforced frame, chrome alloy steel transmission gears; sold 80,000 cars in first year, forced Chrysler to increase production facilities; 1934 – released DeSoto Airflow: new standard for weight distribution, reduced vibration to frequency so that passengers were comfortable for first time; engine moved forward over front axle, back seat in front of rear axle (shock inflicted on passengers sitting there), increased gauge of front springs, smaller wheels that used larger tires, unibody design that made car safer, stronger.

July 7, 1928 - Chrysler Plymouth debuted at Chicago Coliseum (with renowned aviator Amelia Earhart behind wheel) - delivery price of $670; sold over 80,000 units in first year, forced Chrysler to expand production facilities drastically; Plymouth project had taken three years to complete.

July 31, 1928 - The Chrysler Corporation acquired Dodge Brothers, Inc. from Dillon Read for $170 million; 1929 - Chrysler Corporation was one of the "Big Three" of auto industry; May 27, 1930 - Chrysler Building in NYC. opened as world's tallest building.

March 17, 1929 - General Motors acquired 80% of German auto manufacturer Adam Opel AG for just under $26 million.

May 31, 1929 - The Ford Motor Company signed a "Technical Assistance" contract to produce cars in the Soviet Union; supplied many of the production parts for car manufacturers during the 1930s.

February 26, 1930 - First red and green traffic lights installed (Manhattan, New York City).

September 30, 1930 - Lubri-Graph Corporation registered "Lubrizol" trademark first used February 11, 1930 (lubricating oils, lubricating oil compounds, and motor-lubricating oils).

1931 - General Motors became world's largest automaker; April 24, 2007 - replaced by Toyota (2.35 million cars sold in 1st quarter vs. about 2.34 million for GM).

April 20, 1931 - Matilda Dodge Wilson, widow of John Dodge, named to board of Graham-Paige Motors Corporation (founded by the Graham brothers); became first woman to sit on board of major American auto-manufacturer (Dodge had acquired Graham Brothers Truck Company in 1926).

December 7, 1931 - Last Ford Model A produced; Ford motor works shut down for six months for retooling; April 1, 1932 - Ford introduced high-performance Ford V-8, first Ford with 8-cylinder engine.

December 14, 1931 - Bentley Motors (founded 1920) acquired by Rolls-Royce.

February 28, 1932 - Last Ford Model A produced; boasted elegant Lincoln-like styling, a peppy 40 horsepower four-cylinder engine, self-starting mechanism; base price at $460 (sold 5 million from 192 to 1932).

March 31, 1932 - Ford Motor Company publicly unveiled "V-8" (eight-cylinder) engine.

June 6, 1932 - Congress levied 1 cent tax on gasoline, other motor fuel sold (part of Revenue Act of 1932); mandated series of excise taxes on  wide variety of consumer goods.

December 5, 1932 - Ford introduced Model C automobile, first four-cylinder engine made by Ford with counter-balanced crankshaft; largely eclipsed by Ford V-8, first eight-cylinder Ford automobile; first V-8 engine block ever cast in single piece.

1933 - Chrysler sold more cars than in its 1929 boom year (only car company to do so); only car company to pay dividends to shareholders throughout Depression.

July 5, 1933 - Fritz Todt, civil engineer, became Inspector General for German Roadways (proponent of national highway system as means of economic development had been appointed to position by Hitler in January 1933); primary assignment: build comprehensive autobahn system; 1936 - completed 100,000 kilometers of divided highways; most advanced transportation system in world.

December 26, 1933 - Nihon Sangyo, Tobata Casting, holding companies established by Yoshisuke Aikawa, established Jidosha Seizo Co., Ltd. in Yokohama, Japan;
began manufacturing cars, trucks under name Datsun; June 1, 1934 - name changed to Nissan Motor Co. (Nihon Sangyo Co. Ltd. as 100% investor); converted to military production during World War II; post WW II - operated in limited capacity under occupation government until 1955.

1934 - Henri Pigozzi founded Simca (Societe Industrielle de Mecanique et Carrosserie Automobile), "industrial company that makes car mechanics and bodywork", at Nanterre, France; 1950s - acquired Unic, Talbot, Ford of France; 1963 - Chrysler became majority stock holder; 1969 - merged with Matra's automotive division; 1970 - Chrysler took over about all outstanding stock (99.3%), dropped SIMCA name.

Henri Pigozzi - Simca ( photos/Henri-PIGOZZI.jpg)

February 17, 1934 - Amos Neyhart, Penn State industrial engineer, fitted his car with dual brake, clutch linkages; began teaching driving to State College High School students in State College, PA; started American tradition of driver's education; provided classroom, behind-the-wheel instruction; 1936 - produced manuals, exams for American Automobile Association.

Amos Neyhart, Father of Drivers Education Amos Neyhart  - founded Driver's Ed (

March 26, 1934 - Britain introduced driving tests.

October 3, 1935 - Percy Shaw received a British patent for "Improvements relating to Blocks for Road Surface"; reflectors which mark the lines that are light up at night by the lights of passing vehicles; Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. manufactured markers.

April 6, 1934 - Ford Motor Company announced white sidewall tires as option on new vehicles at cost of $11.25 per set; associated with style,  money; 1950s - standard for many cars.

June 22, 1934 - Reichsverband der Automobilindustrie (RDA, Association of the German Reich of the Automotive Industry) gave Ferdinand Porsche, of Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung fur Motoren- und Fahrzeugbau, order to build one prototype of Volkswagen (car had been presented to Reich Ministry of Transport on January 17, 1934 in "Study for the Production of a Germany People's Car"); December 7, 1934 - increased order to three cars (assembled in garage of Ferdinand Porsch's private residence); July 3, 1935 - presented first Volkswagen prototype, V1 (V = Versuchswagen or Test Car); December 22, 1935 - presented second test car, convertible, code-named tV2; July 4, 1936 - German government decided to build separate plant for new car, Volkswagenwerk; May 28, 1937 - established Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH ("Company for Preparation of Deutsche Volkswagen Ltd"); Ferdinand Porsche one of three managing directors; May 1938 - construction on plant began in Fallersleben, now Wolfsburg; priced at 990.- reichsmarks, easily affordable for average buyer; WW II - not one single Volkswagen delivered to private customer; summer 1945 - regular production of civilian Volkswagen started in Wolfsburg; nickname "VW Käfer" ("VW Beetle"); July 2003 - production of last VW Beetle came off line in Mexico - record for production life, volume; 21.5 million units built, one of highest-production vehicles of all time.

August 19, 1934 - Myron Scott, newsman, organized first All-American Soap Box Derby in Dayton, OH; event moved to Akron because of appropriately hilly terrain; boys and girls, ages nine through 16, competed.

1935 - Chrysler surpassed Ford to become nation's second largest car company.

February 26, 1935 -  Designers Clarence Karstadt and Chris Klein, of Detroit, MI, received a design patent for an "Automobile Radiator Ornament or Similar Article"; Pontiac's "Indian Maiden" mascot hood ornament.

July 5, 1935 - President Franklin Roosevelt signed National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) into law: established National Labor Relations Board, addressed relations between unions, employers in private sector; authorized labor to organize for purpose of collective bargaining; permitted formation of United Automobile Workers; industry's business executives challenged  constitutionality of Wagner Act; December 30, 1936 - workers at General Motors plant stopped work en masse, followed by series of successful sit-down strikes; Supreme Court upheld Wagner Act; February 11, 1937- GM acknowledged UAW as its employees official "bargaining agent".

July 19, 1935 - Carl C. Magee, of Oklahoma City, OK Chamber of Commerce traffic committee, installed first parking meters, in Oklahoma City business district (workers parked on streets, stayed all day, left few spaces for shoppers, visitors ); May 24, 1938 - received patent for a "Coin Controlled Parking Meter", "meters for measuring the time of occupancy or use of parking or other space, for the use of which it is desirous an incidental charge be made upon a time basis"; assigned patent to Dual Parking Meter Company of Oklahoma City, OK (a Delaware Corporation).

August 14, 1935 - Last U.S.-built (Springfield, MA) Rolls Royce Phantom I delivered to M.S. Morrow of Whitestone, NY; featured elegant proportions, well-engineered coachwork, suitable for successor of Silver Ghost--the model that earned Rolls-Royce a reputation as "the best car in the world"; total of 1,241 Phantoms produced.

October 23, 1935 - Percy Shaw, of Halifax, Yorkshire, received a British patent for "Improvements Relating to Blocks for Road Surface Marking"; catseye road marker (road reflectors lighted at night by lights of vehicles); November 30, 1936 - received a second British patent.

February 8, 1936 - William Durant, founder of General Motors (GM), filed for personal bankruptcy (over span of three years Durant purchased Oldsmobile, Oakland (later Cadillac, Pontiac), attempted to purchase Ford; GM out of cash, Durant forced out of company in 1910; later started Chevrolet;  eventually regained control of GM, lost control second time).

February 26, 1936 - Hitler introduced Ferdinand Porsche's "Volkswagen".

March 8, 1936 - Daytona Beach, Florida, staged its first race strictly for stock cars on combination beach, public roadway course; 1946 - National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) incorporated; Bill France, former mechanic, as president.

April 27, 1936 - United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America gained autonomy from AFL (guaranteed rights of skilled workers); became first democratic, independent labor union concerned with rights of unskilled and semi-skilled laborers.

October 22, 1936 - First test-drives of Volkswagen vehicle began; 1938 - first Volkswagen in its final form (38-series model) unveiled, referred to, mockingly, as "Beetle" by New York Times; outbreak of World War II prevented mass-production of automobile; after war, Allies approved continuation of original Volkswagen program under leadership of Heinrich Nordhoff; late 1940s and 1950s - sales of Volkswagen Beetle took off.

December 30, 1936 - Strikes closed seven GM factories in Flint, MI as United Automobile Workers of America quarreled with GM over right to bargain collectively;  idled almost 35,000 workers,  threatened to force layoffs in steel, glass, battery-manufacturing industries; December 31, 1936 - sit-down strike at GM's Fisher Body Plant became center stage for all unskilled labor struggles as GM moved to legally block strike, evict workers from its facilities; state government, under direction of Governor Frank Murphy, protected  rights of workers to bargain collectively; workers invoked Wagner Act, GM forced to settle, recognized union, signed contract; first victory by unskilled laborers in America's largest industry.

1937 - 16 aircraft engineers founded Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget" (SAAB), "Swedish Aircraft Company", in Trollhattan, Sweden to produce high-performance aircraft; 1946 - aircraft design experience applied to engineering automobiles; 1947 - first prototype, Saab 92001, features transverse two-stroke engine, front-wheel drive, aerodynamic wing shape profile; 1949 - Saab 92 is first series to go into production (more than 20,000 built between 1949-1956).

January 1, 1937 -  Safety glass in windshields became mandatory in Great Britain (shattered into thousands of tiny pieces when it broke, instead of large jagged sheets; first produced in 1909 by French chemist, Edouard Benedictus [used sheet of clear celluloid between glass layers]; plastic called polyvinyl butyral [PVB] introduced in 1936, so safe, effective that it soon became only plastic used in safety windows).

February 11, 1937 - General Motors (GM) President Alfred P. Sloan signed first union contract in history of U.S. automobile industry; ended a 44-day sit-down strike against General Motors at Fisher Body plant in Flint, MI (Battle of the Running Bulls); company agreed to recognize United Automobile Workers Union.

March 1, 1937 - Connecticut issued first permanent automobile license plates.

May 26, 1937 - Union leaders, Ford Service Department men clashed in violent confrontation on Miller Road Overpass outside Gate 4 of Ford River Rouge Plant in Dearborn, MI (three months after UAW achieved its first landmark victory at Ford, had forced company to negotiate policy toward organized labor by staging  lengthy sit-down strike at Rouge complex); UAW organizers Walter Reuther, Bob Kanter, J.J. Kennedy, Richard Frankensteen were distributing leaflets among workers at Rouge complex when   approached bygang of Bennett's men; Ford Servicemen brutally beat four unionists while many other union sympathizers, including 11 women, were injured in resulting melee - Battle of the Overpass.

June 5, 1937 - Henry Ford initiated 32 hour work week.

June 15, 1937 - Harold T. Ames, of Chicago, IL, chief executive of Duesenberg, received a patent for a "Headlight Structure"; retractable headlamps (defining detail on Cord 810); assigned to Cord Corporation.Overpass.

September 30, 1937 - Frederick and August Duesenberg stopped production; considered most luxurious cars in world, hand-crafted, custom-made, epitome of flamboyance and elegance; acknowledged as ultimate in quality, value for almost 10 years; inspired expression "it's a duesy."

1939 - Ole Bardahl, Norwegian immigrant (arrived in Seattle in 1922 with $32 in his pocket, unable to speak English), former building contractor, bought small chemical company in Ballard, WA; had number of cleaners, one oil product, oil additive; first year sales of $188; developed 'Polair Attraction' formula (protected against dry/cold starts; provided permanent protective film on all metal surfaces; improved any oil additives); changed how lubricants formulated; 1947 - top selling oil product; June 20, 1950 - Bardahl Manufacturing Corporation registered "Bardahl" trademark first used February 1, 1946 (lubricating oils in the nature of an additive to lubricating oils, top oil, and valve lubricants, and lubricating greases); 1952 - sales of $200,000, ranked third among competitors; effective television advertising campaign established Bardahl as top seller in United States, then international number one seller. 

Ole Bardahl - Bardahl Corporation (

April 28, 1939 - Powell Crosley produced America's first miniature, or "bantam", car (stalled until after WWII); 1948 - produced 28,000 cars; Crosley was foot shorter, 100 pounds lighter than pre-war Volkswagen Bug, far smaller than anything offered by American manufacturers; $800 price tag wasn't low enough to convince consumers to purchase a miniature car when they could by a full-size car for a few hundred dollars more.

November 4, 1939 - Packard Motor Co. exhibited first air-conditioned automobile at 40th Automobile Show in Chicago; air in car was cooled, dehumidified, filtered, circulated through refrigerating coils located behind  rear seat in air duct (heating coils in another compartment of same duct); capacity of unit equivalent to 1.5 tons of ice in 24 hours when car was driven at 60 mph; Cadillac followed in 1941.

December 13, 1939 - First production Lincoln Continental was finished.

1939 - Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. competed for U.S. Armed Forces contract to produce all-terrain, general purpose ("GP" or "Jeep") troop transport vehicle (four-wheel drive, masked fender-mount headlights, rifle rack under the dash); Karl K. Pabst, consulting engineer of Bantam Car. Co. (Butler, PA) submitted original design, awarded production contract for 70 vehicles; prototype failed; contract given to Willys-Overland on basis of  similar design, superior production capabilities; November 13, 1940 - first Willys-Overland Jeep prototype completed, submitted to the U.S. Army for approval (four-wheel drive, open-air cab, rifle rack mounted under the windshield); 1941 - mass production began; 1945 - some 350,000 Jeeps had rolled off assembly lines onto battlefields of Asia, Africa, Europe; first civilian Jeep ("CJ") vehicle, CJ-2A, introduced (forefather of today's sport utility vehicles); 1948 - CJ-3A introduced; June 13, 1950 - Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. registered "Jeep" trademark first used November 20, 1940, first used in commerce in commerce on February 5, 1943 (automobiles and structural parts thereof); 1953 - Willys-Overland acquired for $60 million by Henry J. Kaiser; 1955 - Kaiser introduced CJ-5 (longest production run of any Jeep vehicle, from 1954 - 1984); 1962 - introduced first automatic transmission in 4-wheel drive vehicle in Wagoneer line; 1963 - name changed to Kaiser Jeep® Corp.; 1970  - acquired by  American Motors Corporation; 1976 - introduced CJ-7; August 5, 1987 - AMC-Jeep Eagle acquired by Chrysler Corporation.

John North Willys - Jeep  ( W/Willys_John/WillysJohnThm.jpg)

March 19, 1940 - Paul H. Travis, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Door Check" ("...devices for limiting the swinging movement of doors...wherein provision is made for effectively absorbing or cushioning shocks resulting from checking the swinging movements of the doors..."); door jam for cars; June 11, 1940 - received a second patent for a "Door Check".

August 26,1940 - Cadillac discontinued manufacture of the LaSalle, after 14 years of production; Intended to boost profits during a lag in luxury car sales as moderately priced alternative to the opulence of the Cadillac. 

October 1, 1940 - First 160-mile section of Pennsylvania Turnpike, America's first toll superhighway, opened ($70 million price tag); carried average of 2,000,000 vehicles every year, nearly twice original estimate of highway planners.

December 30, 1940 - California's first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, was officially opened.

February 4, 1941 - Ransom Eli Olds (76) received his last automobile patent for an "Internal Combustion Engine" ("related to multi-cylinder internal combustion engines of the two-cycle fuel injection type...provides first for thoroughly scavenging the cylinders from exhaust gases, and second for supercharging the same").

August 1, 1941 - Parade magazine called it "...the Army's most intriguing new gadget", "a tiny truck which can do practically everything" - The Jeep (built by Willys Overland).

