1769 - Nicolas Joseph Cugnot of France built first
automobile (road vehicle self-powered by steam vs.
gasoline-powered); recognized as first by British Royal
Automobile Club, Automobile Club de France.
April 25, 1794 - George Washington granted U.S.
letters patent to John J. Staples, Jr., of New York, for what
the inventor described as a "Carriage to be Propelled by the
Mechanic Powers" (not steam power); text of the patent shows
that the specifications were vague, invention wholly
December 24, 1801 - Richard Trevithick drove
three-wheeled steam-powered vehicle carrying seven passengers up
a hill in Camborne, Cornwall, England; one of first automobiles
in history; high-pressure steam engine was lighter, more
powerful than low-pressure engine invented by James Watt; used
to hoist loads in mines, drive locomotives and ships, run
rolling mills. Trevithick sometimes called "Father of the
March 29, 1806
- Congress appropriated $30,000 for Army's Corps of Engineers to
begin surveying for construction of Great National Pike, also
known as Cumberland Road, first highway funded by national
treasury; road stretched from Cumberland, MD through Appalachian
Mountains to Wheeling, VA, on Ohio River; over $6 million
appropriated for highway; 1811
- construction began, Corps of Engineers built road (important
precedent for military's involvement in building transportation
routes that would be used for non-military purposes);
1818 - 130-mile
road completed; 1850
- National Road reached all way to Indianapolis;
1856 - states
through which Pike ran took control of highway; resulting
network of roads greatly facilitated American expansion into
April 1, 1826
- Samuel Morey of New Hampshire received a patent for the
internal combustion engine.
August 29, 1828
- Robert Turner, of Ward, MA (now Auburn, MA), received patent
for a "Self-Regulating Wagon Brake".
February 25, 1837
- Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, VT, received a patent for
an "Electric Motor" ("Improvement in Propelling Machinery by
Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism"); probably the first
commercially successful electric motor; first to secure a US
patent for his direct current motor.
1841 - Paul Rapsey Hodge gave public test of steam fire
engine; 8-ton weight too heavy, its fire showered sparks,
May 12, 1847
- William Clayton invented roadometer (odometer); attached
to wagon wheel, counted revolutions of wheel as wagon traveled
(320 revolutions = mile).
- Ignaz Schustala set up wagon shop, Ignaz Schustala & Co., in
Moravian town of Nesselsdorf, in Austro-Hungarian Empire;
1853 - formed
partnership with Adolf Raschka, wealthy businessman; produced
wagons, carriages, prospered for over two decades;
Stauding-Stramberger Railroad requested manufacture of railway
cars; 1891 - name
changed to Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau Fabriks Gesellschaft
(Nesselsdorf Wagon Works); managed by Hugo von Roslerstamm;
1897 - built
'President', first car, largely based on design of Benz
(2.7-litre water-cooled two-cylinder Benz engine mounted in rear
of chassis, top speed of 35 km/h); shown publicly in late 1897
at exhibition in Vienna; 1899
- Hans Ledwinka (23), formerly employed in railway division of
Nesseldorf Wagon Works, put himself into unofficial position as
chief of automobile design; 1919
- Moravian town of Nesselsdorf became Koprivnice, Nesselsdorfer
Wagenbau called Koprivnicka Vozovka a.s. (Koprivnice Wagon
Works); name Tatra (named after Tatra High Mountains, higher
peaks of Carpathian mountain range) replaced Nesselsdorfer
marque; 1921 -
Ledwinka returned to Tatra for good (had left twice); became
chief engineer responsible for design of numerous Tatra
automobiles; signaled emergence of company as maker of very
technically significant, advanced automobiles;
late 1920s -
Ledwinka became technical director; third oldest car maker in
world after Daimler Mercedes-Benz, Peugot.
1852 - Henry and Clement Studebaker founded H. &
C. Studebaker, blacksmith and wagon building business, in South
Bend, IN; 1868 -
incorporated as Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company;
became world's largest manufacturer of horse-drawn carriages
during Civil War; 1902
- entered automotive business with electric vehicles;
1904 - partnered
with other manufacturers to offer gasoline vehicles;
1913 - introduced
first gasoline powered automobiles under Studebaker brand;
became one of larger independent automobile manufacturers;
1954 - acquired by
Packard Motors Corporation; 1956
- formed "joint program" agreement with Curtiss-Wright
Corporation (ran Studebaker-Packard, took option on Studebaker
stock for future merger); 1966
- left automobile business.
January 1, 1853 - First successful U.S.
steam fire engine, named Uncle Joe Ross after city
councilman who championed it, began service in Cincinnati, OH;
invented by Abel Shawk and Alexander Latta (nine months to build
at a cost of $10,000), four horses pulled three-wheeled,
five-ton carriage; propelled up to six water streams up to 240
ft range; 1928 - largest German carmaker (37.5%
December 15, 1854 - First practical street
cleaning machine put into operation in Philadelphia; chain
driven by turning of cart's wheels turned series of brooms
attached to cylinder mounted on cart.
January 24, 1860 - French inventor Etienne Lenoir
received a patent for first successful internal-combustion
engine; 1862 - built first automobile powered by
internal-combustion engine; capable of making six-mile trip in
two to three hours.
1862 - Adam Opel founded Adam Opel AG to make
household goods (sewing machines); April 10, 1863
- advertised sewing machines for first time; 1886
- expanded production to sell fully assembled bicycles in
Germany; 1895 - made 2,000 bicycles a year, led
Europe in sewing machine sales; 1899 - started to
automobile named "Opel-Patent-Motorwagen System Lutzmann";
1906 - one-thousandth Opel automobile left factory;
- world’s largest bicycle producer; 1928 -
Germany’s largest automobile manufacturer (37.5% market share);
March 17, 1929 - 80% interest acquired by General
Motors for just under $26 million (100% control acquired by
1931; part of Alfred Sloan's corporate policy of buying existing
companies in countries with desirable markets vs. entering
foreign markets by setting up manufacturing subsidiaries a la
1865 - Locomotives and Highways Act in Britain lowered
speed limit (2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country); required
three drivers for each vehicle - two on the vehicle and one to
walk ahead carrying a red flag; 1896 - repealed,
after nearly two decades of strong support from horse interests
(celebrated by a 60 mile car run from London to Brighton, at the
new and previously illegal speed of 12mph).
1868 - Thomas Humber founded Humber cycle company
in Sheffield , UK; 1898 - produced 3.5 horsepower
Phaeton, three-wheeled tricar; 1901 - introduced
Voiturette, first conventional four-wheeled car; 1913
- second largest manufacturer of cars in United Kingdom;
1925 - acquired Commer Cars Ltd (truck builders) to
produce commercial vehicles; 1928 - acquired
Hillman; 1931 - control acquired by Rootes
Brothers; late 1930s - known for Humber Snipe,
Super Snipes models (lasted until 1964); 1975 -
name disappeared as all Hillmans named Chryslers.
10, 1868 - First traffic control light in London used
- William Hillman, qualified engineer, joined John Kemp Starley
(later formed Rover) in cycle business; soon formed his own
bicycle building company, Auto Machinery; millionaire before
turn of twentieth century; 1907
- entered auto industry, launched 24HP Hillman-Coatalen (named
after its designer); 1913 - first
success with 9HP car (sold into1920s);
1926 - launched 14HP car;
1928 - acquired by
1872 - George N. Pierce bought out two partners,
created George N. Pierce Company; 1896 - added
bicycles to range of household products; 1901 -
Pierce built its first single-cylinder two-speed (no reverse)
Moterette production car; 1904 - built
four-cylinder Great Arrow, sold for $4,000, a luxury car;
1909 - company name changed its name to Pierce-Arrow
Motor Car Company; U.S. President William Howard Taft ordered
two Pierce-Arrows to be used for state occasions (first official
automobiles of the White House); 1914 - most
enduring styling hallmark, headlights moved from the traditional
placement on either side of the radiator to flared housings
molded into the front fenders of the car; 1915 -
Pierce-Arrow had established itself at the highest echelon of
the luxury car market; 1928 - Studebaker acquired
controlling interest in Pierce-Arrow; 1938 -
company declared insolvent, ordered into liquidation.
1872 - Truckson
S. LaFrance, former employee of Elmira Union Iron Works, Elmira,
NY, John Vischer, head of Iron Works, started company to
manufacture fire apparatus (hand pumps, rotary steam engines
based on LaFrance’s patents; designs began winning major
national competitions; April 1873
- acquired by Alexander S. Diven, wealthy Elmira businessman,
his four sons; renamed LaFrance Manufacturing Company;
reorganized; renamed LaFrance Steam Engine Company, to take
advantage of company's reputation as leading manufacturer of
rotary, nest-tube boilers (invented, patented by LaFrance, used
for fire engines); 1882
- manufactured extension ladder truck; considered major
technological advancement; 1891
American Fire Engine Company
formed by merger of five companies;
1900 - International Fire Engine Company
organized by New York investors; included American Fire Engine
Company, LaFrance Fire Engine Company, Thos. Manning Jr. & Co.,
several other support equipment manufacturers;
1903 - name
changed to American LaFrance Fire Engine Company;
1916 - produced
6-cylinder, gas-powered pumping apparatus; end of steam engine;
- filed for protection, to reorganize under Bankruptcy Act;
launched Century Series pumper; "modern" fire engine,
revolutionary features, became industry standard; America's
leading manufacturer of custom fire engines;
1995 - acquired by
Freightliner LLC (subsidiary of Daimler-Chrysler);
2005 - acquired by
Patriarch Partners LLC; America's leading manufacturer of custom
fire engines; one of oldest fire, rescue, EMS vehicle
manufacturers in United States; operates 8
manufacturing/servicing facilities, two company-owned vehicle
dealerships; January 28, 2008
- filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection;
July 25, 2008 -
April 2, 1872 - George B. Brayton, of Boston, MA,
received a patent for an "Improvement in Gas-Engines" "means for
making practically available, as a motive power, those compounds
which result from the mixture of gases obtained from light
hydrocarbons with atmospheric air"); gasoline powered engine,
first American commercial internal combustion engine.
Carriage Builders' National Association of
the United States held first annual convention;
1890 - 13,000
companies in wagon, carriage industry;
1926 - Association met for last time; signaled automobile's final triumph
over horse-drawn carriage.
Kemp Starley and William Sutton founded Starley & Sutton Co. to
produce safer, easier to use bicycles than prevailing "ordinary"
bicycles; manufacturing tricycles; 1883 - products being branded
as "Rover"; 1885 - produced Rover Safety Bicycle
(rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized
wheels, more stable than the previous high wheeler designs);
success; 1889 - renamed J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd.;
late 1890's - renamed Rover Cycle
Company Ltd.; 1902 - Harry Smyth, managing
director upon Starley's death in 1901, released company's first
motorcycle (motor-driven bicycle); 1904 -
petrol-driven Rover 8 h.p. car
released; 1948 - Land Rover introduced; 1967
- became part of
Leyland Motor Corporation,
which merged with the
British Motor Holdings
- Range Rover introduced; 1994 - Rover acquired by
BMW; 2000 - BMW sold the business, retained rights to name.
August 14, 1877 -
Nicolaus Otto, of Deutz, Germany, received a patent for
"Gas-Motor Engines"; internal combustion engine.
1878 - George N. Pierce founded Pierce Company as manufacturer of
household items, shifted to bicycle production, then to
automobiles; 1900 - designers shifted to
gasoline engines from steam power;
November 24, 1900
- First gasoline-powered Pierce automobile
(modified one-cylinder deDion engine capable of producing
nearly three horsepower, christened Pierce Motorette) taken
on test drive through streets of Buffalo, NY; 1901-1903 -
roughly 170 Pierce Motorettes made; 1903 -
Pierce Arrow introduced; 1908 - Pierce-Arrow
Motor Car Company officially launched; 1909 -
U.S. president William Howard Taft ordered two automobiles,
Brougham and Landaulette, for use by White House.
N. Pierce - Pierce Arrow
April 23, 1878
- Benjamin H. Taylor, of Rosedale, MI, received a patent for a
"Rotary-Engine" ("construction and arrangement of a rotary
1880 - Georges Thadee Bouton,
Charles-Armand Trepardoux (brother-in-law) established
Trépardoux et Cie, ingénieurs-constructeurs" in Paris;
manufactured small models for Ducretet, scientific toys for toy
sellers Giroux; 1882 - with Comte Albert de Dion,
formed company called De Dion-Bouton et Trépardoux et Cie;
1883 - produced first steam quadricycle; May
1883 - received French patent on it; 1884
- produced second steam quadricycle; 1887 -
produced first steam tricycle; 1893 - produced first steam
tractor; Trepardoux left company; 1894 - formed
"De Dion-Bouton et Cie" company; 1897 - 200
workers; 1899 - produced first De Dion Bouton
petrol engine four wheel car - type D; 1900 -
world's largest carmaker with annual production of 400 cars,
3,200 engines; 1901 - 1,300 employees;
December 1901 - front engine car exhibited for first
time; 1906 - 2,3500 employees; 1907
- "Société Anonyme des Taxis-Autos De Dion-Bouton" formed;
1908 - first V8 engine; 1914 - more
than 6,000 employees; 1932 - de Dion withdrew from
company (had stopped making cars).
Marquis Albert de Dion
- De Dion-Bouton
April 18, 1882 - Gottlieb Daimler,
Wilhelm Maybach (protege), agreed to create high-speed internal
combustion engine to propel vehicles;
1883 - finished their first gas-powered
engine; 1887 -
constructed first water-cooled, gas-powered internal combustion
October 1883 - Karl Benz founded Benz &
Cie. in Mannheim, Germany.
1884 - Rinaldo
Piaggio (24) founded Piaggio (manufacturer of Vespa motor
scooters) in Genoa, Italy for luxury ship fitting;
1946 - Corradino
D'Ascanio, Piaggio's chief aeronautical engineer, designed
aircraft-inspired two-wheel vehicle built on unibody steel
chassis; "Sembra una Vespa" ("it looks like a wasp');
1949 - 35,000
Vespas manufactured, 1959
- one million.
April 3, 1885 - Gottlieb Daimler received German
patent for 1-cylinder water-cooled engine design (solved problem
posed by tremendous heat produced by internal combustion
August 29, 1885
- Gottlieb Daimler received patent for "vehicle with gas or
petroleum drive machine"; first motorcycle; very popular after
1910 (used heavily by all branches of armed forces during World
War I), lagged during the Great Depression, regained popularity
after World War II.
10, 1885 - Paul Daimler, son of German engineer Gottlieb
Daimler, became first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new
invention for six miles; frame and wheels made of wood; leather
belt transferred power from engine to large brass gears mounted
to rear wheel; no suspension (front or rear); single cylinder
engine had bore of 58mm, stroke of 100mm giving a displacement
of 264cc's, gave 0.5hp at 700 rpm, top speed was 12 km/h.
- Robert Bosch (25) founded Workshop for Precision Mechanics and
Electrical Engineering in Stuttgart, Germany;
November 20, 1900
- Frederick Richard Simms, of London, England, and Robert Bosch,
of Stuttgart, Germany, received a patent for a "Magneto-Electric
Machine" ("...machines as are employed in connection with
electric-ignition devices for internal
combustion-engines...shall be continuously rotated instead of
December 11, 1900 - received a patent for a
"Sparking Igniter for Explosion-Engines" ("...to provide means
whereby the time at which ignition of he explosive charge takes
place, and thereby the speed of the engines can be regulated as
desired, while the engines are running");
January 7, 1902 - received second patent
for an "Magneto-Electric Machine");
1902 - introduced high-tension magneto
ignition system (produced reliable spark to ignite internal
combustion engines); 1906 - produced
100,000th magneto ignition device;
September 6, 1906 - established Robert
Bosch New York Inc. (changed name to Bosch Magneto Company in
1908); 1910 -
opened U.S. production facility (factory) in Springfield, MA;
1917 - seized by
American government (including factories in Springfield,
Plainfield, NJ), sold to American investment group, renamed
American Bosch Magneto Corporation (ABMC);
Robert Bosch Magneto Company Inc. founded in New York; two
companies merged, formed United American Bosch Corporation;
January 1, 1933 -
Friedrich Schildberger became first official Bosch archivist;
1938 - renamed
American Bosch Corporation; 1942
- seized by U.S. government; June
10, 1952 - American Bosch Corporation registered
"AMERICAN BOSCH AB" trademark first used April 14, 1944
(service, maintenance, and repair of motor vehicles and internal
combustion engines, parts thereof and accessories);
1953 - Robert
Bosch Corporation, sales office, established in New York;
1983 - Bosch Group
won back trademark rights expropriated during war, regained
unrestricted right to use Bosch name worldwide;
2009 - employed
over 23,000 people at around 80 locations across North America.
- Robert Bosch GmbH
1886 - William Crapo "Billy" Durant (24) bought
Coldwater Road Cart Company (Coldwater, MI) and its September
22, 1885 patent for a "Two-Wheeled Vehicle" (received by William
H. Schmedlen, of Coldwater, MI, assigned to company) for $1500;
Josiah Dallas Dort
formed Flint Road Cart Co.; 1895 - incorporated as
Carriage Company; 1900 - largest producer of road
carts in country, produced almost 150,000 carriages a year.
Josiah Dallas Dort
- partner of GM founder (Billy Durant)
January 29, 1886
- Karl Benz received a German patent for a
"Vehicle Propelled by a Gas
Engine" (first functional unit of an engine with a chassis)
three-wheeled automobile powered by an internal-combustion
engine, first practical internal-combustion vehicle ever
output at 400 rpm produced a top speed of 10 mph; July 3,
1886 - first public test-drive in and around Mannheim,
maximum speed 10 mph;
1893 - Benz completed first four-wheeled motorcar,
Benz Velo, became the world's first inexpensive, mass-produced
March 4, 1887 - Gottlieb Daimler (Carl
Benz's major competitor) made test run of his first four-wheel
motor vehicle, "benzin motor carriage", in Esslingen and
Cannstatt, Germany (one-cylinder engine, top speed of 10 miles
per hour); 1885 -
patented first gasoline-powered, water-cooled, internal
combustion engine (water circulated around the engine block,
prevented engine from overheating);
1899 - Emile Jellinek offered to buy 36
vehicles from Daimler if he built a more powerful model,
requested that car be named after his daughter, Mercedes; first
Mercedes had four-cylinder engine, generally considered the
first modern car; 1905
- Mercedes cars reached speeds of 109 mph;
1926 - Daimler and Benz corporations
merged, two founders never met.
Karl Benz's first auto
July 27, 1888
- Philip W. Pratt
demonstrated first electric automobile in Boston; tricycle
powered by six Electrical Accumulator Company cells, weighed 90
October 6, 1888 - William Steinway, car
enthusiast, son of Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (Henry Steinway,
piano manufacturer), acquired licensing rights from Gottlieb
Daimler to manufacture Daimler cars in U.S.; founded the
"Daimler Motor Company", began producing Daimler engines,
importing Daimler boats, trucks, other equipment to North
American market; 1901
- introduced new line, christened it Mercedes (feared the
German-sounding Daimler would not sell well in France).
- Daimler rights in U.S.
- Armand Peugeot introduced
steam-driven three-wheel vehicle at 1889 World Fair; 1890
- produced first Peugeot gas-powered four-wheel car, Type 2,
fitted with Daimler engine, at Valentigney factory; 1892
- produced 29 cars, first company to fit rubber tires to
gas-engine four-wheel car; 1896 - split with
cousin, created Société des Automobiles Peugeot, produced the
first Peugeot engine; 1928 - Jean-Pierre Peugeot
(Eugene's grandson) took over; 1976 - merged with
Citroën SA, formed PSA Peugeot Citroën as single holding
September 30, 1890 - Thomas A. Edison
received a patent for a "Propelling Device for Electric Cars"
("an efficient means for transferring the reciprocating motion
of the propelling mechanism to the axle of the car or to other
axles or shafts").
November 28, 1890 - Max Duttenhofer,
managing director of Koln-Rottweiler Pulverfabrik, Wilhelm
Lorenz and Gottlieb Daimler formed Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft,
joint-stock company, Wilhelm Maybach chief engineer (left on
February 11, 1891 over terms of contract);
1893 - Daimler forced to sell his stake
in company, rights to his inventions for 66,666 marks to avoid
bankruptcy; 1895 -
group of British industrialists, fronted by Frederick R. Simms,
looked to acquire license rights to Maybach-designed Phoenix
engine for Britain for 350,000 marks only if Daimler and Maybach
returned to company; Daimler returned as expert advisor, general
inspector; stake in company returned (worth 200,000 marks)
additional 100,000 mark bonus paid;
November 8, 1895 - returned as chief
engineer; received shares worth 30,000 marks that he was
entitled to through 1882 contract with Daimler.
1891 - Peter Petersson, works manager
for steel company Surahammars Bruk, convinced Board of Directors
to initiate carriage-production line at plant in Södertälje,
near Stockholm (Vagnfabriksaktiebolaget i Södertelge); asked
engineer Gustaf Erikson to develop engines, engine-powered
carriages; 1903 -
first order for Vagnfabriken vehicle, fitted with one-cylinder
3.5-bhp petrol engine, 2-speed gearbox;
1904 - Swedish State Railways allocated
manufacturing of 150 carriages per year; Vagnfabriken acquired
by Per Alfred Nordeman, Managing Director for Malmo-based
Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania; formed AB Scania-Vabis; moved
car, light utility vehicle production to Södertälje, kept truck
department in Malmo; 1919
- focused completely on truck-production, abandoned other
commercial-purposed vehicle manufacturing (cars, buses,
firefighting vehicles); 1921
- reorganized; 1922
- Swedish Post Office, first customer, ordered 15 buses (12-seat
capacity, later with rubber tracks for winter use);
1940 - Carl-Bertel
Nathhorst new managing director;
1943 - redirected production process towards
civilian-truck, bus sectors, developed new chassis for upcoming
line; 1948 -
became Volkswagen's importer on Swedish market, extend
production line; 1954
- became one of strongest players on Swedish haulage market,
export sector; created several partnerships with independent
importers worldwide; 1969
- acquired by Saab; 1995
- company split, bus and truck division's name changed to Scania
AB; 2000 - built
millionth vehicle; Volkswagen AG became lead owner;
March 2008 -
agreed to acquire shares owned by Investor and the Wallenberg
Foundations; became main owner of Scania.
November 1891 - Albert Eadie, Robert
Walker Smith, brought in by financiers to assume control of
George Townsend and Company Ltd.; bicycles, needles manufacturerd
at Givry Needle Works (founded 1851 as Givry Works in village of
Hunt End, near Worcestershire town of Redditch to produce sewing
needles, various small machine parts; George Jr. had invented
saddle in 1880s that used only one length of wire in two
springs, in frame work - patented, marketed as "Townsend
Cyclists Saddle And Springs");
1892 - renamed
Eadie Manufacturing Company Limited; took contract to supply
arms factory in Enfield with precision parts;
October 1892 -
Enfield name first used for series of bicycles built in
Birmingham Small Arms Factory (BSA), in Enfield, Middlesex;
1893 - "Royal"
added to capitalize on firearms association; Royal Enfield
trademark 'Made Like a Gun' appeared;
July 1896 - New Enfield Cycle Company
Ltd. name registered; took over production of Enfield
Manufacturing Company Ltd., cycle section of Eadie manufacturing
Company Ltd.; November 1897 - name changed to Enfield Cycle
Company Ltd.; 1899
- advertised first mechanical vehicle (available in both
tricycle, quadricycle form, powered by De Dion 1.5 hp engine);
1901 - first Royal
Enfield 8hp cars built using a DE Dion engine (on road in 1902);
1914 - Royal
Enfield supplied motorcycles to British War Department; awarded
contract to build bikes for Imperial Russian Government;
1928 - one of
first companies to adopt saddle tanks, center-spring girder
front forks; 1931
- introduced four-valve, single-cylinder motorcycle;
1932 - christened
'Bullet' (inclined engine, exposed valve gear);
1949 - Madras
Motor Company (India) won order from Indian Army for supply of
motorcycles, 350cc Bullet launched in India; arrived in kits,
then assembled; 1962
- English company acquired; 1967
- Redditch factory closed; small production unit continued name;
1970 - English
company defunct; name and rights acquired by Indian company,
ensured Royal Enfield remained in continuous production;
1980s - Enfield
Bullets found strong niche market in UK, Europe;
March 1994 -
Enfield India Company acquired by Eicher Group (established in
April 1959, by Joseph and Albert Eicher of Gebr Eicher
Tractorenfabrik W. Germany, as Eicher Tractor Corporation of
India Private Ltd.; produced India's first tractor); name
changed to Royal Enfield Motors Limited; Royal Enfield Bullet
motorcycle - longest production run of any motorcycle in
history, continuously produced since 1948, roots to 1932.
July 30, 1898 - Scientific
American magazine carried first automobile advertisement for
Winton Motor Car Company of Cleveland, OH; invited readers to
"dispense with a horse".
September 29, 1888
- William Steinway, car enthusiast, negotiated North American
licensing agreement with Gottlieb Daimler to manufacture Daimler
cars in the U.S.; founded "Daimler Motor Company", began
producing Daimler engines (also imported Daimler boats, trucks,
1890 - Packard brothers
Company in Warren, OH.
1890 - Gottlieb Daimler formed Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft
(DMG); December 22, 1900 - 'Mercedes', developed
by Wilhelm Maybach, chief engineer at DMG, delivered.
April 19, 1892
- Charles E. Duryea and his brother, Frank, in Springfield, MA,
completed prototype of first commercially successful American
July 5, 1892
- Andrew Beard, of Woodlawn, AL, received a patent for a "Rotary
February 23, 1893
- Rudolf Diesel received a patent in Germany for diesel engine;
burns fuel oil rather than gasoline, uses high compression of
the gases in the cylinder to ignite the fuel; greater fuel
efficiency is counter-balanced by its higher emissions of soot,
odor, and air pollutants;
1895 - Rudolf Diesel received a U. S. patent for the
August 14, 1893 - World's first
automobile license plates issued in Paris, France; not issued in
the United States for a few more years, finally instituted as a
safety measure; city of Boston first to require its motorists to
hold a license, register their vehicle; owner made his own plate
with corresponding registration numbers; Massachusetts soon
began issuing registration plates made of iron, covered with a
September 20, 1893 - Charles and Frank
Duryea, bicycle makers, drove (believed to be) first
gasoline-powered automobile, "horseless carriage", in United
States; built in rented loft space in Springfield, MA. Charles
never received credit for having been first American to design,
run gas-powered vehicle until after his death because date was
disputed (initial credit given to Elwood Haynes for having made
America's first car).
J. Charles Duryea, J. Frank Duryea
December 24, 1893 - Henry Ford
completed his first useful gas motor; at the time Ford was chief
steam engineer at the main Detroit Edison Company plant with
responsibility for maintaining electric service in the city 24
hours a day; June 4, 1896 - Ford's first
automobile took its inaugural drive powered by a later version
of the engine with two cylinders.
- Heinrich and Wilhelm Hildebrand (steam-engine engineers),
partner Alois Wolfmüller, designed all metal hollow tube-frame,
two-cylinder four-stroke, water-cooled 1488cc engine Hildebrand
& Wolfmüller; world's first mass-production two-wheeled motor
vehicle dubbed "motorcycle," or "motorrad" in German;
January, 20 1894 -
received patent; 1919
- company closed.
Wilhelm Hildebrand -
July 4, 1894 - Elwood Haynes
successfully tested one-horsepower, one-cylinder vehicle at 6 or
7 mph at Kokomo, IN; one of the first automobiles built; oldest
American-made automobile in existence (on exhibition at the
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC);
25, 1898 - Haynes and Elmer
Apperson organized Haynes-Apperson Company in Kokomo, IN;
first man (Haynes) to outfit cars with all-aluminum engines, to
build car bodies of nickel-plated steel; fulfilled terms of a
buyer's agreement by delivering car from Kokomo to New York City
in first 1,000-mile car trip undertaken in the United States.
- oldest American car in existence
December 11, 1894
- World's first auto show, Exposition Internationale de
Velocipidie et de Locomotion Automobile, opened in Paris,
France; four makes of automobiles on display.
1895 - William
Metzger opened Huber & Metzger, bicycle shop located in center
of downtown Detroit; became one of largest in country;
1897 - opened
first U. S. automobile retail showroom; sold electric, steam,
and gasoline brands (included Oldsmobiles);
June 1899 - sold
first automobile built by the company; helped organize Detroit
Auto Show, second of its kind; promoted racing;
1900 - organized
Northern Motor Car Co.; 1902
- one of organizers of Cadillac Motor Car Co. ;
1903 - had only
produced 3 cars; took orders for 2700 Cadillacs at New York Auto
Show, ensured company's fortunes;
1908 - Northern merged with Wayne Automobile
Company; formed E-M-F Company (Everitt-Metzger-Flanders;
Byron Everitt and Walter Flanders); sold cars through
Studebaker; 1909 -
EMF-Studebaker produced almost 8000 cars; fifth largest
auto maker in US.;
mid-1909 - Metzger
left company; took Byron Everitt and $362,500 settlement with
him; began Metzger Motor Car Co.; produced a car substantially
similar to E-M-F's model (called the Everitt);
- produced 26,000 automobiles, second only to Ford;
1912 -acquired by
United States Motor Co.; became affiliated with other automotive
companies (Columbia Motor Car, Wills Sainte Claire, Federal
Motor Truck Co., Rickenbacker, Auto Parts Manufacturing Co.
(took over as president from Alfred Dunk); appointed to
executive committee of American Automobile Association; elected
president of Detroit Board of Fire Commissioners.