December 11, 1941 - Spare tires on new cars prohibited (law designed to conserve America's resources); rubber, produced overseas, had become almost impossible to get.

December 31, 1941 - America's last automobiles with chrome-plated trim were manufactured; 1942 - chrome plating became illegal, part of an effort to conserve resources for the American war effort.

January 1, 1942 - U.S. Office of Production Management prohibited sales of new cars, trucks to civilians; all automakers dedicated plants entirely to war effort; plants converted wholesale to manufacture of bombers, jeeps, military trucks, other gear.

January 13, 1942 - Henry Ford, of Dearborn, MI, received a patent for an "Automobile Body Construction" ("a body construction in which plastic body panels are employed, not only for the doors and the side panels, but also for the roof, hood and all other exposed panels on the body"); first U.S. patent for construction of an automobile using plastic; covered an automobile body construction, an auto body chassis frame made of steel tubes or pipes designed for use with automobiles made from plastics (Ford Motor Company had produced first such car in U.S. in August 1941); fourteen plastic panels were mounted on tubular welded frame; windows, windshield made of acrylic sheets; weight decrease of approximately 30%.

January 30, 1942 - Last pre-war automobiles produced by Chevrolet and DeSoto rolled off assembly lines; January 31, 1942 - Last pre-war automobiles produced by Chrysler, Plymouth, and Studebaker rolled off  assembly lines; retooled their factories for military gear.

February 7, 1942 - Federal government ordered passenger car production stopped, converted to wartime purposes; government offered automakers guaranteed profits regardless of production costs throughout the war years; Office of Production Management allocated $11 billion to the construction of war manufacturing plants that would be sold to the automobile manufacturers at remarkable discounts after the war; revolutionized American car making, brought about the Golden Era of the 1950s.

May 15, 1942 - United States began gasoline rationing (17 Eastern States);
September 10, 1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt mandated gasoline rationing in U.S. as part of country's wartime efforts.

November 28, 1942 - Ford Motor Company's first production Ford bomber, B-24 Liberator, rolled off assembly line at Ford's Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, MI; government made Ford, America's other automakers an economic offer: would guarantee profits, regardless of production costs, for thier participation in war effort, would allocate $11 billion to building of war plants--factories that would be sold to private industry at substantial discount after war; February 1942 - the last Ford automobile rolled off assembly line for the duration of the war; July 1944 - 43,000 men, women at Willow Plant produced one B-24 every hour by end of war.

April 10, 1944 - Henry Ford II, grandson and namesake of Henry Ford, named executive vice president of the Ford Motor Company; confirmed his bid to become heir to his grandfather's throne; strongman Harry Bennett (power at Ford for his suppression of organized labor) attempted to bring Henry II under his influence, to no avail.

May 29, 1945 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "Two-Cycle Gas Engine" (...two or more cylinders have their piston rods and the crank shaft extending into a common crank shaft chamber and provide double pistons and double cylinders, one part of each said piston and cylinder operating as a charging chamber"); assigned to U. S. Thermo Control Company.

July 25, 1945 - Henry Kaiser, Joseph Frazer, president of Graham-Paige Motor Company, announced plans to form corporation to manufacture automobiles (Frazer's contacts in the auto industry, Kaiser's capital and experience with huge government contracts); August 9, 1945 - incorporated; January 20, 1946 - introduced first automobiles at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel; 1946 - leased Ford Willow Run Plant, produced 11,000 cars; company lost $19 million, stock plummeted; 1947 - Willow Run produced 100,000 cars, Kaiser-Frazer recorded $19 million in profit; 1949 - company lost $30 million; 1951 - produced several successful cars, most notably the 1951 Kaiser two-door; 1953 - renamed Kaiser Motors Corporation; soon abandoned passenger car business in favor of manufacturing commercial, military vehicles; merged with Willys-Ovderland.

August 15, 1945 - World War II gasoline rationing in America ended.

September 21, 1945 - Henry Ford II, grandson of Henry Ford, succeeded his father as president of Ford Motor Company; inherited company losing several million dollars a month; reorganized, modernized company, fired powerful Personnel Chief Harry Bennett (strong-arm tactics, anti-union stance made Ford notorious for bad labor relations); recruited new talent, including a group of former U.S. Air Force intelligence officers ("Whiz Kids"); nursed company back to health, greatly expanded international operations, introduced two classic models, Mustang and Thunderbird.

November 14, 1945 - Tony Hulman purchased Indianapolis Motor Speedway from Edward Rickenbacher for $750,000 (in deplorable condition after four years of disuse during World War II); May 1946 -American Automobile Association ran its first postwar 500-mile race.

December 8, 1945 - Toyota Motor Company received permission from  occupation government (after Japanese surrender in World War II on September 3, 1945) to start production of buses, trucks--vehicles necessary to keep Japan running.

March 13, 1946 - UAW, General Motors agreed to a settle strike which had lasted from November 1945-March of 1946; 175,00 strikers agreed to head back to work; walkout engineered by UAW chief Walter Reuther; agitated for higher pay for GM's 320,000 employees, looked to consolidate his power in auto union; in coming months leaders in various industries proved successful in drive for price increases, led to inflation, wiped out workers' wage gains.

October 1946 - Soichiro Honda established Honda Technical Research Institute in Hamamatsu, Japan, to develop, produce small 2-cycle motorbike engines; 1948 - Honda Motor Company, Ltd. born; 1959 - opened its first storefront in Los Angeles (six employees).

March 2, 1947 - Enzo Ferrari drove first 125S vehicle out of factory gates.

March 27, 1947 - Nanjing Automobile Group Corp. (NAC), state-owned, founded as military garage in Jiangsu; oldest, fourth largest Chinese automobile manufacturer; 16,000 employees, annual production capacity of about 200,000 vehicles; July 22, 2005 - acquired MG Rover Group for $97 million; March 27, 2007 - revived MG brand, began production of MG sports car.

 March 30, 1947 - Preston Tucker announced concept for new automobile named "the Tucker" (no new car model had been released since 1942); rear-mounted engine as powerful as aircraft engine, hydraulic torque converter that would eliminate necessity of transmission, two revolving headlights at either side of car's fender, one stationary "cyclops" headlight in middle, steering wheel placed in center of car, flanked by two passenger seats; SEC indicted Tucker on 31 counts of fraud for selling unapproved securities before he could begin mass production of cars (sold franchises to individual car dealers who put up $50 in cash for every car they expected to sell during their first two years as  Tucker agent); January 21, 1950 - acquitted on all counts, but business ruined; produced only 51 Tuckers, none  equipped with technological breakthroughs he promised.

June 10, 1947 - Saab (Svenska Aeroplan AB) introduced model 92 prototype, its first car; Sven Otterbeck, Saab director, placed aircraft engineer Gunnar Ljungstrom in charge of creating company's first car; equipped with two-cylinder, two-stroke engine that provided 25 hp, propelled car at top speed of 62 mph.

October 2, 1947 - The Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition; initiated for cars of 1,500cc supercharged and 4,500cc unsupercharged, minimum race distance reduced from 500km to 300km (allowed Monaco Grand Prix to be reintroduced into official Grand Prix racing); 1950 - Giuseppe "Nino" Farina, driving an Alfa Romeo 158, won first Formula One World Championship at Silverstone British Grand Prix.

December 14, 1947 - National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) founded at Streamline Hotel in Daytona Beach, FL; good results on stock-car circuit believed to mean better sales on showroom floor.

February 3, 1948 - First Cadillac with tailfins produced; signaled dawn of  tailfin era; General Motors increased size of Cadillac's "tailfeathers" every year throughout 1950s; 1959 - model's sales slumped dramatically, death knell for tailfin.

February 27, 1948 - Federal Trade Commission issued restraining order, prevented Willys-Overland Company from representing that it had developed Jeep (produced Army vehicle that became known as Jeep); Bantam Motor Company first presented innovative design to Army.

April 30, 1948 - Brothers Maurice and Spencer Wilks, then Rover Company's managing director, introduced Land Rover at Amsterdam Auto Show; developed truck as result of conversation about Maurice's American 4x4; featured four-wheel drive, 1.6 liter engine from Rover P3 60 saloon; shown with canvas top, optional doors (eventually became standard, as did system where two and four-wheel drive could be selected in high range with permanent four-wheel drive in low range); became standard operating vehicle for British Commonwealth wilderness territories.

June 8, 1948 - Dr. Ferdinand Porsche test drove first Porsche two-seat roadster sports car, Project 356-1, built in sawmill in Gmund, Austria (Tyrolean Alps).

September 24, 1948 - Honda Technical Research Institute officially became Honda Motor Company; began as research institute founded by engineer Honda Soichiro; focused on creating small, efficient internal-combustion engines.

September 24, 1948 - Soichiro Honda formed Honda Motor Company in Hamamatsu Japan (aboutt 150 miles southwest of Tokyo); capitalized at ¥1 million, 34 employees; 1955 - led motorcycle production in Japan. early 1960s - world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles; 1962 - automobile production begins; 1972 - Honda introduced Civic 1200, became a serious contender in the industry; 1989 - Accord best-selling car in America. 

October 2, 1948 - Cameron Argetsinger and the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) present first post-World War II Grand Prix road race in the United States at Watkins Glen, NY; Frank Griswold, driving a 2.9 liter prewar Alfa Romeo, won both events offered, a 26.4-mile Junior Prix, and the 52.8-mile Grand Prix.

November 29, 1948 - Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley and 1,200 hundred others attended unveiling of first car manufactured entirely in Australia, General Motors-Holden's Automotive ivory-colored motor car officially designated the 48-215 (six-cylinder, four-door sedan), known as Holden FX; 100,000 sold in first five years of production; by 1980s - 4 million exported around world; 1994 - name changed to Holden.

January 17, 1949 - First Volkswagen Beetle in U.S. arrived from Germany.

March 2, 1949 - Connecticut Light and Power Company installed first automatic streetlight system in New Milford, CT; streetlights contained  electronic device with photoelectric cell capable of measuring outside light;  turned themselves on at dark; November of 1949 - total of 190 photoelectric streetlights automatically lighted seven miles of New Milford's roads at dusk.

March 17, 1949 - First car to carry Porsche name introduced at 19th International Automobile Show in Geneva, Switzerland; named 356, sports-car version of Volkswagen that Porsche had designed at Hitler's request.

December 16, 1949 - Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget (Sweden) produced its first motorcar; 1965 - name changed to Saab Aktiebolag (later to Saab); 1990 - car operations acquired by General Motors (excluding bus, truck, military jet businesses); 2000 - rest of Saab's automotive operations acquired by GM.

1950 - George W. Mason, President of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, introduced Nash Rambler, small car that could be produced inexpensively for the post war economy (forerunner of the modern American compact car); 1954 - product line broadened to 10 model types; June 30, 1969 - last Rambler produced.

August 2, 1950 - Ford Motor Company created Defense Products Division to handle large number of government contracts related to the Korean War.

August 22, 1950 - Ralph R. Teetor, of Hagerstown, IN, received a patent for a "Speed Control Device for Resisting Operation of the Accelerator" ("device for assisting an automobile driver in maintaining the speed of the vehicle not in excess of a pre-determined speed"); cruise control.

September 1, 1950 - Porsche returned to Zuffenhausen, Germany; completed first Porsche to boast a Porsche-made engine.

June 5, 1951 - Gordon M. Buehrig, of South Bend, IN, received a patent for "Vehicle Top Construction" ("to provide a vehicle top construction which is essentially the type providing an enclosed passenger compartment with the attendant advantages but which may be opened to a substantial degree to simulate an open passenger compartment"); vehicle top with removable panels; appeared as "T-top" on 1968 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray; 1928 - fourth man hired by Harley Earl for General Motors's new Art and Color Section, first GM department dedicated solely to design concerns.

October 31, 1951 - Zebra crossing (broad white and black stripes across the road for visual impact vs. metal studs in the road)  introduced in Slough, Berkshire, England to reduce casualties at pedestrian road crossings.

December 5, 1951 - Parking Services Inc. openedfirst push button-controlled Park-O-Mat garage opened in Washington, DC (open building with 16 floors and 2 basement levels); no ramps, no aisles and no lanes; used a "vehicle parking apparatus" such that single attendant, without entering a car, could automatically park or return an auto in less than a minute; two elevators parked 72 cars on a lot 25 by 40 feet.

December 27, 1951 - U.S. Postal Service in Cincinnati, OH put Crosley car into use; first right-hand-drive car (on the mailbox-side of the car) designed specifically for mail delivery; produced by Powel Crosley, radio and appliance manufacturer, owner of WLW radio station, Cincinnati Reds baseball team.

1952 - Michio Suzuki created motorized bicycle, Power Free, featured 36cc, two-stroke engine (had founded Suzuki Loom Works in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture Japan in 1909; reorganized in 1920 as Suzuki Loom Manufacturing Co. to produce textile looms); 1954 - name changed to Suzuki Motor Corporation; 1955 - introduced first mass-produced car, the Suzulight; 1981 - General Motors acquired 5% of Suzuki shares; 1985 - American Suzuki Corp. introduced Samurai in U.S.; 1998 - GM increased ownership to 10%; 2001- GM's ownership rose to 20.4%; 2004 - General Motors and Suzuki Motor Corp. acquired bankrupt Daewoo; March 2006 - GM divested, sold 92.36 million shares, reduced stake to 3%, raised $2 billion. Suzuki still owns 11% of GM Daewoo Auto and Technology. 

Michio Suzuki -  Suzuki Motor Corporation ( history/Suzuki 1.jpg)

1952 - Nuffield Group merged with Austin; became British Motor Corporation; fourth largest car manufacturer in world; 1968 - BMC merged with Leyland Group; combined nearly 100 companies: remaining independent British car manufacturing companies (car, bus and truck manufacturers), diverse enterprises (construction equipment, refrigerators, metal casting companies, road surface manufacturers); arranged in seven divisions under new chairman, Sir Donald Stokes (formerly chairman of LMC); 1975 - declared bankruptcy; April 1975 - Ryder Report recommended restructuring, enlarging under government ownership; government took control, created new holding company British Leyland Limited (government major shareholder); 1978 - name changed to BL Limited; 1986 - name changed to Rover Group; 1987 - Trucks Division merged with Dutch DAF company to form DAF NV; bus business spun-off into new company called Leyland Bus; 1988 - Bus & Truck division sold to Volvo; remaining Rover Group PLC business sold by the British Government to British Aerospace (BAe); 1994 - BAe sold The Rover Group to BMW; 2000 -remainder of company sold to Phoenix Consortium for nominal £10, renamed MG Rover Ltd.

1952 - Leonard Lord (Austin division of British Motor Corporation), Donald Healey (renowned automotive engineer, designer, founder in 1945 of Donald Healey Motor Company Ltd.) established joint venture to manufacture Austin-Healey sports cars; 1972 - 20-year agreement ended.

1952 - Julius Samann, chemist in Watertown, NY, responded to milk-truck driver's complaint about smell of spilled, sour milk in his truck; discovered that putting high-quality fragrance on porous card stock highly effective way to make quality air freshener (had spent several years extracting essential oils from pine needles in Canada); sketched Little Tree shape, coined name "Car-Freshner"; founded Car-Freshner Corp.; March 24, 1959 - Car-Freshner Corporation registered "Car-Freshner" trademark first used on August 6, 1952 (absorbent bodies impregnated with a perfumed air deodorant); added over forty fragrances to the original Royal Pine; family-owned, 600 employees in 3 plants.

January 1, 1952 - Colin Chapman founded Lotus Engineering Company in Norfolk, England; first production car - Lotus, the Mark VI.

February 5, 1952 - New York adopted three-color traffic lights; first "Don't Walk" sign was installed in New York City; erected in response to the growing awareness of pedestrian fatalities in the increasingly crowded Manhattan streets; occur most often between six p.m. and nine p.m.; 1997 - 5,307 pedestrians died as a result of automobile accidents.

March 12, 1952 - Mercedes introduced 300SL to press (named for engine's three litre cylinder displacement, "SL" stood for "Sport Leicht" [Sport Light]); sleek rounded body, gull-wing doors, a detachable steering wheel; 1954 - introduced 300SL coupe to public; six-cylinder engine, top speed of 155mph, two-door coupe created sensation among wealthy car buyers; company only manufactured 1,400 300SL coupes due to impracticality of the gull-wing doors.

March 19, 1952 - 1,000,000th Jeep produced (660,000 Jeeps had rolled off assembly lines, onto battlefields in Asia, Africa, Europe by 1945); Willys-Overland released first civilian Jeep model, called CJ (Civilian Jeep).

May 7, 1952 - James J. Nance resigned from Hotpoint, became president, general manager of Packard Motor Company (two years); October of 1954 - Packard merged with larger Studebaker Corporation, Nance named President; 1956 - acquired by Curtiss-Wright Aircraft Company.

June 12, 1952 - Maurice Olley, Chevrolet's chief engineer, completed chassis, code-named Opel, for eventual use in 1953 Corvette; July 1952 - Corvette got name from extensive search through English dictionary (small-sized, speedy warship used by most Allied navies during World War II); December 22, 1952 - first production-ready prototype Corvette completed; sporty fiberglass body, design said to have cost between $50,000- $60,000 to build; January 17, 1953 - exhibited as dream car at Motorama Car Show Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City; June 30, 1953 - first regular-production model rolled out; first production year - just over 300 Corvettes assembled (by hand) in Flint, Michigan; about half sold, rest given away to company executives and VIPs.

June 30, 1953 - First Chevrolet Corvette, white convertible with red interior, drove off General Motors assembly line - first all-fiberglass-bodied American sports car (built with existing General Motors's parts); included "Blue Flame" inline six-cylinder engine, two-speed automatic transmission, drum brakes from Chevrolet's regular car line; September 1, 1953 - General Motors Corporation registered "Corvette" trademark first used January 9, 1953 (automobiles); 1954 - Went into full production, with limited success (some 3,500 cars sold, another 1,200 unsold by year's end); Chevy engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov overhauled engine, drive-shaft; 1955 - Corvette, equipped with new suspension, 195hp engine; tested in disguise at Pike's Peak Hill Climb (shattered stock-car record); February 1956 - Arkus-Duntov drove modified Corvette V-8 to two-way stock-car record of 150mph at Daytona Raceway; 1950s - did not surpass T-Bird in sales, fulfilled initial expectations to become first American sports car.

September 22, 1953 - World's first four-level interchange structure opened in Los Angeles; massive concrete structure connected the freeways of Hollywood, Harbor, Santa Ana, and Arroyo Seco.

1954 - Felix Wankel invented modern design for rotary engine (1893 - Elwood Haynes pioneered rotary engine); dispensed with separate pistons, cylinders, valves, and crankshafts; its construction allowed it to apply power directly to the transmission; can produce the same power as a conventional engine of twice its size with four times as many parts; burns up to twice as much gasoline as a conventional engine, a heavy polluter; February 1957 - first truly functional Wankel rotary engine (DKM type) ready; uses an orbiting rotor shaped as a curved equilateral triangle (instead of moving pistons), needed few moving parts, lightweight and compact; August 1971 - Wankel GmbH sold to LonRho for 100 million DM ($26.3 million).

January 14, 1954 - Hudson Motor Car Company agreed to merge with Nash-Kelvinator, largest corporate merger in U.S. history (at the time), valued at $198,000,000; new company called American Motors Corporation; recognized as most successful postwar independent manufacturer of cars; March 24, 1954 - proposed merger approved; October 12 - George Romney named AMC chairman, president, and general manager; led successful personal ad campaign promoting AMC Rambler as efficient, reliable car; Rambler sales kept AMC alive; December 28, 1954 - first Hudson Hornet with Nash engine offered.

February 19, 1954 - Ford Thunderbird prototype completed; scaled-down Ford built for two with removable fiberglass hard top, convertible canvas roof, V-8 engine for $2,944; fall 1954 - released to market on wide scale, beginning of 1955 model year; January 10, 1956 - Ford Motor Company registered "Thunderbird" trademark first used in February 20, 1954 (automobiles); December 13, 1957 - Last two-seater T-bird produced (removable hard tops, powerful V-8 engines); 1958 - Thunderbird (nicknamed "square bird") four-passenger car, 18 inches longer, half ton heavier than previous year's model; February 13, 1958 - First Ford Thunderbird with four seats introduced (352-cubic-inch 300 horsepower V-8); sold 38,000 cars initially; one of only two American cars to increase sales between 1957 and 1958.

First T-Bird ever produced (restored to completely original condition in 1965)   (

June 7, 1954 - Ford Motor Company formed styling team to  design entirely new car, later named Edsel.

June 10, 1954 - General Motors announced its research staff had built GM Turbocruiser, modified GMC coach powered by gas turbine; engine consisted of single burner with two turbine wheels (one used to drive centrifugal compressor, second delivered power for transmission to rear wheels of vehicle).

October 1954 - Studebaker merged with Packard, became country's fourth largest car company; 1956 - acquired by Curtiss-Wright. 

October 26, 1954 - Chevrolet introduced V-8 engine.

November 19, 1954 - First automatic toll collection machine ($.25) placed in service at the Union Toll Plaza on New Jersey's Garden State Parkway (revenues covered roadway's construction and maintenance costs); 1795 -non-automotive toll road first appeared in the Blue Ridge Mountains along the Little River Turnpike at Snicker's Gap. 

April 18, 1955 - First "Walk"/"Don't Walk" lighted street signals installed.

April 19, 1955 - Volkswagen of America, Inc. was established in Engelwood, NJ, as a sales division for the German car company; produced its 1,000,000th car and exceeded, for the first time, the production benchmark of 1,000 cars per day on average.

June 27, 1955 - Illinois enacted first automobile seat belt legislation.

July 6, 1955 - Federal Air Pollution Control Act implemented; allocated federal funds for research into causal analysis and control of car-emission pollution. 1953 - Dr. Arie Haagen-Smit discovered the nature of photochemical smog, determining that nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combined with ultraviolet radiation from the sun created smog. He also discovered that ozone played a key role in the bonding process that created smog; 1960 -  Federal Motor Vehicle Act of 1960 called for further research and development into the control of car emissions. 1961 - California Motor Vehicle Board mandated first automotive emissions control technology--positive crankcase ventilation (PCV). PCV technology limited hydrocarbon emission by returning blow-by gases from the crankcase back to a car's cylinders, where they were burned with fuel and air; 1963 - the first Federal Clean-Air Act passed, allocated research money for local and federal institutions to combat air pollution.

July 14, 1955 - Volkswagen introduced the Karmann-Ghia coupe at the Kasino Hotel in Westfalia, Germany - an "image car" to accompany its plain but reliable "Bugs and Buses." Volkswagen had contracted with German coach-builder Karmann for their own image car, and Karmann, in turn, had sub-contracted to Ghia (Italian design firm ) for design offerings. Karmann-Ghia was released as a 1956 model by Volkswagen - 36hp flat four engine, sold 10,000 units in its first full production year ,and with the release of the convertible in 1958, production reached 18,000 units for one year, sales peaked at 33,000 in the 1960's, last produced in 1974.

September 18, 1955 - Ford Motor Company produced its 2,000,000th V-8 engine, 23 years after the first Ford V-8 was manufactured.

December 6, 1955 - Volkswagenwerk G.M.B.H. Corporation, Wolfsburg, Germany, registered "Volkswagen" trademark.

December 6, 1955 - The Federal government standardized the size of license plates throughout the U.S. (individual states had designed their own license plates, resulted in wide variations).

December 31, 1955 - General Motors announced net income of $1,189,477,082 for the year; first U.S. corporation to earn more than a billion dollars in fiscal year.

April 2, 1956 - Alfred P. Sloan stepped down after 19 years as chairman of General Motors (had been hired by William Durant after purchase of Hyatt Roller Bearing Corporation, worked his way up to VP; DuPont family bought out Durant in 1920, named Sloan to head GM; recognized as creator of GM Corporation: centralized operations, imposed financial discipline, built new corporate headquarters on outskirts of Detroit, did not allow his ego, genius, to interfere with shareholders' interests, focused on consolidation, profit margin); Albert Bradley elected as successor.

May 16, 1956 - General Motors (GM) dedicated new, $125 million GM Technical Center in Warren, MI; product of Alfred Sloan, Harley Earl (GM stylist, car architect; achieved fame for design of GM's 1927 LaSalle, first production car to offer sleek, long, rounded look; hired by Alfred Sloan to oversee styling for all GM cars); 2003 - $1 billion dollar renovation completed.

June 25, 1956 - Last Packard produced at Connor Avenue plant in Detroit, MI; considered last true Packard car; manufactured cars in South Bend, IN until 1958.

June 29, 1956 - President Dwight Eisenhower signed into law Highway Revenue Act of 1956; outlined policy of taxation with aim of creating fund for construction of over 42,500 miles of interstate highways; plan called for $50 billion over 13 years (total federal budget approached $71 billion); system of taxes to pay for system relied heavily on taxation of gasoline (Eisenhower thought of Federal Interstate System as his greatest achievement had pushed for national highway system since 1919 when privately funded construction of Lincoln Highway had begun).

November 8, 1956 -
Ford Motor Company decided on name "Edsel" for new model in development for 1958 market year (tribute to Edsel Bryant Ford, oldest son of founder Henry Ford, father to Henry Ford II, who served as company president from 1919 until his death in 1943); August 26, 1957 - rolled out first Edsel automobile five years after conception (market research had indicated consumers wanted more horsepower, tailfins, three-tone paint jobs, wrap-around windshields); September 4, 1957 - Ford Motor Co. began selling Edsels; proclaimed this day "E-day" in celebration of the Edsel's introduction (five years after conception, in response to careful market research that indicated consumers wanted more horsepower, tailfins, three-tone paint jobs, wrap-around windshields).; low price, V-8 engine failed to overcome "ugly horse-collar grille" = negative press, lack of sales; 1958 -earned just 1.5 percent share of auto market; November 19, 1959 - Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of unpopular Edsel; 1960 - line discontinued, 110,847 manufactured.

1957 - Frank Stronach opened one-man tool and die shop in Canada, called Multimatic; first year's sales $13,000 (Canadian); 1960 - received first order from General Motors to produce metal-stamped sun visor brackets; 1968 - sales $2.6 million (US); 1969 - merged with Magna Electronics Corporation Limited (aerospace, defense, industrial components manufacturer); 1973 - name changed to Magna International Inc.; 1979 - entered automotive plastics business; 1987 - full-service supplier for many key systems for automotive market; 1989 - co-designed, co-developed integrated child-safety seat; 1990 - sold non-auto lines to reduce debt; formed joint venture with Ford Motor Company to supply basic and molded exterior components; 1999 - named by Forbes magazine as world's top auto parts company; 2005 - took three public operating subsidiaries private; annual sales $22.8 billion; 2007 - made unsuccessful bid for Chrysler (company's biggest customer).

Frank Stronach - Magna International (

July 4, 1957 - Fiat launched "Nuova 500" ("Cinquecinto" - produced in Turin, 479cc engine, 3 doors); 1975 -  when it went out of production; 2007 - revived as new Fiat 500 (58cm longer than the original; driver can plug iPod straight into dashboard).

October 31, 1957 - Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. founded in California (Shotaro Kamiya as first president); end of 1sold 958 - 287 Toyopet Crowns, one Land Cruiser; 1997 - Toyota Camry became best-selling car in America, surpassed Honda Accord.

November 7, 1957 - VEB Kraftfahrzeugwerk Zwickau produced first pre-series Trabant ('Trabi', car type P 50) in Zwickau, Germany automobile factory (40th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution); May 1, 1958 - renamed VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau (VEB Sachsenring); July 10 1958 - final production line started; East Germany's answer to Volkswagen; made of plasticized cotton waste, called Duroplast with 72-horsepower, two-stroke engine (56 mph top speed); November 9, 1989 - East German citizens allowed to buy western cars; 1990 - company renamed Sachsenring Automobilwerke GmbH (Sachsenring AG); April 30, 1991 - last Trabant produced; about 3 million made, more than 53,000 remain in Germany; May 30, 2002 - filed for insolvency protection; February 2006 - Sachsenring AG acquired by Härterei und Qualitätsmanagement GmbH (HQM) of Leipzig.

December 28, 1957 - 2,000,000th Volkswagen produced.

January 9, 1958 - Toyota, Datsun (later Nissan) brand names made first appearances in United States at Imported Motor Car Show in Los Angeles, CA.

March 16, 1958 - Ford Motor Company produced 50,000,000th car, a Thunderbird.

March 18, 1958 - Plastone Company Inc. registered "Turtle Wax 'Hard Shell Finish' Auto Polish" trademark first used January 11, 1955 (automobile polish).

July 1958 - Congress passed Automobile Information Disclosure Act of 1958 (Senate formed Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee automobile marketing practices subcommittee in 1955 in response to dealer complaints of abusive treatment by automakers, particularly in awarding of franchises; chaired by Senator Almer Stillwell Monroney [D-OK]; Congress passed Automobile Dealers' Day in Court Act in 1956, provided some recourse for dealers with complaints against manufacturers; scope of committee hearings grew to encompass deceptive dealer practices; Senator Monroney had drafted price-sticker bill in 1958 with help of David Busby [special counsel to committee]); required auto price stickers on new cars - labeled with suggested retail price, details about, prices for standard and optional equipment, vehicle's make, model, serial number, its final assembly point, dealer destination, method and cost of transportation to dealership; became known in auto industry as Monroney stickers; fuel economy, crash-test ratings subsequently added.

August 19, 1958 - Production of elegant Packard line halted halt due to lagging luxury car sales; came shortly after Packard's acquisition of Studebaker, management of which assumed control of company after merger.

October 16, 1958 - Chevrolet introduced El Camino, sedan-pickup created to compete with Ford's Ranchero model;  discontinued after two years; 1964 - given second life as Chevelle series truck, in line of cars commonly termed "muscle cars."

April 1959 - Production version of BMC mini shown to press; August 1959 - British Motor Corporation (BMC) launced the Mini car; designed by Sir Alec Issigonis.

June 4, 1959 - Kihachiro Kawashima selected as Executive Vice President, General Manager of American Honda Motor Company (seven employees, operating capital of $250,000.); opened shop in small storefront office on Pico Boulevard in Los Angeles to serve consumers wanting small, light, easy to handle and maintain two-wheeled vehicles.

August 6, 1959 - Chevrolet Corporation registered Corvair, name for new rear-engine compact car; became controversial, accused of being "unsafe at any speed," with much criticism directed toward its handling (1972 government study later exonerated Corvair).

September 2, 1959 - Ford Motor Company introduced new Ford Falcon (small, fuel-efficient car), in first nationwide closed-circuit television news conference; 1971 - discontinued.

September 21, 1959 - Plymouth produced first Valiant at plant in Hamtramck, MI; code named "Falcon" after 1955 Chrysler Falcon, plans for new model went awry when Chrysler marketing team found out at last minute that Ford had already registered name "Falcon" for its compact car; logo castings had already been made, marketing plans finalized; held company-wide contest for new name; "Valiant" emerged winner; no time to make new logo castings, car simply introduced as Valiant, featured only mylar sticker on engine for identification; 1961 - Valiant became Plymouth Valiant, new logo castings and all.

November 9, 1960 - Ford named Robert S. McNamara president (hired in 1946, former intelligence officer from Air Force, called a "Whiz Kid"); first non-Ford to serve in post as Henry Ford II became chief executive officer; January 1, 1961 - McNamara resigned from Ford, became secretary of defense for new administration of President John F. Kennedy.

November 19, 1959 - Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of unpopular Edsel.

November 18, 1960 - William C. Newberg, new president at Chrysler, announced termination of DeSoto marque, just two weeks after 1961 DeSoto introduced to uninterested market.

November 30, 1960 - First International Harvester Scout rolled off  assembly line at International Harvester's Fort Wayne plant; introduced to public asversatile, affordable vehicle for both passenger, cargo transport; available in both two- and four-wheel drive, featured four-cylinder engine, with three-speed, floor-mounted transmission; best-selling vehicle in IH history; 1971 - replaced by improved Scout II.

February 28, 1961 - Ralph R. Teetor, of Hagerstown, IN (blind since age 6), received a patent for a "Speed Control Device for an Automotive Vehicle" ("...offers resistance to advancing movement of the throttle control member of the engine of the vehicle when a predetermined vehicle speed is reached...novel means for holding the throttle control member at a position for operating the vehicle at such predetermined speed when the driver so desires, the driver thus not being required to manipulate the throttle control member while the vehicle continues to be operated at a predetermined speed"); cruise control; assigned to Perfect Circle Corporation.;

March 16, 1961 - Jaguar Cars Ltd. introduced XK-E, or E-Type, at Geneva Auto Show; top speed of 150mph, a 0 to 60 time of 6.5 seconds; averaged an unheard of 17 miles per gallon; mid 1960s - E-Type became most famous sports car in world.

May 20, 1961 - Ford Motor Company completed highly modified stretch Lincoln Continental convertible sedan (later known as the SS-100-X) for the U.S. Secret Service to be used as a presidential limousine; carried President John F. Kennedy down Elm Street in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated in 1963.

October 3, 1961 - United Auto Workers (UAW) struck Ford Motor Company (lasted 17 days; first since first union contract with Ford was signed in 1941had experienced - "Battle of the Overpass" in 1941 in which Ford's security force beat union organizers attempting to pass out UAW leaflets along Miller Road Overpass in Dearborn, MI; Ford's first closed-shop contract with UAW in 1941 had covered 123,000 employees (ratified after four years of struggle, 10-day strike); Ford last of Big Three auto firms to accept unionization.

November 18, 1961 - Chrysler announced termination of DeSoto line of cars (two weeks after the 1961 DeSoto was introduced; first model had been built in 1928 as mid-priced, six-cylinder car; first 12 months of production set sales record that stood for 30 years).

March 14, 1962 - GM produced 75-millionth US-made car.

August 9, 1962 - Chrysler Corporation set industry milestone, announced for 1963 a five-year, 50,000-mile warranty covering all of its cars and trucks.