June 11, 1895
- Charles E. Duryea received a patent for a "Road Vehicle",
first US patent granted to an American inventor for a
September 21, 1895
- The Duryea Motor Wagon Company became the first auto
manufacturer; unofficially gave birth to the auto production
line and the American automobile industry.
- First recorded motor journey of any length (56 miles) in
November 1, 1895 -
American Motor League, first automobile club in United States,
held preliminary meeting in Chicago, IL with 60 members; Dr. J.
Allen Hornsby named president; Vice Presidents - Charles Edgar
Duryea, car manufacturer, and Hiram P. Maxim, car designer and
inventor; Treasurer - Charles King (constructed one of first
four-cylinder automobiles in 1896).
November 5, 1895 -
George B. Selden, a patent lawyer from Rochester, NY, received a
patent for a "Road Engine", first U.S. patent for a
gasoline-powered automobile; patent described engine as well as
complete automobile with features such as a clutch, compressed
air self-starter, steering system; = monopoly on concept of
combining an internal combustion engine with a carriage; every
automaker had to pay Selden and his licensing company a
significant percentage of profits for right to construct a motor
car; 1899 - sold
patent rights to William C. Whitney (proposed manufacturing
electric powered taxicabs as Electric Vehicle Company (EVC) for
royalty of $15 per car with minimum annual payment of $5,000);
negotiated 3/4 of 1 % royalty on all internal combustion engine
cars sold by Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers
(ALAM); 1903 -
newly formed Ford Motor Company refused to pay royalties, sued
for infringement on patent; 1909
- New York court upheld validity of Selden's patent;
January 9, 1911 -
New York Court of Appeals again ruled in favor of Selden's
patent, but with twist: patent was restricted to particular
outdated construction it described; since every important
automaker used a motor significantly different from that
described in Selden's patent, major manufacturers never paid
George B. Selden
- first patent for
November 28, 1895
- Chicago Times-Herald Publisher Herman H. Kohlstaat organized
"Great Chicago Race" between Chicago and Waukegan, IL; first
automobile race featuring gasoline-powered automobiles; six
vehicles competed: two electric cars, three German Benz
automobiles, one American-made two-cylinder Duryea automobile;
$5,000 in prizes, first-place prize of $2,000; Frank Duryea won
in 10 1/2 hours (no other car in sight), average speed of
7.5mph; 2nd place - German Oscar Mueller, completed race in 12
1896 - Armand Peugeot founded
automobile manufacturing company.
1896 -James Sumner and Henry
Spurrier founded Lancashire Steam Motor Company in Leyland,
England; first vehicle was1.5-ton-capacity steam powered van;
1907 - took over rival Coulthard's of Preston,
renamed Leyland Motors; three generations of Spurriers
controlled company; 1951 - took over Albion Motors
(Glasgow); 1955 - acquired Scammell Lorries,
Standard Triumph International; Leyland Trucks claimed to be
world's biggest truck producer; 1962 - renamed
Leyland Motor Corporation; 1968 - merged
(effectively took over) with British Motor Corporation (former
Austin and Nuffield companies), created British Leyland,
third-biggest vehicle manufacturer in world; 1981
- created Austin Rover Group as mass-market car manufacturing
subsidiary; 1982 - renamed Austin Rover Group;
1986 - British Leyland renamed Rover Group PLC.
January 28, 1896
- The first speeding fine handed to British motorist for
exceeding 2mph in a built-up area.
March 6, 1896 -
Auto first appeared on streets in Detroit when Charles Brady
King drove "Horseless Carriage" up and down Woodward Avenue;
when auto broke down, speculators responded by telling him to
"get a horse".
May 30, 1896
- First recorded auto accident occurred: Duryea Motor Wagon,
driven by Henry Wells from Springfield, MA, collided with
bicycle ridden by Evylyn Thomas of New York City.
4, 1896 -
Henry Ford, employee of Edison Illuminating Company in
Detroit, made successful pre-dawn
test run of horseless carriage, called a Quadricycle (500-pound,
two-cylinder vehicle), through streets of Detroit (down Bagley
Avenue to Grand River Avenue, to Washington Boulevard); first
automobile he ever designed or drove.
- William E. Metzger opened first independent U. S. automobile
retail showroom; sold electric cars; added steam, gasoline
brands; June 1899
- sold first Oldsmobile; helped organize the Detroit Auto Show;
1900 - organized Northern Motor Car Co.;
1902 - co-organizer of Cadillac Motor
Car Co. (had produced only 3 cars in 1903; Metzger took orders
for 2700 Cadillacs at New York Auto Show, ensured company's
future); 1908 -
Northern merged with Wayne Automobile Company (controlled by
Byron Everitt and Walter Flanders); formed E-M-F (Everitt-Metzger-Flanders)
Company (sold cars through Studebaker);
1909 - EMF-Studebaker fifth largest auto
maker in US; Metzger left company, $362,500 settlement; started
Metzger Motor Car Co.; acquired by United States Motor Co.
William E. Metzger
- First Independent Auto Dealer
March 1, 1897
- Alexander Winton organized Winton Motor Carriage Company in
Cleveland, Ohio (after 12 years in bicycle manufacturing
business); 1901 - Henry Ford passed over for a
mechanic's job with Winton's company; 1903 -
Winton drove his car from San Francisco to New York to prove the
reliability of his vehicles.
August 10, 1897 - C. Harrington Moore,
Frederick R. Simms founded Automobile Club of Great Britain and
Ireland, later known as the Royal Automobile Club; oldest auto
21, 1897 - Ransom Eli Olds formed Olds Motor Vehicle
Company in Lansing, MI with capital of $50,000;
November 23, 1897 -
received his first patent, for a "Motor-Carriage" ("the motive
power is produced by a gasolene-motor...road-vehicle that will
meet most of the requirements for the ordinary uses on the road
without complicated gear or requiring engine of great power and
to avoid all unnecessary weight"); gasoline-powered vehicle
constructed year before;
May 8, 1899
- incorporated Olds Motor Works; formed by merger of Olds Motor
Vehicle and Olds Gasoline Engine Works; 1901 -
produced Olds Runabout, small, motorized buggy with curved
dashboard, lightweight wheels, powered by one-cylinder engine
capable of reaching 20mph; sold 425 Runabouts in first year,
2,500 in next; February 15, 1902 - ran its first
national automobile advertisement in Saturday Evening Post;
- sales peaked above 5,000 vehicles.
September 10, 1897
- George Smith became first person arrested for drunken driving
3, 1897 - Ransom E. Olds received his first patent for a
"Motor Carriage" ("in which the motive power is produced by a
gasolene-motor...to produce a road vehicle which will meet most
of the requirements for the ordinary uses on the road, without
complicated gear or requiring engine of great power and to avoid
all unnecessary weight").
Five Opel brothers began converting sewing machine,
appliance factory of Adam Opel into automobile works in
Russelheim, Germany; January 21, 1899 - acquired
rights to Lutzmann automobile, began production;
1902 - introduced first original car, 2-cylinder
- Germany’s largest automobile manufacturer (37.5% market
share); March 17, 1929 - 80% interest
by General Motors
for just under $26
- produces about quarter of all German cars, exports heavily to
South America, Africa.
1898 - Francis E. (F. E.) and
Freelan O. (F. O.) Stanley (twins from Kingfield, ME) founded
Stanley Motor Carriage Company to manufacture steam engineered
carriages which they had invented in 1897 (small engine, boiler
slung beneath a carriage, immediate success); April 1899
- sold company to John Walker (editor, Cosmopolitan magazine)
and Amzi Lorenzo Barber (America's sheet-asphalt tycoon) for
$240,000; created Locomobile name brand (sold for $600,
noiseless, odorless; water tanks had to be refilled every 20
miles); August 31, 1899 - F.O. Stanley and his
wife, Flora, climbed Mt. Washington (NH) Carriage Road in
4.5-horsepower Locomobile in 2 hours, 10 minutes; 1900
- sales of Locomobile peaked at 1,600 (replaced by
gasoline-powered automobiles); 1904 - last
Locomobile steamers produed.
February 12, 1898 - Henry Lindfield,
Brighton, UK business agent for International Cars, involved in
first car crash resulting in fatality; electric car's steering
gear failed, ran through wire fence, hit iron post, cut main
artery in his leg, died of shock from operation following day;
August 17, 1896 -
first pedestrian fatally struck by a car;
February 25, 1899 - first petrol-fuelled
fatal car crash.
March 24, 1898 - Winton Motor Carriage
Company made first commercial sale of American-built automobile
May 31, 1898 - Thomas A. Edison received
a patent for a "Governor for Motors", a "means for adjusting the
governor for any desired speed, and with the means, such as
centrifugal governor-balls, for regulating the friction members
to maintain a constant speed".
August 9, 1898 - Rudolf Diesel, of
Berlin, Germany, received a U.S. patent for an "Internal
Combustion Engine" ("improvements in apparatus for regulating
the fuel supply in slow-combustion motors and, in particular to
internal combustion engines".
August 30, 1898 - Henry Ford, of
Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Carbureter" ("especially
designed for use in connection with gas or vapor engines").
December 24, 1898 - Louis Renault (21)
drove his A-type Voiturette, with first direct-drive
variable-ratio transmission (3-speed gearbox allowed more power
in lower gears, more speed in higher gears vs. chain - drive
system), up steep (13% slope) Rue Lepic in Montmartre, Paris;
resulted in first 12 orders; 1899
- Marcel, Fernand Renault founded Societe Renault Freres n
Avenue du Cours in Boulogne-Billancourt (outside Paris);
1900 - victory in Paris-Bordeaux race
generated 350 new orders (price of 3,000 francs);
1902 - introduced
standard drum brake (more reliable braking in forward, reverse);
1905 - switched
from craft production to mass production to fill order for 250
taxis; 1909 -
Louis Renault (32) sole owner (brothers died); renamed Louis
Renault Automobile Company; 1918
- factory employed 5,000, produced 4,200 vehicles a year.
1899 - James and William Packard,
along with George Weiss, formed the "Automobile Division" of New
York and Ohio Company; November 6,
1899 - James Ward Packard road
tested first automobile in
one-cylinder engine capable of producing 12hp,
with wire wheels, steering tiller, automatic spark advance,
chain drive built around engine; sold five in first two months;
- renamed Packard Motor Company.
January 3, 1899
- Editorial in The New York Times made reference to an
"automobile" on this day; first known use of word.
1899 - Olds Motor Works formed; June 1896
- Ransom Olds completed a prototype of gas-burning horseless
carriages; incorporated Olds Motor Vehicle Works separately from
P.F. Olds & Son; largely speculative investment made by the rich
Lansing businessmen; Olds merged his family business with the
Olds Motor Works, sold new shares of combined stock to raise the
May 20, 1899
- Jacob German, operator of taxicab
for Electric Vehicle Company, became first driver arrested for
speeding when he was stopped by Bicycle Roundsman Schueller for
driving at "breakneck" speed of 12mph on Lexington Avenue
in Manhattan; booked, jailed at East Twenty-second Street
station house; not made to hand over his license and
registration, neither required
in State of New
until two years later.
May 24, 1899
- W. T. McCullough, of Boston, MA, opened first public
Back Bay Cycle and Motor Company, as a "stable for renting,
sale, storage, and repair of motor vehicles."
July 11, 1899 - Company
charter of Societa Anonima "Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino”
(FIAT) signed at Palazzo Bricherasio;
1900 - first factory was
opened in Corso Dante, employed 150 workers, produced 24 cars (3
1/2 HP, not yet fitted with reverse gear).;
1902 - Giovanni
Agnelli stood out in the group of investors, became Managing
Director; 1904 - Fiat logo,
oval on blue background, designed by Biscaretti, adopted.
July 24, 1899 -
Detroit Automobile Company organized;
January 12, 1900 - finished delivery
wagon, first commercial vehicle, designed by young engineer,
named Henry Ford; February 7, 1901
- company dissolved (Ford had already produced operable car in
1899; desribed in Detroit Journals as "mechanical engineer",
built cars in converted wagon factory at 688-692 Mack Avenue in
August 15, 1899 -
Henry Ford resigned as chief engineer at main Detroit Edison
Company plant in order to concentrate on automobile production.
September 13, 1899 - Arthur Smith struck, killed
Henry Bliss, 68-year-old real estate broker, at corner of
Central Park West and 74th Street in New York City; first
recorded fatality in U. S. from automobile accident; Smith
arrested, held on $1,000 bail; Henry Bliss taken to Roosevelt
October 14, 1899 - Literary
Digest declared that "the ordinary horseless carriage is at
present a luxury for the wealthy; and although its price will
probably fall in the future, it will never, of course, come into
common use as a bicycle".
- John M. ("Jack") and Augustus F. ("Gus") Mack incorporated
Mack Brothers Company in Brooklyn, NY; introduced first vehicle
(40-horsepower, 20-passenger bus);
1905 - first to mount cab directly over
engine (increased driver visibility, maneuverability);
July 24, 1906 -
Gus Mack received a patent for a "Transmission-Gear" ("variable
speed transmission in which the use of sliding gears is avoided
and the burning, stripping and undue noise attending such use
eliminated and, further, to produce a transmission mechanism
which can be readily connected and disconnected from motor and
that at the same time is certain in action, convenient in
operation, and compact and strong in construction"); received a
second patent for a "Friction-Clutch" ("motion of the
driving-shaft may be imparted at will to either of two driven
shafts, both of said driven shafts being rotated in the same
direction"); August 1911
- sold company, operation continued as International Motor
Company (holding company for Mack Brothers Motor Car Company,
Saurer Motor Company); 1916
- International Motor Truck Corporation formed;
1917 - bulldog
trademark earned during World War I (British soldiers called
Company's Mack AC model the Bulldog Mack because of its
pugnacious, blunt-nosed hood, coupled with its durability,
January 4, 1921 -
International Motor Company registered MACK trademark first used
October 13, 911 (motortrucks);
June 3, 1921 -
Bulldog as symbol first drawn; sheet metal plate with symbol
riveted to each side of the cab;
1922 - name changed to Mack Trucks, Inc.
John M. Mack
- MACK Truck
1900 - First
Gordon Bennett Cup Race, from Paris to Lyon, France, won by
Fernand Charron driving a Panhard; sponsored by James Gordon
Bennett Jr., publisher of the New York Herald; premier auto race
in the world between 1900-1905; Bennett established car racing's
first set of rules; created color scheme for national racing
teams (has remained more or less intact to this day): Italian
racing Red, British racing Green, French Blue, German Silver,
and American White and Blue; inability to control race crowds,
spectator casualties led European countries to ban public road
races; cancellation of Bennett Cup led to creation of Vanderbilt
Cup sponsored by William K. Vanderbilt.
March 31, 1900 -
Company, of Philadelphia, PA, ran
advertisement in a national magazine, Saturday Evening Post;
featured its jingle, "Automobiles That Give Satisfation".
1900 - Oliver Lippincott became first motorist
in Yosemite National Park; drove there in his Locomobile
July 3, 1900 - Clyde J. Coleman,
of New York City, received 5 patents for a "Motor-Vehicle"
("controlling means for electrically-propelled vehicles");
controlling, reversing, and braking mechanisms and connections
for electric vehicles.
September 3, 1900 - Charles Wisner
introduced first car built in Flint, MI; beginning of town's
central role in automotive history; town's thriving carriage
industry at turn of century evolved into body, spring, wheel
suppliers for the Buick Motor Company;
1908 - W.C. Durant consolidated Flint's
manufacturers into the General Motors Company (GM);
1950s - second
only to Detroit in automobile manufacturing.
11, 1900 - Francis E. (F. E.) and Freeland O. (F. O.)
Stanley, of Newton, MA, received a patent for a "Motor-Vehicle"
("to simplify and improve the construction of the operating
apparatus of automobiles or motor-vehicles"); placing of parts;
assigned to the Stanley Automobile Company; July 23, 1901
- received a patent for a "Steam-Generating Apparatus" ("whereby
the steam after passing the throttle-valve will be additionally
heated or superheated before it reaches the steam-chest of the
engine...to such an extent that it will possess the requisite
energy"); end of 1901 - reacquired factory sold in
1899; May 1, 1902 - began manufacture of
Locomobile-type Stanley Steamer, first production steam-powered
car (10,000 between 1897-1914); founded Stanley Motor Company;
June 9, 1903 - received a patent for a "Steam
Motor-Vehicle"; arrangement of engine on axle and housing;
July 28, 1903 - received a patent for a "Steam
Generator"; burner for vaporizing fuel from steam; manufactured
Stanley Steamers until the brothers retired during World War I;
1908 - 800 Steamers produced; 1906 - set world
record for fastest mile in 28.2
seconds (127 mph); 1917 - sold their interests to
Prescott Warren; 1924 - last full year of
production, 101 cars (high price, no advertising...let the
Steamer "advertise itself", no mass
production...individually-created, no internal-combustion engine).
E. Stanley, Freelan O. Stanley - Stanley
November 3, 1900
- Automobile Club of America organized first U.S. "Horseless
Carriage Show" (automobile) at Madison Square Garden; fifty-one
exhibitors displayed 31 automobiles and various accessories.
December 22, 1900
- Daimler built new 35hp car from design by Emil Jellinke
was completed; named for Jellinek's daugher, Mercedes.
1901 - Frank
Meguiar, Jr. opened simple furniture polish laboratory and plant
in garage; made one bottle of polish at a time using an
eggbeater; made easy transition from furniture to automobiles
(made of wood, initially coated with same finishes that were
applied to furniture); Meguiar's Cleaner Wax - No.1 selling
liquid car wax in America; 1950
- Maurice, Malcolm, Kenneth (sons) took over;
July 8, 1952 -
Mirror Bright Polish Co. registered "Mirror Bright" trademark
first used in June 1923 (cleaners, polishes, and finish
preservers for use on finished surfaces for cleaning, polishing,
and preserving the finish; June 8,
1971 - Mirror Bright Polish Co. registered
"Meguiar's" trademark first used February 17, 1960 (mold release
waxes); October 3,
2008 - acquired by
3M (Automotive Aftermarket Division); one of world's leading
surface care products companies, providing highly specialized
cleaners, polishes, waxes, conditioners and protectants for
almost every conceivable type of surface.
1901 - George
Hendee, Oscar Hedstrom (maker of motorized pacing bicycle),
formed partnership, Hendee Manufacturing Company in Springfield,
MA, to manufacture "motor bicycles" (motorcycle with 1.75 bhp,
single cylinder engine); 1902
- introduced first Indian motorcycles, featured innovative
belt-drives, streamlined styling;
1903 - Hedstrom set world motorcycle speed
record (56 mph); 1912 - Indian Motocycle Company world's largest
motorcycle manufacturer; 1913
- production peaked at 32,000 units; Hedstrom left after
disagreements with Board of Directors regarding dubious
practices to inflate company's stock price;
1916 - Hendee
retired; 1930 -
merged with duPont Motors;
November 1, 1945 - controlling interest acquired
by group headed by Ralph B. Rogers;
1953 - manufacture of all products
halted; 1962 -
went into liquidation; entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using
Indian name, apparently without purchasing it from last known
legitimate trademark holder; 1970
- alleged Indian trademark acquired by Los Angeles attorney Alan
Newman; October 5, 1971
- Indian Motorcycles, Inc. registered "Indian" trademark first
used October 28,. 1968 (motorcycles);
January 1977 - declared bankruptcy;
December 1998 -
Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, CO awarded trademark to
IMCOA Licensing America Inc.; 1999
- merged with eight companies, formed Indian Motorcycle Company
of America in Gilroy, CA; July
2004 - trademarks, related intellectual property
acquired by Stellican Limited, London-based private equity firm;
July 20, 2006 -
newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company relocated to Kings
Mountain, NC; America's oldest motorcycle brand.
- Indian Motorcycles
- Indian Motorcycles
12, 1901 -
James Ward Packard received three patents: for an
"Igniting Device for Hydrocarbon-Engines"; William A. Hatcher
and James W. Packard for a "Motor-Vehicle Frame" ("of simple and
cheap construction having its parts so constructed and related
to each other that the frame will readily accommodate itself to
irregular and rough surfaces and at the same time maintain the
wheels and axels in proper running relation"); William A.
Hatcher and James W. Packard for a "Mixer and Vaporizer for
Explosive Engines" ("for effectively regulating the admission of
gas and air to the mixing-chamber"); other automotive
innovations included "H" gear-slot pattern, gas pedal.
March 25, 1901- Gottlieb Daimler
introduced Mercedes at five-day "Week of Nice" in Nice, France;
Mercedes clocked 97 mph over one-kilometer stretch.
April 25, 1901- New York became first
state to require automobile license plates; owners obliged to
register their names, addresses, description of their vehicle
with the office of the secretary of state; state sent small
license plate to each owner (at least three inches high, bore
owner's initials); $1 registration fee; generated revenues of
$954 to state.
1901 - Connecticut State General Assembly passed bill
submitted by Representative Robert Woodruff that stipulated
speed of all motor vehicles should not exceed 12mph on country
highways, eight mph within city limits; first state to enact
June 1901 -
Henry Martyn Leland (formerly of Leland and Faulconer
Manufacturing Co., maker of precision gears) developed 10.25
horsepower engine for Ransom Olds (supplied transmissions for
Olds Runabouts); rejected by Olds (didn't want to retool
manufacturing equipment); August 22, 1902 -
advised William Murphy, Lemuel W. Bowen, financial backers of
Henry Ford, to keep existing manufacturing facilities, use his
engine in new automobile (three times horsepower of Olds's
engines) = birth of Cadillac
(named after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, founder of Detroit);
Faulconer supplied engines, transmissions, steering gears;
October 17, 1902 - first prototype Cadillac
completed; March 1903 - production began; first
car produced with fully-interchangeable parts (precision
manufacturing); first car company to introduce self-starting
mechanism, electric lights, dimmable headlights; produced 2,500
by end of 1903; 1904 - Leland
general manager; October 1905
- Cadillac, Leland and Faulconer merged, formed
Cadillac Motor Car
Company; 1908 - acquired for $4.4 million
by Will Durant's General Motors Company;
- introduced Cadillac with V-8 engine (two
four-cylinder engines in V-shaped formation),
great success, standard in Cadillac until 1927; August 4,
1925 - registered "Cadillac" trademark first used in
September 30, 1901 - Compulsory
car registration for all vehicles driving over 18mph took effect
throughout France; 1910 - dividing lines appeared,
followed by traffic signs, traffic lights, one-way streets.
1902 - Henry Bourne Joy (President of
Packard Motor Car Company), Frederic Smith (Olds) formed
Manufacturer's Mutual Association (MMA), to threaten monopoly of
Electric Vehicle Company (holder of 1895 Selden patent) on
manufacture of internal combustion engine vehicles; called for
much lower royalty payments, legal and license rights to be
controlled by the MMA; 1903
- name changed to Association of Licensed Automobile
Manufacturers (ALAM) as exclusive licensee of the Selden patent;
secured favorable royalty rights from the Electric Vehicle
Company (1.25% royalty on all cars produced, 1/2 of 1% of which
went directly into ALAM legal, operating funds).
February 15, 1902 - Oldsmobile ran its
first national automobile advertisement in Saturday Evening
Post; sales rose 100 percent to 5,000 cars by 1904;
December 2, 1902 -
Olds Motor Works Corporation registered "Oldsmobile" trademark
first used in December 1900 (automobiles).
1902 - Nine auto clubs formed American Automobile
Association in Chicago to deal with concerns of motorists (vs.
those of car manufacturing, engineering); 1907 -
established bureau of touring information to supply
members with all available data on roads, hotels, service
facilities, motor vehicle laws; 1927 - foreign
travel department established in 1927 to handle steamship
tickets, shipment of members' cars; 1940 -
membership passed one million.
August 1902 - William Murphy,
Henry Leland formed Cadillac - produced 2,500 by the end of
1903; established a reputation for exacting quality under
Leland's detail-oriented supervision; November 1908
- Benjamin Briscoe made bid for Cadillac, but unable to get
enough backing to complete deal; William Durant purchased
Cadillac for cash, kept Leland on as management; said, "I want
you to continue to run Cadillac exactly as though it were still
your own. You will receive no directions from anyone."
November 4, 1902 - James W. Packard, William
Hatcher, of Warren, OH, received a patent for a Controlling
Mechanism for Motor-Vehicles" ("means whereby the vehicle may be
stopped, started, and reversed and its speed controlled by the
simple forward-and-back movement of a controlling-lever"); "H"
gear shift pattern (reverse, neutral, drive, second gear, low
operating mode of transmission).
December 2, 1902 - French engine
designer Leon-Marie-Joseph-Clement Levavasseur received French
patent for first working V-8 engine; engine block was first to
arrange eight pistons in the V-formation that allowed a
crankshaft with only four throws to be turned by eight pistons.
- William S. Harley, Arthur Davidson produced first
Harley-Davidson® motorcycle (3-1/8 inch bore and 3-1/2 inch
stroke) in 10 x 15-foot wooden shed with words "Harley-Davidson
Motor Company" crudely scrawled on door; October 19, 1920
- Harley-Davidson Motor Co. registered "Harley-Davidson"
trademark first used June 1906 (motorcycles, bicycles, side cars
and parcel cars).
1903 - William
Phelps Eno developed first city traffic code in world for New
York City, first traffic plans for New York City, London, and
Paris; 1921 -
founded Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control (credited
with developing 'stop sign'); pioneered field of traffic
management in United States, Europe; sought to promote safe
mobility by ensuring that traffic control became accepted role
of government, traffic engineering recognized professional
1903 - Jonathan
Dixon Maxwell and Benjamin Briscoe (sheet metal contractor)
founded Maxwell Briscoe Motor Co. (Tarryown, NY); 1908 - Hugh
Chalmers recruited to E.R.Thomas-Detroit Co. (founded 1905) from
National Cash Register; renamed Chalmers-Detroit (changed to
Chalmers in 1910); 1910
- Briscoe formed United Motors out of Columbia Motor Car Co.
(founded 1897 by Albert Augustus Pope to manufacture gas,
electric vehicles), Brush Motor Car Co. (founded 1907 by Frank
Briscoe, brother, and Alanson P. Brush to build one cylinder
engine, chain drive, wooden frame, wooden axles Brush Runabout),
and Maxwell Briscoe; 1912
- United Motors collapsed; 1914
- Maxwell reorganized Maxwell Briscoe into Maxwell Motors (only
firm to emerge from United Motors);
August 1920 - Walter Chrysler joined
company; 1922 -
Chalmers merged with Maxwell; development of new car to bear
Chrysler name began; Chalmers discontinued.
Jonathan Dixon Maxwell
- Maxwell Motors
February 28, 1903
- Henry Ford hired John F. and Horace E. Dodge to supply
chassis, running gear for 650 Ford automobiles;
1910 - Dodge
Brothers had become largest parts-manufacturing firm in U.S.,
manufactured car bodies for Henry Ford, Ransom Olds;
founded Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company, began work on first
May 16, 1903 -
George Wymann began first transcontinental motorcycle trip from
May 19, 1903 -
Clarence Spicer received a patent for a "Casing for Universal
Joints"; first practical universal joint to power automobile
(vs. chain-and-sprocket drives);
1904 - started manufacturing u niversal joints;
May 20, 1905 -
incorporated Spicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company in New
Jersey; 1906 -
customers included Buick, Wayne, Mack, Olds, Stevens-Duryea,
American Motor Car, Diamond T, E.R. Thomas;
November 30, 1909
- name changed to Spicer Manufacturing Company;
1914 - Charles
Dana (33, lawyer) joined company;
1916 - became president, treasurer;
April 27, 1922 -
listed on New York Stock Exchange;
1944 - employed about 10,000 people;
July 12, 1946 -
renamed Dana Holding Corporation;
1954 - record sales of $203 million;
October 14, 1974 -
broke the $1 billion in sales;
1987 - exceeded $4 billion in annual sales;
May 7, 1998 -
acquired Echlin Inc. (founded 1924), largest-ever merger of
Clarence W. Spicer
May 19, 1903 -
David Dunbar Buick, former plumbing inventor and manufacturer,
incorporated Buick Motor Co. in Detroit, MI (formed in 1902 when
Buick agreed to partnership with Briscoe Manufacturing Company
in exchange for writing off Buick's debts, establishing $100,000
capitalization for Buick's car company);
summer 1903 - began production with
Model B (37 by end of 1904);
September 11, 1903 - acquired by Flint Wagon
Works for $10,000; hired William Durant to turn business around;
kept Buick on as manager until 1908;
January 22, 1904 - Buick Motor Co. Of
Detroit dissolved; January 30,
1904 - Buick Motor Co. Of Flint incorporated;
July 27, 1904 -
Dr. Herbert Hills of Flint, MI purchased first Buick automobile
ever sold; November 1, 1904
- financial problems, acquired by William C. "Billy" Durant,
Flint's carriage "king"; 1905
- took orders for 1,000 Buicks at New York Auto Show (before
company had built 40); 1906
- Buick (52) severed his link with company;
1908 - No. 1
producer of automobiles (8,000) --surpassed combined production
of Ford and Cadillac, closest competitors (basis for founding of
General Motors); June 2, 1925 - General Motors Corporation registered
"Buick" trademark first used in January 1904 (motor-driven
- Articles of Association filed for organization of Ford Motor
Company (capital of $28,000, Ford's patents, knowledge and
John S. Gray President,
Ford Vice President; 12
Malcomson, John W. Anderson, C.H. Bennett, James Couzens, Horace
E. Dodge, John F. Dodge, Vernon C. Fry, John S. Gray, Horace H.
Rackham, Albert Strelow and Charles J. Woodall (Ford had already produced operable car
in 1899; had been described by Detroit Journals as "mechanical engineer";
planned to build cars in converted wagon factory on Mack Avenue
in Detroit); July 23, 1903 - Ford Motor Co. sold
its first car, Model A (twin-cylinder internal combustion
engine), to Detroit physician; July 20, 1909 -
registered "Ford" trademark first used February 15, 1895
(automobiles and their parts);
- went public (10.2 million shares, raised more than $600
million dollars, Goldman Sachs lead underwriter).