August 20, 1962 - First 1963 Ford Thunderbird produced; promoted as "personal" car rather than sports car, never competed against imports, enormous success; August 12, 1963 - first 1964 Thunderbird rolled off assembly line.

September 11, 1963 - Robert Morgan (born Henry Morgenstern), former founder of Safeway Brakes, former door-to-door haring aids salesman, and Tony Martino opened first AAMCO Transmissions Inc. in Newark, NJ; November 1963 - began franchising (automotive specialization); redefined automotive repair industry; February 8, 1966 - AAMCO Automatic Transmissions Inc. registered "AAMCO Automatic Transmissions Inc." trademark first used December 15, 1959 (automobile repair services); 1967 - Martino interest acquired by Morgan (later founded Maaco, auto paint, repair chain); 1992 - Keith Morgan (son) took over as CEO; March 7, 2006 - $400 million in sales; acquired by Cottman Transmission Systems Inc. (Horsham, PA, competitor for 43 years; owned by American Capital, publicly traded buyout fund); created one of country's largest complete car-care companies (more than 1,100 stores throughout United States); Cottman changed name to Aamco.

October 30, 1963 - Ferruccio Lamborghini, tractor maker, debuted Lamborghini 350GTV (to compete with Ferrari) at Turin auto show; 1964 - drastically redesigned 350GT went into production, sol over 100 of expensive, quiet, sophisticated high-performance cars (capable of speeds of 155mph with maximum 320hp); 1973 - 51% of Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. acquired by Georges-Henri Rossetti, long-time friend and Swiss businessman, for $600,000; 1974 -  Lamborghi’s 49% stake acquired by René Leimer (friend of Georges-Henri Rossetti); introduced Lamborghini Countach (Marcello Gandini design); 1978 - entered bankruptcy; 1980 - court appointed Jean-Claude,  Patrick Mimran, Swiss brothers, food entrepreneurs, to administer company during receivership; 1981 - introduced Lamborghini Jalpa (designed by Bertone; doscontinued in 1988); 1986 - launched LM002 SUV, first four-wheel-drive vehicle (discontinued in 1993); April 24, 1987 - control of Nuova Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. acquired from Mimran brothers by Chrysler Corporation for $25.2 million; January 1990 - introduced Diablo (designed by Marcello Gandini); 1994 - acquired by Indonesian investment group headed by Tommy Suharto (Suharto family); 1998 - Chrysler acquired by Daimler-Benz for paid $37 billion (largest industrial takeover ever, largest acquisition of U.S. company by foreign buyer); renamed DaimlerChrysler AG; created Murciélago (Diablo's replacement); August 4 1998 - Automobili Lamborghini acquired by Audi AG; 2003 - introduced  all-wheel drive Gallardo; 2006 - launched open-top Gallardo Spyder; 2007 - launched Reventon, most expensive Lamborghini (£840,000); 2009 - sold LP 550-2 Balboni (limited edition Gallardo, first rear-wheel drive Lamborghini) to pay homage to Lamborghini’s legendary test driver Valentino Balboni; Gallardo was most successful car (over 13,000 cars sold); 2011 - introduced Aventador (Murciélago replacement) at Geneva motor show; 2013 - launched Veneno at Geneva motor show (based on Aventador, commemorated 50th anniversary of Lamborghin).

December 9, 1963 - Last American-made Studebaker produced, factory in South Bend, IN, closed forever; 1966 - Studebaker's Canadian factories shut down, Studebaker passed into history; Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, started during the Civil War, had once been the world's largest manufacturer of horse-drawn carriages, converted to auto manufacturing (had merged with Packard Motor Car Company in 1954).

December 17, 1963 - U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act, a sweeping set of laws designed to protect the environment from air pollution; first legislation to place pollution controls on the automobile industry.

1964 - Chevrolet introduced Malibu, top-level midsize car (version of Chevelle); 1983 - discontinued; 1997 - resurrected by GM to compete with Toyota Camry, Honda Accord.

January 17, 1964 - First Porsche-Carrera GTS delivered to Los Angeles customer.

March 9, 1964 - First Ford Mustang rolled off assembly line; April 17, 1964 - Ford Motor Co. unveiled new Mustang model on first day of New York World's Fair in Flushing, Queens (New York); brainchild of Lee Iacocca, his production team; essentially Ford Falcon with new frame, body; April 17, 1965 - Ford introduced GT Equipment Group as option on Mustang, created first Mustang GT (Mustang-related innovation was new strategy of marketing upgrade packages); base price for Mustang was $2,368, but buyers purchased average of $1,000 worth options.

January 16, 1965 - Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (Auto Pact); eliminated trade tariffs between two countries, created single North American manufacturing market; Americans got continental-wide free trade zone in auto parts, Canadians won production guarantees, content requirement (all auto product imports south of their border would come from Canada); elevated industrial policy to international level; more efficient market lowered prices, increased production created thousands of jobs and wages for Canadians; automobile, parts production surpassed pulp and paper, became Canada's most important industry; trade deficit turned to trade surplus (billions of dollars annually to Canada); left Canadian automobile industry in hands of American corporations; 1987 - comprehensive U.S.-Canada free trade agreement supplanted Auto Pact (invalidated by WTO invalidated as obstacle to free trade.

January 28, 1965 - General Motors released estimate of company's earnings for fiscal year 1964: $1.735 billion, largest profit ever reported by an American company (strong sales, strong economy, Pontiac GTO introduction).

August 11, 1965 - Ford Bronco, intended to compete against Jeep's CJ-5, International Harvester's Scout, introduced, very simple, without options as power steering, automatic transmission (manufactured for 12 years, with 18,000 produced in 1966 alone).

October 20, 1965 -Last 544 driven off Volvo assembly line at  Lundy plant in Sweden (first-year 544 sales in 1958 had put Volvo over 100,000-exported automobiles mark); total of 440,000 Volvo PV544s produced, over half exported.

December 7, 1965 - Chevrolet produced 3,000,000th car for year (first time ever).

February 10, 1966 - Ralph Nader testified before Senate, reinforced his earlier claims that automobile industry was socially irresponsible, detailed methods industry used in attempting to silence him; attacked automotive industry's unwillingness to consider safety of consumer; created methodology for contemporary consumer advocacy of federally regulated safety standards.

March 16, 1966 - General Motors produced 100,000,000th car, Oldsmobile Toronado.

August 11, 1966 - First Chevy Camaro (French for "comrade, pal, or chum") drove out of manufacturing plant in Norwood, OH; hit with public, base price of $2,466 for a six-cylinder engine, three-speed manual transmission.

September 9, 1966 - National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act signed into law; mandated use of seatbelts, established federal safety standards with strict penalties for violations.

1967 - First Chevrolet Camaro produced in hurried program to deliver competitor to Mustang (codename: "Panther" during development program); more than 200,000 sold in first model year (11% of Chevrolet's total sales); 2002 - production stopped; nearly 4.8 million cars made.

1967 - Chung Se Yung placed in charge of Hyundai Motor Corporation, tiny car operation at Hyundai Group (founded in 1947 by older brother, Chung Ju Yung, as engineering, construction company; had joined Hyundai Engineering and Construction division of Hyundai Group in 1957); December 1975 - introduced its first Korean car (based on Japanese technology from Mitsubishi), Pony; became popular with South Korean consumers, exported subcompact to Canada in 1984, to United States as low-priced Excel in 1986; October 1998 - acquired Kia Motors for $1.4 billion; 1999 - lost control over the Hyundai Motor Company, forced out by older brother.

January 9, 1967 - Construction of Volga Automobile Works began in Togliatti in Soviet Union; April 1970 - Zhiguli automobiles (later known as "Lada" autos) rolled off assembly lines; became (and remains) largest producer of small European automobiles (in association with Fiat).

November 1, 1967 - Robert W. Kearns, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Windshield Wiper System with Intermittent Operation" ("...wiper dwells for a time interval during a portion of each cycle of wiper operation"); sued Ford in 1978, Chrysler in 1982 for patent infringement; Ford settled, paid Kearns $10.2 million; Chrysler was ordered to pay Kearns $18.7 million and interest, upheld in 1995 by Supreme Court on appeal by Chrysler.

February 1, 1969 - John DeLorean named top executive (general manager) at Chevrolet; pioneered successful GTO, Grand Prix models; 1973 - sold record 3,000,000 cars and trucks; walked away from Chevrolet to start own company; 1974 - raised nearly $200 million to finance new venture, DeLorean Motor Company.

March 8, 1969 - Pontiac introduced Firebird Trans Am; originally limited model Firebird; became symbol in muscle car niche of automobile manufacturing.

June 30, 1969 - Last of 4,204,925 U.S.-produced Nash Ramblers produced.

April 1, 1970 - AMC introduced Gremlin, America's first sub-compact car; designed to compete with imported Volkswagens, Japanese sub-compacts.

September 11, 1970 - Ford Pinto introduced; cost less than $2,000, designed to compete with compact imports; contained a fatal design flaw - placement of the gas tank meant tank was likely to rupture and explode if car was involved in a rear end collision of over 20mph. Eventually revealed that Ford knew about the design flaw before the Pinto's release. An internal cost-benefit analysis calculated a cost to Ford of $11 per car to correct the flaw, a total $137 million to  the company (compared to $49.5 million in potential lawsuits from the mistake and an assigned a value of $200,000 for each death predicted to result from the flaw).  Report concluded that correcting the design mistake was "inefficient". 1978 - a California jury awarded a record-breaking $128 million to a claimant in the Ford Pinto case.

November 21, 1970 - Ford introduced Mustang Boss 351 at Detroit Auto Show; featured powerful 8-cyclinder engine built on Ford's new "Cleveland" block, factory rated at 300bhp; 1971 -  only production year, 1,806 units made (vs. 500,000 Mustangs manufactured and sold in 1965 alone).

December 10, 1970 - Lee Iacocca became president of Ford Motor Company (had Ford as an engineer in the 1940s); October 15, 1978 - Iacocca ousted from Ford.

February 4, 1971 - Rolls Royce declared itself bankrupt (state ownership) due to early problems with three-shaft turbofan concept of RB211 aero-engine for Lockheed L-1011 Tri-Star wide body airliners; 1973 - car business spun off as separate entity.

December 4, 1971 - General Motors recalled 6,700,000 vehicles that were vulnerable to motor mount failure; largest voluntary safety recall in industry's history.

December 31, 1971 - President Richard Nixon signed National Air Quality Control Act, called for 90% reduction in automobile emissions by 1975; tightened air-pollution controls, fines in other industries.

February 17, 1972 - 15,007,034th Volkswagen Beetle rolled out of Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, surpassed ord Model T's previous production record to become most heavily produced car in history; brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche, developed Volkswagen on orders from German government to produce affordable car for the people; 1998 - Volkswagen released "New Beetle."

February 12, 1973 - Four metric distance road signs, first in U.S., erected along Interstate 71 in Ohio; showed distance in both miles, kilometers between Columbus and Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland.

March 1, 1973 - Honda Civic  introduced to United States market.

October 17, 1973 - Dawn of fuel efficiency: 11 Arab oil producers increased oil prices, cut back production in response to support of United States, other nations for Israel in Yom Kippur War; OPEC, (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), approved oil embargo at meeting in Tangiers, Morocco: gasoline prices quadrupled, U.S. car companies (automobiles typically averaged less than 15 miles per gallon), couldn't meet sudden demand for small, fuel-efficient vehicles, public bought imports, especially Japanese sturdy compact cars; foreign auto manufacturers flourished in large American market; 1980's - Big Three introduced their own Japanese-inspired compacts. 

October 23, 1973 - Toyota U.S.A. held its first (three-day) national news conference in Los Angeles, CA to discuss the fuel efficiency of its automobiles (5 days after 11 Arab oil producers increased oil prices and cut back production in response to the support of the United States and other nations for Israel in the Yom Kippur War); American consumers suffered gasoline rationing, a quadrupling of prices, huge lines at gas stations - foreign auto manufacturers flourished in the large American market.

November 25, 1973 - In response to1973 oil crisis, President Richard M. Nixon called for a Sunday ban on the sale of gasoline to consumers; part of a larger plan announced by Nixon earlier in the month to achieve energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980; ban lasted until the crisis resolved in March 1974; other government legislation, such as the imposing of a national speed limit of 55mph, extended indefinitely. Experts maintained that the reduction of speed on America's highways would prevent an estimated 9,000 traffic fatalities per year. Although many motorists resented the new legislation, one long-lasting benefit for impatient travelers was the ability to make right turns at a red light, a change that the authorities estimated would conserve a significant amount of gasoline; 1995 -national 55mph speed limit repealed, legislation relating to highway speeds rested in state hands.

November 29, 1973 - Chrysler Corp. announced plans to halt production at seven plants (week General Motors disclosed temporary closings); affected 38,000 workers; Chrysler looked to slash inventory, shift production from boat-sized autos, to smaller, more saleable models.

January 2, 1974 - President Richard Nixon signed the Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act, legislation required states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph.

January 12, 1975 - Chrysler initiated 'cash back on purchases' to consumers in marketing campaign during Super Bowl IX (ads featured Joe Garagiola in barker's coat and straw hat: "Buy a car, get a check"); auto rebate program created by Robert B. McCurry to help dealers thin their inventories of slow-selling cars and trucks.

April 12, 1977 - General Motors (GM) announced it had dropped plans to produce a Wankel rotary engine on the grounds that its poor fuel economy would hurt sales.

September 13, 1977 - General Motors (GM) introduced first diesel automobiles in America, Oldsmobile 88, 98 models; GM claimed diesel fuel efficiency was 40% better than gasoline-powered cars (though balanced by higher emission of soot, odor, and air pollutants).

November 15, 1977 - Workers at Ford's Mahwah plant completed the 100,000,000th Ford to be built in America: 1978 Ford Fairmont four-door sedan (line discontinued after 1983 model year).

December 5, 1977 - Plymouth introduced Horizon, first American-made small car with front-wheel drive (drive technology had reduced size, cost of front-wheel drive systems).

1978 - General Motors sold record 9.55 million cars, trucks worldwide; 2005 - first time since 1978 to break 9 million sales mark (sold 9.17 million vehicles).

July 1978 - Ford Motor Company Chairman, Henry Ford II, fired Lee Iacocca from position of president (since 1970); ended  bitter personal struggle between two men; Iacocca was 32-year Ford employee; October 15, 1978 - Iacocca left company.

November 2, 1978 - Chrysler hired Lee Iacocca as President; September 20, 1979 - elected Chairman.

December 14, 1978 - Ford built one-hundred-fifty-millionth vehicle.

September 7, 1979 - Chrysler Motor Corp. announced it would post record pre-tax losses for year (close to Bethlehem Steel's record-setting pre-tax loss of $911 million) - due to inventory and production problems. Company executives devised a "rescue plan" - centered on asking for roughly $1 billion in Federal assistance; took steps to unload the company's surplus of unsold cars; instituted cost-saving measures.

September 20, 1979 - Lee Iacocca elected chairman of Chrysler Corporation; rebuilt Chrysler through layoffs, cutbacks, hard-selling advertising, government loan guarantee; 1983 - Chrysler moved from verge of bankruptcy to competitive force in automobile market, paid back all of its government loans in less than four years. 1984 - Iacocca autobiography became best-seller, broke all records for a business book.

December 3, 1979 - American Motors produced last bubble-topped Pacer.

December 19, 1979 - Senate approved Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, a $1.5 billion loan for Chrysler Corporation; 1980 - Chrysler reported record losses in excess of $1.7 billion; late 1980s - automaker was posting record profits under leadership of Lee Iacocca.

January 7, 1980 - Jimmy Carter signed Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979; authorized $1.2 billion in federal loans to save failing Chrysler Corporation = largest federal bailout in history; required Chrysler to find billions in private financing in order to receive federal money.

March 13, 1980 - Henry Ford II resigned as Chairman of Ford Motor Company, named Philip Caldwell his successor; era of Ford family as automotive dynasty temporarily ended; reorganized company, instituted modern bookkeeping system.

May 13, 1980 - Douglas A. Fraser, president of UAW, named to Chrysler Corporation Board of Directors, first union representative ever to sit on board of major U.S. corporation; 1982 - faced with Chrysler's imminent collapse, Fraser traded millions of dollars in union guarantees (to save jobs) for options on Chrysler stock; Chrysler turnaround rewarded union.

October 26, 1980 - General Motors announced a $567 million loss, biggest quarterly drop ever posted by an American company; pre-tax losses for quarter topped out at $953 million.

May 15, 1981 - 20,000,000th Volkswagen Beetle produced at  Volkswagen plant in Puebla, Mexico; had come first came to Mexico in 1954 as part of museum exhibit entitled "Germany and Its Industry" [250 Beetles were assembled in Mexico]; had acquired first assembly plant in Xalostoc in 1962, eventually assembled 50,000 Beetles).

December 8, 1981 - Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, automotive division of Mitsubishi conglomerate of Japan, began selling cars in U.S. under its own name (previously only in partnerships with American automakers).