- original Ford stockholder
July 23, 1903 -
Ford delivered first twin-cylinder internal combustion engine
Ford Model A to Dr. Ernst Pfenning of Chicago; Model A was
result of partnership between Henry Ford, Alexander Malcolmson,
Detroit coal merchant; designed primarily by C. Harold Wills,
Ford's assistant C. Harold Wills, was affordable runabout Ford
needed to begin marketing company's stock;
November 1927 - second Model A,
released, great success; 1927-1931
- produed 4.3 million Model A Fords.
August 31, 1903 -
Packard automobile completed 52-day journey from San Francisco
to New York; first car to cross U.S. under its own power.
October 22, 1903 -
Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (ALAM) filed
suit against Ford Motor Company as an unlicensed (by ALAM)
manufacturer of internal combustion vehicles (controlled 1895
Selden patent); claimed patent applied to all gasoline-powered
automobiles; ALAM launched PR campaign, threatened to sue those
who bought Ford automobiles;
September 15, 1909 - presiding Judge Merrill
Hough of US District Court for southern district of New York
found Selden patent legitimate;
January 9, 1911 - court of appeals overturned
ruling, found in favor of Ford; ALAM did not contest ruling.
November 24, 1903
- Clyde J. Coleman, of New York City, received patent for a
"Means for Operating Motor Vehicles" ("for starting the engine
by the application of power thereto and for utilizing the power
of the engine when the engine is self-actuated for the purpose
of storing energy"); automobile electric self-starter (invented
by him in 1899, but impractical); assigned to Rockaway
Automobile Company; liense acquired by Delco Company,
subsequently acquired by General Motors Corporation;
Charles Kettering installed modified self-starter in Cadillac
cars; eliminated dangerous job of cranking engine; put women
behind wheel in greater numbers.
December 24, 1903
- England issued its first automobile license plate, number A1,
to Earl Russel, brother of philosopher Bertrand Russell.
1904 - Henry
Ford opened plant in Windsor, ON; start of Canada's car
1904 - Carl Fisher, Fred Avery (held patent for
pressing carbide gas into tanks) formed Presto-O-Lite
Corporation to manufacture car headlamps.
1904 - Rand
McNally published first automobile road map, New Automobile Road
Map of New York City & Vicinity.
January 1, 1904 - The Motor Car Act 1903
came into force in Britain; required registration of motor
vehicles with local council (1 pound for a motor car licence, 5
shillings for a motor cycle licence, vehicles were to display
registration marks in a prominent position); speed limit raised
to 20 mph (or 10 mph by Local Government Boards; intgroduced
heavy fines for speeding, reckless driving.
January 19, 1904 -
Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electrical
Automobile" ("electrical automobile in which the driving-motor
may be conveniently and effectively utilized for the purpose of
charging the batteries"); small steam engine connected to the
armature of electric motor; converted to generator for charging
the batteries when rotation of the motor-armature reversed.
May 31, 1904 -
Byron J. Carter, of Jackson, MI, received a U.S. patent for
"Transmission-Gearing"; "friction-drive" mechanism replaced
conventional transmission to provide more precise control of a
car's speed; never really caught on, proved susceptible to poor
road conditions; technology involved in the friction-drive is,
however, related to today's disc brakes.
August 27, 1904 -
Newport, Rhode Island, imposed first jail sentence for speeding
1904 - Mathias Pfatischer of Phildadelphia, PA,
received a patent for a "Variable Speed Motor" ("applicable to
direct-current shunt-wound motors...which will effect
commutation without sparking with a variable load as well as at
a variable speed and which is capable of rotation in either
- Albert Joseph Champion, Frank D. Stranahan, Spencer Stranahan
started Albert Champion Company at Cyclorama building in Boston,
MA; sold imported ignition items, manufactured magnetoes, spark
plugs; October 26, 1908
- incorporated Champion Ignition Company, in Flint, MI, with
backing of Buick Motor Co., for manufacturing of spark plugs;
Stranahans refused to sell rights to "Champion" name;
1922 - name
changed to AC Spark Plug Company;
April 28, 1931 - registered "A C" trademark
first used in 1912 (spark plugs and spark-plug porcelains);
1933 - became
division of GM.
Albert J. Champion
- A C Spark Plugs
1905 - Herbert Austin, former
manager of the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company, founded The
Austin Motor Company at Longbridge, South Birmingham, England;
first car - chain-driven 25/30HP; 1922 - Austin
Seven introduced; 1952 - merged with Nuffield
Organisation (parent company of Morris), formed British Motor
Corporation (later British Leyland) with Leonard Lord in charge.
March 1905 - John Marston (63) formed
Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited with starting capital of
£40,000; cars made at Moorfield Works, off Villiers Street in
Wolverhampton, UK; introduced 12 hp Sunbeam, powered by 2.66
litre, 4 cylinder engine (about 172 built, old for £451.10s.);
Thomas Cureton succeeded as Chairman;
1920 - merged with Darracq (built first
car in 1900), Talbot (established in 1902 as Clement-Talbot
Company, acquired by Darracq in 1919); formed S.T.D. group
(Sunbeam, Talbot, Darracq); July
1935 - acquired by Rootes Securities.
Motor Car Company Limited
January 13, 1906 - First
automobile show of the American Motor Car Manufacturers
Association (AMCMA) opened in New York City at the 69th Regiment
March 15, 1906 - Charles Stewart Rolls,
Frederick Henry Royce registered Rolls-Royce Ltd.; launched
six-cylinder Silver Ghost; hailed as 'the best car in the world'
within year (Royce had sold cars in Mayfair, London, had met
Royce in Manchester, UK in 1904).
October 22, 1906 - Henry Ford became
President of Ford Motor ompany.
1907 - Louis Chevrolet became team
driver for Buick; 1910
- Chevrolet, William Durant formed Chevrolet Motor
Company; 1914 -
formed Frontenac Motor Corp., ostensibly to produce high-class
touring cars; March 31, 1914
- Chevrolet Motor Company registered "Chevrolet" trademark first
used July 22, 1913 (automobiles, motor-vehicles, and parts
1907 - Walden W.
Shaw formed Walden W. Shaw Livery Company
(separate from Walden W. Shaw Co. he had established in 1906 to
manufacture automobiles, accessories; 33% interest in company
acquired by John D. Hertz in 1907 for $2,000; Shaw as president,
Hertz as secretary, treasurer);
September 1910 -
merged with City Motor Cab (Chicago's two largest taxicab livery
companies), reorganized as Maine Corporation, named Walden W.
Shaw Livery Co.; December 25, 1914
- introduced specially designed taxicabs;
August 1915 - formed Yellow Cab Company
to manufacture new taxis; August
2, 1915 - introduced initial fleet of 40 Yellow
Cabs (Model J) to Chicago streets;
1916 - 80 employees produced average of
1 cab per day; October, 30, 1916
- reorganized, recapitalized, incorporated in New York as Walden
W. Shaw Corporation (125 seven-passenger limousines operated by
livery subsidiary, 270 smaller type automobiles operated by
Yellow Cab Co.); first company to use automatic windshield wipers,
ultrahigh frequency two-way radios, passenger seat belts;
June 29, 1920 -
Walden W. Shaw Auto Livery Co. renamed Yellow Cab Manufacturing
Co.; 1925 - Yellow Cab
Manufacturing Co. merged with General Motors Truck Corp., formed
Yellow Truck & Coach Manufacturing Co.;
April 12, 1929 - Hertz’s interest in
Yellow Cab acquired by Charles A. McCulloch, head of Parmelee
Transfer Company (Hertz's longtime friend, business partner);
acquired by Morris Markin (Checker Cab
Manufacturing Co., founded 1919); 1996
- acquired by Patton Corrigan;
2005 - controlling interest acquired by
Michael Levine (third-generation taxicab operator from New York
Walden W. Shaw
- Yellow Cab Company
John D. Hertz
- Yellow Cab Company (http://www.hertzfoundation.org/lib/images/JohnHertz/John_Hertz.jpg)
1907 - Cavaliere Ugo Stella, aristocrat
from Milan, and French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq,
founded Darracq Italiana; partnership collapsed, company renamed
ALFA (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili);
1916 - Nicola
Romeo, Procurator General of the Banca di Sconto, took over;
1919 - took
complete control of ALFA, car production resumed;
1920 - name
changed to Alfa Romeo; 1928 - Nicola Romeo left, company went broke
after defense contracts ended;
1933 - rescued by
- ALFA Romeo
1907 - Traffic island introduced; 1911 -
dividing lines appeared; 1916 - "No Left Turn" sign debuted.
August 1907 - Edward M. Murphy, founder
of Pontiac Buggy Company (established in 1893), group of
businessmen, formed Oakland Motor Car Company on Oakland Avenue
in Pontiac MI; April 16, 1908
- first car, Model A, rolled off assembly line (first year
production of approximately 200 cars);
January 1909 - 50%
acquired by General Motors; April
1909 - acquired by William C. Durant, absorbed
into holding company, General Motors (GM); became division;
1926 - first
Pontiac, Series 6-27, debuted at New York Auto Show (almost
50,000 sold in first year); 1932 - Oakland ceased operations;
1933 - renamed
Pontiac Motor Car Company; only company to introduce offspring
car so popular it lead to its own demise.
August 8, 1907 - Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost passed
its 15,000-mile official trial (seven-liter engine, four-speed
overdrive gearbox); made "the Ghost's" reputation, gave
Rolls-Royce the name "The Best Car in the World"; total of 6,173
Silver Ghosts produced.
November 20, 1907 - McLaughlin
Motor Car Company Limited formed in Ontario with capital
of 5,000 shares valued at C$100 each; R.S. "Sam" McLaughlin as
President; signed manufacturing agreement with Billy Durant,
partner in Buick Motor Company; 1908 - turned out
154 cars, called McLaughlins, with Buick engines; Durant
personally acquired 1,000 shares in trust for Buick Company;
September 19, 1909
- Durant exchanged $500,000-worth of Buick stock for $500,000 of
McLaughlin stock, exchanged Buick stock for GM stock, GM
controlled almost half of company; 1918 - acquired by GM.
- John North Willys, successful car dealer of Overland vehicles
in Elmira, NY, bought Overland Automotive Company (founded 1903
in Terre Haute, IN as automotive division of Standard Wheel
Company; developed supply problems in 1907);
- renamed Willys-Overland Company;
- second largest carmaker in U.S.;
- produced over 140,000 cars;
- company $46 million in debt; hired Walter Chrysler for $1
million per year salary to turn company around;
- Chrysler left company to go into business for himself after
failed takeover attempt;
March 1930-May 1932
- Willys appointed U.S. Ambassador to Poland;
- bankruptcy reorganization;
1936 - emerged
from bankruptcy, renamed Willys-Overland Motors, Inc.
July 22, 1908
Charles Fisher established Fisher Body Company to manufacture
carriage and automobile bodies; quickly abandoned carriage
building to concentrate on car frames; 1910 -
supplied some car bodies to General Motors (GM); 1919
- controlling interest acquired by GM to shore up supplier for
its car bodies; July 10, 1923 - registered "Body
by Fisher" trademark first used in August 1922 (automobile
1926 - remaining 40 percent of Fisher Body acquired by
GM for $136 million; became Fisher Body Division of GM;
1944 - Fisher family relinquished control of Division;
brothers Lawrence, Edward on board of directors until 1969;
1919 - 1944 - every GM body passed approval of Fisher
man; family's impact on automotive industry second only to that
of Ford family.
1908 - Henry Ford's first Model T ("Tin Lizzie")
rolled off assembly line in Detroit; result of five years of
research and development, 20 attempts, to produce inexpensive
car for mass market; christened Model T after 20th letter in
alphabet (representing 20 attempts); affordable, reliable car
for average American; cost only $850, seated two people(low cost
due to Ford's control of all raw materials, mass production);
October 1, 1908
- went on sale; 1915 - electric
lights introduced; 1919
- electric starter introduced as an option;
1927 - production
discontinued after manufacture of nearly 15 million cars with
Model "T" engine; longest run of any single model apart from
Volkswagen Beetle (car for masses).
16, 1908 - Former carriage-maker William Crapo "Billy"
Durant (Durant-Dort Carriage Company) founded General Motors
(GM), as a holding company, incorporated with capital of
$2,000 September 29, 1908 - GM merged Buick,
Oldsmobile (Lansing, MI) into GM; added Cadillac (Detroit) for
$4.4 million cash, Oakland (Pontiac predecessor), dozens of
parts suppliers (AC Spark Plug); 1908-1910 - added
more than 30 companies to GM; 1910 - Chevrolet and
William Durant formed the Chevrolet Motor Company;
September 26, 1910 - overextended, Durant lost control
of the company; July 22, 1911 - General Motors
Truck Company (later GMC) organized; November 1911
- Chevrolet incorporated; 1912- Cadillac
introduced electric self-starter, quickly made hand crank
obsolete, propelled sales; 1915-1916 - Durant
regained control of GM, used Chevrolet profits to repurchase
stock; May 2, 1918 - General Motors (GM) acquired
Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware for about $32 million in
GM stock; Durant regained control of GM; November 8, 1918
- McLaughlin Carriage and Motor Company Limited and
Chevrolet Motor Company of Canada Limited merged, formed General
Motors of Canada Limited (President: R.S. "Sam"
McLaughlin); GM already owned 49% of company; 1920
- Durant resigned as GM president, overextended in stock market;
May 10, 1923 - Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. elected GM
president, Chairman of Executive Committee; 1929 -
GM surpassed Ford to become leading American passenger-car
manufacturer; 1941 - largest
automotive manufacturer in world;
May 29, 2009
- relinquished control of Opel, its German-based European arm
since 1929, to Magna International, large but little-known
Canadian auto-parts maker with global ambitions (acquisition
financed with German government loans, Russian bridge
1, 2009 - declared bankruptcy.
December 29, 1908 - Otto Zachow and William
Besserdich, of Clintonville, WI received a patent for a
"Power-Applying Mechanism" ("whereby the power may be applied to
front and rear axles"); four-wheel braking system, prototype of
all modern braking systems.
- Charles Kettering organized Dayton Engineering Laboratories
Company (Delco), with backing from Col. Edward A. Deeds, to work
on developments in automotive field; improved lighting and
ignition systems, lacquer finishes, antilock fuels, leaded
gasoline; May 1916
- General Motors created United Motors Corp., combination of
five parts, accessories manufacturers (Hyatt Roller Bearing, led
by Alfred P. Sloan, and Dayton Engineering Laboratories, led by
Charles F. Kettering. in exchange for $9 million);
February 26, 1924
- Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company registered "DELCO"
trademark first used in 1911 (Electrical Starting, Lighting, and
Ignition Apparatus and Parts Thereof Employed with
Internal-Combustion Engines for Use on Automobiles, Motor Boats,
Aircraft, and the Like); 1971
- United Motors ServiceÂ renamed United Delco Division;
1974 - United
Delco , AC Spark Plug sales organizations combined, formed
1909 - Ettore
manufacturing plant in Molsheim, France (had
presented first self-made automobile at
international exhibition in Milan in 1901); 1910 -
built, sold 10 automobiles, 5 aircraft engines; March 20,
1920 - delivered first 16-valve car to
customer in Basel, Switzerland; built total of 7900 cars between
- Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan ecided to make his own cars in
town of Malvern, Worcestershire, UK;
1910 - unveiled Runabout, Three-Wheeler,
one seat model at Olympia Motor Show in London;
1911 - introduced
two-seater Runabout with wheel steering, hood;
1912 - officially
formed Morgan Motor Company as private limited company, with HFS
Morgan as managing director, George Morgan (father), who had
invested considerably in son’s business, as first chairman;
1913 - won
International Cyclecar Grand Prix at Amiens in France;
registered fastest average speed of 22 mph at celebrated
Shelsley Walsh Hill Climb; 1921
- introduced four-seater family ‘Runabout’;
1933 - launched
Morgan F-4 at Olympia Motor Show;
1936 - exhibited first four-wheel car, 4-4
sports car (four wheels, four cylinders) at London, Paris;
1950 - launched
Morgan Plus 4; 1959
- Peter Morgan (son) took over;
1968 - launched Morgan Plus 8 (one of most
successful cars for company, produced for 36 years);
2000 - introduced
Aero 8, first new Morgan design since 1948, first Morgan vehicle
with aluminium chassis, frame (vs. traditional aluminium skinned
wooden body tub on steel chassis);
2011 - reintroduced Threewheeler at
Geneva motor show (80bhp S&S 1983cc V-twin engine, capable of
close to 115 mph); 2013
- Charles Morgan (grandson), former chairman, dismissed.
Henry F. S. Morgan
- Morgan Motor Company
January 15, 1909 -
H. D. Ludlow, Chicago funeral director, used motorized hearse
for first time in funeral procession; stately horse-drawn
hearses had been in use for centuries.
February 9, 1909 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Corporation (private closed course in American tradition of
oval-track racing) incorporated with Carl G. Fisher as
president; August 19, 1909 - first race; built new
track of brick, cheapest and most durable appropriate surface
available to him (Speedway later called "the Brickyard");
1912 - total prize money available at grueling Indy 500
was $50,000, highest paying sporting event in world; 1945
- track acquired by Tony Hulman for $750,000; May 1946
- American Automobile Association ran its first postwar Indy
500, preserved American tradition; largest single-day sporting
event in world.
1909 - Joseph L. Hudson, Detroit department
store entrepreneur, Howard E. Coffin incorporated Hudson Motor
Car Company in Detroit, MI; July
3, 1909 - began production with Model 20;
company had several 'firsts' for auto industry: self starter,
dual brakes, first balanced crankshaft (allowed the Hudson
straight-6 engine to work at higher rotational speed while
remaining smooth, developed more power than lower-revving
engines); 1929 -
peak production year (300,000 cars produced), third in the
industry behind Ford and Chevrolet;
1951 - introduced Hornet, became
dominant force on NASCAR circuit (won 29 of 34 events in 1952); January
14, 1954 - merged with Nash Motors, became
American Motors; 1957
- name discontinued.
Joseph L. Hudson
- Hudson Motor Car Co.
June 27, 1909 - Mercedes Benz introduced
three-pointed star symbol.
July 16, 1909 -
August Horch established Horch Automobil-Werke GmbH
in Zwickau, Germany (had founded
A. Horch & Cie in Ehrenfeld,
Cologne, Germany on November 14, 1899, built first car in 1901); changed company name due to legal dispute over Horch trademark;
August 25, 1910 - renamed company Audi
Automobilwerke GmbH (Audi - Latin translation of Horch);
August 1928 - Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen of
DKW acquired majority holding in Audiwerke; June 29, 1932
- Audiwerke, Horchwerke, Zschopauer Motorenwerke - DKW,
Automobile Division of Wanderer merged, formed Auto Union AG
(second-largest motor vehicle manufacturer in Germany); new
company's logo, four interlinked rings, one for each of founder
companies; Horch was on supervisory board of Auto Union;
December 13, 1960
- Auto Union G.M.B.H. registered "Audi" trademark in U. S.
(Automobiles, Including Motor Cars for Personal Use and Trucks,
and Structural Parts Thereof, Including Automobile Heaters and
Ventilators, Locks and Closures for Automobile Coolers, and
Automobile Safety Locks).
- founder Audi
July 29, 1909
- Buick Motor Company acquired Cadillac Motor Company (formed by
William Murphy, Henry Leland in 1902) on behalf of General
Motors for $4.5 million;
September 15, 1909 - New York
judge ruled that Henry Ford had infringed on George Selden's
1895 patent for a "Road Engine"; decision later overturned when
it became plain that Selden had never intended to actually
manufacture his "road engine." Selden's own "road engine"
prototype, built in the hope of strengthening his case, only
managed to stagger along for a few hours before breaking down.
1910 - William Morris, bicycle
manufacturer, founded Morris Motor Company (MMC); 1913
- opened factory Cowley, Oxford, UK; produced first cars,
two-seater Oxford model; 1920s - Oxford, Cowley
models became best selling cars in UK; 1924 -
overtook Ford, became UK's biggest car manufacturer (51%
share of home market); 1927 - acquired Wolseley
Motor Company, 1929 - Morris Minor introduced to
compete with Austin Seven; powered by an 847cc OHC engine;
August 22, 1933 -
M. G. Car Company Ltimited registered "MG" trademark first used
May 1, 1924 [automobiles and structural parts thereof]
structural parts of automobiles;
1935 - launched popular 918cc Morris Eight (more than
250,000 sold); 1938 - William Morris became
Viscount Nuffield; merged MCC and MG with newly acquired Riley,
formed Nuffield Organisation; 1948 - Morris Minor
re-engineered; first BMC car to sell more than a million;
1952 - Nuffield Organisation (Morris, MG, Riley,
Wolseley) merged with rival Austin Motor Company, formed British
Motor Corporation (BMC); Austin's Leonard Lord in charge,
dominated organization; 1960s - employed
250,000 people, Longbridge factory one of biggest in world;
April 8, 2005 - collapsed under debts of $1.7
billion, loss of more than 5,000 jobs; July 22, 2005
- MG Rover Group acquired by Nanjing Automobile for $97 million;
March 27, 2007 - revived MG brand, began
production of MG sports cars.
1910 - "Anonima
Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", A.L.F.A., founded, under direction of Cavalier Ugo Stella.
Pierce-Arrow introduced Touring Landau at Madison Square
Garden; first recreational vehicle - back seat folded into bed,
chamber pot toilet, sink folded down from back of seat of
chauffeur (connected to passengers via telephone); Los Angeles
Trailer Works and Auto-Kamp Trailers launched camping trailers,
1967 - Winnebago
Industries began mass-producing "America’s first family of motor
homes" (five models from 16 to 27 feet long, from $5,000);
2005 - University
of Michigan study estimated RV owners traveled for 26 days,
averaged 4,500 miles annually;
2010 - about 8.2 million households owned RVs
(source: Recreational Vehicle Industry Association); 60% of RVs
manufactured in United States originated in Elkhart, IN.
manager of Albert
Champion Company in Boston, MA in 1909 -
production less than 50,000; [Albert Champion left company in
late 1908, moved to Flint, MI, started Champion Ignition
Company, later renamed A-C Spark Plugs]),
Frank D. Stranahan
(former treasurer of Albert Champion Company)
incorporated Champion Spark Plug Company ($22,000 in debt,
manufacturing equipment in two boxes) in Toledo, OH (in
accordance with manufacturing contract with Willys-Overland
Company - second largest producer of automobiles in United
States, behind Ford Motor Company, from 1912-1918);
July 18, 1911 - James D. Robertson, of
Toledo, OH, received a patent for a "Terminal Clamp";
assigned to Champion Spark Plug Company; company's first patent;
1912 - supplied reliable spark
plugs for 75% of American cars;
August 12, 1913 - registered "Champion" trademark
first used in April 1907 (spark plugs);
1964 - sales of $124 million; 1989 - acquired
for $600 million by Dana Corporation.
Robert A. Stranahan
- Champion Spark Plug
September 26, 1910
- William C. Durant, founder of General Motors (GM), lost
control of company due to financial difficulties; joined forces
with Louis Chevrolet to establish Chevrolet Motor Company; five
years later reacquired control of GM, served as president;
1920 - lost permanent control of GM.
November 1910 -
Henry Frederick Stanley (H.F.S) Morgan began manufacture of
automobiles with capital for some machine tools, extension to
Malvern Garage (Warwickshire, UK) provided by his father (had
opened garage and motor works in Malvern Link in 1906 at age 25;
ran successful bus service, built single-seat, 7 hp
twin-cylinder Peugeot engine 3-wheeler, Morgan Runabout, with
rigid frame, independent front-wheel suspension and light
weight, in 1909); August 17, 1911
- received design patent for "Improvements in the Design and
Construction of Tri-cars or other Light Automobile Vehicles";
1911 - Morgan made
first public appearance at Olympia Motor Show;
1912 - Morgan
Motor Company formed as private Limited Company with Reverend
H.G. Morgan as Chairman, H. F. S. Morgan (son) as Managing
Director; showed several two-seaters at Olympia;
1915 - built four-
seater model (later marketed as Family Runabout);
1931 - introduced
model with three speeds and reverse, one chain, detachable
wheels; 1936 -
introduced 4/4, four wheeled car, four cylinders, four wheels;
July 29, 1952 -
produced last 3-wheeler, Ford-engined "F"-Super;
1968 - introduced
Morgan Plus 8, with 3.5 liter V8 Rover engine (original design
of engine made by Buick) with gearbox mounted into same basic
chassis as Plus 4 and 4/4 models;
2000 - launched Aero 8 (BMW 4.4 litre quad cam
V8, aluminium honeycomb construction techniques);
2004 - Plus 8
model ceased production (non-availability of suitable engines).
- Morgan Motor Company
November 29, 1910 - Ernest E.
Sirrine, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for a "Street Traffic
System"; first patent issued for traffic signal design.
January 9, 1911
- United States Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Ford
Motor Company was not infringing on George Selden's
internal-combustion automobile patent; beginning of end for
Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (A.L.A.M.),
organized to gather royalties on Selden patent from all auto
makers, and Selden's royalties.
February 6, 1911
- Rolls-Royce adopted "Spirit of Ecstasy" mascot, silver-winged
hood ornament that has become the company's symbol.
17, 1911 - Charles F. Kettering delivered first
operating self-starting mechanism to Cadillac; installed in
t1912 Cadillac; relied on storage battery that supplied
24-volt charge to starter to ignite engine, battery then
switched to six volts to feed back into battery, recharge it
(received patent in 1915); gave women access to cars for first
time, broadened market for automobile
March 15, 1911 -
Gustave Otto, son of internal combustion engine pioneer Nikolaus
Otto, organized Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik Muchen,
Munich-based aero-engineering firm; March 7, 1916
- merged with Karl Rapp, licensed manufacturer of
Austro-Daimler airplane engines; formed Bayerische Flugzeugwerke
AG (Bavarian Aircraft Works) or BFW; 1922 -
acquired by Franz-Josef Popp and Max Friz; merged with BFW to
form Bayerische Motoren Werke AG or BMW; 1923 -
built first motorcycle.
- BMW (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/
1911 - Thomas H. Flaherty, of Pittsburgh, PA, received a
patent for a "Signal for Crossing" ("particularly at the
crossings of street car tracks, at the intersection of two or
more streets"); first U. S. patent application for a traffic
May 30, 1911
- First Indianapolis 500 auto race run; Ray Harroun won 200 lap
race in Marmon Wasp after 6 hours, 42 minutes, 8 seconds,
average speed of 74.59 miles per hour.
- General Motors
organized General Motors Truck Company later GMC) to handle
sales of GM's Rapid and Reliance produts.
1911 - Louis
Chevrolet, William Little, Edwin Cambell (William Durant's
son-in-law) incorporated Chevrolet Motor Company of Michigan to
compete with Ford Model T;
first used "bowtie" logo.
(standing without hat), William C. Durant
(standing with derby hat) -
first Chevrolet in 1912
1912 - Masujiro Hashimoto
founded Kwaishinsha Motor Car Company, produced experimental
automobile called DAT in honor of three financial backers ("D"
was for Kenjoro Den who
helped organize the original company;
"A" was for Rokuro
Aoyama, childhood friend,
"T" was for Meitaro Takeuchi, cousin of a former prime minister
who helped arrange financing; roughly translated means
"hare", "fast rabbit", or "very fast"); 1917 -
company restructured due to financial difficulties; taken over
by its sales agency, renamed Dat Motor Vehicle Co.
- merged with Jitsuyo
Jidosha Seizo ('Practical Automobile Company'), formed Dat
Automobile Manufacturing Co. of Osaka; concentrated on building
1930 - company reorganized, renamed DATSON ("the son
of DAT"); spelling later changed to DATSUN; 1931 -
assets and shares of the DAT Jidosha Seizo company acquired by
THE TOBATA IMONO COMPANY (foundry company owned by Yoshisuke
Ayukawa, founder of NISSAN conglomerate in 1928); operated as
division; 1933 - separated from parent company,
established as independent company named Jidosha Seizo Kabushiki
Kaisha; May 1934 - name of independent auto
company changed to NISSAN MOTOR COMPANY LIMITED; 1935
- NISSAN exported first automobiles to Australia; 1944
- renamed Nissan Heavy
Industries (held until 1949); 1958 - entered U.S.
market (sold 83 cars); September 28, 1960 - Nissan
Motor Corp U.S.A. formed in Gardena, CA; 1968 -
introduced 510 (made Nissan, or Datsun, name in US, many other
nations; balance of engineering, styling, cost);
October 1969 - production started on Datsun 240 Z;
September 8, 1986 - Nissan opened plant in
Sunderland, England, first Japanese automobile factory in
1912 - William E. Stephens, of Chicago. IL,
received a patent for an "Automobile Horn"; multiple-pipe horn
powered by engine exhaust that played chord like a church organ;
assigned to Aeromore Manufacturing Company.