September 9, 1982 - Henry Ford II retired (had taken over from his father as President of Ford Motor company in 1945: 1) quickly set about reorganizing and modernizing the company; 2) fired Personnel Chief Harry Bennett (strong-arm tactics, anti-union stance had made Ford notorious for its bad labor relations); 3) 'Whiz Kids" - brought in new talent (group of former U.S. Air Force intelligence officers, among them Robert McNamara); 3) greatly expanded international operations; 4) introduced two classic models, the Mustang and the Thunderbird).

September 28, 1982 - Ford opened joint UAW (United Auto Workers), Ford National Development and Training Center (Dearborn, MI); provided education and training to workers, community programs, in any of six major programs (from math skills to pension plans); offered relocation assistance, unemployment programs for laid-off workers; Ford subsidized  training center with grants and tuition assistance.

October 19, 1982 - John DeLorean arrested in Los Angeles airport motel (caught on film during FBI sting operation) with briefcase containing $24 million dollars of cocaine on charges of drug trafficking, money laundering (apparent attempt to make drug deal in order to rescue his financially ailing company); 1984 - federal jury ruled he was victim of entrapment, acquitted of all charges; credibility ruined, from top to bottom of automotive industry.

March 26, 1984 - Ford Escort named best-selling car in world for third year in row (Ford's attempt to design a "world car" that could be sold with minor variations all over world).

July 11, 1984 - Government orders air bags or seat belts required in cars by 1989

December 4, 1984 - General Motors announced that it would stop production of diesel engines due to tougher emission laws (get excellent mileage, produce plenty of power, tend to be noisy, produce heavy exhaust.

January 7, 1985 - GM launched Saturn Corporation as wholly owned but independent subsidiary (Saturn - affordable plastic-bodied two-door car).

June 27, 1985 - Federal highway officials decertified Route 66; stretched from Chicago to Santa Monica, CA.

July 30, 1985 - Saturn Corporation announced first plant would be built in Spring Hill, Tennessee (General Motors had initiated small car project in 1982, code-named Saturn; planned that Saturn should become unique factory experiment); 1990 - first Saturn car driven off assembly; May 1993 - first profitable month; 1995 - record sales, expanding operation to Japan; 1998 - first year-to-year sales decline, down 9.9% in volume from 1997.

August 26, 1985 - Yugo, manufactured in Yugoslavia, introduced to U.S. market; marketed as lower-cost alternative, quickly became infamous for its poor quality of construction.

September 10, 1985 - Karl Hassel, of Plain City, OH received a patent for a "Convertible Seat for Vehicles" ("for use by children in automobiles and other vehicles which is foldable and covered within the usual adult sized seating of the vehicle providing the usual appearance, and which is unfoldable and uncoverable to provide a simply constructed children's safety seat, upon and within the adult seating"); built-in child's car seat.

December 25, 1985 - Longest battery-powered drive in history: from Land's End, southernmost point in Britain, to John o' Groat's, Scotland, northernmost point in Great Britain = 875 miles on single battery charge in battery-powered Freight Rover Leyland Sherpa driven by Lucas electric motor (by David Turner and Tim Pickhard).

December 26, 1985 - Ford introduced Taurus, product of years of engineering; named by Lewis Veraldi, "father" of Taurus concept, John Risk, his chief planner (each of whose wives were born under astrological sign of the bull); base model sold for $9,645, equipped with 2.5-liter, four-cylinder engine, front- wheel-drive, three-speed automatic transmission; became enormously popular, lifted Ford to record profits in late 1980s; October 29, 2006 - discontinued; 7 million built.

April 9, 1986 - French government ruled against privatization of leading French carmaker Renault (France's second largest carmaker to PSA Peugot-Citroen); 1994 - government sold shares of Renault to public for first time at 165 francs per share (French government remained the majority shareholder); 1996 - Renault lost over $800 million (Renault, Peugot were two weakest of Europe's Big Seven carmakers).

September 8, 1986 - Nissan Motor Company Ltd. opened Sunderland, England plant; first Japanese automobile factory in Europe.

November 6, 1986 - Bankrupt Alfa Romeo company approved acquisition by Fiat, fellow Italian automobile manufacturer, shortly after rejecting  takeover bid by Ford Motor Company; 1997 - Alfa Lancia Spa opened.

April 23, 1987 - Chrysler Corporation announced pending purchase of Lamborghini; 1988 - released final Lamborghini Countache (in recognition of the company's founding in 1963); top speed of 184mph, 0 to 60 in five seconds; 1990 - built Lamborghini Diablo (first four-wheel drive car road car to break 200mph, top speed of 204mph; 0 to 60 in four seconds).

July 21, 1987 - Enzo Ferrari (89), in ceremony commemorating his company's 40th year, unveiled Ferrari F40 at factory in Maranello, Italy; first production sports car to top 200mph barrier; capable of 0-60mph in 3.5 seconds, could hold top speed of 201mph; Porsche 959 major competition. 

1988 - Ford reported net income of $5.3 billion, world record for an automotive company.

June 2, 1988 - Consumer Reports called for ban on Suzuki Samurai automobile.

January 7, 1989 - Dodge Viper introduced at North American International Automobile Show; modernized tribute to classic Shelby Cobra; 1992 - production version delivered - 450 horsepower at 5,200 rpms, capable of top speed of over 190 mph.

January 29, 1989 - Global Motors, American company that imported the Yugo (Yugoslavian-made economy car that sold for thousands of dollars less than its nearest competitor), filed for bankruptcy; low price made it a popular car for a few years in the mid-1980s; underpowered, unreliable, could punch holes in the body with a wooden pencil, poor warranties.

February 10, 1989 - Ford Motor Company announced 1988 net income of $5.3 billion, world's record for an automotive company.

September 1, 1989 - Toyota sold first Lexus, launched new luxury division; 1983 - Chairman Eiji Toyota proposed luxury car that could compete with the world's best; project given the code name "F1"(F for "flagship," numeral 1 recalling the high performance of Formula 1 race cars; 1985 - prototype, designed by chief engineers Shoiji Jimbo and Ichiro Suzuki, had been completed in 1985; top secret project had been unveiled in 1987 after extensive testing).

September 1, 1989 - Federal government passed new car safety legislation, required all newly manufactured cars to install an air bag on the driver's side.

September 22, 1989 - Chrysler Corporation sold 50 percent of its interest in Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, for potential gain of $310 million, possibly because of disagreements between two companies over Mitsubishi's U.S. sales, distribution.

November 11, 1989 - Jaguar became subsidiary of Ford.

1990 - Toyota held 10% share of American automobile market, sold at least 1 million vehicles in U. S.; July 2006 - passed Ford as #2 U.S. automaker in sales (behind GM).

March 15, 1990 - Ford Explorer introduced.

August 6, 1991 - Peugeot SA announced withdrawal from United States market, due to lagging sales (founded 1896).

July 2, 1992 - Original Corvette engineer Zora Arkus Duntov  drove one-millionth Chevrolet Corvette off of assembly line in Bowling Green, KY; helped develop small-block V-8 engine to increase Corvette's power; introduced Duntov high-lift cam-shaft;  introduced fuel injection; retired from Chevrolet in 1975.

October 12, 1993 - One-millionth Camry rolled off Toyota assembly line (decade after first introduced); 1997 - Toyota Camry became best-selling car in America.

November 19, 1993 - Toyota, General Motors signed historic agreement to sell Chevy Cavalier in Japan as Toyota Cavalier (had been introduced as Detroit's answer to Japan's fuel-efficient, well-made compacts in 1981; top-selling U.S. car in 1984).

December 19, 1994 - Rolls-Royce announced future cars would feature 12-cylinder motors manufactured by Germany's BMW. 

July 13, 1995 - Chrysler Corporation opened car dealership in downtown Hanoi, Vietnam; July 20, 1995 - opened another dealership in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with intention of marketing 200 import vehicles per year; September 6 - received permission from Vietnamese government to assemble vehicles in Vietnam, allowed Chrysler to construct production facility in Dong Nai Province, Southern Vietnam, with aim of manufacturing 500 to 1,000 Dodge Dakota pick-up trucks for Vietnamese market annually.

April 3, 1996 - Museum of Modern Art in New York City placed Jaguar E-Type (released in 1961) in its permanent exhibit; third car to be honored by curators of museum's permanent exhibit.

September 17, 1996 - Executives for Ford Motor Company, United Auto Workers (UAW) signed three-year contract that promised to retain 95% of Ford's hourly wage jobs for union workers, regardless of retirements or departures, increased workers' pension pay; union victory in era when competition-conscious corporations were cutting jobs or shipping them overseas.

November 29, 1996 - Volkswagen executive Jose Ignacio Lopez resigned under charges of industrial espionage; General Motors charged that Lopez, its former worldwide chief of purchasing, had stolen trade secrets from the company in 1993 when he defected to Volkswagen along with three other GM managers; January 1997 - VW and GM announced a settlement: Volkswagen would pay General Motors $100 million and agree to buy at least $1 billion in parts from GM; confirmed that the three other former GM managers accused of industrial espionage had all either resigned or were due to take administrative leave; GM agreed to drop all legal action.

September 4, 1997 - Last Ford Thunderbird rolled off assembly line in Lorain, OH.

March 30, 1998 - German automaker BMW bought Rolls-Royce for $570 million.

May 7, 1998 - Daimler-Benz AG agreed to buy Chrysler Corp. for $38 billion; November 12, 1998 - completed merger with Chrysler, renamed Daimler-Chrysler.

June 5, 1998 - Strike at General Motors parts factory near Detroit closed five assembly plants, idled workers nationwide; walkout lasted seven weeks.

July 13, 1998 - General Motors announced recall of 800,000 vehicles due to malfunctioning airbags (number of Chevrolet and Pontiac cars displayed "an increased risk of an air bag deployment in a low speed crash or when an object strikes the floor pan").

May 22, 2001 - Ford Motor Co. announced plans to spend more than $2 billion to replace up to 13 million Firestone tires on its vehicles because of safety concerns.

July 30, 2003 - Last "classic" Volkswagen Beetle rolled off production line at VW’s Puebla, Mexico, plant; part of 3,000-unit final edition, sent to museum in Wolfsburg, Germany, where Volkswagen headquartered (Beetle, with rear-mounted, air-cooled-engine, had been banned in America in 1977 for failing to meet safety, emission standards; worldwide sales shrank; classic Beetle sold only in Mexico in 1988).

August 31, 2003 - Harley-Davidson 100th Anniversary Party held in Milwaukee's Veterans Park.

2005 - Mercedes-Benz USA achievedall-time sales record of 224,421 new vehicles; highest sales volume in its history.

November 21, 2005 - General Motors Corp. announced it would close 12 facilities, lay off 30,000 workers in North America.

December 29, 2005 - General Motors's stock traded at 20-year low of $18.33.history.

January 23, 2006 - William Clay Ford, CEO of Ford Motor Company, announced company's turnaround plan, called "Way Forward" (second time in four years Ford has restructured its North American auto division): 1) closing 14 plants (reduces North American production capacity by 1.2 million, or 26 percent, by 2008), 2) eliminating 30,000 jobs in the next six years,  a quarter of Ford's North American workforce, 3) cutting at least $6 billion in annual costs by 2010 (Ford reported losses in North America for five of the past six quarters; hurt by: decreased sales of sport utility vehicles, increased health care and materials costs, increased competition and labor contracts that limit plant closures and job cuts, 10 straight years of U.S. market-share losses - 18.6% of U.S. market in 2005, down from 25.7% decade earlier, U.S. sales have dropped by more than 1 million units annually since 1999; Toyota passed Ford in 2003 as world's No. 2 automaker).

January 26, 2006 - General Motors reported its worst year in last 45 years (shareholders had lost 60% of their money in last two years): $8.6 billion loss for 2005 (subsequently revised upward to $10.6 billion), $15.13 a share (vs. profit of $2.8 billion in 2004; fifth consecutive quarterly loss; biggest loss since 1992); GM's market share fell to lowest level since 1925; foreign auto companies held just over 43% of American market in 2005, their highest share ever; Toyota earned $11 billion in year that ended in March 2005.

February 7, 2006 - GM announced: 1) cut its dividend in half  for the first time in 13 years ($2 to $1 per share = saved $565 million a year), 2) 50%  reduction in CEO's annual salary of $2.2-million,  30% cut in pay for GM’s vice chairman, compensation cut for other board members, 3) restructure pension plan for salaried workers, 4) revise health care benefits to reduce liability by $4.8 billion before taxes; November 2005 - announced plans to shed 30,000 jobs, close nine assembly plants (lead to savings of $7 billion by end of 2006; 1 GM share bought at end of 1960 = 11.6 shares today, worth more than $500 (pre-transactions costs) = < 6% compounded return over 45 years; March 22, 2006 - General Motors announced one of largest employee buyout plans in U.S. corporate history: agreed to finance buyouts, early-retirement packages offered to as many as 131,000 employees of GM, Delphi Corp. (parts supplier) = removed whole generation of workers hired in 1960's, 1970's from assembly line; June 26, 2006 - GM said over 35,000 workers (almost third of hourly work force) had accepted sweeping package of buyouts (company's bid to reduce costly benefits).

August 1, 2006 - Market share of Detroit auto companies had fallen to 52% in July 2006, lowest point in history (52.2% in October 2005): auto sales figures showed that Toyota passed Ford Motor Company to rank as second-biggest-selling auto company in U.S.; Honda outsold DaimlerChrysler's Chrysler group for first time; General Motors held27% share of auto market; Chrysler - 10% (down from 13% in July 2005); Toyota passed DaimlerChrysler (including Chrysler, Mercedes Benz) in April 2006 to rank as third-biggest company in terms of American sales.

September 18, 2006 - Ford bought rights to Rover name from BMW for approximately £6 million.

October 29, 2006 - Final Ford Taurus rolled off assembly line in Atlanta, GA (first introduced on December 26, 1985; peak sales in 1992 of 409,751 units; competed against Camry, Accord for best-selling car in U.S. several times, won title five straight years through 1996; 7 million built).

April 24, 2007 - Toyota Motor Company replaced General Motors as world's largest automaker; first time since 1931; sold 2.35 million cars, trucks in most recent quarter, about 109,000 more than GM.

May 14, 2007 - Cerebrus Capital Management (private equity firm) acquired 80.1% interest in Chrysler from Daimler A.G. for $7.4 billion (acquired by Daimler in 1998 for $36 billion); renamed Chrysler Holdings; Daimler paid $677 million in cash in return for release from $18 billion health/pension liabilities; retained 19.9% interest in Chrysler; overestimated potential of synergies; first private auto company in Detroit since 1956 (Ford went public).

February 2008 - "Toyota Way" - expects to sell 10.4 million cars in 2009 (double of sales in 2000:


March 26, 2008 - Ford Motor Company agreed to sell Jaguar line (acquired in 1989 for $2.38 billion), Land Rover line (acquired in 2000 for $2.73 billion) of luxury cars to Tata Motors (India's third-largest passenger carmaker) for $2.3 billion; ended first modern-day cross-border acquisition between United Kingdom.

June 18, 2008 - More than 10,000 dealerships closed since 1970 (nearly all sold American brands; source: National Automotive Dealers Association; 430 dealerships closed in 2007; 400+ expected to close in 2008); about 20,000 dealerships nationwide remained.


June 19, 2008 - Americans drove 1.8% fewer miles on public roads in April 2008 (vs. April 2007), 6th consecutive month of driving mileage declines; total vehicle miles Americans traveled grew by nearly 3%/year from 1984-2004, rate of growth slowed suddenly in 2005-2006, declined since then. (source: Transportation Department).


July 5, 2008 - Consumers spend less on automobiles (buying, fixing) during recessions (4.2% of consumer spending in 1Q 2008); spending on gasoline, other fuels (4.1% in 1Q 2008 vs. 6% record in 1980-1981) - highest level in more than 20 years; before $4/gallon consumer spending on cars (as % of total spending) - lowest level since immediate post WW II; 2001 recession - no decline in spending on autos; spending on medical services = about 17.5% of total outlays (vs. about 11% in early 1980s).

(source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, via Haver Analytics; shaded areas = recessions;

July 15, 2008 - GM's stock traded to 54-year low ($8.81 per share); planned to raise $15 billion to help cover losses, turn around North American operations - suspended $1 dividend/share annual dividend (improve liquidity by $800 million through 2009, first time company has suspended dividend since 1922 - when Pierre S. du Pont was CEO, chairman); cut health care benefits for white-collar salaried retirees over 65 years old, cut cash bonuses for executives, reduce truck production capacity by 300,000 units, speed up closures of truck, sport utility vehicle factories; General Motors’s market capitalization - fell to just $4.23 billion, vs. $162.6 billion for Toyota.