July 22, 1912 - Edward G. Budd
formed Edward G. Budd Mfg. Co.in Philadelphia, with $75,000 of
his own savings, $15,000 from family friend named A. Robinson
McIlvaine, $10,000 from another friend, J.S. Williams; Budd as
president, McIlvaine, secretary; first product - all-metal truck
body for Philadelphia coal distributor; 1913 -
built truck bodies for Packard, Peerless, fenders for Cadillac,
Franklin, Jeffery, Willys-Overland, stamped panels and interior
trim for Cincinnati Car Co., Pullman Mfg. Co.; revenue totaled
$574,000 (vs. $6,000 in 1912); June 22, 1915 -
Joseph Lewinka, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an
"Automobile-Body"; design, construction of welded all-steel
touring-car body; assigned to Edward G. Budd Mfg. Co. (Budd's
most valuable patent); 1916 - formed Budd Wheel
Corp. to produce wire wheels for auto industry (John North
Willys principal investor); 1923 - planned
Citroën’s new all-metal body manufacturing facility, signed
royalty agreement; 1924 - signed royalty agreement
with MG; built most of Ford's new line of factory commercial
Model T and TT bodies; 1932 - helped develop third
revolutionary unit-bodied vehicle (Chrysler Imperial Airflow CW,
Chrysler's first unit-bodied car); largest customer; 1934
- introduced stainless-steel clad train, three-car "Zephyr",
first stainless steel train in America, weighed same as single
Pullman Car; 1941 - 20,000 employees; 1946
- Edward G. Budd Jr., became president; Budd Wheel Co., Edward
G. Budd Mfg Co., merged into Budd Co.; 1967 -
introduced automotive disc brakes on Chrysler and Imperial;
1978 - acquired by Thyssen AG of Germany, withdrew
from non-automotive businesses; 1999 - Thyssen AG
merged with Krupp AG, formed Thyssen Krupp Automotive AG, one of
largest automotive suppliers in world with revenues approaching
Edward G. Budd
- Budd Company
September 12, 1912 - Carl G.
James A. Allison.
co-founder of Indianapolis Speedway, announced plan for
America's first transcontinental highway, Coast-to-Coast Rock
Highway, 3,000 of graveled road from New York to San Francisco,
to be finished in time for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in
San Francisco, at a cost of $10,000,000, collected from
private sources; failure to win Henry Ford's support for project
jeopardized fund-raising efforts; Henry Joy, president of
Packard, supported highway project, proposed naming road after
Abraham Lincoln (would garner $1.7 million in federal funds for
1912 - Giovanni Bertone (28) opened workshop in
Turin, Italy; specialised in construction, repair of horse-drawn
carriages (three workers); 1920
- opened new offices (20 employees);
1920s - formed partnerships with Fiat
and Lancia; 1933 -
Nuccio (son, 19) joined company;
1952 - orders from MG and Bristol;
1957 - produced
NSU Sport Prinz; 1959
- 550 employees; 1960s
- began work on Simca 1000 Coup, BMW 3200 CS limited series;
1965 - Fiat 850
Spider launched (140,000 produced between 1965-1972);
end of 1960s -
began partnership with Ferruccio Lamborghini;
1970 - 1500
employees; 1976 -
began working for Volvo; 1987
- commercial agreement with General Motors Europe for production
of Opel Kadett Cabrio; 1994
- first manufacturer in Italy awarded ISO 9001 quality
- filed for bankruptcy protection; August 6, 2009
- won bid to take over bankrupt Italian car company Bertone (to
design cars for Chrysler).
- Robert Bamford, Lionel Martin founded Bamford and Martin
Limited in London; 1914
- Aston Martin name created after racing success at Aston Hill
Climb; 1915 -
first Aston Martin registered;
1926 - Aston Martin Motors Limited formed in
Feltham, UK; 1937
- built 140 cars, highest pre-war production;
1947 - acquired by
David Brown; 1964
- Aston Martin DB5 appeared in "Goldfinger";
December 12, 1967
- Aston Martin Lagonda Limited registered "Aston Martin"
trademark (automobiles and parts thereof);
1981 - acquired by
Victor Gauntlett, Pace Petroleum;
1983 - Gauntlett backed by Livanos (shipping)
family; 1987 - 75%
control acquired by Ford; 1994
- Ford acquired 100% control; 2003
- built 7,000th DB7; 2006
- sold 7,000 cars; 2007
- controlling interest aquired by group of investors (David
Richards, John Sinders, Investment Dar, Adeem Investment Co.)
for $848 million.
Lionel Martin, Robert Bamford
- co-founders Aston Martin
David Brown -
1913 - World's first 'hardtop' (closed
production) car introduced: Hudson Motor Car Company's Model 54
sedan; (earlier automobiles had open cabs or convertible roofs).
January 16, 1913 - Frank Duryea introduced
first closed car for four passengers at Stanley Motor Show.
July 1, 1913 -
Carl Fisher, President of Prest-o-lite, formed Lincoln Highway
Association with headquarters in Detroit, MI (Henry Joy,
President of Packard Motor Cars, came up with the idea of naming
the highway after Abraham Lincoln) to build coast-to-coast paved
road; envisioned improved, hard-surfaced road that would stretch
almost 3400 miles from coast to coast, New York to San
Francisco, over shortest practical route; promoted road using
private, corporate donations; Henry Joy elected as president.
Carl Fisher elected vice-president;
September 10, 1913 - Lincoln Highway
opened; first paved coast-to-coast road in U.S.;
October 31, 1913 -
Lincoln Highway dedicated; March
1925 - American Association of State Highway
Officials (AASHO) started planning a federal highway system;
1927 - association
August 23, 1913
- Automobiles legally allowed to enter Yosemite National Park,
California, for first time; marked huge change in national park
October 7, 1913
- Ford introduced continuously moving assembly line to assemble
chassis (automobile's frame) in Highland Park automobile
factory; assembly divided into 29 operations performed by 29 men
spaced along moving belt, cut man-hours to complete one "Model
T" from 12 1/2 hours to six (reduced to 93 man-minutes in a
year; eventually, one Model T produced every 24 seconds);
drastically reduce the cost of the Model T, made car affordable
to ordinary consumers;
December 1, 1913 - assembly line
delivered car every 2-minutes, 38-seconds; three subassemblies
(magnetos, motors, transmissions) on moving lines using conveyor
belts produced subassemblies faster than main production line
could take them; moving chassis line replaced "push" assembly
line; Ford Motor Co. became world's largest car manufacturer;
1916 - price of Model T fell to $360, sales more than
triple 1912 level.
John and Horace Dodge
founded Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company;
November 14, 1914
- completed first
Dodge vehicle, known as "Old Betsy"; test drove it, shipped to buyer in Tennessee
(began their business
career in 1897 as bicycle manufacturers; entered
automotive industry in 1901 as auto parts manufacturers (largest
parts-manufacturing firm in United States by 1910); awarded 25
dealerships to sell $785 Dodge cars;
- fourth-largest automobile manufacturer in U. S.; 1919 - Dodge brothers among richest men
in America; 1920 - John died from respiratory
problems, Horace died from pneumonia;
1925 - acquired from Dodge widows by
Dillon Read & Company for $146 million; May 28, 1928 -
acquired by Chrysler Corporation for $170 million.
5, 1914 - Henry Ford introduced 'social justice' plan of
profit sharing, minimum wage, 8-hour work day: 1) $10,000,000 of
company's 1914 profits given to company's employees, payments
made semi-monthly, added to pay checks; 2) factory (able to
produce 2,000 autos a day) ran continuously instead of only
eighteen hours a day, gave employment to several thousand more
men by employing three shifts of eight hours each, instead of
two nine-hour shifts; minimum wage scale of $5 per day
established (even for boy who swept floors); no employee
discharged except for proved unfaithfulness, inefficiency; about
26,000 employees affected.
January 14, 1914 - Henry Ford announced newest
advance in assembly line production of 'modern' cars, continuous
motion method; reduced assembly time per car from over 12 hours
to 93 minutes.
August 5, 1914
ceremony held for first electric traffic lights, used to control
flow of different streams of traffic, at intersection of
Euclid Ave. and E. 105th St. in Cleveland, OH; signals were red
and green lights on street-corner poles, wired to manually
operated switch housed inside control booth beside road;
switch design prevented conflicting signals; bell warned drivers
of color change; American Traffic Signal Co. installation
modeled after traffic control system developed by James B. Hoge
of Cleveland (September 22, 1913 - applied for patent, received
on January 1, 1918).
December 14, 1914 - Alfieri Maserati rented
garage on Via de Pepoli in Bologna; started Società Anonima
Officine Alfieri Maserati; brothers Carlo, Bindo, Alfieri,
Mario, Ettore, Ernesto became involved in engineering;
1933 - first European manufactory to introduce hydraulic
brakes on race cars; 1937 - taken over by Orsi
family; 1968 - acquired by Citroën; August
8, 1975 - acquired by Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI;
1998 - Ferrari acquired control.
1915 - Stop
sign originated in Detroit, MI (black letters on white
- American Association of Highway Officials standardized stop
sign; devised unique octagonal shape to alert drivers to stop;
1924 - National
Conference on Street and Highway Safety changed sign color to
black on yellow (mounted two or three feet above ground;
1935 - Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices published (MUTCD, 166 pages,
recommended black letters on yellow background);
1954 - sign color
changed to white on red (similar to railroad signs);
1935-1971 - MUTCD
stop sign altered eight times (mounting height,
- modern US stop sign, white on red, mounted 2.1 meters (7 ft)
above ground, 30" long with a 3/4" white line around edge,
passed into law.
August 17, 1915
- Charles F. Kettering, of Dayton, OH, received a patent for an
"Engine-Starting Device"; electric automobile self-starter
(assigned to Dayton Engineering Laboratories, Inc. - Delco);
Cadillac first car to use it; February 8, 1916 -
received a patent for an "Engine Starting, Lighting, and
Ignition System"; assigned to Delco.
December 1, 1915
- John D. Hertz founded original Yellow Cab taxicab service in
Chicago; color (and name) yellow selected as result of survey by
University of Chicago which indicated it was easiest color
to spot; 1929 - acquired by Checker Cab Co.; Hertz
left to found rental car company, Hertz Rent-a-Car (still uses
December 10, 1915
- Ford produced 1,000,000th Model T.
March 7, 1916
- Manufacturing firms of Karl Rapp (Rapp-Motorenwerke) and
Gustav Otto (Otto-Werke) merged, formed Bayerische
Flugzeug-Werke AG (BFW, Bavarian Aircraft Works); July 21,
1917 - Rapp-Motorenwerke renamed Bayerische Motoren
Werke GmbH (Bavarian Motor Works or BMW); August 13, 1918
- converted to stock corporation (one-third financing from
Camillo Castiglioni (Austrian financier, banker); Franz
Josef Popp named General Manager); 1922 - sold
engine production operations, BMW name to
Flugzeug-Werke, moved to BFW site; 1923 - built
first motorcycle (BMW R12, first to have telescopic hydraulic
front fork); 1929 - built ifirst car, Dixi;
1936 - Flugmotorenfabrik Eisenach GmbH established;
1939 - BMW incorporated into name; 1945 - lost
control of assets (until 1949); 1948 - BMW R24
motorcycle first post-war product (18% exported by 1950);
1951 - completed first postwar car, 501; December
9, 1959 -
head of battery manufacturer Accumulatorenfabrik AG (AFA), later
named Varta AG, 30% owner (acquired
by his father, Gunther Quandt), rejected acquisition overture
of Daimler-Benz, increased share ownership to 50%;
- restructured company; 1961 - introduced 1500
model, first sporty family sedan, in Frankfurt (4-door sedan,
4-cylinder engine, independent suspension, MacPherson
struts at front, semi-trailing arms at rear, traditional
grilles); 1969 -Eberhard von Künheim (40) named
managing director; transformed
BMW into premium
Gustav Otto, Franz-Josef Popp, Karl Rapp
- BMW (http://www.usautoparts.net/
(center) - BMW
May 11, 1916
- Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds (formerly of National Cash
Register Company where Kettering invented motor that made the
electric cash register possible) agreed to sell Dayton
Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco)
for $9 million
to the United Motors Corporation, a holding company of what
would become some of GM's most vital parts suppliers, founded by
William C. Durant in his attempt to regain control of General
Motors (GM). Delco began manufacturing in order to meet the
demand for the self-starter that Kettering invented for Durant's
Cadillac Corporation (sold self-starters to anyone who ordered
July 11, 1916 - President
Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Aid Road Act, the first
grant-in-aid enacted by Congress to help states build roads;
included the stipulation that all states have a highway agency
staffed by professional engineers who would administer the
federal funds as they saw fit. The bill on offer leaned in the
favor of the rural populations by focusing on rural postal roads
rather than interstate highways; cornerstone for U.S. highway
system, precedent for all highway legislation to come; source of
rural road improvement, helped rural Americans participate more
efficiently in the national economy; 1907 - legal
issue of the federal government's role in road-building was
settled in the Supreme Court case Wilson vs. Shaw. Justice David
Brewer wrote that the federal government could "construct
interstate highways" because of their constitutional right to
regulate interstate commerce.
August 1916 - Charles W. Nash, former
General Manager of Buick and President of General Motors, bought
Jeffery-Rambler Motor Company;
1917 - re-incorporated company as Nash Motors;
one of few, profitable independent automobile manufacturers to
compete successfully; became foundation for American Motors
Corporation; January 4, 1937
- Nash Motors merged with Kelvinator Corporation (manufacturer
of high-end refrigerators and kitchen appliances); new company
named Nash-Kelvinator Corporation (George W. Mason, President).
Charles W. Nash
- Nash Motors
W. Mason -
June 1, 1917 - Henry Leland, founder of
Cadillac Motor Car Company, resigned as Cadillac president,
started Lincoln Motor Car Company with his son; won first
contract to manufacture Liberty engines for war effort; worked
closely with British, French, American engineers to design
high-production, high-powered twelve-cylinder airplane engine;
by war's end, had manufactured more Liberty engines than any
other single company; February 4,
1922 - acquired from Henry Martyn Leland by Ford
Motor Company for $8,000,000; Henry Ford's son, Edsel, named
president; July 17, 1923
- Lincoln Motor Company registered "Lincoln" trademark first
used August 3, 1920 (motorcars).
- Les Kelley (21) leased part of lot from another car dealer in
Los Angeles, started Kelley Kar Company with three Model T Fords
for sale; became largest dealership in world;
early 1920s -
distributed to other dealers, banks a list of automobiles he
wished to buy, prices he was willing to pay; spawned need to
place value on used, new cars;
1926 - expanded list of automobile values, published first Blue Book of Motor Car Values
(named after Social Register, meant valuable information
inside); showed factory list price, cash value on thousands of
vehicles (Cadillacs, Duesenbergs, Pierce-Arrows, Hupmobiles);
became authoritative source for car values;
1962 - exited car
business, published Blue Book as "trade" publication (sold only
to businesses involved in automotive industry - car dealers,
financial institutions, insurance companies); first publication
to show effect of high or low mileage on car's value;
December 9, 1980 -
Kelley Blue Book Partnership registered "Kelley Blue Book"
trademark first used November 1, 1954 (Booklets in the Nature of
Price Lists for Used Cars, New Cars, Mobile Homes, and
- began publishing other value guides; industry's leading
provider of pricing services; 1993
- published Consumer Edition of Blue Book (15 years of used car
values on more than 10,000 models of cars, trucks, vans);
1995 - launched
Kelley - Kelley Blue Book
January 1918 - Sakichi Toyoda
founded Toyota Spring and Weaving Co., Ltd.; November 1926
- established Toyota Automatic Loom works LTD; August 1937
- Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. founded as division; August 1957
- Toyota Crown first car exported to U.S.A.; October 1957
- established Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A Inc.
January 1, 1918 - James B. Hoge,
of Cleveland, OH, received a patent for a "Municipal
Traffic-Control System" ("relates to municipal signalling, and
has for its object the provision of a complete system of
communicating with and controlling fire and police agencies and
also the traffic through public streets and roads.
February 5, 1918 - Thomas A. Edison
received a patent for a "Starting and Current-Supplying System
1918 - General Motors (GM) acquired Chevrolet
Motor Company of Delaware for about $32 million in GM stock.
May 15, 1918 -
Nantucket Island voted to lift controversial 12-year ban on
August 9, 1918
- U. S. government ordered automobile production to halt by
January 1, 1919, convert to military production; factories
manufactured shells; engineering lessons of motor racing
produced light, powerful engines for planes; manufacturers
turned out staff cars, ambulances by hundreds; World War I
- described as war of machines.
1919 - William Rootes founded car sales
company with sons, William and Reginald;
1928 - largest distributor in England;
began manufacturing; acquired Humber, Hillman, Commer companies;
1936 - first
company to enter Government's Shadow Factory Scheme for volume
manufacture of aeroplanes, sero engines;
1964 - 30% interest in company acquired
by Chrysler; 1967
- balance acquired.
1, 1919 - Edsel Ford (son) succeeded Henry Ford
as president of Ford Motor Company; announced company would
increase minimum wage to $6.00 per day.
February 3, 1919 -
Clessie Lyle Cummins incorporated Cummins Engine.
February 25, 1919
- Oregon became first state to impose 1% tax on gasoline; funds
used for road construction, maintenance.
March 29, 1919 -
Hans Ledwinka completed first Tatra vehicle, TL4 truck (division
of newly named Koprivnicka Wagenbau of
Czechoslovakia); named for Tatra High Mountains in Carpathian Mountain Range; 1923
- offered first official Tatra automobile, Tatra T11, affordable "people's car"; 1934
- Tatra 77 introduced, world's first aerodynamically styled
automobile powered by rear-mounted air-cooled engine.
July 9, 1919 -
Ford Motor Company reorganized as Delaware corporation with
Edsel Ford as company president; step in Henry Ford's drive to
gain 100% of company's stock for his family; borrowed
heavily to buy out minority shareholders;
1923 - Ford 60% of domestic car market.roads").
Walter Owen Bentley created 3-litre engine
at service shop in New Street Mews in London, UK; 1920 -
introduced first complete Bentley, hand-built EXP1 prototype
(powered by new 3-litre engine); September 21, 1921
Noel van Raalte, wealthy and influential playboy,
first Bentley; November
1931 - acquired by Rolls-Royce;
May 21, 1957 - Bentley Motors Limited
registered "Bentley" trademark first used in 1919 (internal
combustion engines and parts therof).
Walter Owen Bentley
- Bentley Motors
October 5, 1919
- Enzo Ferrari (21) made racing debut; finished 11th in Parmo-Poggia di Berceto hill climb in Costruzioni Meccaniche
Nazionali (CMN) vehicle; 1920 - moved to
Alfa Romeo; November 16, 1929 - founded Scuderia Ferrari
begun as racing club, took over race-engineering division at
Alpha Romeo in 1933); November 1939 - Alpha
took back control of its racing division from Ferrari for
financial reasons; 1940 - transformed Scuderia into independent manufacturing company, Auto Avio Costruzioni
Ferrari; March 2, 1947 - introduced Ferrari 125S to racing
world, won prestigious Coppa Enrico Faini;
- Ferrari's 166 won 24
Hours at Le Mans, Europe's most famous car race;
40 years - Ferrari vehicles earned 25 world titles, won over 5,000
events at race tracks around world;
December 31, 1968 - Ferrari S.P.A.
registered "Ferrari" trademark first used November 14, 1965
October 18, 1919
- Rolls-Royce America, Inc. established.
1920 - Frederick S. Duesenberg
and his brother Augie created Duesenberg Automobile and Motors
Company in order to release Duesenberg Model A,
first car equipped with both straight-eight, hydraulic
front-wheel brakes; car did not sell; 1924 -
company failed; rescued by financier E.L. Cord, acquired, financed Duesenberg Motors while allowing brothers to
continue their work; 1937 - Cord's business
collapsed, Duesenberg Company disappeared.
January 26, 1920
- Lincoln Motor Car Company was founded;
February 4, 1922 –
acquired by Ford Motor Companyfor $8 million; Edsel Ford (Henry
Ford's son) named president of Lincoln; diversification seen as
desirable marketing strategy.
January 30, 1920
of investors took over failing Abemaki tree cork company;
renamed Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd., founded in Hiroshima, Japan;
1921 - Jujiro Matsuda named president; 1927
- renamed Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.; 1931 - began
production of three-wheel trucks,
Mazdago; 1951 - Tsuneji
Matsuda took over as president; 1960 - introduced
Mazda R360 Coupe, first Mazda 2-door passenger car;
November 1, 1960 -
registered "Mazda" trademark (land
vehicles - namely busses, passenger cars [motorcycles,
motorscooters,] trucks [trailers,] and component parts thereof,
except lamps, signals, and similar lighting equipment for land
- Kouhei Matsuda became president; 1979 - 25%
equity interest acquired by Ford; 1984 - renamed
as Mazda Motor Corporation; 1986 - cumulative
total exports reached 10 million units; 1988 -
established Mazda Motor of America Inc. to consolidate
importation, distribution functions in U.S.; 1990
- cumulative production reached 25 million units.
March 25, 1920
- Walter P. Chrysler resigned as executive vice president in
charge of automotive operations for General Motors (GM) due to
William Durant's micromanagement style (Buick President Charles
Nash had offered position in Flint, MI to Chrysler in 1912 while
employed by American Locomotive Company; had revolutionized
company's mass production capabilities; William Durant had
forced Nash out in 1916, had offered Buick presidency to
Chrysler at $500,000/ year [had previously made $25,000 /year];
had initiated GM's purchase of Fisher Body Plant).
May 4, 1920 -
Harry A. Miller, of Los Angeles, CA, received a design patent
for a "Design for an Automobile"; race car design (many features
incorporated into race cars in following decades: aluminum
pistons and engine blocks, off-beat carburetors, inter-cooled
superchargers, front-wheel drive; first man to concentrate
exclusively on building race cars for sale;
Miller 91 -
ultimate achievement; built for the 1926 Indy 500 (produced a
minimum of 230hp at 7,000rpm, could be boosted to 300hp at
8,500rpm, 3.3hp per cubic inch vs. today's super-charged Indy
cars, which produce 4.5hp per cubic inch.
- William Morris opened Morris Garages (MG) in Oxford, UK;
1922 - made Cecil
Kimber (33) sales manager;
March 1924 - first MG car proper built (based on
a Morris Oxford chassis, sports tourer with four seats; also
door saloon model);
1930 - MG Car Company Ltd. officially
- acquired by Morris Motors Ltd.
1921 - Morris Markin absorbed
Commonwealth Motor Company into Markin Autobody Company (Joliet,
IL), discontinued all passenger-car manufacturing;
February 2, 1922 - established Checker Cab Manufacturing
Company; moved to Kalamazoo, MI; took over factories previously
used by Handley-Knight and Dort automobile companies;
June 18, 1923 - produced first Checker cab; 1925
- produced over 1,000 cabs per year, largest exclusive cab
maker in country; 1929 - bought 60%
ownership in Yellow Cab (included all of John Hertz's holdings);
October 31, 1950 -
Checker Cab Manufacturing Corporation registered "Checker"
trademark first used July 17, 1921 (automobiles commonly
employed as taxicabs);
1959 - introduced Marathon (production never
exceeded few thousand units per year, sales limited to few large
cities); early 1980s - production fell to 3,000
units per year, company was losing money; 1982 -
production ceased; one of few automotive manufacturing
companies to boast continuous run of production from 1920s to
- Checker Taxi
- Emanuel (Manny) Rosenfeld, Maurice L. (Moe) Strauss, W. Graham
(Jack) Jackson, Moe Raditz (left after few years), Navy friends,
put in $200 each, opened first "Pep Auto Supply Company" store
at 7-11 North
63rd Street, Philadelphia, PA (took name
from "Pep Valve Grinding Compound", product carried in store);
1933 - Murray
Rosenfeld (brother) opened West Coast operation (2 stores);
February 13, 1934
- The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack registered "The Pep Boys
Manny Moe Jack" trademark first used August 31, 1933 (high
pressure lubricants, motor lubricating oils, transmission and
differential lubricants); 1986
- about 159 stores; February 2,
2008 - operated 562 stores (552 Supercenters, 1
Service & Tire Center; 9 non-service/non-tire format Pep Boys
Express stores; approximately 5,845 service bays in 36 states
and Puerto Rico).
Manny Rosenfeld, Jack Jackson
- Pep Boys
January 3, 1921
- Studebaker Corporation announced that it would no longer build
farm wagons (previously the world's single biggest manufacturer
of horse-drawn carriages and carts).
January 4, 1921 - International
Motor Company registered “Mack” trademark first used
October 13, 1911 (motortrucks).
March 15, 1921
- Carlo Guzzi, Giorgio Parodi, Angelo Parodi (brother) created
Società Anonima Moto Guzzi, privately held silent partnership,
to manufacture, sell motor cycles, other activities in relation
to or connected to metallurgical, mechanical industry (had
borrowed two thousand Lira from Emanuele Vittorio [Parodi's father] January 3, 1919); earliest motorcycles named G.P.
(Guzzi-Parodi), soon changed to Moto Guzzi;
1946 - formally
incorporated as Moto Guzzi S.p.A. (Giorgio Parodi as chairman);
first engine design was horizontal single;
1950s - led world of Grand Prix
motorcycle racing (with Italian factories of Gilera and
Mondial); 1964 -
leadership passed to Enrico Parodi (Giorgio's brother);
February 1967 -
control assumed by Società Esercizio Industrie Moto Meccaniche,
state controlled receiver; 1973
- SEIMM acquired by De Tomaso Industries Inc. (manufactured De
Tomaso sports and luxury cars, owned by Argentinian
industrialist Alejandro de Tomaso; also acquired Benelli and
Maserati); July 20, 1976
- S.E.I.M.M. Societa Esercizio industrie Moto Meccaniche S.p.A.
registered "Moto Guzzi" trademark first used in July 1969 (motor
vehicles-namely, motorcycles and automobiles and structural
parts therefor); 1988
- Benelli merged with SEIMM, created Guzzi Benelli Moto (G.B.M.
S.p.A. ); 1996 -
De Tomaso renamed Trident Rowan Group;
April 14, 2000 - Moto Guzzi S.p. A.
acquired by Aprilia S.p.A. for $65 million;
December 30, 2004
- Aprilla acquired by Piaggio & Co. S.p.A; formed Europe's
largest motorycle manufacturer.
August 9, 1921
- George J. Murdock, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a
"Self-Puncture-Sealing Covering For Fuel-Containers" ("tank that
punctures made thererin by projectiles will automatically close
so as to prevent the escape of gasolene, kerosene or othert
liquid hydrocarbons"); self-sealing gas tank.
September 10, 1921 - Ayus
Autobahn opened in Berlin (world's first controlled-access highway, part of
Germany's Bundesautobahn system).
December 1, 1921
- Detroit Steam Motors Corporation announced the Trask steam
car, a favorite project of automobile distributor O.C.
Trask; 1926 - last steam-powered cars in the
U.S. were made
1922 - George Bacon, Chief
Engineer for Detroit Electric Vehicle Company, designed new milk
delivery truck; could be driven from four positions, front,
rear, either running board; 1925 - Detroit
Industrial Vehicle Co. established to market gasoline-engine
version; 1926 - introduced the "Divco", powered by
4-cylinder Continental engine with Warner 4-speed transmission.
January 1922 - Rickenbacker Car
Company debuted Rickenbacker car at New York Auto Show (named
for World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker); priced at
$1,500, equipped with powerful V-6, flywheel at both ends of
crankshaft to reduce the teeth-chattering vibration to which
consumers had become accustomed; sold 1,500 units on its first
day; 1924 - 19th in industry from 83rd; first
model to introduce four-wheel braking in economy car class;
1925 - came with V-8; September 1926 -
Rickenbacker resigned; January 1927 - company
4, 1922 - William Lyons (21),
William Walmsley (30) launched Swallow Sidecar Company in
Blackpool, UK, to produce sidecars for motorcycles (financed
with bank overdraft of £1000 guaranteed by their respective
fathers); built wooden frames for Austin Seven car, called it
Austin Swallow; Lyons began building his own cars, called
Standard Swallows; 1926
- name changed to Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company;
1931 - Lyons
presented two coupe models of Standard Swallows Cars Ltd. (SS
Cars Ltd.) at London Motor Show; priced at 310 pounds;
1934 - SS Cars
Ltd. released line of cars called Jaguars (name chosen to
reflect speed, power, sleekness; suggested by Company's
advertising agency); post World
War II - Swallow Sidecar name dropped,
politically incorrect SS initials dropped (reminded people of
Nazi officers); name changed to Jaguar Cars Ltd.;
September 17, 1946
- Jaguar Cars Limited registered "Jaguar" trademark first used
in 1935 (automobiles, [buses, motor vans,] and parts thereof);
1948 – introduced
XK120 at London Motor Show; fastest production car in world,
considered by many to be one of finest sports cars ever made;
1961 - released E
Type, fastest sports car in world (top speed of 150mph,
zero-to-60 of 6.5 seconds, 17 miles to gallon);
November 11, 1989
- became subsidiary of Ford Motor Company.
December 12, 1922
- William L. Kissel and John F. Werner, of Hartford, WI,
received a patent for a "Convertible Automobile Body", removable
hard top that could turn a closed car into an open touring car
(precursor to convertibles); assigned to Kissel Motor Car
founded Bendix Brake Company (had developed, manufactured
electric starter drives since 1914); 1924 -
introduced the first reliable four-wheel brake system;
eventually created first four-wheel brake system for
automobiles; 1928 - produced 3,600,000 brakes per
year, chiefly for General Motors Corporation;
1929 - company
renamed the Bendix Aviation Corporation to signify a new
direction for company; 1942 - started Bendix
Helicopters, Inc.; 1960 - company renamed Bendix
Corporation; 1982 - acquired by Allied
Bendix - Bendix
February 22, 1923
- 1,000,000th Chevy was produced; William Durant eventually made
over a million dollars on Chevrolet brand, allowed him to
reacquire a majority interest in General Motors (GM) stock;
eventually merged Chevrolet and Buick, created GM's current
configuration; Louis Chevrolet left the company before the
merger, left only his name to benefit from the company's
May 26, 1923
- First Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance run.