GM's share price: 1948-2008

 (source: Bloomberg;

July 25, 2008 - Ford reported 2Q loss of $8.7 billion = worst quarterly loss in its 105-year history ($5.3-billion charge to write down value of plants that build pickups, S.U.V.s; $2.1 billion write-down by Ford Credit, auto loan division, to cover shrinking value of lease portfolio; $1 billion loss from auto operations); 2008 sales of large pickups down 25%, sales of S.U.V.s down 32% (source: according Ward’s Automotive Reports); Ford's product mix (1990-2008): 1) 1995-2007: SUVs, pick-up trucks, vans dominated sales (about 15% above industry average); 2) 2008 - a) shift production to cars, crossover vehicles (8/14 plants in North America build trucks, S.U.V.s, full-sized vans; expected to convert three assembly plants from truck-based products to cars); b) realign factories to manufacture more fuel-efficient 4-cylinder, V-6 engines; c) produce six of next European car models for United States market. (source: New York Times).


August 2, 2008 - Cash squeeze: GM ended second quarter with $21 billion in cash reserves; burned more than $1 billion in cash/month (cost cuts, asset sales, debt offerings planned to increase liquidity by $15 billion).


August 22, 2008 - Americans drove less, bought less gas.


October 7, 2008 - VW passed Toyota to top spot Toyota as world’s largest carmaker by market capitalization - €94.5bn compared with Toyota’s Y12,792bn (€92bn); VW is worth more than Daimler, BMW, General Motors, Ford, Fiat, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, Mitsubishi, Hyundai combined.

November 17, 2008 - Big American auto companies employ about 240,000 workers (300,000 when foreign-owned companies included), auto suppliers an additional 2.3 million = nearly 2% of nation’s work force; failure of General Motors, biggest auto employer, would result in loss of more than 100,000 manufacturing jobs; automakers, supplier network still account for 2.3% of nation’s economic output (down from 3.1% in 2006, as much as 5% in 1990s - source: government data); 20% of shrinking manufacturing sector still tied to automobile industry; industry capable of making 17 million cars/year (sales have dropped to annual rate of only 10 million made here; annual sales of autos, light trucks had been at least 15 million through most of 1990s).


December 24, 2008 - Federal Reserve Board approved GMAC’s application to transform itself into a bank holding company "in light of the unusual and exigent circumstances" affecting the financial markets (4-1 vote); allowed GMAC (created 1919; provides financing to 75% of 6,450 GM dealers, many people who buy its cars) to tap as much as $6 billion in government bailout money; General Motors will reduce its ownership in GMAC to less than 10% from 49%; independent trustee, whose appointment will be approved by Fed and Treasury, will sell company’s stake within next three years; Cerberus left with less than 14.9% of voting shares in GMAC, 33% of total equity in firm; no individual investors will control more than 5% of voting interest in GMAC or 7.5% of firm.

January 6, 2009 - 2008 - worst year for auto sales since 1992; auto industry sales declined 18%, worst year-to-year drop since early 1970s; historic collapse of new-car market


January 21, 2009 - Toyota (2008 sales of 8.97 million vehicles, down 4% from 2007) topped General Motors (2008 sales of 8.53 million, down 11% from 2007 sales of 9.37 million, down 21% in North America to 3.6 million vehicles; sold 5.37 million vehicles outside U.S., 6.5% drop in Europe; 30% jump in sales in Russia, 6% rise in sales in China) as No. 1 automaker (by global full-year sales), after 77 years on top; GM missed Toyota's 2008 sales of 8.97 million by about 616,000 vehicles; global sales for overall industry fell by 3.5 million vehicles; January 20, 2009 - Akio Toyoda (grandson of founder) named Toyotoa president; Italian automaker Fiat announced it would acquire 35% stake in Chrysler, in exchange for technology (contingent on Chrysler’s getting $3 billion in additional government loans).

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(Robert Bosch GmbH), Jose Paulo Fagnani (2004). Bosch 50 Years in Brazil, 1954-2004. (Campinas, SP: Robert Bosch America Latina, 103 p.). Bosch, Robert, 1861-1942; Robert Bosch GmbH --History; Automobile supplies industry --Brazil --History.

(Robert Bosch GmbH), dargestellt von Hans-Erhard Lessing (2007). Robert Bosch. (Reinbek bei Hamburg, Germany: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 158 p.). Bosch, Robert, 1861-1942; Robert Bosch GmbH --History; Industrialists --Germany --Biography.

(Robert Bosch GmbH), Robert Forrant (2009). Metal Fatigue: American Bosch and the Demise of Metalworking in the Connecticut River Valley. (Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company, 216 p). Professor of Regional Economic and Social Development (UMass Lowell); Former Bosch Worker, Business Agent for the Union Representing Nearly 1,200 Bosch Employees. American Bosch Corporation (Springfield, Mass.) --History; Metal trade --Connecticut River Valley --History; Plant shutdowns --Connecticut River Valley --History. Local cost of globalization - impact of loss of skilled industrial jobs on individuals, families, entire region; historical account of profound economic collapse of Connecticut River Valley region; how United States went from world's leading exporter of machine tools to its leading importer from mid-1970s to mid-1980s; how sharp decline affected region's leading city, Springfield, MA (in danger of bankruptcy by 2005).

(Bricklin), H. A. Fredericks with Allan Chambers (1977). Bricklin. (Fredericton, NB.: Brunswick Press, 139 p.). Bricklin, Malcolm; Bricklin Canada Ltd.; New Brunswick -- Politics and government -- 1960-.

(British Leyland), Graham Turner (1973). The Leyland Papers. (London, UK: Pan Books, 212 p. [rev. ed.]). British Leyland Motor Corporation.

James Sumner - Leyland Motors Limited (

(British Leyland), R. J. Lucas. (1979). Pension Planning within a Major Company: A Case Study of the Negotiation of the British Leyland Pension Plan for Manual Workers. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 104 p.). British Leyland UK Limited; Automobile industry workers--Great Britain--Pensions--Case studies; Pension trusts--Great Britain--Case studies; Collective bargaining--Automobile industry--Case studies.

(British Leyland), Michael Edwardes (1983). Back from the Brink: An Apocalyptic Experience. (London, UK: Collins, 301 p.). Chairman of BL. Edwardes, Michael, 1930- ; BL Public Limited Company; Automobile industry and trade--Great Britain--Management; Automobile industry and trade--Government policy--Great Britain. Five years as chairman of BL, from 1977-1982.

(British Leyland), Richard Whipp and Peter Clark (1986). Innovation and the Auto Industry: Product, Process, and Work Organization. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 220 p.). British Leyland Limited; Automobile industry and trade--Technological innovations--Great Britain; Automobile industry workers--Effect of technological innovations on--Great Britain.

(Brunn Carriage Mfg Co.), Harry O. Brunn (2005). Brunn of Buffalo: A Coachbuilder at the Crossroads. (Buffalo, NY: The Buffalo Transportation/Pierce-Arrow Museum, 239 p.). Brunn, Henry O, 1839-1925.

(BSA), Bob Holliday (1978). The Story of BSA Motor Cycles. (Cambridge, UK: P. Stephens, 128 p.). BSA motorcycle.

(Bugatti), W. F. Bradley (1948). Ettore Bugatti: A Biography. (Abington, Berks.: Motor Racing Publications, 152 p.). Bugatti, Ettore, 1881-1947.

  Ettore Bugatti (

(Bugatti), L’Ebe´ Bugatti; Translated from the French by Len Ortzen (1967). The Bugatti Story. (Philadelphia, PA: Chilton Book Co., 196 p.). Bugatti, Ettore, 1881-1947.

(Bugatti), Fondation prestige Bugatti (1981). Ettore Bugatti, 1881-1947. (Strasbourg: Fondation prestige Bugatti: ISTRA, 168 p.). Bugatti, Ettore, 1881-1947; Bugatti automobile; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.

(Bugatti), Barrie Price; (Foreword), Jonathan Wood (1992). Bugatti: The Man and the Marque. (Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press, 384 p.). Bugatti, Ettore, 1881-1947; Bugatti automobile; Automobile industry and trade. 

(Cadillac), Wilfred C. Leland with Minnie Dubbs Millbrook. With an introd. by Allan Nevins and Frank E. Hill (1966). Master of Precision: Henry M. Leland. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 296 p.). Leland, Henry Martyn, 1843-1932.

Henry M. Leland - Cadillac and Lincoln (

(Cadillac), Gloria May Stoddard (1986). Henry Leland: The Story of the Vermonter Who Created Cadillac and Lincoln. (Shelburne, VT: New England Press, 115 p.). Leland, Henry Martyn, 1843-1932; Automobile engineers--United States--Biography.

(Carrozzeria Pininfarina), Bruno Bottiglieri ... [et al.]; a cura di Valerio Castronovo; prefazione di Luca Cordero di Montezemolo (2005). Storia della Pininfarina, 1930-2005: Un’industria Italiana nel Mondo. (Roma : Laterza: Roma : Laterza, 624 p.). Pininfarina, 1893-1966; Carrozzeria Pininfarina--History; Automobiles--Italy--Design and construction--History; Automobiles--Bodies--Italy--Design and construction--History. 1930 - founded by Battitsta (Pinin) Farina; 1960s - transformed into modern industrial complex by Sergio (son); solid; enduring links with Ferrari, Peugeot.

(Checker Motors Corp.), James Hinckley (2003). Checker Cab Co. Photo History. (Hudson, WI: Iconografix, 118 p.). Checker Motors Corp. (Kalamazoo, Mich.)--History; Checker automobiles--History. First complete history of this fascinating company and its legendary cabs.

(Chrysler - founded 1925), Walter P. Chrysler in collaboration with Boyden Sparkes (1950). Life of an American Workman. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 219 p.). Chrysler, Walter Percy, 1875-1940; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

Walter Chrysler Walter P. Chrysler (

Photo of Lee Iacocca Lee Iacocca (

(Chrysler), David Abodaher (1982). Iacocca. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 319 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Chrysler), Lee A. Iacocca with William Novak (1984). Iacocca: An Autobiography. (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 352 p.). Former Chairman, Chrysler Corp. of America. Iacocca, Lee A.; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Chrysler), Michael Moritz and Barrett Seaman (1984). Going for Broke: Lee Iacocca's Battle to Save Chrysler. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 350 p. [orig. pub. 1981]). Iacocca, Lee A.; Chrysler Corporation--History.

(Chrysler), Richard M. Langworth, Jan P. Norbye (1985). The Complete History of Chrysler Corporation, 1924-1985. (New York, NY: Beekman, 384 p.). Chrysler Corporation--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Chrysler), Robert B. Reich, John D. Donahue (1985). New Deals: The Chrysler Revival and the American System. (New York, NY: Times Books, 359 p.). Chrysler Corporation -- Finance; Loans -- United States -- Government guaranty; Automobile industry and trade -- Government policy -- United States; Industrial policy -- United States.

(Chrysler), Steve Jefferys (1986). Management and Managed: Fifty Years of Crisis at Chrysler. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 290 p.). Chrysler Corporation; Strikes and lockouts -- Automobile industry -- United States.

(Chrysler), Peter Wyden (1987). The Unknown Iacocca. (New York, NY: Morrow, 416 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History..

(Chrysler), Lee A. Iacocca with Sonny Kleinfield (1988). Talking Straight. (New York, NY: Bantam, 324 p.). Former Chairman, Chrysler Corp. of America. Iacocca, Lee A.--Philosophy; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Chrysler), Edited by Matthew W. Seeger; with a foreword by Lee A. Iacocca (1994). I Gotta Tell You: Speeches of Lee Iacocca. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 335 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.; Industrial management --United States; Automobile industry and trade --United States --Management.

(Chrysler), Carl Breer; edited by Anthony J. Yanik; prepared under the auspices of the SAE Historical Committee (1995). The Birth of Chrysler Corporation and Its Engineering Legacy. (Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 224 p.). Breer, Carl, 1883-; Zeder, Fred, 1886-; Skelton, Owen; Chrysler Corporation --History; Automobiles --United States --Design and construction --History; Automobile engineers --United States. How various technical breakthroughs become possible after careful analysis of customer comments, complex circumstantial evidence; key inventions in early automobiles (modern engine mounts, modern hydraulic brakes).

(Chrysler), Doron P. Levin (1995). Behind the Wheel at Chrysler: The Iacocca Legacy. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace, 354 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.; Chrysler Corporation--Management; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management.

(Chrysler), Brock Yates (1996). The Critical Path: Inventing an Automobile and Reinventing a Corporation. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 306 p.). Chrysler Corporation; Caravan van--Design and construction--History; Voyager van--Design and construction--History.

(Chrysler), Robert A. Lutz (1998). Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company. (New York, NY: Wiley, 226 p.). Chrysler Corporation--Management; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management; Corporate turnarounds--United States. 

(Chrysler), Vincent Curcio (2000). Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 699 p.). Chrysler, Walter P. (Walter Percy), 1909- ; Chrysler Corporation--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Chrysler), Michael W. R. Davis (2001). Chrysler Heritage: A Photographic History. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Former Public Relations Executive with Ford Motor Company. Chrysler Corporation. Muscle of Detroit, including company's involvement in Second World War, Cold War.

(Chrysler), Charles K. Hyde (2003). Riding the Roller Coaster: A History of the Chrysler Corporation. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 385 p.). Professor of History (Wayne State University). Chrysler Corporation; DaimlerChrysler--History; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Automobile industry and trade--Germany; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers. 

(Chrysler), Steve Lehto (2010). Chrysler's Turbine Car: The Rise and Fall of Detroit's Coolest Creation. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 240 p.). Adjunct Professor (University of Detroit Mercy). Chrysler automobile --History --20th century; Experimental automobiles --History --20th century; Automobiles, Gas-turbine --History --20th century. 1964 - Chrysler built fleet of turbine cars (automobiles with jet engines), loaned them to members of public; fleet logged over million miles; raging success; engines ran on any flammable liquid (tequila, heating oil, Chanel #5, diesel, alcohol, kerosene); much simpler than piston engine (one-fifth number of moving parts, much less maintenance); no radiators or fan belts, never needed oil changes; 1966 - Chrysler crushed, burned most of the cars; interviews with surviving members of turbine car program.

(Citroen), Fabien Sabates, Sylvie Schweitzer (1980). Andre Citroën: Les Chevrons de la Gloire. (Paris, FR: E.P.A., 317 p.). Citroen, André, 1878-1935; Societe anonyme Andre Citroen; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.

Andre Citroen ( CITROEN-(1878-1935)-01.jpg)

(Citroen), Jacques Wolgensinger (1991). André Citroën. (Paris, FR: Flammarion, 310 p.). Citroën, André, 1878-1935; Société anonyme André Citroën--History; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--France--History.

(Citroen), Sylvie Schweitzer (1992). André Citroën, 1878-1935: Le Risque et Le Défi. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 239 p.). Citroën, André, 1878-1935; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.

(Citroen), Fabien Sabates (1994). Moi, Citroen. (Paris, FR: Retroviseur, 223 p.). Citroën, André, 1878-1935;Citroën automobile--History; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.

(Citroen), John Reynolds; foreword by Chris Goffey (1996). Andre Citroen: The Henry Ford of France. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 238 p.). Citroën, André, 1878-1935; Citroen automobile -- History; Automobile industry and trade -- France -- Biography.

(Citroen), Jacques Wolgensinger (1996). Citroen: Une Vie à Quitte ou Double. (Paris, FR: Arthaud, 199 p.). Citroen, Andre, 1878-1935; Société anonyme Andre Citroen--History; Citroen automobile--History; Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.

(Citroen), Alain Frerejean (1998). Andre Citroen, Louis Renault: Un Duel sans Merci. (Paris, FR: A. Michel, 287 p.). Citroen, Andre, 1878-1935; Renault, Louis, 1877-1944; Regie nationale des usines Renault--History; Societe anonyme Andre Citroen--History; Automobile industry and trade--France--History.

(Crossley Motors), Michael Eyre, Chris Heaps and Alan Townsin (2002). Crossley: The Story of a Famous Engineering Business and the Cars, Buses, Lorries, Aeroplanes and Railway Locomotives Which It Manufactured. (Shepperton, UK: Oxford Pub., 272 p.). Crossley Motors--History; Bus industry--England--Manchester--History.

(Cummins Engine), Jeffrey L. Cruikshank, David B. Sicilia (1997). The Engine That Could: Seventy-Five Years of Values-Driven Change at Cummins Engine Company. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 589 p.). Cummins Engine Company--History; Internal combustion engine industry--United States--History; Diesel motor industry--United States--History. 

Beautifull engines Clessie Cummins - Cummins Engine ( images/photos/dieselodyssey.jpg)

(Cummins Engine), Lyle Cummins (1998). The Diesel Odyssey of Clessie Cummins. (Wilsonville, OR: Carnot Press, 399 p.). Cummins, Clessie L.; Cummins Engine Company--History; Mechanical engineers--United States--Biography; Automobiles--Motors (Diesel)--History; Diesel motor--History.

(Cushman Motor Works), Bill Somerville (1986). The History of the Cushman Motor Works. (Ponca City, OK: Cushman Publications, 64 p). Cushman Motor Works--History; Motor industry--United States--History. September 18, 1902 - Incorporated in Nebraska; 1919 - Everett Cushman left company; He and Clifford Eugene Cushman (son) eventually started the Cushman Engineering Company in Riverside, CA; 1927 - creditors took control.

(Daimler-Benz), Robert W. Nitske (1955). The Complete Mercedes Story; The Thrilling Seventy-Year History of Daimler and Benz. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 167 p.). Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaftl; Mercedes automobile.

Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler ( 802793_1474660_800_1200_Gottlieb_Daimler_sw_800x1200.jpg)

Karl Benz (

Mercedes Jellinek (after whom "Mercedes" is named) ( world/history/ mercedes_jellinek/ mercedes_jellinek_02_464x258_09-2012_jpg.object-Single-MEDIA.tmp/mercedes_jellinek_02_464x258_09-2012.jpg)

(Daimler-Benz), Richard M. Langworth; by the auto editors of Consumer guide (1984). Mercedes-Benz: The First Hundred Years. (New York, NY: Beekman, 256 p.). Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Mercedes automobile--History.

(Daimler-Benz), Neil Gregor (1998). Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 276 p.). Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft--History; Forced labor--Germany; World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, German; Defense industries--Germany--History--20th century; Industrial mobilization--Germany--History--20th century.

(Daimler-Benz), Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz (2000). Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off with Chrysler. (New York, NY: Morrow, 372 p.). Veteran Detroit News Automotive Reporters. Chrysler Corporation; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers--United States; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers--Germany.

(Daimler-Benz), Jurgen Grasslin (2000). Jurgen Schrempp and the Making of an Auto Dynasty. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 210 p.). Schrempp, Jurgen E.; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Chrysler Corporation; Chief executive officers--Germany--Biography.

(Daimler-Benz), David Waller (2001). Wheels on Fire: The Amazing Inside Story of the DaimlerChrysler Merger. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 312 p.). DaimlerChrysler--History; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Chrysler Corporation; Automobile industry and trade--Germany; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers.

(Daimler-Benz), Leslie Butterfield (2005). Enduring Passion: The Story of the Mercedes-Benz Brand. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 271 p.). Managing Partner, Ingram Partnership. Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft--History; Mercedes automobile. How brand became synonym for power and elegance.

(Daimler-Benz), Dennis Adler; foreword by Sir Stirling Moss (2006). Daimler & Benz, The Complete History: The Birth and Evolution of the Mercedes-Benz. (New York, NY: Collins, 288 p.). Editor in Chief (Car Collector Magazine). DaimlerChrysler--History; Mercedes automobile--History. Rich history of Daimler-Benz.

(De Lorean), J. Patrick Wright (1979). On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors: John Z. de Lorean's Look Inside the Automotive Giant. (Grosse Pointe, MI: Wright Enterprises, 237 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; General Motors Corporation; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

John DeLorean (

(De Lorean), Ivan Fallon & James Srodes (1983). Dream Maker: The Rise and Fall of John Z. DeLorean. (New York, NY: Putnam, 455 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--Northern Ireland--Biography.

(De Lorean), John Lamm; with commentary by Mike Knepper (1983). De Lorean: Stainless Steel Illusion. (Santa Ana, CA: Newport Press, 160 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean Motor Company.

(De Lorean), Hillel Levin (1983). Grand Delusions: The Cosmic Career of John De Lorean. (New York, NY: Viking, 336 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; Automobile industry and trade; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(De Lorean), John Z. Delorean with Ted Schwarz (1985). DeLorean. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 349 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean Motor Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History; Automobile industry and trade--Northern Ireland--History.

(De Lorean), William Haddad (1985). Hard Driving: My Years with John De Lorean. (New York, NY: Random House, 193 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean Motor Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History; Automobile industry and trade--Northern Ireland--History.

(Delphi), Steve Miller (2008). The Turnaround Kid: What I Learned Rescuing America’s Most Troubled Companies. (New York, NY: Collins, 272 p.). Chairman, Delphi Corporation. Miller, Robert S. (Robert Stevens); Automobile industry and trade--United States--Biography; Executives--Biography; Organizational effectiveness. Point man for Lee Iaccoca's rescue team at Chrysler, fixed major problems in varied industries (steel, construction, health care, auto parts); inside story of many turnaround jobs that have led to renown as Mr. Fix It; intimate picture of his relationship with Maggie Miller, his wife of forty years, trusted adviser until her death from brain cancer in 2006. 

(Diesel), W. Robert Nitske and Charles Morrow Wilson (1965). Rudolf Diesel, Pioneer of the Age of Power. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 318 p.). Diesel, Rudolf, 1858-1913.

Rudolf Diesel (

(Diesel), Morton Grosser (1978). Diesel, The Man & the Engine. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 166 p.). Diesel, Rudolf, 1858-1913; Diesel motor; Mechanical engineers--Germany--Biography; Diesel motor; Mechanical engineers.

(Diesel), Donald E. Thomas, Jr. (1987). Diesel: Technology and Society in Industrial Germany. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 279 p.). Diesel, Rudolf, 1858-1913; Mechanical engineers--Germany--Biography; Diesel motor--History.

(Dodge), Jean Maddern Pitrone and Joan Potter Elwart (1981). The Dodges, The Auto Family Fortune & Misfortune. (South Bend, IN: Icarus Press, 316 p.). Dodge family.

Horace and John Dodge (

(Dodge), Jean Maddern Pitrone (1989). Tangled Web: Legacy of Auto Pioneer John F. Dodge. (Hamtramck, MI: Avenue Pub. Co., 289 p.). Dodge, John F. (John Francis), 1864-1920; Mealbach, Frances Lucille Manzer, 1914- ; Dodge family; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Dodge), John R. Velliky and Jean Maddern Pitrone (1992). Dodge Brothers/Budd Co. Historical Photo Album. (Detroit, MI: Harlo, 306 p.). Dodge, John F. (John Francis), 1864-1920; Dodge, Horace E. (Horace Elgin), 1868-1920; Dodge Brothers--History; Budd Company--History; Dodge automobile--Bodies--Design and construction--History.

(Dodge), Charles K. Hyde (2005). The Dodge Brothers: The Men, the Motor Cars, and the Legacy. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 256 p.). Professor of History (Wayne State University). Dodge, John F. (John Francis), 1864-1920; Dodge, Horace E. (Horace Elgin), 1868-1920; Dodge Brothers--History; Automobile engineers--United States--Biography. 

(Duckham Alexander & Co.), Robin Wager; foreword by John Surtees (1999). The Duckham's Story: A Century of Fighting Friction. (Somerset, UK: Haynes Pub., 160 p.). Alexander Duckham & Co.--History; Duckham family; Automobiles--Great Britain--Lubrication; Lubrication and lubricants industry--Great Britain--History.

(Duple Coachbuilders), Alan Townsin (1998). Duple: 70 Years of Coachbuilding. (Glossop, UK: Venture Publications, 168 p.). Duple Coachbuilders--History; Buses--Great Britain--History.

(Durant-Dort Carriage Company), Robert G. Schafer (1986). J. Dallas Dort: Citizen Compleat. (Flint, MI: University of Michigan--Flint Archives in cooperation with Genesee County Historical Society, 81 p.). Dort, J. Dallas (Josiah Dallas), 1861-1925; Automobile industry and trade--Michigan--Flint--History; Flint (Mich.)--Biography.

(Duryea Motor Wagon Company), Richard P. Scharchburg (1993). Carriages without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry. (Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 243 p.). Duryea, J. Frank (James Frank), 1869-1967; Duryea, Charles E., 1861-1938; Stevens-Duryea Company--History; Automobile engineers--Biography; Duryea automobile--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(Edelbrock Corporation), Tom Madigan; foreword by Benny Parsons (2005). Edelbrock: Made in USA. (San Diego, CA: Tehabi Books, 324 p.). Edelbrock, Victor, 1913-1962; Edelbrock Corporation--History; Automobiles, Racing--Parts; Automobile supplies industry--United States--Biography; Automobile mechanics--United States--Biography. 

(E-M-F Company), Anthony J. Yanik (2001). The E-M-F Company: The Story of Automotive Pioneers Barney Everitt, William Metzger, and Walter Flanders.  (Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 243 p.). Everitt, Barney; Metzger, William; Flanders, Walter E. (Walter Emmett), 1871-1923; E-M-F Company --History; Automobile engineers --United States --Biography. Three automotive giants, impact they had on American car industry; 1908 - Walter Flanders, Byron Everitt and William Metzger, most well-known names in  Detroit automobile industry, began production of medium-priced car; end of 1909 - number two in automotive production; formed alliance with Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company (later acquired by Studebaker); Everitt instrumental in forming extensive body building industry that characterized Detroit prior to World War II; Metzger established first automotive dealership in Detroit; served as head of sales of Cadillac during formative years; Flanders masterminded tools of production for first Model T. 

(English Racing Automobiles Limited), David Weguelin (1980). The History of English Racing Automobiles Limited: And the Continuing Story of the Cars 1933-1980. (London, UK: White Mouse, 288 p.). English Racing Automobiles Limited -- History; E.R.A. automobile; Automobiles, Racing -- England; Great Britain Racing car industries.

(Ferman Motor Car Company), Carol M. Dyches (1994). A Century of Service: One Car at a Time: A History of Ferman Motor Car Company. (Tampa, FL: Ferman Motor Car Co., 155 p.). Ferman Motor Car Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--Florida--Tampa--History; Automobile dealers--Florida--Tampa--History; Service stations--Florida--Tampa--History.

(Ferrari), Enzo Ferrari (1963). The Enzo Ferrari Memoirs My Terrible Joys. (London, UK: H. Hamilton, 164 p.). Automobile racing.

Enzo Ferrari (

(Ferrari), Brock W. Yates (1991). Enzo Ferrari: The Man, the Cars, the Races, the Machine. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 465 p.). Ferrari, Enzo 1898- ; Ferrari, s.p.a.--History; Industrialists--Italy--Biography; Automobile engineers--Italy--Biography; Automobile racing drivers--Italy--Biography; Ferrari automobile--History; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.

(Fiat), Michael Sedgwick (1974). Fiat. (New York, NY: Arco, 352 p.). Fiat (Firm); Fiat automobiles.

Giovanni Agnelli ( images/march03/image8_1a.jpg)

Giovanni (Gianni) Agnelli (grandson of Fiat founder) (

(Fiat), Enzo Biagi (1976). Il Signor Fiat: Una Biografia. (Milano, Italy: Rizzoli, 163 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1921- ; Fiat (Firm); Businessmen--Italy--Biography.

(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo (1977). Giovanni Agnelli: la FIAT dal 1899 al 1945. (Torino, Italy: Einaudi, 565 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1866-1945; Fiat (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography.

(Fiat), Cesare Roccati (1977). Umberto & [i.e. e] C.: Gli Anni Caldi della Fiat. (Firenze, Italy: Vallecchi, 214 p.). Agnelli, Umberto; Fiat (Firm); Businesspeople--Italy--Biography.

(Fiat), Gabbi e Sicchiero (1978). Umberto Agnelli, Il Padrone di Razza. (Legnano, Italy: Landoni, 220 p.). Agnelli, Umberto; Executives--Italy--Biography.

(Fiat), Piero Bairati (1983). Vittorio Valletta. (Torino, Italy: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 449 p.). Valletta, Vittorio, 1883-1967; Fiat (Firm)--Biography; Fiat (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.

(Fiat), Gino Pallotta (1987). Gli Agnelli: Una Dinastia Italiana: La Storia di Una Delle Famiglie Più Ricche e Potenti Del Mondo, Attraverso le Vicende e i Protagonisti Che Hanno Dato Vita a un Impero Multinazionale Inserito Tra i Giganti Dell'industria e Della Finanza Mondiale (Roma, Italy: Newton Compton, 334 p.).

(Fiat), Alan Friedman (1989). Agnelli: Fiat and the Network of Italian Power. (New York, NY: New American Library, 367 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1921- ; Fiat (Firm)--History; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History; Industrialists--Italy--Biography; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Power (Social sciences).

(Fiat), Giancarlo Galli (1997). Gli Agnelli: Una Dinastia, Un Impero : 1899-1998. (Milano, IT: Mondadori, 358 p.). Agnelli family; Fiat (Firm)--Management; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--Management.

(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo (1999). FIAT, 1899-1999: Un Secolo di Storia. (Milano, Italy: Rizzoli, 2,093). Fiat (Firm)--History; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.

(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo; con 13 illustrazioni fuori testo (2003). Giovanni Agnelli: Il Fondatore. (Torino, Italy: UTET libreria, 824 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1866-1945; Fiat (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography.

(Fiat), Alberto Mazzuca, Giancarlo Mazzuca (2004). La FIAT da Giovanni a Luca: Un Secolo di Storia Sotto la Dinastia Agnelli. (Milano, IT: Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 460 p.). Fiat (Firm)--History; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.

(Fiat), Pierre de Gasquet (2006). La Dynastie Agnelli: Grandeur et Decadence d’Une Famille Italienne. (Paris, FR: Grasset, 326 p.). Milan Correspondent for Les Echos en Italie. Agnelli family; Fiat (Firm)--History; Industrialists--Italy--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History. 2003 - death of Gianni Agnelli created an immense void for family dynasty, financial and moral crisis for the company. Economist compared Agnellis to decadent Republic of Venice, complete with internal strife and contradictions.

(Ford), Rose Wilder Lane (1917). Henry Ford's Own Story; How a Farmer Boy Rose to the Power That Goes with Many Millions, yet Never Lost Touch with Humanity, as Told to Rose Wilder Lane (Forest Hills, NY: E.O Jones, 184 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Automobile industry and trade -- United States.

Henry Ford ( time100/images/main_ford.jpg) April 8, 1947 Obituary: learning/ general/onthisday/bday/ 0730.html 

Henry Ford - 1924 with the 1st Ford (right) and the 10,000,000th Ford (

Henry Ford II (

(Ford), William L. Stidger (1923). Henry Ford, The Man and His Motives. (New York, NY: George H. Doran Company, 207 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.

(Ford), Henry Ford; in collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1926). My Life and Work. (Garden City, NY: Garden City Pub. Co., 289 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Ford), Henry Ford, in collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1926). Today and Tomorrow. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 281 p.). Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), Charles Merz (1929). And Then Came Ford. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 321 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company; Ford automobile. 

(Ford), William A. Simonds (1929). Henry Ford, Motor Genius. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 205 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Automobiles.

(Ford), Henry Ford, in collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1930). Moving Forward (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company Incorporated, 310 p.). Founder, Ford Motor Company. Machinery in industry; United States--Industries.

(Ford), Ralph H. Graves (1934). The Triumph of an Idea; The Story of Henry Ford. (New York, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 184 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company; Ford automobile.

(Ford), Willam A. Simonds (1943). Henry Ford; His Life, His Work, His Genius. (Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 365 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.

(Ford), Cyril Cassidy Caldwell (1947). Henry Ford. (New York, NY: J. Messner, 246 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.

(Ford), William C. Richards (1948). The Last Billionaire, Henry Ford. (New York, NY: Scribner, 422 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Billionaires--United States--Biography.

(Ford), Allan Nevins with Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: The Times, the Man, the Company - Volume 1. (New York, NY: Scribner, 688 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), Allan Nevins with Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915-1933 - Volume 2. (New York, NY: Scribner, 688 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), Allan Nevins with collaboration of Frank E. Hill (1963). Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962 - Volume 3. (New York, NY: Scribner, 563 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company. 

(Ford), Charles E. Sorensen with Samuel T. Williamson (1956). My Forty Years with Ford. (New York, NY: Norton, 345 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), William Greenleaf. With a foreword by Allan Nevins (1961). Monopoly on Wheels; Henry Ford and the Selden Automobile Patent. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 302 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.; Selden, George Baldwin, 1846-1922; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Automobiles--Patents.

(Ford), Mira Wilkins & Frank Ernest Hill. With an introd. by Allan Nevins (1964). American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 541 p.). Ford Motor Company; Automobiles; Economics.

(Ford), J. Mel Hickerson with a foreword by Henry Ford, II (1968). Ernie Breech; The Story of His Remarkable Career at General Motors, Ford, and TWA. (New York, NY: Meredith Press, 241 p.). Breech, Ernie, 1897-.

(Ford), Keith Sward. With a new pref. by William Greenleaf (1968). The Legend of Henry Ford (New York, NY: Atheneum, 550 p. [orig. pub. 1948]). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Automobile industry and trade -- United States -- Biography; Industrialists -- United States -- Biography.

(Ford), Booton Herndon (1969). Ford; An Unconventional Biography of the Men and Their Times. (New York, NY: Weybright and Talley, 408 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford, Henry, 1917-1987; Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), Anne Jardim (1970). The First Henry Ford: A Study in Personality and Business Leadership. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 278 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford, Henry, b.1863.

(Ford), Reynold M. Wik (1972). Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 266 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; United States--Rural conditions.

(Ford), Jan Deutsch (1976). Selling the People`s Cadillac: The Edsel and Corporate Responsibility. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 261 p.). Edsel automobile--History; Ford Motor Company.

(Ford), David L. Lewis (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 598 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), James Brough (1977). The Ford Dynasty: An American Story. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 352 p.). Ford family; Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Executives--Michigan--Biography; Michigan--Biography.