November 20, 1923
- African-American Garrett A. Morgan, of Cleveland, OH, received
patent for a "Traffic Signal"; automatic traffic signal to make
streets safer for motorists, pedestrians (had seen an automobile
crash into a horse-drawn carriage); sold technology to General
Electric Corporation for $40,000.
January 5, 1924 -
Walter Chrysler, former General Motors executive (left in 1920),
who had pioneered introduction of all-steel bodies in
automobiles (vs. wood), introduced his first motorcar,
Chrysler-built Maxwell (Maxwell Motor Company);
August 12, 1924 -
Chrysler Motor Corporation registered "Chrysler" trademark first
used January 1, 1924 (automobiles and their structural parts);
June 6, 1925 -
Maxwell Motor Company renamed Chrysler Corporation;
June 26, 1925 -
incorporated in Delaware, took over Maxwell Motor Corporation;
Walter P. Chrysler president, chairman of the board.
April 15, 1924 - Rand McNally released
'Auto Chum', first
comprehensive road atlas (became best-selling Rand McNally Road
1924 - Ford Motor Company manufactured its 10
millionth Model T automobile.
December 19, 1924 - Last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost
(introduced in 1906) manufactured in England was sold in London;
followed by the Twenty, the Phantom, the Silver Cloud, the
Silver Shadow, and the Silver Wraith.
1925 - Joint board of state, federal highway
officials, appointed by secretary of agriculture, instituted
first nationwide highway numbering system; created shield-shaped
highway number markers, later improved by colored signs and the
odd-even demarcation that distinguished between north-south and
east-west travel respectively.
March 27, 1925 - Cecil Kimber registered
his first modified Morris, prototype of MG; known for style,
performance, zippy overhead cam engines
April 7, 1925 -
Rolls Royce of America, Inc. registered "Rolls Royce" trademark
first used on January 1, 1905 (automobiles and chassis).
April 30, 1925 -
Dodge heirs sold Dodge Brothers Inc. to Dillon, Read & Company
(New York investment banking firm) for $146 million plus $50
million for charity; result of unwillingness of Dodge Brothers'
offspring to manage company (brothers' deaths in 1920,
brief depression in stock market in 1921 scared family members
into "cashing out"); reported to be largest single cash sale in
U. S. history at time.
1, 1925 - Ettore Bugatti registered slogan 'Le
Pur Sangre Des Automobiles', thoroughbred racing horse profile,
as French trademarks.
January 3, 1926 -
General Motors introduced Pontiac brand name; descendant of
Oakland Motor Car Company (acquired by General Motors in 1909).
June 28, 1926
-Benz & Cie., Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) merged, formed
August 3, 1926 -
Britain installed first traffic lights at Piccadilly Circus.
September 25, 1926
- Henry Ford announced 8-hour, 5-day work week.
October 6, 1926 -
Duesenberg Company incorporated into Auburn-Cord company;
Frederick (design), August Duesenberg began working toward E L.
Cord's dream of ultimate luxury automobile;
1928 - Cord
introduced Duesenberg Model J to American public: engine
displaced 420 cubic inches, twin overhead camshafts that
operated four valves per cylinders, maximum speed of 165 hp,
price tag beginning around $17,000;
1937 - Duesenberg and
August and Frederick
(http://cmsimg.desmoinesregister.com/ apps/ pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=
November 11, 1926 - Official
numerical designation 66 (Will Rogers Highway) assigned to
Chicago-to-Los Angeles route (2,448 miles); one of nation's
principal east-west arteries; diagonal course linked hundreds of
predominately rural communities in Illinois, Missouri, Kansas to
Chicago; enabled farmers to transport grain, produce for
redistribution; diagonal configuration of Route 66 particularly
significant to trucking industry (rivaled railroad for
preeminence in American shipping) - traversed essentially flat
prairie lands, enjoyed more temperate climate than northern
highways; October 1984 - Interstate 40 bypassed
final section of original road at Williams, AZ; June 24,
1985 - route officially decommissioned.
December 21, 1926 - General Motors
Corporation registered "Pontiac" trademark first used December
17, 1925 (automobiles).
April 14, 1927 - Assar Gabrielsson (economist,
businessman, head of SKF's subsidiary in France), Gustaf Larsson
(engineer, designer) founded AB Volvo (Latin for "I roll"); had
obtained guarantees, credit form SKF (Goteborg, Sweden) to build
1,000 vehicles, 500 open and 500 covered (SKF provided name);
first car, "Jakob", left factory in Gothenburg, Sweden; 1936 -
released its first "streamlined car" the PV36, or Carioca,
heavily influenced by American designs;
1999 - acquired by Ford Motor Company
for about $6.5 billion.
May 25, 1927
- Ford Motor Company announced end of Model T, replaced by Model
A; May 26, 1927 -
manufactured 15 millionth Model T automobile;
May 27, 1927 –
officially ended production of Ford Model T (15,007,033 units
built; had had price tag of $850 in 1908, had sold 6,389 units;
price had dropped to $690 in 1910, Tin Lizzie had sold 34,528
units; price tag of Ford's "people's car" had dropped to $350 in
1915, had sold 472,350 units); sold more units than any other
car model in history (eclipsed in 1970s by Volkswagen Beetle);
August 19, 1927-
Henry and Edsel Ford drove fifteen millionth Model T off
assembly line at Highland Park plant in Michigan, officially
ended Model T production (15,458,781).
November 1, 1927
- Ford Model A production began; succeeded Model T after 19
years of production, unchanged features; "A" had elegant
Lincoln-like styling on smaller scale, used 200.5 cubic-inch
four-cylinder engine that produced 40hp; prices started at $460,
nearly 5,000,000 Model As, in several body styles, variety of
colors, sold before production ended in early 1932;
November 26, 1927 - Ford Motor
Company introduced Model A, first new Ford to enter market since
Model T first introduced in 1908
May 6, 1928 -
Chrysler introduced DeSoto as corporation's new brand (answer to
market demand for car that fit between its large cars, its
popular four-cylinder models); offered improved insulation,
reinforced frame, chrome alloy steel transmission gears; sold
80,000 cars in first year, forced Chrysler to increase
production facilities; 1934
– released DeSoto Airflow: new standard for weight distribution,
reduced vibration to frequency so that passengers were
comfortable for first time; engine moved forward over front
axle, back seat in front of rear axle (shock inflicted on
passengers sitting there), increased gauge of front springs,
smaller wheels that used larger tires, unibody design that made
car safer, stronger.
July 7, 1928 - Chrysler Plymouth
debuted at Chicago Coliseum (with renowned aviator Amelia
Earhart behind wheel) - delivery price of $670; sold over 80,000
units in first year, forced Chrysler to expand production
facilities drastically; Plymouth project had taken three years
July 31, 1928
- The Chrysler Corporation acquired Dodge Brothers, Inc. from
Dillon Read for $170 million; 1929 - Chrysler
Corporation was one of the "Big Three" of auto industry;
May 27, 1930 - Chrysler Building in NYC. opened as
world's tallest building.
March 17, 1929
- General Motors acquired 80% of German auto manufacturer Adam
Opel AG for just under $26 million.
May 31, 1929
- The Ford Motor Company signed a "Technical Assistance"
contract to produce cars in the Soviet Union; supplied many of
the production parts for car manufacturers during the 1930s.
February 26, 1930
- First red and green traffic lights installed (Manhattan, New
September 30, 1930
- Lubri-Graph Corporation registered "Lubrizol" trademark first
used February 11, 1930 (lubricating oils, lubricating oil
compounds, and motor-lubricating oils).
1931 - General Motors became
world's largest automaker; April 24, 2007 -
replaced by Toyota (2.35 million cars sold in 1st quarter vs.
about 2.34 million for GM).
April 20, 1931
- Matilda Dodge Wilson, widow of John Dodge, named to board of
Graham-Paige Motors Corporation (founded by the Graham
brothers); became first woman to sit on board of major American
auto-manufacturer (Dodge had acquired Graham Brothers Truck
Company in 1926).
December 7, 1931
- Last Ford Model A produced; Ford motor works shut down for six
months for retooling; April 1, 1932 - Ford
introduced high-performance Ford V-8, first Ford with 8-cylinder
December 14, 1931
- Bentley Motors (founded 1920) acquired by Rolls-Royce.
February 28, 1932
- Last Ford Model A produced; boasted elegant Lincoln-like
styling, a peppy 40 horsepower four-cylinder engine,
self-starting mechanism; base price at $460 (sold 5 million from
192 to 1932).
1932 - Ford Motor Company publicly unveiled
"V-8" (eight-cylinder) engine.
June 6, 1932 -
Congress levied 1 cent tax on gasoline, other motor fuel sold (part of Revenue Act of
1932); mandated series of excise taxes on wide variety of
1932 - Ford introduced Model C automobile, first
four-cylinder engine made by Ford with counter-balanced
crankshaft; largely eclipsed by Ford V-8, first eight-cylinder
Ford automobile; first V-8 engine block ever cast in single
- Chrysler sold more cars than in its 1929 boom year
(only car company to do so); only car company to pay dividends
to shareholders throughout Depression.
July 5, 1933 -
Fritz Todt, civil engineer, became Inspector General for German
Roadways (proponent of national highway system as means of
economic development had been appointed to position by Hitler in
January 1933); primary assignment: build comprehensive autobahn
system; 1936 -
completed 100,000 kilometers of divided highways; most advanced
transportation system in world.
December 26, 1933 - Nihon Sangyo, Tobata
Casting, holding companies established by Yoshisuke Aikawa,
established Jidosha Seizo Co., Ltd. in Yokohama, Japan;
began manufacturing cars, trucks under
name Datsun; June 1, 1934
- name changed to Nissan Motor Co. (Nihon Sangyo Co. Ltd. as
100% investor); converted to military production during World
War II; post WW II
- operated in limited capacity under occupation government until
- Henri Pigozzi founded Simca (Societe Industrielle de Mecanique
et Carrosserie Automobile), "industrial company that makes car
mechanics and bodywork", at Nanterre, France;
1950s - acquired
Unic, Talbot, Ford of France; 1963
- Chrysler became majority stock holder;
1969 - merged with Matra's automotive
division; 1970 -
Chrysler took over about all outstanding stock (99.3%), dropped
1934 - Amos Neyhart, Penn State industrial
engineer, fitted his car with dual brake, clutch linkages; began
teaching driving to State College High School students in State
College, PA; started American tradition of driver's education;
provided classroom, behind-the-wheel instruction;
1936 - produced
manuals, exams for American Automobile Association.
Amos Neyhart - founded Driver's Ed
March 26, 1934 -
Britain introduced driving tests.
1935 - Percy Shaw received a British patent for
"Improvements relating to Blocks for Road Surface"; reflectors
which mark the lines that are light up at night by the lights of
passing vehicles; Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. manufactured
April 6, 1934
- Ford Motor Company announced white sidewall tires as option on
new vehicles at cost of $11.25 per set; associated with style,
money; 1950s -
standard for many cars.
June 22, 1934 - Reichsverband der
Automobilindustrie (RDA, Association of the German Reich of the
Automotive Industry) gave Ferdinand Porsche, of Dr. Ing. h.c. F.
Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung fur Motoren- und
Fahrzeugbau, order to build one prototype of Volkswagen (car had
been presented to Reich Ministry of Transport on January 17,
1934 in "Study for the Production of a Germany People's Car");
December 7, 1934 -
increased order to three cars (assembled in garage of Ferdinand
Porsch's private residence); July
3, 1935 - presented first Volkswagen prototype,
V1 (V = Versuchswagen or Test Car);
December 22, 1935 - presented second
test car, convertible, code-named tV2;
July 4, 1936 - German government decided
to build separate plant for new car, Volkswagenwerk;
May 28, 1937 -
established Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen
Volkswagens mbH ("Company for Preparation of Deutsche Volkswagen
Ltd"); Ferdinand Porsche one of three managing directors;
May 1938 -
construction on plant began in Fallersleben, now Wolfsburg;
priced at 990.- reichsmarks, easily affordable for average
buyer; WW II - not
one single Volkswagen delivered to private customer;
summer 1945 -
regular production of civilian Volkswagen started in Wolfsburg;
nickname "VW KÃ¤fer" ("VW Beetle");
July 2003 - production of last VW Beetle
came off line in Mexico - record for production life, volume;
21.5 million units built, one of highest-production vehicles of
August 19, 1934
- Myron Scott, newsman, organized first All-American Soap Box
Derby in Dayton, OH; event moved to Akron because of
appropriately hilly terrain; boys and girls, ages nine through
- Chrysler surpassed Ford to become nation's
second largest car company.
February 26, 1935
- Designers Clarence Karstadt and Chris Klein, of Detroit,
MI, received a design patent for an "Automobile Radiator
Ornament or Similar Article"; Pontiac's "Indian Maiden" mascot
July 5, 1935
- President Franklin Roosevelt signed National Labor Relations
Act (Wagner Act) into law: established National Labor Relations
Board, addressed relations between unions, employers in private
labor to organize for purpose of collective bargaining;
permitted formation of United Automobile Workers; industry's
business executives challenged constitutionality of Wagner
Act; December 30, 1936 - workers at General Motors
plant stopped work en masse, followed by series of successful
sit-down strikes; Supreme Court upheld Wagner Act;
February 11, 1937- GM acknowledged UAW as its employees
official "bargaining agent".
1935 - Carl C. Magee, of Oklahoma City, OK
Chamber of Commerce traffic committee, installed first parking
meters, in Oklahoma City business district (workers parked on
streets, stayed all day, left few spaces for shoppers, visitors
); May 24, 1938 -
received patent for a "Coin Controlled Parking Meter", "meters
for measuring the time of occupancy or use of parking or other
space, for the use of which it is desirous an incidental charge
be made upon a time basis"; assigned patent to Dual Parking
Meter Company of Oklahoma City, OK (a Delaware Corporation).
October 22, 1936
- First test-drives of Volkswagen vehicle began; 1938
- first Volkswagen in its final form (38-series model) unveiled,
referred to, mockingly, as "Beetle" by New York Times; outbreak
of World War II prevented mass-production of automobile; after
war, Allies approved continuation of original Volkswagen program
under leadership of Heinrich Nordhoff; late 1940s and
1950s - sales of Volkswagen Beetle took off.
August 14, 1935
- Last U.S.-built (Springfield, MA) Rolls Royce Phantom I
delivered to M.S. Morrow of Whitestone, NY; featured elegant
proportions, well-engineered coachwork, suitable for successor
of Silver Ghost--the model that earned Rolls-Royce a reputation
as "the best car in the world"; total of 1,241 Phantoms
October 23, 1935
- Percy Shaw, of Halifax, Yorkshire, received a British patent
for "Improvements Relating to Blocks for Road Surface Marking";
catseye road marker (road reflectors lighted at night by lights
of vehicles); November 30, 1936 - received a second British
February 8, 1936
- William Durant, founder of General Motors (GM), filed for
personal bankruptcy (over span of three years Durant purchased
Oldsmobile, Oakland (later Cadillac, Pontiac), attempted to
purchase Ford; GM out of cash, Durant forced out of company in
1910; later started Chevrolet; eventually regained control
of GM, lost control second time).
February 26, 1936 - Hitler introduced
Ferdinand Porsche's "Volkswagen".
March 8, 1936 - Daytona Beach, Florida,
staged its first race strictly for stock cars on combination
beach, public roadway course; 1946
- National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR)
incorporated; Bill France, former mechanic, as president.
April 27, 1936
- United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America gained autonomy from AFL (guaranteed rights
of skilled workers); became first democratic, independent labor
union concerned with rights of unskilled and semi-skilled
December 30, 1936 - Strikes
closed seven GM factories in Flint, MI as United Automobile
Workers of America quarreled with GM over right to bargain
35,000 workers, threatened to force layoffs in steel, glass,
battery-manufacturing industries; December 31, 1936
- sit-down strike at GM's Fisher Body Plant became center stage
for all unskilled labor struggles as GM moved to legally block
strike, evict workers from its facilities; state government,
under direction of Governor Frank Murphy, protected rights
of workers to bargain collectively; workers invoked Wagner Act,
GM forced to settle, recognized union, signed contract; first
victory by unskilled laborers in America's largest industry.
- 16 aircraft engineers founded Svenska Aeroplan
Aktiebolaget" (SAAB), "Swedish Aircraft Company", in
Trollhattan, Sweden to produce high-performance aircraft;
1946 - aircraft design experience applied to engineering
automobiles; 1947 - first prototype, Saab 92001,
features transverse two-stroke engine, front-wheel drive,
aerodynamic wing shape profile; 1949 - Saab 92 is
first series to go into production (more than 20,000 built
January 1, 1937
- Safety glass in windshields became mandatory in
Great Britain (shattered into thousands of tiny pieces when it
broke, instead of large jagged sheets; first produced in 1909 by
French chemist, Edouard Benedictus [used sheet of clear
celluloid between glass layers]; plastic called polyvinyl
butyral [PVB] introduced in 1936, so safe, effective that it
soon became only plastic used in safety windows).
February 11, 1937
(GM) President Alfred P. Sloan signed first union contract in
history of U.S. automobile industry; ended a 44-day sit-down
strike against General Motors at Fisher Body plant in Flint, MI
(Battle of the Running Bulls); company agreed to recognize
United Automobile Workers Union.
March 1, 1937
- Connecticut issued first permanent automobile license plates.
May 26, 1937 - Union leaders, Ford Service
Department men clashed in violent confrontation on Miller Road
Overpass outside Gate 4 of Ford River Rouge Plant in Dearborn,
MI (three months after UAW achieved its first landmark victory
at Ford, had forced company to negotiate policy toward organized
labor by staging lengthy sit-down strike at Rouge
complex); UAW organizers Walter Reuther, Bob Kanter, J.J.
Kennedy, Richard Frankensteen were distributing leaflets among
workers at Rouge complex when approached bygang of
Bennett's men; Ford Servicemen brutally beat four unionists
while many other union sympathizers, including 11 women, were
injured in resulting melee - Battle of the Overpass.
1937 - Henry Ford initiated 32 hour work week.
June 15, 1937
- Harold T. Ames, of Chicago, IL, chief executive of Duesenberg,
received a patent for a "Headlight Structure"; retractable
headlamps (defining detail on Cord 810); assigned to Cord
September 30, 1937 - Frederick and August
Duesenberg stopped production; considered most luxurious cars in
world, hand-crafted, custom-made, epitome of flamboyance and
elegance; acknowledged as ultimate in quality, value for almost
10 years; inspired expression "it's a duesy."
1939 - Ole
Bardahl, Norwegian immigrant (arrived in Seattle in 1922 with
$32 in his pocket, unable to speak English), former building
contractor, bought small chemical company in Ballard, WA; had
number of cleaners, one oil product, oil additive; first year
sales of $188; developed 'Polair Attraction' formula
(protected against dry/cold starts; provided permanent
protective film on all metal surfaces; improved any oil
additives); changed how lubricants formulated;
1947 - top selling oil product; June
20, 1950 - Bardahl Manufacturing Corporation
registered "Bardahl" trademark first used February 1, 1946
(lubricating oils in the nature of an additive to lubricating
oils, top oil, and valve lubricants, and lubricating greases);
1952 - sales of
$200,000, ranked third among competitors; effective television
advertising campaign established Bardahl as top seller in United
States, then international number one seller.
- Bardahl Corporation
April 28, 1939
- Powell Crosley produced America's first miniature, or
"bantam", car (stalled until after WWII); 1948 -
produced 28,000 cars; Crosley was foot shorter, 100 pounds
lighter than pre-war Volkswagen Bug, far smaller than anything
offered by American manufacturers; $800 price tag wasn't low
enough to convince consumers to purchase a miniature car when
they could by a full-size car for a few hundred dollars more.
November 4, 1939
- Packard Motor Co. exhibited first air-conditioned automobile
at 40th Automobile Show in Chicago; air in car was cooled,
dehumidified, filtered, circulated through refrigerating coils
located behind rear seat in air duct
(heating coils in another compartment of same duct);
capacity of unit equivalent to 1.5 tons of ice in 24 hours
when car was driven at 60 mph; Cadillac followed in 1941.
December 13, 1939
- First production Lincoln Continental was finished.
- Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. competed
for U.S. Armed Forces contract to produce all-terrain, general
purpose ("GP" or "Jeep") troop transport vehicle (four-wheel
drive, masked fender-mount headlights, rifle rack under the
dash); Karl K. Pabst, consulting engineer of Bantam Car. Co.
design, awarded production contract for 70 vehicles; prototype
failed; contract given to Willys-Overland on basis of
similar design, superior production capabilities;
November 13, 1940
- first Willys-Overland Jeep prototype completed, submitted to
the U.S. Army for approval (four-wheel drive, open-air cab,
rifle rack mounted under the windshield); 1941 -
mass production began; 1945 - some 350,000 Jeeps
had rolled off assembly lines onto battlefields of Asia, Africa,
Europe; first civilian Jeep ("CJ") vehicle, CJ-2A, introduced
(forefather of today's sport utility vehicles); 1948
- CJ-3A introduced; June 13, 1950 -
Motors, Inc. registered "Jeep" trademark first used November 20,
1940, first used in commerce in commerce on February 5, 1943
(automobiles and structural parts thereof); 1953 -
Willys-Overland acquired for $60 million by Henry J. Kaiser;
1955 - Kaiser introduced CJ-5 (longest
production run of any Jeep vehicle, from 1954 - 1984);
1962 - introduced first automatic transmission in
4-wheel drive vehicle in Wagoneer line; 1963 -
name changed to
Kaiser Jeep® Corp.;
- acquired by
Motors Corporation; 1976 - introduced CJ-7;
August 5, 1987 - AMC-Jeep Eagle acquired by
John North Willys
March 19, 1940
- Paul H. Travis, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Door
Check" ("...devices for limiting the swinging movement of
doors...wherein provision is made for effectively absorbing or
cushioning shocks resulting from checking the swinging movements
of the doors..."); door jam for cars;
June 11, 1940 - received a second patent
for a "Door Check".
August 26,1940 - Cadillac
discontinued manufacture of the LaSalle, after 14 years of
production; Intended to boost profits during a lag in luxury car
sales as moderately priced alternative to the opulence of the
October 1, 1940 - First 160-mile
section of Pennsylvania Turnpike, America's first toll
superhighway, opened ($70 million price tag); carried average of
2,000,000 vehicles every year, nearly twice original estimate of
December 30, 1940
- California's first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway connecting
Los Angeles and Pasadena, was officially opened.
February 4, 1941
- Ransom Eli Olds (76) received his last automobile patent for
an "Internal Combustion Engine" ("related to multi-cylinder
internal combustion engines of the two-cycle fuel injection
type...provides first for thoroughly scavenging the cylinders
from exhaust gases, and second for supercharging the same").
August 1, 1941
- Parade magazine called it "...the Army's most intriguing new
gadget", "a tiny truck which can do practically everything" -
The Jeep (built
by Willys Overland).
December 11, 1941 - Spare tires on new cars
prohibited (law designed to conserve America's resources);
rubber, produced overseas, had become almost impossible to get.
December 31, 1941 - America's last automobiles
with chrome-plated trim were manufactured; 1942 - chrome plating
became illegal, part of an effort to conserve resources for the
American war effort.
1, 1942 - U.S. Office of Production Management
prohibited sales of new cars, trucks to civilians; all
automakers dedicated plants entirely to war effort; plants
converted wholesale to manufacture of bombers, jeeps, military
trucks, other gear.
13, 1942 - Henry Ford, of Dearborn, MI, received
a patent for an "Automobile Body Construction" ("a body
construction in which plastic body panels are employed, not only
for the doors and the side panels, but also for the roof, hood
and all other exposed panels on the body"); first U.S. patent
for construction of an automobile using plastic; covered an
automobile body construction, an auto body chassis frame made of
steel tubes or pipes designed for use with automobiles made from
plastics (Ford Motor Company had produced first such car in U.S.
in August 1941); fourteen plastic panels were mounted on tubular
welded frame; windows, windshield made of acrylic sheets; weight
decrease of approximately 30%.
January 30, 1942 - Last pre-war
automobiles produced by Chevrolet and DeSoto rolled off assembly
lines; January 31, 1942
- Last pre-war automobiles produced by Chrysler, Plymouth, and
Studebaker rolled off assembly lines; retooled their
factories for military gear.
February 7, 1942 - Federal government
ordered passenger car production stopped, converted to wartime
purposes; government offered automakers guaranteed profits
regardless of production costs throughout the war years; Office
of Production Management allocated $11 billion to the
construction of war manufacturing plants that would be sold to
the automobile manufacturers at remarkable discounts after the
war; revolutionized American car making, brought about the
Golden Era of the 1950s.
May 15, 1942 - United States began gasoline
rationing (17 Eastern States);
September 10, 1942 - President Franklin
D. Roosevelt mandated gasoline rationing in U.S. as part of
country's wartime efforts.
November 28, 1942
- Ford Motor Company's first production
Ford bomber, B-24 Liberator, rolled off assembly
line at Ford's Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti,
MI; government made Ford, America's other
automakers an economic offer: would guarantee profits,
regardless of production costs, for thier participation in
war effort, would allocate $11 billion to building of war plants--factories that
would be sold to private industry at substantial discount
after war; February 1942 - the last Ford
automobile rolled off assembly line for the duration of
the war; July 1944 - 43,000 men, women at
Willow Plant produced one B-24 every hour by end of war.
April 10, 1944
- Henry Ford II,
namesake of Henry Ford, named executive vice president of the
Ford Motor Company; confirmed his bid to become heir to his
grandfather's throne; strongman Harry Bennett (power at
Ford for his suppression of organized labor) attempted to bring
Henry II under his influence, to no avail.
May 29, 1945 -
Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a
"Two-Cycle Gas Engine" (...two or more cylinders have their
piston rods and the crank shaft extending into a common crank
shaft chamber and provide double pistons and double cylinders,
one part of each said piston and cylinder operating as a
charging chamber"); assigned to U. S. Thermo Control Company.
July 25, 1945
- Henry Kaiser, Joseph Frazer, president of Graham-Paige Motor
Company, announced plans to form corporation to manufacture
automobiles (Frazer's contacts in the auto industry, Kaiser's
capital and experience with huge government contracts);
August 9, 1945 -
incorporated; January 20, 1946
- introduced first automobiles at New York's Waldorf-Astoria
Hotel; 1946 -
leased Ford Willow Run Plant, produced 11,000 cars; company lost
$19 million, stock plummeted; 1947
- Willow Run produced 100,000 cars, Kaiser-Frazer recorded $19
million in profit; 1949
- company lost $30 million; 1951
- produced several successful cars, most notably the 1951 Kaiser
two-door; 1953 -
renamed Kaiser Motors Corporation; soon abandoned passenger car
business in favor of manufacturing commercial, military
vehicles; merged with Willys-Ovderland.
August 15, 1945 -
World War II gasoline rationing in America ended.
September 21, 1945
- Henry Ford II, grandson of Henry Ford, succeeded his father as
president of Ford Motor Company; inherited company losing
several million dollars a month; reorganized, modernized
company, fired powerful Personnel Chief Harry Bennett
(strong-arm tactics, anti-union stance made Ford notorious for
bad labor relations); recruited new talent, including a group of
former U.S. Air Force intelligence officers ("Whiz Kids");
nursed company back to health, greatly expanded international
operations, introduced two classic models, Mustang and
14, 1945 - Tony Hulman purchased Indianapolis
Motor Speedway from Edward Rickenbacher for $750,000 (in
deplorable condition after four years of disuse during World War
II); May 1946
-American Automobile Association ran its first postwar 500-mile
December 8, 1945
- Toyota Motor Company received permission from occupation
government (after Japanese surrender in World War II on
September 3, 1945) to start production of buses,
trucks--vehicles necessary to keep Japan running.
March 13, 1946 -
UAW, General Motors agreed to a settle strike which had lasted
from November 1945-March of 1946; 175,00 strikers agreed to head
back to work; walkout engineered by UAW chief Walter Reuther;
agitated for higher pay for GM's 320,000 employees, looked to
consolidate his power in auto union; in coming months leaders in
various industries proved successful in drive for price
increases, led to inflation, wiped out workers' wage gains.
October 1946 -
Soichiro Honda established Honda Technical Research Institute in
Hamamatsu, Japan, to develop, produce small 2-cycle motorbike
engines; 1948 -
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. born;
1959 - opened its first storefront in Los
Angeles (six employees).
March 2, 1947 - Enzo Ferrari drove first 125S
vehicle out of factory gates.
March 27, 1947 - Nanjing
Automobile Group Corp. (NAC), state-owned, founded as military
garage in Jiangsu; oldest, fourth largest Chinese automobile
manufacturer; 16,000 employees, annual production capacity of
about 200,000 vehicles;
2005 - acquired MG Rover Group
for $97 million; March
27, 2007 - revived MG brand, began production of MG
30, 1947 - Preston Tucker announced concept for
new automobile named "the Tucker" (no new car model had been
released since 1942); rear-mounted engine as powerful as
aircraft engine, hydraulic torque converter that would eliminate
necessity of transmission, two revolving headlights at either
side of car's fender, one stationary "cyclops" headlight in
middle, steering wheel placed in center of car, flanked by two
passenger seats; SEC indicted Tucker on 31 counts of fraud for
selling unapproved securities before he could begin mass
production of cars (sold franchises to individual car dealers
who put up $50 in cash for every car they expected to sell
during their first two years as Tucker agent);
January 21, 1950 -
acquitted on all counts, but business ruined; produced only 51
Tuckers, none equipped with technological breakthroughs he
June 10, 1947
- Saab (Svenska Aeroplan AB) introduced model 92 prototype, its
first car; Sven Otterbeck, Saab director, placed aircraft
engineer Gunnar Ljungstrom in charge of creating company's first
car; equipped with two-cylinder, two-stroke engine that provided
25 hp, propelled car at top speed of 62 mph.
October 2, 1947 -
The Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally
established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition;
initiated for cars of 1,500cc supercharged and 4,500cc
unsupercharged, minimum race distance reduced from 500km to
300km (allowed Monaco Grand Prix to be reintroduced into
official Grand Prix racing); 1950
- Giuseppe "Nino" Farina, driving an Alfa Romeo 158, won first
Formula One World Championship at Silverstone British Grand
December 14, 1947
- National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR)
founded at Streamline Hotel in Daytona Beach, FL; good results
on stock-car circuit believed to mean better sales on showroom
February 3, 1948
- First Cadillac with tailfins produced; signaled dawn of
tailfin era; General Motors increased size of Cadillac's
"tailfeathers" every year throughout 1950s;
1959 - model's
sales slumped dramatically, death knell for tailfin.
February 27, 1948
- Federal Trade Commission issued restraining order, prevented
Willys-Overland Company from representing that it had developed
Jeep (produced Army vehicle that became known as Jeep); Bantam
Motor Company first presented innovative design to Army.
April 30, 1948 -
Brothers Maurice and Spencer Wilks, then Rover Company's
managing director, introduced Land Rover at Amsterdam Auto Show;
developed truck as result of conversation about Maurice's
American 4x4; featured four-wheel drive, 1.6 liter engine from
Rover P3 60 saloon; shown with canvas top, optional doors
(eventually became standard, as did system where two and
four-wheel drive could be selected in high range with permanent
four-wheel drive in low range); became standard operating
vehicle for British Commonwealth wilderness territories.
June 8, 1948 -
Dr. Ferdinand Porsche test drove first Porsche two-seat roadster
sports car, Project 356-1, built in sawmill in Gmund, Austria
24, 1948 - Honda Technical Research Institute
officially became Honda Motor Company; began as research
institute founded by engineer Honda Soichiro; focused on
creating small, efficient internal-combustion engines.
September 24, 1948
- Soichiro Honda formed Honda Motor Company in Hamamatsu Japan
(aboutt 150 miles southwest of Tokyo); capitalized at ¥1
million, 34 employees; 1955
- led motorcycle production in Japan. early
1960s - world's
largest manufacturer of motorcycles;
1962 - automobile production begins;
1972 - Honda
introduced Civic 1200, became a serious contender in the
industry; 1989 -
Accord best-selling car in America.
October 2, 1948 - Cameron
Argetsinger and the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) present
first post-World War II Grand Prix road race in the United
States at Watkins Glen, NY; Frank Griswold, driving a 2.9 liter
prewar Alfa Romeo, won both events offered, a 26.4-mile Junior
Prix, and the 52.8-mile Grand Prix.
November 29, 1948
- Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley and 1,200 hundred others
attended unveiling of first car manufactured entirely in
ivory-colored motor car officially designated the 48-215
(six-cylinder, four-door sedan), known as Holden FX; 100,000
sold in first five years of production; by 1980s -
4 million exported around world; 1994 - name
changed to Holden.
1949 - First Volkswagen Beetle in U.S. arrived
March 2, 1949
- Connecticut Light and Power Company installed first automatic
streetlight system in New Milford, CT; streetlights contained
electronic device with photoelectric cell capable of measuring
outside light; turned themselves on at dark;
November of 1949 -
total of 190 photoelectric streetlights automatically lighted
seven miles of New Milford's roads at dusk.
March 17, 1949 -
First car to carry Porsche name introduced at 19th International
Automobile Show in Geneva, Switzerland; named 356, sports-car
version of Volkswagen that Porsche had designed at Hitler's
December 16, 1949
- Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget (Sweden) produced its first
motorcar; 1965 -
name changed to Saab Aktiebolag (later to Saab);
1990 - car
operations acquired by General Motors (excluding bus, truck,
military jet businesses); 2000
- rest of Saab's automotive operations acquired by GM.
1950 - George W. Mason,
President of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, introduced Nash
Rambler, small car that could be produced inexpensively for the
post war economy (forerunner of the modern American compact
car); 1954 - product line broadened to 10 model
types; June 30, 1969 - last Rambler produced.
August 2, 1950 - Ford Motor
Company created Defense Products Division to handle large number
of government contracts related to the Korean War.
August 22, 1950
- Ralph R. Teetor, of Hagerstown, IN, received a patent for a
"Speed Control Device for Resisting Operation of the
Accelerator" ("device for assisting an automobile driver in
maintaining the speed of the vehicle not in excess of a
pre-determined speed"); cruise control.
September 1, 1950
- Porsche returned to Zuffenhausen, Germany; completed first
Porsche to boast a Porsche-made engine.
June 5, 1951 -
Gordon M. Buehrig, of South Bend, IN, received a patent for
"Vehicle Top Construction" ("to provide a vehicle top
construction which is essentially the type providing an enclosed
passenger compartment with the attendant advantages but which
may be opened to a substantial degree to simulate an open
passenger compartment"); vehicle top with removable panels;
appeared as "T-top" on 1968 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray;
1928 - fourth man
hired by Harley Earl for General Motors's new Art and Color
Section, first GM department dedicated solely to design
October 31, 1951
- Zebra crossing (broad white and black stripes across the road
for visual impact vs. metal studs in the road) introduced
in Slough, Berkshire, England to reduce casualties at pedestrian
December 5, 1951
- Parking Services Inc. openedfirst push button-controlled
Park-O-Mat garage opened in Washington, DC (open building with
16 floors and 2 basement levels); no ramps, no aisles and no
lanes; used a "vehicle parking apparatus" such that single
attendant, without entering a car, could automatically park or
return an auto in less than a minute; two elevators parked 72
cars on a lot 25 by 40 feet.
December 27, 1951
Service in Cincinnati, OH put
Crosley car into
first right-hand-drive car (on the mailbox-side of the car)
designed specifically for mail delivery; produced by Powel
Crosley, radio and appliance manufacturer, owner of WLW radio
station, Cincinnati Reds baseball team.
Michio Suzuki created motorized bicycle, Power
Free, featured 36cc, two-stroke engine (had founded
Suzuki Loom Works in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka
Prefecture Japan in 1909; reorganized in 1920 as Suzuki Loom
Manufacturing Co. to produce textile looms); 1954 -
name changed to Suzuki Motor Corporation; 1955 -
introduced first mass-produced car, the Suzulight; 1981
- General Motors acquired 5% of Suzuki shares; 1985
- American Suzuki Corp. introduced Samurai in U.S.; 1998
- GM increased ownership to 10%; 2001- GM's
ownership rose to 20.4%; 2004 - General Motors and
Suzuki Motor Corp. acquired bankrupt Daewoo; March 2006
- GM divested, sold 92.36 million shares, reduced stake to 3%,
raised $2 billion. Suzuki still owns 11% of GM Daewoo Auto and
- Suzuki Motor Corporation
(http://www.autonet.ru/pics/moto history/Suzuki 1.jpg)
1952 - Nuffield Group merged
with Austin; became British Motor Corporation; fourth largest
car manufacturer in world; 1968 - BMC merged with
Leyland Group; combined nearly 100 companies: remaining
independent British car manufacturing companies (car, bus and
truck manufacturers), diverse enterprises (construction
equipment, refrigerators, metal casting companies, road surface
manufacturers); arranged in seven divisions under new chairman,
Sir Donald Stokes (formerly chairman of LMC); 1975
- declared bankruptcy; April 1975 - Ryder Report
recommended restructuring, enlarging under government ownership;
government took control, created new holding company British
Leyland Limited (government major shareholder); 1978
- name changed to BL Limited; 1986 - name changed to Rover
Group; 1987 - Trucks Division merged with Dutch
DAF company to form DAF NV; bus business spun-off into new
company called Leyland Bus; 1988 - Bus & Truck
division sold to Volvo; remaining Rover Group PLC business sold
by the British Government to British Aerospace (BAe); 1994
- BAe sold The Rover Group to BMW; 2000 -remainder
of company sold to
Phoenix Consortium for nominal
£10, renamed MG Rover Ltd.
1952 - Leonard Lord (Austin division of
British Motor Corporation), Donald Healey (renowned automotive
engineer, designer, founder in 1945 of Donald Healey Motor
Company Ltd.) established joint venture to manufacture
Austin-Healey sports cars; 1972
- 20-year agreement ended.
1952 - Julius Samann, chemist in Watertown, NY,
responded to milk-truck driver's complaint about smell of
spilled, sour milk in his truck; discovered that putting
high-quality fragrance on porous card stock highly effective way
to make quality air freshener (had spent several years
extracting essential oils from pine needles in Canada); sketched
Little Tree shape, coined name "Car-Freshner"; founded
Car-Freshner Corp.; March 24, 1959
- Car-Freshner Corporation registered "Car-Freshner" trademark
first used on August 6, 1952 (absorbent bodies impregnated with
a perfumed air deodorant); added over forty fragrances to the
original Royal Pine; family-owned, 600 employees in 3 plants.
January 1, 1952
- Colin Chapman founded Lotus Engineering Company in Norfolk,
England; first production car - Lotus, the Mark VI.
February 5, 1952
- New York adopted three-color traffic lights;
first "Don't Walk" sign was
installed in New York City; erected in response to the growing
awareness of pedestrian fatalities in the increasingly crowded
Manhattan streets; occur most often between six p.m. and nine
p.m.; 1997 - 5,307 pedestrians died as a result of
March 12, 1952 -
Mercedes introduced 300SL to press (named for engine's three
litre cylinder displacement, "SL" stood for "Sport Leicht"
[Sport Light]); sleek rounded body, gull-wing doors, a
detachable steering wheel; 1954
- introduced 300SL coupe to public; six-cylinder engine, top
speed of 155mph, two-door coupe created sensation among wealthy
car buyers; company only manufactured 1,400 300SL coupes due to
impracticality of the gull-wing doors.
March 19, 1952 -
1,000,000th Jeep produced (660,000 Jeeps had rolled off assembly
lines, onto battlefields in Asia, Africa, Europe by 1945);
Willys-Overland released first civilian Jeep model, called CJ
1952 - James J. Nance resigned from Hotpoint,
became president, general manager of Packard Motor Company (two
years); October of 1954
- Packard merged with larger Studebaker Corporation, Nance named
President; 1956 -
acquired by Curtiss-Wright Aircraft Company.
June 12, 1952 -
Maurice Olley, Chevrolet's chief engineer, completed chassis,
code-named Opel, for eventual use in 1953 Corvette;
July 1952 -
Corvette got name from extensive search through English
dictionary (small-sized, speedy warship used by most Allied
navies during World War II);
December 22, 1952 - first production-ready
prototype Corvette completed; sporty fiberglass body, design
said to have cost between $50,000- $60,000 to build; January
17, 1953 - exhibited as dream car at Motorama
Car Show Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City;
June 30, 1953 -
first regular-production model rolled out; first production year
- just over 300 Corvettes assembled (by hand) in Flint,
Michigan; about half sold, rest given away to company executives
June 30, 1953
- First Chevrolet Corvette, white convertible with red interior,
drove off General Motors assembly line -
all-fiberglass-bodied American sports car (built with existing
General Motors's parts); included "Blue Flame" inline
six-cylinder engine, two-speed automatic transmission, drum
brakes from Chevrolet's regular car line;
September 1, 1953
- General Motors Corporation registered "Corvette" trademark
first used January 9, 1953 (automobiles);
1954 - Went
into full production, with limited success (some
3,500 cars sold, another 1,200 unsold by year's end); Chevy
engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov overhauled engine, drive-shaft;
1955 - Corvette, equipped with new suspension, 195hp
engine; tested in disguise at Pike's Peak Hill Climb (shattered
stock-car record); February 1956 - Arkus-Duntov
drove modified Corvette V-8 to two-way stock-car record of
150mph at Daytona Raceway; 1950s - did not surpass
T-Bird in sales, fulfilled initial expectations to become first
American sports car.
September 22, 1953
- World's first four-level interchange structure opened in Los
Angeles; massive concrete structure connected the freeways of
Hollywood, Harbor, Santa Ana, and Arroyo Seco.
1954 - Felix
Wankel invented modern design for rotary engine (1893
- Elwood Haynes pioneered rotary engine); dispensed with
separate pistons, cylinders, valves, and crankshafts; its
construction allowed it to apply power directly to the
transmission; can produce the same power as a conventional
engine of twice its size with four times as many parts; burns up
to twice as much gasoline as a conventional engine, a heavy
polluter; February 1957 - first truly functional
Wankel rotary engine (DKM type) ready; uses an orbiting rotor
shaped as a curved equilateral triangle (instead of moving
pistons), needed few moving parts, lightweight and compact;
August 1971 - Wankel GmbH sold to LonRho for 100
million DM ($26.3 million).
January 14, 1954
Hudson Motor Car Company agreed to
merge with Nash-Kelvinator,
merger in U.S. history (at the time), valued at $198,000,000;
new company called American Motors Corporation; recognized as
most successful postwar independent manufacturer of cars;
March 24, 1954 -
proposed merger approved;
- George Romney named AMC chairman, president, and general
led successful personal ad campaign promoting AMC Rambler as
efficient, reliable car; Rambler sales kept AMC alive;
December 28, 1954 - first Hudson Hornet with Nash engine
1954 - Ford Thunderbird prototype completed;
scaled-down Ford built for two with removable fiberglass hard
top, convertible canvas roof, V-8 engine for $2,944;
fall 1954 -
released to market on wide scale, beginning of 1955 model year;
January 10, 1956 -
Ford Motor Company registered "Thunderbird" trademark first used
in February 20, 1954 (automobiles);
December 13, 1957 - Last two-seater
T-bird produced (removable hard tops, powerful V-8 engines);
1958 - Thunderbird
(nicknamed "square bird") four-passenger car, 18 inches longer,
half ton heavier than previous year's model;
February 13, 1958 - First Ford
Thunderbird with four seats introduced (352-cubic-inch 300
horsepower V-8); sold 38,000 cars initially; one of only two
American cars to increase sales between 1957 and 1958.
T-Bird ever produced
(restored to completely original
condition in 1965) (http://www.blogcdn.com/www.autoblog.com/media/2009/01/firsttbirdbj09_lead.jpg)
June 7, 1954 - Ford Motor Company formed styling
team to design entirely new car, later named Edsel.
June 10, 1954
announced its research staff had built GM Turbocruiser, modified
GMC coach powered by gas turbine; engine consisted of single
burner with two turbine wheels (one used to drive centrifugal
compressor, second delivered power for transmission to rear
wheels of vehicle).
- Studebaker merged with Packard, became country's fourth
largest car company; 1956
- acquired by Curtiss-Wright.
October 26, 1954
- Chevrolet introduced V-8 engine.
November 19, 1954
- First automatic toll collection machine ($.25) placed in
service at the Union Toll Plaza on New Jersey's Garden State
Parkway (revenues covered roadway's construction and maintenance
costs); 1795 -non-automotive toll road first
appeared in the Blue Ridge Mountains along the Little River
Turnpike at Snicker's Gap.
April 18, 1955
- First "Walk"/"Don't Walk" lighted street signals installed.
April 19, 1955 - Volkswagen of
America, Inc. was established in Engelwood, NJ, as a sales
division for the German car company; produced its 1,000,000th
car and exceeded, for the first time, the production benchmark
of 1,000 cars per day on average.
June 27, 1955 - Illinois enacted
first automobile seat belt legislation.
July 6, 1955 - Federal Air
Pollution Control Act implemented; allocated federal funds for
research into causal analysis and control of car-emission
pollution. 1953 - Dr. Arie Haagen-Smit discovered
the nature of photochemical smog, determining that nitrogen
oxides and hydrocarbons combined with ultraviolet radiation from
the sun created smog. He also discovered that ozone played a key
role in the bonding process that created smog; 1960
- Federal Motor Vehicle Act of 1960 called for further
research and development into the control of car emissions.
1961 - California Motor Vehicle Board mandated first
automotive emissions control technology--positive crankcase
ventilation (PCV). PCV technology limited hydrocarbon emission
by returning blow-by gases from the crankcase back to a car's
cylinders, where they were burned with fuel and air; 1963
- the first Federal Clean-Air Act passed, allocated research
money for local and federal institutions to combat air
July 14, 1955
- Volkswagen introduced the Karmann-Ghia coupe at the Kasino
Hotel in Westfalia, Germany - an "image car" to accompany its
plain but reliable "Bugs and Buses." Volkswagen had contracted
with German coach-builder Karmann for their own image car, and
Karmann, in turn, had sub-contracted to Ghia (Italian design
firm ) for design offerings. Karmann-Ghia was released as a 1956
model by Volkswagen - 36hp flat four engine, sold 10,000 units
in its first full production year ,and with the release of the
convertible in 1958, production reached 18,000 units for one
year, sales peaked at 33,000 in the 1960's, last produced in
September 18, 1955
- Ford Motor Company produced its 2,000,000th V-8 engine, 23
years after the first Ford V-8 was manufactured.
December 6, 1955
- Volkswagenwerk G.M.B.H. Corporation, Wolfsburg, Germany,
registered "Volkswagen" trademark.
December 6, 1955
- The Federal government standardized the
size of license plates throughout the U.S. (individual
states had designed their own license plates, resulted in
December 31, 1955
- General Motors announced net income of $1,189,477,082
for the year; first U.S. corporation to earn more than a
billion dollars in fiscal year.
1956 - Alfred P. Sloan stepped down after 19
years as chairman of General Motors (had been hired by
William Durant after purchase of Hyatt Roller Bearing
Corporation, worked his way up to VP; DuPont family bought
out Durant in 1920, named Sloan to head GM; recognized as
creator of GM Corporation: centralized operations, imposed
financial discipline, built new corporate headquarters on
outskirts of Detroit, did not allow his ego, genius, to
interfere with shareholders' interests, focused on
consolidation, profit margin); Albert Bradley elected as
1956 - General Motors (GM) dedicated new,
$125 million GM Technical Center in Warren, MI; product of
Alfred Sloan, Harley Earl (GM stylist, car architect;
achieved fame for design of GM's 1927 LaSalle, first
production car to offer sleek, long, rounded look; hired by
Alfred Sloan to oversee styling for all GM cars);
2003 - $1
billion dollar renovation completed.
June 25, 1956
- Last Packard produced at Connor Avenue plant in Detroit,
MI; considered last true Packard car; manufactured cars in
South Bend, IN until 1958.
June 29, 1956 - President Dwight
Eisenhower signed into law Highway Revenue Act of 1956;
outlined policy of taxation with aim of creating fund for
construction of over 42,500 miles of interstate highways;
plan called for $50 billion over 13 years (total federal
budget approached $71 billion); system of taxes to pay for
system relied heavily on taxation of gasoline (Eisenhower
thought of Federal Interstate System as his greatest
achievement had pushed for national highway system since
1919 when privately funded construction of Lincoln Highway
Ford Motor Company decided on name "Edsel" for new model in
development for 1958 market year (tribute to Edsel Bryant
Ford, oldest son of founder Henry Ford, father to Henry Ford
II, who served as company president from 1919 until his
death in 1943); August 26,
1957 - rolled out first Edsel automobile
five years after conception (market research had indicated
consumers wanted more horsepower, tailfins, three-tone paint
jobs, wrap-around windshields);
September 4, 1957
- Ford Motor Co. began selling Edsels; proclaimed this day
"E-day" in celebration of the Edsel's introduction (five years
after conception, in response to careful market research that
indicated consumers wanted more horsepower, tailfins, three-tone
paint jobs, wrap-around windshields).; low price, V-8 engine
failed to overcome "ugly horse-collar grille" = negative press,
lack of sales; 1958
-earned just 1.5 percent share of auto market;
November 19, 1959
- Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of
unpopular Edsel; 1960 - line
discontinued, 110,847 manufactured.
1957 - Frank Stronach opened
one-man tool and die shop in Canada, called Multimatic; first
year's sales $13,000 (Canadian); 1960 - received
first order from General Motors to produce metal-stamped sun
visor brackets; 1968 - sales $2.6 million (US);
1969 - merged with Magna Electronics Corporation
Limited (aerospace, defense, industrial components
manufacturer); 1973 - name changed to Magna
International Inc.; 1979 - entered automotive
plastics business; 1987 - full-service supplier
for many key systems for automotive market; 1989 -
co-designed, co-developed integrated child-safety seat;
1990 - sold non-auto lines to reduce debt; formed joint
venture with Ford Motor Company to supply basic and molded
exterior components; 1999 - named by Forbes
magazine as world's top auto parts company; 2005 -
took three public operating subsidiaries private; annual sales
$22.8 billion; 2007 - made unsuccessful bid for
Chrysler (company's biggest customer).
Frank Stronach -
July 4, 1957
- Fiat launched "Nuova 500"
produced in Turin,
479cc engine, 3 doors); 1975 - when
it went out of production; 2007 - revived as new
Fiat 500 (58cm longer than the original; driver can plug iPod
straight into dashboard).
October 31, 1957 -
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. founded in California (Shotaro
Kamiya as first president); end of
1sold 958 - 287 Toyopet Crowns, one Land
Cruiser; 1997 -
Toyota Camry became best-selling car in America, surpassed Honda
November 7, 1957
- VEB Kraftfahrzeugwerk Zwickau produced first pre-series
Trabant ('Trabi', car type P 50) in Zwickau, Germany automobile
factory (40th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution);
May 1, 1958 -
renamed VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau (VEB
Sachsenring); July 10 1958
- final production line started; East Germany's answer to
Volkswagen; made of plasticized cotton waste, called Duroplast
with 72-horsepower, two-stroke engine (56 mph top speed);
November 9, 1989 -
East German citizens allowed to buy western cars;
1990 - company
renamed Sachsenring Automobilwerke GmbH (Sachsenring AG);
April 30, 1991 -
last Trabant produced; about 3 million made, more than 53,000
remain in Germany; May 30, 2002
- filed for insolvency protection;
February 2006 - Sachsenring AG acquired
by Härterei und Qualitätsmanagement GmbH (HQM) of Leipzig.
December 28, 1957 - 2,000,000th
January 9, 1958 - Toyota, Datsun (later Nissan)
brand names made first appearances in United States at Imported
Motor Car Show in Los Angeles, CA.
March 16, 1958
- Ford Motor Company produced 50,000,000th car, a Thunderbird.
March 18, 1958 - Plastone
Company Inc. registered "Turtle Wax 'Hard Shell Finish' Auto
Polish" trademark first used January 11, 1955 (automobile
- Congress passed Automobile Information Disclosure Act of 1958
(Senate formed Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee
automobile marketing practices subcommittee in 1955 in response
to dealer complaints of abusive treatment by automakers,
particularly in awarding of franchises; chaired by Senator Almer
Stillwell Monroney [D-OK]; Congress passed Automobile Dealers'
Day in Court Act in 1956, provided some recourse for dealers
with complaints against manufacturers; scope of committee
hearings grew to encompass deceptive dealer practices; Senator
Monroney had drafted price-sticker bill in 1958 with help of
David Busby [special counsel to committee]); required auto price
stickers on new cars - labeled with suggested retail price,
details about, prices for standard and optional equipment,
vehicle's make, model, serial number, its final assembly point,
dealer destination, method and cost of transportation to
dealership; became known in auto industry as Monroney stickers;
fuel economy, crash-test ratings subsequently added.
19, 1958 - Production of elegant Packard line halted
halt due to lagging luxury car sales; came shortly after
Packard's acquisition of Studebaker, management of which assumed
control of company after merger.
October 16, 1958
- Chevrolet introduced El Camino, sedan-pickup created to
compete with Ford's Ranchero model; discontinued after two
years; 1964 - given second life as Chevelle series
truck, in line of cars commonly termed "muscle cars."
April 1959 - Production version
of BMC mini shown to press; August 1959 - British Motor
Corporation (BMC) launced the Mini car; designed by Sir Alec
June 4, 1959 - Kihachiro
Kawashima selected as Executive Vice President, General Manager
of American Honda Motor Company (seven employees,
opened shop in small storefront office on Pico Boulevard in Los
Angeles to serve consumers wanting small, light, easy to handle
and maintain two-wheeled vehicles.
1959 - Chevrolet Corporation registered Corvair,
name for new rear-engine compact car; became controversial,
accused of being "unsafe at any speed," with much criticism
directed toward its handling (1972 government study later
September 2, 1959 - Ford Motor Company
introduced new Ford Falcon (small, fuel-efficient car), in first
nationwide closed-circuit television news conference;
1959 - Plymouth produced first Valiant at plant
in Hamtramck, MI; code named "Falcon" after 1955 Chrysler
Falcon, plans for new model went awry when Chrysler marketing
team found out at last minute that Ford had already registered
name "Falcon" for its compact car; logo castings had already
been made, marketing plans finalized; held company-wide contest
for new name; "Valiant" emerged winner; no time to make new logo
castings, car simply introduced as Valiant, featured only mylar
sticker on engine for identification;
1961 - Valiant became Plymouth Valiant,
new logo castings and all.
November 9, 1960 - Ford named Robert S. McNamara
president (hired in 1946, former intelligence officer from Air
Force, called a "Whiz Kid"); first non-Ford to serve in post as
Henry Ford II became chief executive officer;
January 1, 1961 -
McNamara resigned from Ford, became secretary of defense for new
administration of President John F. Kennedy.
November 19, 1959
- Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of
November 18, 1960 -
Newberg, new president at Chrysler, announced termination of
just two weeks after 1961
DeSoto introduced to uninterested market.
1960 - First International Harvester Scout
rolled off assembly line at International Harvester's Fort
Wayne plant; introduced to public asversatile, affordable
vehicle for both passenger, cargo transport; available in both
two- and four-wheel drive, featured four-cylinder engine, with
three-speed, floor-mounted transmission; best-selling vehicle in
IH history; 1971 -
replaced by improved Scout II.
February 28, 1961 - Ralph R. Teetor, of
Hagerstown, IN (blind since age 6), received a patent for a
"Speed Control Device for an Automotive Vehicle" ("...offers
resistance to advancing movement of the throttle control member
of the engine of the vehicle when a predetermined vehicle speed
is reached...novel means for holding the throttle control member
at a position for operating the vehicle at such predetermined
speed when the driver so desires, the driver thus not being
required to manipulate the throttle control member while the
vehicle continues to be operated at a predetermined speed");
cruise control; assigned to Perfect Circle Corporation.;
March 16, 1961
- Jaguar Cars Ltd. introduced XK-E, or E-Type, at Geneva Auto
Show; top speed of 150mph, a 0 to 60 time of 6.5 seconds;
averaged an unheard of 17 miles per gallon;
mid 1960s - E-Type
became most famous sports car in world.
May 20, 1961 -
Ford Motor Company completed highly modified stretch Lincoln
Continental convertible sedan (later known as the SS-100-X) for
the U.S. Secret Service to be used as a presidential limousine;
carried President John F. Kennedy down Elm Street in Dallas,
Texas, when he was assassinated in 1963.
October 3, 1961 -
United Auto Workers (UAW) struck Ford Motor Company (lasted 17
days; first since first union contract with Ford was signed in
1941had experienced - "Battle of the Overpass" in 1941 in which
Ford's security force beat union organizers attempting to pass
out UAW leaflets along Miller Road Overpass in Dearborn, MI;
Ford's first closed-shop contract with UAW in 1941 had covered
123,000 employees (ratified after four years of struggle, 10-day
strike); Ford last of Big Three auto firms to accept
November 18, 1961
- Chrysler announced termination of DeSoto line of cars (two
weeks after the 1961 DeSoto was introduced; first model had been
built in 1928 as mid-priced, six-cylinder car; first 12
months of production set sales record that stood for 30 years).
March 14, 1962
- GM produced 75-millionth US-made car.
August 9, 1962 - Chrysler
Corporation set industry milestone, announced for 1963 a
five-year, 50,000-mile warranty covering all of its cars and
August 20, 1962
- First 1963 Ford Thunderbird produced; promoted as "personal"
car rather than sports car, never competed against
imports, enormous success; August 12, 1963 - first
1964 Thunderbird rolled off assembly line.
September 11, 1963
- Robert Morgan (born Henry Morgenstern), former founder of
Safeway Brakes, former door-to-door haring aids salesman, and
Tony Martino opened first AAMCO Transmissions Inc. in Newark,
NJ; November 1963
- began franchising (automotive specialization); redefined
automotive repair industry;
February 8, 1966 - AAMCO Automatic Transmissions
Inc. registered "AAMCO Automatic Transmissions Inc." trademark
first used December 15, 1959 (automobile repair services);
1967 - Martino
interest acquired by Morgan (later founded Maaco, auto paint,
repair chain); 1992 - Keith Morgan (son) took over as CEO;
March 7, 2006 -
$400 million in sales; acquired by Cottman Transmission Systems
Inc. (Horsham, PA, competitor for 43 years; owned by American
Capital, publicly traded buyout fund); created one of country's
largest complete car-care companies (more than 1,100 stores
throughout United States); Cottman changed name to Aamco.