(Ford), John Côté Dahlinger as told to Frances Spatz Leighton (1978). The Secret Life of Henry Ford (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 243 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

(Ford), Carol W. Gelderman (1981). Henry Ford: The Wayward Capitalist. (New York, NY: Dial Press, 463 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Ford), Victor Lasky (1981). Never Complain, Never Explain: The Story of Henry Ford II. (New York, NY: Richard Marek Publishers, 307 p.). Ford, Henry, 1917-1987; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), Huw Beynon (1984). Working for Ford. (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 409 p. [2nd ed.]). Ford Motor Company; Automobile industry workers--Great Britain--Case studies; Industrial relations--Case studies; Trade-unions--Automobile industry workers--Great Britain.

(Ford), Robert Lacey (1986). Ford, the Men and the Machine. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 778 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford family; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Biography.

(Ford), Paul F. Lorenz (1986). Recollections from the Back of the Wagon. (Bloomfield Hills, MI: P.F. Lorenz, 834 p.). President (Ford of Europe, 1968-1973); Introduced Mercury Cougar. Lorenz, Paul F.; World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, American; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; United States--Biography. 

(Ford), Peter Collier and David Horowitz (1987). The Fords: An American Epic. (New York, NY: Summit Books, 496 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 --Family; Ford family; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), Alton F. Doody and Ron Bingaman (1988). Reinventing the Wheels: Ford's Spectacular Comeback. (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing, 135 p.). Ford Motor Company, Automobile Industry, Corporate Turnaround.

(Ford), Ford R. Bryan (1989). The Fords of Dearborn. (Detroit, MI: Harlo, 301 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 -- Family; Ford family; Dearborn (Mich.) -- Biography; Dearborn (Mich.) -- History.

(Ford), Walter Hayes (1990). Henry: A Life of Henry Ford II. (New York, NY: Grove Weidenfeld, 285 p.). Ford, Henry, 1917-1987; Ford Motor Company--History; Executives--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), Robert L. Shook (1990). Turnaround: The New Ford Motor Company. (New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 260 p.). Ford Motor Company; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Corporate turnarounds--United States.

(Ford), Donald E. Petersen and John Hillkirk (1991). A Better Idea: Redefining the Way Americans Work. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 270 p.). President, Chairman of the Ford Motor Company in the 1980s. Ford Motor Company--Management; Industrial management--Employee participation--United States; Teams in the workplace--United States; Competition--United States. 

(Ford), Eric Taub (1991). Taurus: The Making of the Car That Saved Ford. (New York, NY: Dutton, 278 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Taurus automobile--History.

(Ford), John A. Byrne (1993). The Whiz Kids: The Founding Fathers of American Business--and the Legacy They Left Us. (New York, NY: Currency, 581 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies.

(Ford), Ford R. Bryan (1993). Henry's Lieutenants. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 321 p.). Ford Motor Company -- History; Automobile industry and trade -- United States -- Biography; Industrialists -- United States -- Biography.

--- (1997). Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 232 p. [rev. ed.]). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Industrialists -- United States -- Biography; Millionaires -- United States -- Biography; Philanthropists -- United States -- Biography.

(Ford), Mary Walton (1997). Car: A Drama of the American Workplace. (New York, NY: Norton, 360 p.). Taurus automobile--Design and construction--History.

(Ford), Rudolph Alvarado and Sonya Alvarado (2001). Drawing Conclusions on Henry Ford. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 196 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(Ford), Neil Baldwin (2001). Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 416 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Antisemitism--United States; Jews--United States; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), Martin Rawbone (2001). Ford in Britain: A History of the Company and the Cars. (Newbury Park, CA: Haynes North America, 302 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Ford automobile--History; Automobiles--Great Britain--History. 

(Ford), Russ Banham; foreword by Paul Newman (2002). The Ford Century: Ford Motor Company and the Innovations That Shaped the World. (New York, NY: Artisan, 272 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(Ford), Thomas E. Bonsall (2002). Disaster in Dearborn: The Story of the Edsel. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 230 p.). Ford Motor Company--Decision making; Edsel automobile--History; Product management.

(Ford), Michael W.R. Davis, James K. Wagner (2002). Ford Dynasty. (Chicago , IL: Arcadia Pub, 128 p.). executive director of the Detroit Historical Society. Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 -- Family; Ford family; Dearborn (Mich.) -- Biography; Dearborn (Mich.) -- History. Extraordinary American family, its  company, its accomplishments over course of a century.

(Ford), Eds. Hubert Bonin, Yannick Lung, Steven Tolliday (2003). Ford, 1903-2003: The European History. (Paris, FR: P.L.A.G.E., 2 vols.). Ford Motor Company--History--Congresses; Automobile industry and trade--Europe--History--Congresses; International business enterprises--Congresses. Results of Bordeaux conference on first hundred years of Ford Motor Company in Europe.

(Ford), Douglas Brinkley (2003). Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress, 1903-2003. (New York, NY: Viking, 880 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile engineers--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(Ford), David L. Lewis and the auto editors of Consumer Guide (2003). 100 Years of Ford: A Centennial Celebration of the Ford Motor Company. (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 480 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Ford automobile--History.

(Ford), David Magee (2004). Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle To Rebuild America's Automaker. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). Ford, Bill, 1957- ; Ford Motor Company--History. 


(Ford), Steven Watts (2005). The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century. (New York, NY: Knopf, 640 p.). Chair, Department of History (University of Missouri—Columbia). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History; Mass production--United States--History.

(Ford), Howard P. Segal (2005). Recasting the Machine Age: Henry Ford's Village Industries. (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 272 p.). Adelaide & Alan Bird Professor of History (University of Maine). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--Location--Michigan--Case studies; Industrial location--Social aspects--United States; Labor unions--Michigan--History; Technology--Social aspects--United States; Industrialists--United States--Biography. Henry Ford's efforts to shift production of Ford cars, trucks from large-scale factories to 19 decentralized, small-scale plants within sixty miles of Ford headquarters ("village industries").

(Ford), Robert Casey (2008). The Model T: A Centennial History. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 166 p.). John and Horace Dodge Curator of Transportation at The Henry Ford Museum. Ford Motor Company--History; Ford Model T automobile --History. Car's history and development, its long-lasting impact on America; iconographic piece of American technology; nation’s first mass-produced, affordable, versatile vehicle; made Americans mobile as never before, spurred revolution in manufacturing methods, marked sea change in automotive design and engineering; how few engineering innovations led to car's reliability, popularity, innovations across motor vehicle industry.

(Ford), Greg Grandin (2009). Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten Jungle City. (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 432 p.). Associate Professor of Latin American History (New York University). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 --Political and social views. Ford Motor Company --Influence --History --20th century; Planned communities --Brazil --History --20th century; Rubber plantations --Brazil --Fordlándia --History --20th century; Fordlândia (Brazil) --History; Brazil --Civilization --American influences --History --20th century. 1927 - Henry Ford, richest man in world, bought tract of land in Brazilian Amazon, twice size of Delaware, on which to grow rubber; became more ambitious bid to export America itself; became site of epic clash between Ford and Amazon; Ford’s early success in imposing time clocks, square dances on jungle collapsed, turned place into ribald tropical boomtown; eventually failed.

(Ford), Gerhard Geyer (2011). Ford Motor Company: The Greatest Corporate Turnaround In U.S. History. (Seattle, WA: CreateSpace, 518 p.). Former Executive at Ford Motor Company (in business planning, corporate strategy, business development, product planning, divestitures, and he negotiated joint ventures and licensing deals). Ford Motor Company; corporate turnarounds. Mid-2006 - William Clay Ford Jr., Chairman and CEO of Ford, recognized that current business model di not work, appointed Alan Mulally as company's new CEO - completely changed existing business model (declining profits, uncompetitive cost structure, rapidly decreasing sales, unattractive cars, unhappy dealers, low employee morale); systematically transformed Ford's culture, products, technology, manufacturing facilities, union relations; led Ford from weakest of automotive industry's "Big Three" to top of its class.

(Ford Motor Company of Canada), David Roberts (2006). In the Shadow of Detroit: Gordon M. McGregor, Ford of Canada, and Motoropolis. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 326 p.). Editor with the Dictionary of Canadian Biography (University of Toronto). McGregor, Gordon M. (Gordon Morton), 1873-1922; Ford Motor Company of Canada--History; Automobile engineers--Canada--Biography; Industrialists--Canada--Biography; Windsor (Ont.)--History; Detroit (Mich.)--History. Dominated, defined  growing automotive industry in Windsor-Detroit.

Roberts: In the Shadow of Detroit Gordon McGregor - Ford of Canada (

(Glencullen Motor Group), Bill Cullen; with a foreword by An Taoiseach Bertie Ahern (2003). It's a Long Way from Penny Apples. (New York, NY: Forge, 382 p. [orig. pub. 2001]). Cullen, Bill, 1942- --Homes and haunts--Ireland--Dublin; Cullen, Bill, 1942- --Childhood and youth; Cullen, Bill, 1942- --Family; Poor families--Ireland--Dublin; Dublin (Ireland)--Social life and customs; Dublin (Ireland)--Biography. 

(GM), Arthur Pound (1934). The Turning Wheel; The Story of General Motors through Twenty-five Years, 1908-1933. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 517 p.). General Motors Corporation; General Motors Company; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

William C. Durant  - founder General Motors  (

David Dunbar Buick David Dunbar Buick ( david_dunbar_buick_m448.jpg) 

Louis Chevrolet ( louis_chevrolet/louis_chevrolet.jpg) Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. (elected President of GM in 1923) ( Sloan's February 18, 1966 Obituary: onthisday/bday/ 0523.html

(GM), Franklin M. Reck; illustrations by Rainey Bennett (1950). On Time: The History of General Motors Locomotives in the United States and Canada. (Detroit, MI: General Motors Corp., 200 p.). General Motors Corporation. Eletro-Motor division; General Motors Diesel ltd., London, Ont.; Diesel locomotive.

(GM), J. Mel Hickerson. With a foreword by Henry Ford, II (1968). Ernie Breech; The Story of His Remarkable Career at General Motors, Ford, and TWA. (New York, NY: Meredith Press, 241 p.). Breech, Ernie, 1897-. Chairman of the Ford Motor Company from 1955-1960.

(GM), Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., in collaboration with Boyden Sparkes (1970). Adventures of a White-Collar Man. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 208 p. [orig. pub. 1941]). General Motors Corporation.

(GM), Donaldson Brown; introd. by Ernest Dale (1977). Some Reminiscences of an Industrialist. (Easton, PA: Hive Pub. Co., 185 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Former DuPont and GM Executive. Brown, Donaldson, 1885-1965; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(GM), Bernard A. Weisberger (1979). The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 396 p.). Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; General Motors Corporation--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(GM), J. Patrick Wright (1979). On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors: John Z. De Lorean's Look Inside the Automotive Giant. (Grosse Point, MI: Wright Enterprises, 237 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; General Motors Corporation; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(GM), Ed Cray (1980). Chrome Colossus: General Motors and Its Times. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 616 p.). General Motors Corporation--History.

(GM), Stuart W. Leslie (1983). Boss Kettering. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 382 p.). Kettering, Charles Franklin, 1876-1958.; Inventors--United States--Biography.

(GM), Arthur J. Kuhn (1986). GM Passes Ford, 1918-1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 380 p.). General Motors Corporation--Management--History--20th century; Ford Motor Company--Management--History--20th century; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management--History--20th century.

(GM), Albert Lee (1988). Call Me Roger. (Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 324 p.). Smith, Roger B., 1925- ; General Motors Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(GM), Maryann Keller (1989). Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of General Motors. (New York, NY: Morrow, 275 p.). General Motors Corporation; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(GM), Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.; with a new introduction by Peter F. Drucker (1990). My Years at General Motors. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 472 p. [orig. pub. 1964]). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966; General Motors Corporation--Management--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United States--Case studies.

(GM), Peter F. Drucker; with a new introduction by the author (1993). Concept of the Corporation. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 329 p. [orig. pub. 1946]). Professor of Management (Claremont). General Motors Corporation; Corporations; Corporations--United States.

(GM), Maryann Keller (1993). Collision: GM, Toyota, Volkswagen and the Race to Own the 21st Century. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 287 p.). General Motors Corporation; Toyota Jid¯osha K¯ogy¯o Kabushiki Kaisha; Volkswagenwerk; Automobile industry and trade; Automobile industry and trade--United States; Automobile industry and trade--Japan; Automobile industry and trade--Germany; Competition, International.

(GM), Joe Sherman (1994). In the Rings of Saturn. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 337 p.). General Motors Corporation; Saturn automobile; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(GM), Micheline Maynard (1995). Collision Course: Inside the Battle for General Motors. (New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 306 p.). General Motors Corporation; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(GM), Jack O'Toole (1996). Forming the Future: Lessons from the Saturn Corporation. (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 208 p.). Member of the "99 group" (full-study committee of GM management and United Automotive Workers (UAW) members that developed the unorthodox program of the Saturn). Saturn automobile; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(GM), Michael Shnayerson (1996). The Car That Could: The Inside Story of GM's Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. (New York, NY: Random House, 295 p.). General Motors Corporation -- History; EV1 automobile.

(GM), Axel Madsen (1999). The Deal Maker: How William C. Durant Made General Motors. (New York, NY: Wiley, 310 p.). Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; General Motors Corporation--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Chief executive officers--Biography; Motor vehicle industry--United States.

(GM), Robert F. Freeland (2001). The Struggle for Control of the Modern Corporation: Organizational Change at General Motors, 1924-1970. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 364 p.). General Motors Corporation--Management; Organizational change; Industrial management.

(GM), Saul A. Rubinstein, Thomas A. Kochan (2001). Learning from Saturn: Possibilities for Corporate Governance and Employee Relations. (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 156 p.). Saturn automobile; Automobile industry and trade--United States.

(GM), David Farber (2002). Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 292 p.). Professor of History (University of New Mexico). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966; General Motors Corporation--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.

(GM), John McDonald (2002). A Ghost's Memoir: The Making of Alfred P. Sloan's "My Years with General Motors". (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 202 p.). Sloan's Ghostwriter; Writer/Editor (Fortune Magazine). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966. My years with General Motors; General Motors Corporation--Management--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United States--Case studies.

(GM), Vincent P. Barabba (2004). Surviving Transformation: Lessons from GM's Surprising Turnaround. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 256 p.). Former General Manager of GM Corporate Strategy and Knowledge Development. General Motors Corporation Management Case studies; Automobile industry and trade United States Management Case studies; Organizational change United States Case studies. 

(GM), Michael W.R. Davis (2006). General Motors: A Photographic History. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub.,, 128 p.). Executive Director of the Detroit Historical Society. General Motors Company--pictorial history. Growth of company in series of over 200 black-and-white images: first assembly line to post-Second World War recovery.

(GM), Lawrence R. Gustin (2006). David Buick’s Marvelous Motor Car: The Men and the Automobile That Launched General Motors. (Flint, MI: Buick Gallery and Research Center; Alfred P. Sloan Musuem, 231 p.). Assistant Public Relations Director for Buick Division of General Motors. Buick, David Dunbar; Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; Buick Motor Company; General Motors Corporation. Buick Motor Division--History; Buick automobile--History.

(GM), William Pelfrey (2006). Billy, Alfred, and General Motors: The Story of Two Unique Men, a Legendary Company, and a Remarkable Time in American History. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 315 p.). Former Director of Executive Communications (GM). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966; General Motors Corporation--History; Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. Wheeler-dealer with grand plans and intellectual master of all things organizational.

(GM), Lawrence R. Gustin (2008). Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 304 p. [updated, expanded). Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; General Motors Corporation. Mastermind behind what became world's largest company; what explains Billy Durant's powerful influence on auto industry during its early days? why has he been nearly forgotten for decades?

(GM), William Holstein (2009). Why GM Matters: Inside the Race to Transform an American Icon. (New York, NY: Walker, 267 p.). General Motors Corporation. Entire operation radically retooled (manufacturing, cost structure, design); inextricably linked to nation's economy (country's largest private buyer of IT, world's largest buyer of steel, holder of pensions for 780,000 Americans, accounts for 1% of US GDP).

(GM), Alex Taylor III; foreword by Mike Jackson (2010). Sixty to Zero: An Inside Look at the Collapse of General Motors—and the Detroit Auto Industry. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 272 p.). Senior Editor (Fortune magazine); Former President and Chief Executive Officer of Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC. General Motors Corporation --Management; Automobile industry and trade --Michigan --Detroit --History; Bankruptcy --Michigan --Detroit --History. GM’s meltdown - 40 years in the making; many missteps of GM, its competitors: refusal to follow market cues, consumer trends; lack of follow-through on major initiatives; history of hesitance, inaction, failure to learn from mistakes; corporate decision-making, at company as large as GM, not as simple as may seem.

(GM-Canada), Heather Robertson (1995). Driving Force: The McLaughlin Family and the Age of the Car. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 402 p.). McLaughlin, Robert Samuel, 1871-1972; McLaughlin family; General Motors of Canada -- History; Automobile industry and trade -- Canada -- Biography.


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