October 30, 1963 -
tractor maker, debuted
Lamborghini 350GTV (to compete with Ferrari) at Turin auto show; 1964
- drastically redesigned 350GT went into production, sol over 100 of expensive, quiet, sophisticated
high-performance cars (capable of speeds of 155mph with maximum 320hp);
1973 - 51% of
acquired by Georges-Henri Rossetti,
long-time friend and Swiss businessman, for
$600,000; 1974 - Lamborghi’s 49% stake
acquired by René Leimer (friend of Georges-Henri Rossetti);
introduced Lamborghini Countach (Marcello Gandini design);
1978 - entered
bankruptcy; 1980 -
court appointed Jean-Claude, Patrick Mimran,
food entrepreneurs, to administer company during
- introduced Lamborghini Jalpa (designed by Bertone;
doscontinued in 1988); 1986
first four-wheel-drive vehicle (discontinued in
1993); April 24, 1987
- control of Nuova Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A.
acquired from Mimran brothers by Chrysler Corporation for
$25.2 million; January 1990
- introduced Diablo (designed by Marcello Gandini);
1994 - acquired by
Indonesian investment group headed by Tommy Suharto (Suharto
family); 1998 -
Chrysler acquired by Daimler-Benz for paid $37 billion (largest
industrial takeover ever, largest acquisition of U.S. company by
foreign buyer); renamed DaimlerChrysler AG; created Murciélago
(Diablo's replacement); August 4
by Audi AG; 2003 -
introduced all-wheel drive Gallardo;
2006 - launched open-top Gallardo
Spyder; 2007 -
launched Reventon, most expensive Lamborghini (£840,000);
2009 - sold LP
550-2 Balboni (limited
first rear-wheel drive Lamborghini) to pay homage to
Lamborghini’s legendary test driver Valentino Balboni; Gallardo
was most successful car (over 13,000 cars sold);
2011 - introduced
Aventador (Murciélago replacement) at Geneva motor show;
2013 - launched
Veneno at Geneva motor show (based on Aventador, commemorated
50th anniversary of Lamborghin).
December 9, 1963
- Last American-made Studebaker produced, factory in South
Bend, IN, closed forever; 1966 - Studebaker's
Canadian factories shut down, Studebaker passed into history;
Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, started during the
Civil War, had once been the world's largest manufacturer of
horse-drawn carriages, converted to auto manufacturing (had
merged with Packard Motor Car Company in 1954).
December 17, 1963
- U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act, a sweeping set of laws
designed to protect the environment from air pollution; first
legislation to place pollution controls on the automobile
Chevrolet introduced Malibu, top-level midsize car (version of
Chevelle); 1983 - discontinued; 1997
- resurrected by GM to compete with Toyota Camry, Honda Accord.
January 17, 1964
- First Porsche-Carrera GTS delivered to Los Angeles
March 9, 1964
- First Ford Mustang rolled off assembly line;
1964 - Ford Motor Co. unveiled new Mustang model on
first day of New York World's Fair in Flushing, Queens (New
York); brainchild of Lee Iacocca, his production team;
essentially Ford Falcon with new frame, body; April 17,
1965 - Ford introduced GT Equipment Group as option on
Mustang, created first Mustang GT (Mustang-related innovation
was new strategy of marketing upgrade packages); base price for
Mustang was $2,368, but buyers purchased average of $1,000 worth
1965 - Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson,
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Canada-United States
Automotive Agreement (Auto Pact); eliminated trade tariffs
between two countries, created single North American
manufacturing market; Americans got continental-wide free trade
zone in auto parts, Canadians won production guarantees, content
requirement (all auto product imports south of their border
would come from Canada); elevated industrial policy to
international level; more efficient market lowered prices,
increased production created thousands of jobs and wages for
Canadians; automobile, parts production surpassed pulp and
paper, became Canada's most important industry; trade deficit
turned to trade surplus (billions of dollars annually to
Canada); left Canadian automobile industry in hands of American
- comprehensive U.S.-Canada free trade agreement supplanted Auto
Pact (invalidated by WTO invalidated as obstacle to free trade.
January 28, 1965
- General Motors released estimate of company's earnings for
fiscal year 1964: $1.735 billion, largest profit ever reported
by an American company (strong sales, strong economy, Pontiac
August 11, 1965
- Ford Bronco, intended to compete against Jeep's CJ-5,
International Harvester's Scout, introduced, very simple,
without options as power steering, automatic transmission
(manufactured for 12 years, with 18,000 produced in 1966 alone).
October 20, 1965 -Last 544
driven off Volvo assembly line at Lundy plant in Sweden (first-year 544 sales
in 1958 had put Volvo over
100,000-exported automobiles mark); total of 440,000 Volvo PV544s
produced, over half exported.
December 7, 1965
- Chevrolet produced 3,000,000th car for year (first time ever).
February 10, 1966
- Ralph Nader testified before Senate, reinforced his earlier
claims that automobile industry was socially irresponsible,
detailed methods industry used in attempting to silence him;
attacked automotive industry's unwillingness to consider safety
of consumer; created methodology for contemporary consumer
advocacy of federally regulated safety standards.
March 16, 1966
- General Motors produced 100,000,000th car, Oldsmobile
August 11, 1966
- First Chevy Camaro (French for "comrade, pal, or chum") drove
out of manufacturing plant in Norwood, OH; hit with public, base
price of $2,466 for a six-cylinder engine, three-speed manual
September 9, 1966
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act signed into law;
mandated use of seatbelts, established federal safety standards
with strict penalties for violations.
1967 - First
Chevrolet Camaro produced in hurried program to deliver
competitor to Mustang (codename: "Panther" during development
program); more than 200,000 sold in first model year (11% of
Chevrolet's total sales); 2002
- production stopped; nearly 4.8 million cars made.
1967 - Chung Se
Yung placed in charge of Hyundai Motor Corporation, tiny car
operation at Hyundai Group (founded in 1947 by older brother,
Chung Ju Yung, as engineering, construction company; had
joined Hyundai Engineering and Construction division of Hyundai
Group in 1957); December 1975
- introduced its first Korean car (based on Japanese technology
from Mitsubishi), Pony; became popular with South Korean
consumers, exported subcompact to Canada in 1984, to United
States as low-priced Excel in 1986;
October 1998 - acquired Kia Motors for
$1.4 billion; 1999
- lost control over the Hyundai Motor Company, forced out by
1967 - Construction of Volga Automobile Works
began in Togliatti in Soviet Union;
April 1970 - Zhiguli automobiles (later
known as "Lada" autos) rolled off assembly lines; became (and
remains) largest producer of small European automobiles (in
association with Fiat).
November 1, 1967 - Robert W. Kearns, of Detroit,
MI, received a patent for a "Windshield Wiper System with
Intermittent Operation" ("...wiper dwells for a time interval
during a portion of each cycle of wiper operation"); sued Ford
in 1978, Chrysler in 1982 for patent infringement; Ford settled,
paid Kearns $10.2 million; Chrysler was ordered to pay Kearns
$18.7 million and interest, upheld in 1995 by Supreme Court on
appeal by Chrysler.
February 1, 1969 - John DeLorean named top
executive (general manager) at Chevrolet; pioneered successful
GTO, Grand Prix models; 1973
- sold record 3,000,000 cars and trucks; walked away from
Chevrolet to start own company;
1974 - raised nearly $200 million to finance new
venture, DeLorean Motor Company.
March 8, 1969 - Pontiac introduced
Firebird Trans Am; originally limited model Firebird; became
symbol in muscle car niche of automobile manufacturing.
June 30, 1969
- Last of
4,204,925 U.S.-produced Nash Ramblers produced.
April 1, 1970 - AMC introduced Gremlin,
America's first sub-compact car; designed to compete with
imported Volkswagens, Japanese sub-compacts.
September 11, 1970
- Ford Pinto introduced; cost less than $2,000, designed to
compete with compact imports; contained a fatal design flaw -
placement of the gas tank meant tank was likely to rupture and
explode if car was involved in a rear end collision of over
20mph. Eventually revealed that Ford knew about the design flaw
before the Pinto's release. An internal cost-benefit analysis
calculated a cost to Ford of $11 per car to correct the flaw, a
total $137 million to the company (compared to $49.5
million in potential lawsuits from the mistake and an assigned a
value of $200,000 for each death predicted to result from the
flaw). Report concluded that correcting the design mistake
was "inefficient". 1978 - a California jury
awarded a record-breaking $128 million to a claimant in the Ford
November 21, 1970 - Ford
introduced Mustang Boss 351 at Detroit Auto Show; featured
powerful 8-cyclinder engine built on Ford's new "Cleveland"
block, factory rated at 300bhp; 1971 - only
production year, 1,806 units made (vs. 500,000 Mustangs
manufactured and sold in 1965 alone).
December 10, 1970 - Lee Iacocca became
president of Ford Motor Company (had Ford as an engineer in the
1940s); October 15, 1978
- Iacocca ousted from Ford.
February 4, 1971 - Rolls Royce declared
itself bankrupt (state ownership) due to early problems with
three-shaft turbofan concept of RB211 aero-engine for Lockheed
L-1011 Tri-Star wide body airliners;
1973 - car business spun off as separate
December 4, 1971
- General Motors recalled 6,700,000 vehicles that were
vulnerable to motor mount failure; largest voluntary safety
recall in industry's history.
December 31, 1971 - President Richard
Nixon signed National Air Quality Control Act, called for 90%
reduction in automobile emissions by 1975; tightened
air-pollution controls, fines in other industries.
February 17, 1972 -
15,007,034th Volkswagen Beetle rolled out of Volkswagen factory
in Wolfsburg, Germany, surpassed ord Model T's previous
production record to become most heavily produced car in
history; brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche, developed Volkswagen
on orders from German government to produce affordable car for
the people; 1998 - Volkswagen released "New
February 12, 1973
- Four metric distance road signs, first in U.S., erected along
Interstate 71 in Ohio; showed distance in both miles, kilometers
between Columbus and Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland.
March 1, 1973
- Honda Civic introduced to United States market.
October 17, 1973
- Dawn of fuel efficiency: 11 Arab oil producers increased oil
prices, cut back production in response to support of United
States, other nations for Israel in Yom Kippur War; OPEC, (The
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), approved oil
embargo at meeting in Tangiers, Morocco: gasoline prices
quadrupled, U.S. car companies (automobiles typically averaged
less than 15 miles per gallon), couldn't meet sudden demand for
small, fuel-efficient vehicles, public bought imports,
especially Japanese sturdy compact cars; foreign auto
manufacturers flourished in large American market; 1980's
own Japanese-inspired compacts.
October 23, 1973
- Toyota U.S.A. held its first (three-day) national news
conference in Los Angeles, CA to discuss the fuel efficiency of
its automobiles (5 days after 11 Arab oil producers increased
oil prices and cut back production in response to the support of
the United States and other nations for Israel in the Yom Kippur
War); American consumers suffered gasoline rationing, a
quadrupling of prices, huge lines at gas stations - foreign auto
manufacturers flourished in the large American market.
November 25, 1973 - In response
to1973 oil crisis, President Richard M. Nixon called for a
Sunday ban on the sale of gasoline to consumers; part of a
larger plan announced by Nixon earlier in the month to achieve
energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980; ban lasted
until the crisis resolved in March 1974; other government
legislation, such as the imposing of a national speed limit of
55mph, extended indefinitely. Experts maintained that the
reduction of speed on America's highways would prevent an
estimated 9,000 traffic fatalities per year. Although many
motorists resented the new legislation, one long-lasting benefit
for impatient travelers was the ability to make right turns at a
red light, a change that the authorities estimated would
conserve a significant amount of gasoline;
55mph speed limit repealed, legislation relating to highway
speeds rested in state hands.
November 29, 1973
- Chrysler Corp. announced plans to halt production at seven
plants (week General Motors disclosed temporary closings);
affected 38,000 workers; Chrysler looked to slash inventory,
shift production from boat-sized autos, to smaller, more
January 2, 1974
- President Richard Nixon signed the Emergency Highway Energy
Conservation Act, legislation required states to limit highway
speeds to 55 mph.
January 12, 1975 - Chrysler
initiated 'cash back on purchases' to consumers in marketing
campaign during Super Bowl IX (ads featured Joe Garagiola in
barker's coat and straw hat: "Buy a car, get a check"); auto
rebate program created by Robert B. McCurry to help dealers thin
their inventories of slow-selling cars and trucks.
April 12, 1977
- General Motors (GM) announced it had dropped plans to produce
a Wankel rotary engine on the grounds that its poor fuel economy
would hurt sales.
September 13, 1977
- General Motors (GM) introduced first diesel automobiles in
America, Oldsmobile 88, 98 models; GM claimed diesel fuel
efficiency was 40% better than gasoline-powered cars (though
balanced by higher emission of soot, odor, and air pollutants).
November 15, 1977
- Workers at Ford's Mahwah plant completed the 100,000,000th
Ford to be built in America: 1978 Ford Fairmont four-door
sedan (line discontinued after 1983 model year).
December 5, 1977
- Plymouth introduced Horizon, first American-made small car
with front-wheel drive (drive technology had reduced size, cost of front-wheel drive systems).
General Motors sold record 9.55 million cars, trucks worldwide;
2005 - first time since 1978 to break 9 million
sales mark (sold 9.17 million vehicles).
July 1978 - Ford Motor Company
Chairman, Henry Ford II, fired Lee Iacocca from position of
president (since 1970); ended bitter personal struggle
between two men; Iacocca was 32-year Ford employee;
October 15, 1978 - Iacocca
November 2, 1978 - Chrysler hired Lee Iacocca
as President; September 20, 1979 - elected
14, 1978 - Ford built
September 7, 1979
- Chrysler Motor Corp. announced it would post record pre-tax
losses for year (close to Bethlehem Steel's record-setting
pre-tax loss of $911 million) - due to inventory and production
problems. Company executives devised a "rescue plan" - centered
on asking for roughly $1 billion in Federal assistance; took
steps to unload the company's surplus of unsold cars; instituted
September 20, 1979
- Lee Iacocca elected chairman of Chrysler Corporation; rebuilt
Chrysler through layoffs, cutbacks, hard-selling advertising,
government loan guarantee; 1983 - Chrysler moved
from verge of bankruptcy to competitive force in automobile
market, paid back all of its government loans in less than four
years. 1984 - Iacocca autobiography became
best-seller, broke all records for a business book.
December 3, 1979
- American Motors produced last bubble-topped Pacer.
December 19, 1979
- Senate approved
Guarantee Act of 1979,
billion loan for Chrysler Corporation; 1980 -
Chrysler reported record losses in excess of $1.7 billion;
late 1980s - automaker was posting record profits
under leadership of Lee Iacocca.
7, 1980 - Jimmy Carter signed Chrysler Loan
Guarantee Act of 1979; authorized $1.2 billion in federal loans
to save failing Chrysler Corporation = largest federal bailout
in history; required Chrysler to find billions in private
financing in order to receive federal money.
Henry Ford II resigned
as Chairman of Ford Motor Company, named Philip Caldwell his
successor; era of Ford family as automotive dynasty
temporarily ended; reorganized company, instituted modern
May 13, 1980 - Douglas A. Fraser, president of UAW, named to Chrysler Corporation Board of Directors, first
union representative ever to sit on board of major U.S.
corporation; 1982 - faced with Chrysler's imminent
collapse, Fraser traded millions of dollars in union guarantees
(to save jobs) for options on Chrysler stock; Chrysler
turnaround rewarded union.
October 26, 1980
- General Motors announced a $567 million loss, biggest
quarterly drop ever posted by an American company; pre-tax
losses for quarter topped out at $953 million.
May 15, 1981 - 20,000,000th Volkswagen Beetle
produced at Volkswagen plant in Puebla, Mexico; had come first came to Mexico
in 1954 as part of museum exhibit entitled
"Germany and Its Industry" [250 Beetles were assembled in
Mexico]; had acquired first assembly plant in
Xalostoc in 1962, eventually assembled 50,000 Beetles).
8, 1981 - Mitsubishi Motors Corporation,
automotive division of Mitsubishi conglomerate of Japan, began
selling cars in U.S. under its own name (previously only in
partnerships with American automakers).
September 9, 1982
- Henry Ford II retired (had taken over from his father as President
of Ford Motor company in 1945: 1) quickly set about reorganizing
and modernizing the company; 2) fired Personnel Chief Harry
Bennett (strong-arm tactics, anti-union stance had made Ford
notorious for its bad labor relations); 3) 'Whiz Kids" - brought
in new talent (group of former U.S. Air Force intelligence
officers, among them Robert McNamara); 3) greatly expanded
international operations; 4) introduced two classic models, the
Mustang and the Thunderbird).
September 28, 1982 - Ford opened joint UAW
(United Auto Workers), Ford National Development and Training
Center (Dearborn, MI); provided education and training to
workers, community programs, in any of six major programs (from
math skills to pension plans); offered relocation assistance,
unemployment programs for laid-off workers; Ford subsidized
training center with grants and tuition assistance.
19, 1982 - John DeLorean arrested in Los Angeles
airport motel (caught on film during FBI sting operation) with
briefcase containing $24 million dollars of cocaine on charges
of drug trafficking, money laundering (apparent attempt to make
drug deal in order to rescue his financially ailing company);
1984 - federal
jury ruled he was victim of entrapment, acquitted of all
charges; credibility ruined, from top to bottom of automotive
March 26, 1984
- Ford Escort named best-selling car in world for third year in
row (Ford's attempt to design a "world car" that could be sold
with minor variations all over world).
July 11, 1984
- Government orders air bags or seat belts required in
cars by 1989
December 4, 1984
- General Motors announced that it would stop production of
diesel engines due to tougher emission laws (get excellent
mileage, produce plenty of power, tend to be noisy, produce
7, 1985 - GM launched Saturn Corporation as
wholly owned but independent subsidiary (Saturn - affordable
plastic-bodied two-door car).
June 27, 1985 - Federal highway
officials decertified Route 66; stretched from Chicago to
Santa Monica, CA.
30, 1985 - Saturn Corporation announced
first plant would be built in Spring Hill, Tennessee
(General Motors had initiated small car project in 1982,
code-named Saturn; planned that Saturn should become unique
factory experiment); 1990
- first Saturn car driven off assembly;
May 1993 -
first profitable month; 1995
- record sales, expanding operation to Japan;
1998 - first
year-to-year sales decline, down 9.9% in volume from 1997.
August 26, 1985
- Yugo, manufactured in Yugoslavia, introduced to U.S.
market; marketed as lower-cost alternative, quickly became
infamous for its poor quality of construction.
September 10, 1985
- Karl Hassel, of Plain City, OH received a patent for a
"Convertible Seat for Vehicles" ("for use by children in
automobiles and other vehicles which is foldable and covered
within the usual adult sized seating of the vehicle
providing the usual appearance, and which is unfoldable and
uncoverable to provide a simply constructed children's
safety seat, upon and within the adult seating"); built-in
child's car seat.
December 25, 1985 - Longest battery-powered
drive in history: from Land's End, southernmost point in
Britain, to John o' Groat's, Scotland, northernmost point in
Great Britain = 875 miles on single battery charge in
battery-powered Freight Rover Leyland Sherpa driven by Lucas
electric motor (by David Turner and Tim Pickhard).
December 26, 1985
- Ford introduced Taurus, product of years of engineering;
named by Lewis Veraldi, "father" of Taurus concept, John
Risk, his chief planner (each of whose wives were born under
astrological sign of the bull); base model sold for $9,645,
equipped with 2.5-liter, four-cylinder engine, front-
wheel-drive, three-speed automatic transmission; became
enormously popular, lifted Ford to record profits in late
1980s; October 29, 2006
- discontinued; 7 million built.
April 9, 1986
- French government ruled against privatization of leading
French carmaker Renault (France's second largest carmaker to
PSA Peugot-Citroen); 1994
- government sold shares of Renault to public for first time
at 165 francs per share (French government remained the
majority shareholder); 1996
- Renault lost over $800 million (Renault, Peugot were two
weakest of Europe's Big Seven carmakers).
September 8, 1986
- Nissan Motor Company Ltd. opened Sunderland, England
plant; first Japanese automobile factory in Europe.
November 6, 1986
- Bankrupt Alfa Romeo company approved acquisition by
Fiat, fellow Italian automobile manufacturer, shortly after
rejecting takeover bid by Ford Motor Company;
1997 - Alfa
Lancia Spa opened.
April 23, 1987 - Chrysler Corporation
announced pending purchase of Lamborghini;
released final Lamborghini Countache (in recognition of the
company's founding in 1963); top speed of 184mph, 0 to 60 in
five seconds; 1990
- built Lamborghini Diablo (first four-wheel drive car road
car to break 200mph, top speed of 204mph; 0 to 60 in four
1987 - Enzo Ferrari (89), in ceremony commemorating his
company's 40th year, unveiled Ferrari F40 at factory in
Maranello, Italy; first production sports car to top 200mph
barrier; capable of 0-60mph in 3.5 seconds, could hold top speed
of 201mph; Porsche 959 major competition.
1988 - Ford
reported net income of $5.3 billion, world record for an
June 2, 1988
- Consumer Reports called for ban on Suzuki Samurai automobile.
January 7, 1989
- Dodge Viper introduced at North American International
Automobile Show; modernized tribute to classic Shelby Cobra;
1992 - production version delivered - 450 horsepower
at 5,200 rpms, capable of top speed of over 190 mph.
January 29, 1989
- Global Motors, American company that imported the Yugo
(Yugoslavian-made economy car that sold for thousands of dollars
less than its nearest competitor), filed for bankruptcy; low
price made it a popular car for a few years in the mid-1980s;
underpowered, unreliable, could punch holes in the body with a
wooden pencil, poor warranties.
February 10, 1989
- Ford Motor Company announced 1988 net income of $5.3 billion,
world's record for an automotive company.
September 1, 1989 - Toyota sold
first Lexus, launched new luxury division; 1983 -
Chairman Eiji Toyota proposed luxury car that could compete with
the world's best; project given the code name "F1"(F for
"flagship," numeral 1 recalling the high performance of Formula
1 race cars; 1985 - prototype, designed by chief
engineers Shoiji Jimbo and Ichiro Suzuki, had been completed in
1985; top secret project had been unveiled in 1987 after extensive testing).
September 1, 1989 - Federal
government passed new car safety legislation, required all newly
manufactured cars to install an air bag on the driver's side.
September 22, 1989
- Chrysler Corporation sold 50 percent of its interest in
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, for potential gain of $310
million, possibly because of disagreements between two companies
over Mitsubishi's U.S. sales, distribution.
November 11, 1989
- Jaguar became subsidiary of Ford.
1990 - Toyota held 10% share of
American automobile market, sold at least 1 million vehicles in
U. S.; July 2006 - passed Ford as #2 U.S.
automaker in sales (behind GM).
March 15, 1990
- Ford Explorer introduced.
August 6, 1991
- Peugeot SA announced withdrawal from United States market, due
to lagging sales (founded 1896).
July 2, 1992
- Original Corvette engineer Zora Arkus Duntov drove
one-millionth Chevrolet Corvette off of assembly line in Bowling
Green, KY; helped develop small-block V-8 engine to increase
Corvette's power; introduced Duntov high-lift cam-shaft;
introduced fuel injection; retired from Chevrolet in 1975.
October 12, 1993 - One-millionth Camry
rolled off Toyota assembly line (decade after first introduced);
1997 - Toyota
Camry became best-selling car in America.
November 19, 1993
- Toyota, General Motors signed historic agreement to sell Chevy
Cavalier in Japan as Toyota Cavalier (had been introduced as
Detroit's answer to Japan's fuel-efficient, well-made compacts
in 1981; top-selling U.S. car in 1984).
December 19, 1994
- Rolls-Royce announced future cars would feature 12-cylinder
motors manufactured by Germany's BMW.
July 13, 1995 - Chrysler
Corporation opened car dealership in downtown Hanoi, Vietnam;
July 20, 1995 - opened another dealership in Ho Chi
Minh City, Vietnam, with intention of marketing 200 import
vehicles per year; September 6 - received
permission from Vietnamese government to assemble vehicles in
Vietnam, allowed Chrysler to construct production facility in
Dong Nai Province, Southern Vietnam, with aim of manufacturing
500 to 1,000 Dodge Dakota pick-up trucks for Vietnamese market
April 3, 1996 - Museum of Modern Art in
New York City placed Jaguar E-Type (released in 1961) in its
permanent exhibit; third car to be honored by curators of
museum's permanent exhibit.
September 17, 1996 - Executives for Ford
Motor Company, United Auto Workers (UAW) signed three-year
contract that promised to retain 95% of Ford's hourly wage jobs
for union workers, regardless of retirements or departures,
increased workers' pension pay; union victory in era when
competition-conscious corporations were cutting jobs or shipping
1996 - Volkswagen executive Jose Ignacio Lopez
resigned under charges of industrial espionage; General Motors
charged that Lopez, its former worldwide chief of purchasing,
had stolen trade secrets from the company in 1993 when he
defected to Volkswagen along with three other GM managers;
January 1997 - VW
and GM announced a settlement: Volkswagen would pay General
Motors $100 million and agree to buy at least $1 billion in
parts from GM; confirmed that the three other former GM managers
accused of industrial espionage had all either resigned or were
due to take administrative leave; GM agreed to drop all legal
September 4, 1997 - Last Ford
Thunderbird rolled off assembly line in Lorain, OH.
March 30, 1998
- German automaker BMW bought Rolls-Royce for $570 million.
May 7, 1998 -
Daimler-Benz AG agreed to buy Chrysler Corp. for $38 billion;
November 12, 1998
- completed merger with Chrysler, renamed Daimler-Chrysler.
June 5, 1998
- Strike at General Motors parts factory near Detroit closed
five assembly plants, idled workers nationwide; walkout lasted
July 13, 1998 - General Motors
announced recall of 800,000 vehicles due to malfunctioning
airbags (number of Chevrolet and Pontiac cars displayed "an
increased risk of an air bag deployment in a low speed crash or
when an object strikes the floor pan").
2001 - Ford Motor Co. announced plans to spend more than
$2 billion to replace up to 13 million Firestone tires on its
vehicles because of safety concerns.
July 30, 2003
- Last "classic" Volkswagen Beetle rolled off production line at
VW’s Puebla, Mexico, plant; part of 3,000-unit final edition,
sent to museum in Wolfsburg, Germany, where Volkswagen
headquartered (Beetle, with rear-mounted, air-cooled-engine, had
been banned in America
in 1977 for failing to meet safety, emission standards; worldwide
sales shrank; classic Beetle sold only in
Mexico in 1988).
31, 2003 - Harley-Davidson 100th Anniversary Party held
in Milwaukee's Veterans Park.
2005 - Mercedes-Benz USA achievedall-time sales
record of 224,421 new vehicles; highest sales volume in its
21, 2005 - General Motors Corp. announced it
would close 12 facilities, lay off 30,000 workers in North
December 29, 2005
- General Motors's stock traded at 20-year low of $18.33.history.
January 23, 2006
- William Clay Ford, CEO of Ford Motor Company, announced
company's turnaround plan, called "Way Forward" (second time in
four years Ford has restructured its North American auto
division): 1) closing 14 plants (reduces
North American production capacity by 1.2 million, or 26
percent, by 2008),
2) eliminating 30,000 jobs in the next six years, a
quarter of Ford's North American workforce,
3) cutting at least $6 billion in
annual costs by 2010
reported losses in
North America for five of the past six quarters;
hurt by: decreased sales of sport
utility vehicles, increased health care and materials costs,
increased competition and labor contracts that limit plant
closures and job cuts, 10 straight years
of U.S. market-share losses - 18.6% of U.S. market in 2005, down
from 25.7% decade earlier, U.S. sales have dropped by more than
1 million units annually since 1999; Toyota passed Ford in 2003 as world's No.
January 26, 2006
- General Motors reported its worst year in last 45 years
(shareholders had lost 60% of their money in last two years):
$8.6 billion loss for 2005 (subsequently revised upward to
$10.6 billion), $15.13 a share (vs. profit of $2.8 billion in
2004; fifth consecutive quarterly loss; biggest loss since
1992); GM's market share fell to lowest level since 1925; foreign auto companies held just over 43%
market in 2005, their highest share ever; Toyota earned $11
billion in year that ended in March 2005.
February 7, 2006 - GM
announced: 1) cut its dividend in half for the first time
in 13 years ($2 to $1 per share = saved $565 million a year), 2)
50% reduction in CEO's annual salary of $2.2-million,
30% cut in pay for GM’s vice chairman, compensation cut
for other board members, 3) restructure pension plan for
salaried workers, 4) revise health care benefits to reduce liability by $4.8 billion before taxes; November 2005
- announced plans to shed 30,000 jobs, close nine assembly
plants (lead to savings of $7 billion by end of 2006; 1 GM
share bought at end of 1960 = 11.6 shares today, worth more than
$500 (pre-transactions costs) = < 6% compounded return over 45
22, 2006 - General Motors announced one of
largest employee buyout plans in U.S. corporate history: agreed
to finance buyouts, early-retirement packages offered to as many
as 131,000 employees of GM, Delphi Corp. (parts supplier) =
removed whole generation of workers hired in 1960's, 1970's from
assembly line; June 26, 2006
- GM said over 35,000 workers (almost third of hourly work
force) had accepted sweeping package of buyouts (company's bid
to reduce costly benefits).
August 1, 2006 - Market share of Detroit
auto companies had fallen to 52% in July 2006, lowest point in
history (52.2% in October 2005): auto sales figures showed that
Toyota passed Ford Motor Company to rank as
second-biggest-selling auto company in U.S.; Honda outsold DaimlerChrysler's
Chrysler group for first time; General Motors held27%
share of auto market; Chrysler - 10% (down from 13% in July
2005); Toyota passed DaimlerChrysler (including Chrysler, Mercedes
Benz) in April 2006 to rank as third-biggest company in terms of American
September 18, 2006
- Ford bought rights to Rover name from BMW for approximately £6
October 29, 2006
- Final Ford Taurus rolled off assembly line in Atlanta, GA (first introduced on December 26, 1985; peak sales in 1992 of
409,751 units; competed against Camry, Accord for best-selling
car in U.S. several times, won title five straight years through
1996; 7 million built).
April 24, 2007 - Toyota Motor Company replaced
General Motors as world's largest automaker; first time since
1931; sold 2.35 million cars, trucks in most recent quarter,
about 109,000 more than GM.
May 14, 2007 - Cerebrus Capital
Management (private equity firm) acquired 80.1% interest in
Chrysler from Daimler A.G. for $7.4 billion (acquired by Daimler
in 1998 for $36 billion); renamed Chrysler Holdings; Daimler
paid $677 million in cash in return for release from $18 billion
health/pension liabilities; retained 19.9% interest in Chrysler;
overestimated potential of synergies; first private auto company
in Detroit since 1956 (Ford went public).
February 2008 -
"Toyota Way" - expects to sell 10.4 million cars in 2009 (double
of sales in 2000:
26, 2008 - Ford Motor Company agreed to sell
Jaguar line (acquired in 1989 for $2.38 billion), Land Rover
line (acquired in 2000 for $2.73 billion) of luxury cars to Tata
Motors (India's third-largest passenger carmaker) for $2.3
billion; ended first modern-day cross-border acquisition between
2008 - More than 10,000 dealerships closed
since 1970 (nearly all sold American brands; source: National
Automotive Dealers Association; 430 dealerships closed in 2007;
400+ expected to close in 2008); about 20,000 dealerships
2008 - Americans drove 1.8% fewer miles on
public roads in April 2008 (vs. April 2007), 6th consecutive
month of driving mileage declines; total vehicle miles Americans
traveled grew by nearly 3%/year from 1984-2004, rate of growth
slowed suddenly in 2005-2006, declined since then. (source:
2008 - Consumers spend less on automobiles
(buying, fixing) during recessions (4.2% of consumer spending in
1Q 2008); spending on gasoline, other fuels (4.1% in 1Q 2008 vs.
6% record in 1980-1981) - highest level in more than 20 years;
before $4/gallon consumer spending on cars (as % of total
spending) - lowest level since immediate post WW II;
2001 recession -
no decline in spending on autos; spending on medical services =
about 17.5% of total outlays (vs. about 11% in early 1980s).
of Economic Analysis, via Haver Analytics; shaded areas =
July 15, 2008
- GM's stock traded to 54-year low ($8.81 per share); planned to
raise $15 billion to help cover losses, turn around North
American operations - suspended $1 dividend/share annual
dividend (improve liquidity by $800 million through 2009, first
time company has suspended dividend since 1922 - when Pierre S.
du Pont was CEO, chairman); cut health care benefits for
white-collar salaried retirees over 65 years old, cut cash
bonuses for executives, reduce truck production capacity by
300,000 units, speed up closures of truck, sport utility vehicle
factories; General Motorsâ€™s market capitalization - fell to
just $4.23 billion, vs. $162.6 billion for Toyota.
share price: 1948-2008
2008 - Ford reported 2Q loss of $8.7 billion = worst
quarterly loss in its 105-year history ($5.3-billion charge to
write down value of plants that build pickups, S.U.V.s; $2.1
billion write-down by Ford Credit, auto loan division, to cover
shrinking value of lease portfolio; $1 billion loss from auto
operations); 2008 sales of large pickups down 25%, sales of
S.U.V.s down 32% (source: according Ward’s Automotive Reports);
Ford's product mix (1990-2008): 1) 1995-2007:
SUVs, pick-up trucks, vans dominated sales (about 15% above
industry average); 2) 2008 - a) shift production to
cars, crossover vehicles (8/14 plants in North America build
trucks, S.U.V.s, full-sized vans; expected to convert three
assembly plants from truck-based products to cars); b) realign
factories to manufacture more fuel-efficient 4-cylinder, V-6
engines; c) produce six of next European car models for United
States market. (source: New York Times).
2008 - Cash squeeze: GM ended
second quarter with $21 billion in cash reserves; burned more than $1 billion in
cash/month (cost cuts, asset sales, debt offerings planned to
increase liquidity by $15 billion).
August 22, 2008
- Americans drove less, bought less gas.
October 7, 2008
- VW passed Toyota to top spot Toyota as world’s largest
carmaker by market capitalization - €94.5bn compared with
Toyota’s Y12,792bn (€92bn); VW is worth more than Daimler, BMW,
General Motors, Ford, Fiat, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault,
Mitsubishi, Hyundai combined.
November 17, 2008 - Big
American auto companies employ about 240,000 workers
(300,000 when foreign-owned companies included), auto
suppliers an additional 2.3 million = nearly 2% of
nation’s work force; failure of General Motors, biggest
auto employer, would result in loss of more than 100,000
manufacturing jobs; automakers, supplier network still
account for 2.3% of nation’s economic output (down from
3.1% in 2006, as much as 5% in 1990s - source:
government data); 20% of shrinking
manufacturing sector still tied to automobile industry;
industry capable of making 17 million cars/year (sales
have dropped to annual rate of only 10 million made
here; annual sales of autos, light trucks had been at
least 15 million through most of 1990s).
2008 - Federal Reserve Board approved GMAC’s
application to transform itself into a bank holding company "in
light of the unusual and exigent circumstances" affecting the
financial markets (4-1 vote); allowed GMAC (created 1919;
provides financing to 75% of 6,450 GM dealers, many people who
buy its cars) to tap as much as $6 billion in government bailout
money; General Motors will reduce its ownership in GMAC to less
than 10% from 49%; independent trustee, whose appointment will
be approved by Fed and Treasury, will sell company’s stake
within next three years; Cerberus left with less than 14.9% of
voting shares in GMAC, 33% of total equity in firm; no
individual investors will control more than 5% of voting
interest in GMAC or 7.5% of firm.
January 6, 2009
- 2008 - worst year for auto sales since 1992; auto industry
sales declined 18%, worst year-to-year drop since early 1970s;
historic collapse of new-car market
2009 - Toyota (2008 sales of 8.97 million
vehicles, down 4% from 2007) topped General Motors (2008 sales
of 8.53 million, down 11% from 2007 sales of 9.37 million, down
21% in North America to 3.6 million vehicles; sold 5.37 million
vehicles outside U.S., 6.5% drop in Europe; 30% jump in sales in
Russia, 6% rise in sales in China) as No. 1 automaker (by global
full-year sales), after 77 years on top; GM missed Toyota's 2008
sales of 8.97 million by about 616,000 vehicles; global sales
for overall industry fell by 3.5 million vehicles;
January 20, 2009 -
Akio Toyoda (grandson of founder) named Toyotoa president;
Italian automaker Fiat announced it would acquire 35% stake in
Chrysler, in exchange for technology (contingent on Chrysler’s
getting $3 billion in additional government loans).
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Moritz and Barrett Seaman (1984).
Going for Broke: Lee Iacocca's Battle to Save Chrysler.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 350 p. [orig. pub. 1981]). Iacocca,
Lee A.; Chrysler Corporation--History.
(Chrysler), Richard M.
Langworth, Jan P. Norbye (1985).
The Complete History of Chrysler Corporation, 1924-1985.
(New York, NY: Beekman, 384 p.). Chrysler Corporation--History;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.
(Chrysler), Robert B.
Reich, John D. Donahue (1985).
New Deals: The Chrysler Revival and the American System.
(New York, NY: Times Books, 359 p.). Chrysler Corporation --
Finance; Loans -- United States -- Government guaranty;
Automobile industry and trade -- Government policy -- United
States; Industrial policy -- United States.
Management and Managed: Fifty Years of Crisis at Chrysler.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 290 p.). Chrysler
Corporation; Strikes and lockouts -- Automobile industry --
(Chrysler), Peter Wyden
The Unknown Iacocca. (New York,
NY: Morrow, 416 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.; Businessmen--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United
(Chrysler), Lee A.
Iacocca with Sonny Kleinfield (1988).
(New York, NY: Bantam, 324 p.). Former Chairman, Chrysler Corp.
of America. Iacocca, Lee A.--Philosophy;
(Chrysler), Edited by Matthew W. Seeger; with a foreword by Lee
A. Iacocca (1994).
I Gotta Tell You: Speeches of Lee Iacocca. (Detroit,
MI: Wayne State University Press, 335 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.;
Industrial management --United States; Automobile industry and
trade --United States --Management.
Breer; edited by Anthony J. Yanik; prepared under the auspices
of the SAE Historical Committee (1995).
The Birth of Chrysler
Corporation and Its Engineering Legacy. (Warrendale, PA: Society
of Automotive Engineers, 224 p.). Breer, Carl, 1883-; Zeder,
Fred, 1886-; Skelton, Owen; Chrysler Corporation --History;
Automobiles --United States --Design and construction --History;
Automobile engineers --United States. How various technical
breakthroughs become possible after careful analysis of customer
comments, complex circumstantial evidence; key inventions in
early automobiles (modern engine mounts, modern hydraulic
(Chrysler), Doron P.
Behind the Wheel at Chrysler: The Iacocca Legacy.
(New York, NY: Harcourt Brace, 354 p.). Iacocca, Lee A.;
Chrysler Corporation--Management; Automobile industry and
(Chrysler), Brock Yates
The Critical Path: Inventing an Automobile and Reinventing a
Corporation. (Boston, MA: Little,
Brown, 306 p.). Chrysler Corporation; Caravan van--Design and
construction--History; Voyager van--Design and
(Chrysler), Robert A.
Guts: The Seven Laws of Business That Made Chrysler the World's
Hottest Car Company. (New York,
NY: Wiley, 226 p.). Chrysler Corporation--Management; Automobile
industry and trade--United States--Management; Corporate
Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 699 p.). Chrysler,
Walter P. (Walter Percy), 1909- ; Chrysler Corporation--History;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.
(Chrysler), Michael W. R.
Chrysler Heritage: A Photographic History. (Charleston,
SC: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Former Public Relations
Executive with Ford Motor Company. Chrysler Corporation.
Muscle of Detroit, including
company's involvement in Second World War, Cold War.
(Chrysler), Charles K.
Riding the Roller Coaster: A History of the Chrysler Corporation.
(Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 385 p.). Professor
of History (Wayne State University). Chrysler Corporation;
DaimlerChrysler--History; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft;
Automobile industry and trade--Germany; Automobile industry and
trade--United States; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers.
(Chrysler), Steve Lehto (2010).
Chrysler's Turbine Car: The Rise and Fall of Detroit's Coolest
Creation. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 240
p.). Adjunct Professor (University of Detroit Mercy). Chrysler
automobile --History --20th century; Experimental automobiles
--History --20th century; Automobiles, Gas-turbine --History
--20th century. 1964 - Chrysler built
fleet of turbine cars (automobiles with jet engines), loaned
them to members of public; fleet logged over million miles;
raging success; engines ran on any flammable liquid (tequila,
heating oil, Chanel #5, diesel, alcohol, kerosene); much simpler
than piston engine (one-fifth number of moving parts, much less
maintenance); no radiators or fan belts, never needed oil
changes; 1966 - Chrysler crushed, burned most of the cars;
interviews with surviving members of turbine car program.
Sabates, Sylvie Schweitzer (1980).
Andre Citroën: Les Chevrons de la Gloire.
(Paris, FR: E.P.A., 317 p.). Citroen, André, 1878-1935; Societe
anonyme Andre Citroen; Automobile industry and
André Citroën. (Paris, FR:
Flammarion, 310 p.). Citroën, André, 1878-1935; Société anonyme
André Citroën--History; Automobile industry and
trade--France--Biography; Automobile industry and
André Citroën, 1878-1935: Le Risque et Le Défi.
(Paris, FR: Fayard, 239 p.). Citroën,
André, 1878-1935; Automobile industry and
(Citroen), Fabien Sabates
(1994). Moi, Citroen. (Paris, FR: Retroviseur, 223 p.).
Citroën, André, 1878-1935;Citroën automobile--History;
Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.
Reynolds; foreword by Chris Goffey (1996).
Andre Citroen: The Henry Ford of France.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 238 p.). Citroën, André,
1878-1935; Citroen automobile -- History; Automobile industry
and trade -- France -- Biography.
Wolgensinger (1996). Citroen: Une Vie à Quitte ou Double.
(Paris, FR: Arthaud, 199 p.). Citroen, Andre, 1878-1935; Société
anonyme Andre Citroen--History; Citroen automobile--History;
Automobile industry and trade--France--Biography.
(Citroen), Alain Frerejean
(1998). Andre Citroen, Louis Renault: Un Duel sans Merci.
(Paris, FR: A. Michel, 287 p.). Citroen, Andre, 1878-1935;
Renault, Louis, 1877-1944; Regie nationale des usines
Renault--History; Societe anonyme Andre Citroen--History;
Automobile industry and trade--France--History.
(Crossley Motors), Michael
Eyre, Chris Heaps and Alan Townsin (2002). Crossley: The
Story of a Famous Engineering Business and the Cars, Buses,
Lorries, Aeroplanes and Railway Locomotives Which It
Manufactured. (Shepperton, UK: Oxford Pub., 272 p.).
Crossley Motors--History; Bus
Jeffrey L. Cruikshank, David B. Sicilia (1997).
The Engine That Could: Seventy-Five Years of Values-Driven
Change at Cummins Engine Company.
(Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 589 p.). Cummins
Engine Company--History; Internal combustion engine
industry--United States--History; Diesel motor industry--United
- Cummins Engine
(Cummins Engine), Lyle
The Diesel Odyssey of Clessie Cummins.
(Wilsonville, OR: Carnot Press, 399 p.). Cummins, Clessie L.;
Cummins Engine Company--History; Mechanical engineers--United
States--Biography; Automobiles--Motors (Diesel)--History; Diesel
(Cushman Motor Works), Bill
Somerville (1986). The History of the Cushman Motor Works.
(Ponca City, OK: Cushman Publications, 64 p). Cushman Motor
Works--History; Motor industry--United States--History.
September 18, 1902 - Incorporated in Nebraska; 1919 - Everett
Cushman left company; He and Clifford Eugene Cushman (son)
eventually started the Cushman Engineering Company in Riverside,
CA; 1927 - creditors took control.
W. Nitske (1955).
The Complete Mercedes Story; The Thrilling Seventy-Year History
of Daimler and Benz. (New York,
NY: Macmillan, 167 p.). Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaftl;
"Mercedes" is named)
(Daimler-Benz), Richard M.
Langworth; by the auto editors of Consumer guide (1984).
Mercedes-Benz: The First Hundred Years. (New York, NY:
Beekman, 256 p.). Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Mercedes
Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich.
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 276 p.). Daimler-Benz
Aktiengesellschaft--History; Forced labor--Germany; World War,
1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, German; Defense
industries--Germany--History--20th century; Industrial
Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz (2000).
Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off with Chrysler.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 372 p.). Veteran Detroit News Automotive
Reporters. Chrysler Corporation; Daimler-Benz
Aktiengesellschaft; Automobile industry and
trade--Mergers--United States; Automobile industry and
Grasslin (2000). Jurgen Schrempp and the Making of an
Auto Dynasty. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 210 p.). Schrempp,
Jurgen E.; Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft; Chrysler
Corporation; Chief executive officers--Germany--Biography.
Wheels on Fire: The Amazing Inside Story of the DaimlerChrysler
Merger. (London, UK: Hodder &
Stoughton, 312 p.). DaimlerChrysler--History; Daimler-Benz
Aktiengesellschaft; Chrysler Corporation; Automobile industry
and trade--Germany; Automobile industry and trade--United
States; Automobile industry and trade--Mergers.
Enduring Passion: The Story of the Mercedes-Benz Brand.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 271 p.). Managing Partner, Ingram
Partnership. Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft--History; Mercedes
How brand became synonym
for power and elegance.
(Daimler-Benz), Dennis Adler;
foreword by Sir Stirling Moss (2006).
Daimler & Benz, The Complete History: The Birth and Evolution of
the Mercedes-Benz. (New York, NY: Collins, 288 p.).
Editor in Chief (Car Collector Magazine).
DaimlerChrysler--History; Mercedes automobile--History.
Rich history of Daimler-Benz.
(De Lorean), J. Patrick
On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors: John Z. de Lorean's
Look Inside the Automotive Giant.
(Grosse Pointe, MI: Wright Enterprises, 237 p.). De Lorean, John
Z.; General Motors Corporation; Businesspeople--United
(De Lorean), Ivan Fallon
& James Srodes (1983).
Dream Maker: The Rise and Fall of John Z. DeLorean.
(New York, NY: Putnam, 455 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean
Motor Company--History; Automobile industry and trade--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--Northern
(De Lorean), John Lamm;
with commentary by Mike Knepper (1983).
De Lorean: Stainless Steel Illusion.
(Santa Ana, CA: Newport Press, 160 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De
Lorean Motor Company.
(De Lorean), Hillel
Grand Delusions: The Cosmic Career of John De Lorean.
(New York, NY: Viking, 336 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; Automobile
industry and trade; Businessmen--United States--Biography.
(De Lorean), John Z.
Delorean with Ted Schwarz (1985).
DeLorean. (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan Pub. House, 349 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De Lorean
Motor Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History;
Automobile industry and trade--Northern Ireland--History.
(De Lorean), William
Hard Driving: My Years with John De Lorean.
(New York, NY: Random House, 193 p.). De Lorean, John Z.; De
Lorean Motor Company--History; Businessmen--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United
States--History; Automobile industry and trade--Northern
(Delphi), Steve Miller
The Turnaround Kid: What I Learned Rescuing America’s Most
Troubled Companies. (New York, NY:
Collins, 272 p.). Chairman, Delphi Corporation. Miller, Robert
S. (Robert Stevens); Automobile industry and trade--United
States--Biography; Executives--Biography; Organizational
effectiveness. Point man for Lee Iaccoca's rescue team at Chrysler, fixed major
problems in varied industries (steel, construction, health care,
auto parts); inside story of many turnaround jobs that have led
to renown as Mr. Fix It; intimate picture of his relationship
with Maggie Miller, his wife of forty years, trusted adviser
until her death from brain cancer in 2006.
(Diesel), W. Robert
Nitske and Charles Morrow Wilson (1965).
Rudolf Diesel, Pioneer of the Age of Power.
(Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 318 p.). Diesel,
(Diesel), Morton Grosser
Diesel, The Man & the Engine. (New
York, NY: Atheneum, 166 p.). Diesel, Rudolf, 1858-1913; Diesel
motor; Mechanical engineers--Germany--Biography; Diesel motor;
(Diesel), Donald E.
Thomas, Jr. (1987).
Diesel: Technology and Society in Industrial Germany.
(Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 279 p.). Diesel,
Rudolf, 1858-1913; Mechanical engineers--Germany--Biography;
(Dodge), Jean Maddern
Pitrone and Joan Potter Elwart (1981).
The Dodges, The Auto Family Fortune & Misfortune.
(South Bend, IN: Icarus Press, 316 p.). Dodge family.
Horace and John
(Dodge), Jean Maddern
Tangled Web: Legacy of Auto Pioneer John F. Dodge.
(Hamtramck, MI: Avenue Pub. Co., 289 p.). Dodge, John F. (John
Francis), 1864-1920; Mealbach, Frances Lucille Manzer, 1914- ;
Dodge family; Industrialists--United States--Biography;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.
(Dodge), John R. Velliky and
Jean Maddern Pitrone (1992). Dodge Brothers/Budd Co.
Historical Photo Album. (Detroit, MI: Harlo, 306 p.). Dodge,
John F. (John Francis), 1864-1920; Dodge, Horace E. (Horace
Elgin), 1868-1920; Dodge Brothers--History; Budd
Company--History; Dodge automobile--Bodies--Design and
(Dodge), Charles K. Hyde
The Dodge Brothers: The Men, the Motor Cars, and the Legacy.
(Detroit, MI: Wayne State University
Press, 256 p.). Professor of History (Wayne State University).
Dodge, John F. (John Francis), 1864-1920; Dodge, Horace E.
(Horace Elgin), 1868-1920; Dodge Brothers--History; Automobile
(Duckham Alexander &
Co.), Robin Wager; foreword by John Surtees (1999).
The Duckham's Story: A Century of Fighting Friction.
(Somerset, UK: Haynes Pub., 160 p.). Alexander Duckham &
Co.--History; Duckham family; Automobiles--Great
Britain--Lubrication; Lubrication and lubricants industry--Great
Alan Townsin (1998).
Duple: 70 Years of Coachbuilding.
(Glossop, UK: Venture Publications, 168 p.). Duple
Coachbuilders--History; Buses--Great Britain--History.
Company), Robert G. Schafer (1986). J. Dallas Dort: Citizen
Compleat. (Flint, MI: University of Michigan--Flint Archives
in cooperation with Genesee County Historical Society, 81 p.).
Dort, J. Dallas (Josiah Dallas), 1861-1925; Automobile industry
and trade--Michigan--Flint--History; Flint (Mich.)--Biography.
(Duryea Motor Wagon
Company), Richard P. Scharchburg (1993).
Carriages without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the
American Automobile Industry.
(Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 243 p.).
Duryea, J. Frank (James Frank), 1869-1967; Duryea, Charles E.,
1861-1938; Stevens-Duryea Company--History; Automobile
engineers--Biography; Duryea automobile--History; Automobile
industry and trade--United States.
Tom Madigan; foreword by Benny Parsons (2005).
Edelbrock: Made in USA. (San
Diego, CA: Tehabi Books, 324 p.). Edelbrock, Victor, 1913-1962;
Edelbrock Corporation--History; Automobiles, Racing--Parts;
Automobile supplies industry--United States--Biography;
Automobile mechanics--United States--Biography.
(E-M-F Company), Anthony J. Yanik (2001).
The E-M-F Company: The Story of Automotive
Pioneers Barney Everitt, William Metzger, and Walter Flanders.
(Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 243 p.).
Everitt, Barney; Metzger, William; Flanders, Walter E. (Walter
Emmett), 1871-1923; E-M-F Company --History; Automobile
engineers --United States --Biography.
Three automotive giants, impact they had on American car
industry; 1908 - Walter Flanders, Byron Everitt and William
Metzger, most well-known names in Detroit automobile
industry, began production of medium-priced car; end of 1909 -
number two in automotive production; formed alliance with
Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company (later acquired by
Studebaker); Everitt instrumental in forming extensive body
building industry that characterized Detroit prior to World War
II; Metzger established first automotive dealership in Detroit;
served as head of sales of Cadillac during formative years;
Flanders masterminded tools of production for first Model T.
Automobiles Limited), David Weguelin (1980).
The History of English Racing Automobiles Limited: And the
Continuing Story of the Cars 1933-1980.
(London, UK: White Mouse, 288 p.). English Racing Automobiles
Limited -- History; E.R.A. automobile; Automobiles, Racing --
England; Great Britain Racing car industries.
(Ferman Motor Car
Company), Carol M. Dyches (1994).
A Century of Service: One Car at a Time: A History of Ferman
Motor Car Company. (Tampa, FL:
Ferman Motor Car Co., 155 p.). Ferman Motor Car
Company--History; Automobile industry and
(Ferrari), Enzo Ferrari
The Enzo Ferrari Memoirs My Terrible Joys. (London, UK:
H. Hamilton, 164 p.). Automobile racing.
(Ferrari), Brock W.
Enzo Ferrari: The Man, the Cars, the Races, the Machine.
(New York, NY: Doubleday, 465 p.). Ferrari, Enzo 1898- ;
Ferrari, s.p.a.--History; Industrialists--Italy--Biography;
Automobile engineers--Italy--Biography; Automobile racing
drivers--Italy--Biography; Ferrari automobile--History;
Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.
(Fiat), Michael Sedgwick
Fiat. (New York, NY: Arco, 352
p.). Fiat (Firm); Fiat automobiles.
(grandson of Fiat
(Fiat), Enzo Biagi (1976).
Il Signor Fiat: Una Biografia. (Milano, Italy: Rizzoli, 163
p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1921- ; Fiat (Firm);
(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo
(1977). Giovanni Agnelli: la FIAT dal 1899 al 1945.
(Torino, Italy: Einaudi, 565 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni, 1866-1945;
Fiat (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography.
(Fiat), Cesare Roccati (1977).
Umberto & [i.e. e] C.: Gli Anni Caldi della Fiat.
(Firenze, Italy: Vallecchi, 214 p.). Agnelli, Umberto; Fiat
(Fiat), Gabbi e Sicchiero
(1978). Umberto Agnelli, Il Padrone di Razza. (Legnano,
Italy: Landoni, 220 p.). Agnelli, Umberto;
(Fiat), Piero Bairati (1983).
Vittorio Valletta. (Torino, Italy: Unione
Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 449 p.). Valletta, Vittorio,
1883-1967; Fiat (Firm)--Biography; Fiat (Firm)--History;
Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Automobile industry and
(Fiat), Gino Pallotta (1987).
Gli Agnelli: Una Dinastia Italiana: La Storia di Una Delle
Famiglie Più Ricche e Potenti Del Mondo, Attraverso le Vicende e
i Protagonisti Che Hanno Dato Vita a un Impero Multinazionale
Inserito Tra i Giganti Dell'industria e Della Finanza Mondiale
(Roma, Italy: Newton Compton, 334 p.).
(Fiat), Alan Friedman
Agnelli: Fiat and the Network of Italian Power.
(New York, NY: New American Library, 367 p.). Agnelli, Giovanni,
1921- ; Fiat (Firm)--History; Automobile industry and
Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Power (Social sciences).
(Fiat), Giancarlo Galli
(1997). Gli Agnelli: Una Dinastia, Un Impero : 1899-1998.
(Milano, IT: Mondadori, 358 p.). Agnelli family; Fiat
(Firm)--Management; Automobile industry and
(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo
FIAT, 1899-1999: Un Secolo di Storia. (Milano, Italy:
Rizzoli, 2,093). Fiat (Firm)--History; Automobile industry and
(Fiat), Valerio Castronovo;
con 13 illustrazioni fuori testo (2003). Giovanni Agnelli: Il
Fondatore. (Torino, Italy: UTET libreria, 824 p.). Agnelli,
Giovanni, 1866-1945; Fiat (Firm)--History;
(Fiat), Alberto Mazzuca,
Giancarlo Mazzuca (2004). La FIAT da Giovanni a Luca: Un
Secolo di Storia Sotto la Dinastia Agnelli. (Milano, IT:
Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 460 p.). Fiat (Firm)--History;
Automobile industry and trade--Italy--History.
(Fiat), Pierre de Gasquet
La Dynastie Agnelli: Grandeur et Decadence d’Une Famille
Italienne. (Paris, FR: Grasset, 326 p.). Milan
Correspondent for Les Echos en Italie. Agnelli family; Fiat
(Firm)--History; Industrialists--Italy--Biography; Automobile
industry and trade--Italy--History.
2003 - death of Gianni Agnelli
created an immense void for family dynasty, financial and moral
crisis for the company. Economist compared Agnellis to decadent
Republic of Venice, complete with internal strife and
(Ford), Rose Wilder Lane
Henry Ford's Own Story; How a Farmer Boy Rose to the Power That
Goes with Many Millions, yet Never Lost Touch with Humanity, as
Told to Rose Wilder Lane (Forest
Hills, NY: E.O Jones, 184 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Automobile industry
and trade -- United States.
April 8, 1947 Obituary:
http://www.nytimes.com/ learning/ general/onthisday/bday/
- 1924 with
the 1st Ford (right) and the 10,000,000th Ford
Henry Ford II
(Ford), William L.
Henry Ford, The Man and His Motives.
(New York, NY: George H. Doran Company, 207 p.). Ford, Henry,
(Ford), Henry Ford; in
collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1926).
My Life and Work. (Garden City,
NY: Garden City Pub. Co., 289 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947.;
(Ford), Henry Ford, in
collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1926).
Today and Tomorrow. (Garden City,
NY: Doubleday, Page, 281 p.). Ford Motor Company.
(Ford), Charles Merz
And Then Came Ford. (Garden City,
NY: Doubleday, Doran, 321 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford
Motor Company; Ford automobile.
(Ford), William A. Simonds
Henry Ford, Motor Genius. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
Doran & Company, 205 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Automobiles.
(Ford), Henry Ford, in
collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1930).
Moving Forward (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, Doran & Company Incorporated, 310 p.). Founder, Ford
Motor Company. Machinery in industry; United States--Industries.
(Ford), Ralph H. Graves
The Triumph of an Idea; The Story of Henry Ford.
(New York, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 184 p.). Ford, Henry,
1863-1947; Ford Motor Company; Ford automobile.
(Ford), Willam A. Simonds
Henry Ford; His Life, His Work, His Genius.
(Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 365 p.). Ford,
(Ford), Cyril Cassidy Caldwell
Henry Ford. (New York, NY: J. Messner, 246 p.). Ford,
(Ford), William C.
The Last Billionaire, Henry Ford.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 422 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
(Ford), Allan Nevins
with Frank Ernest Hill (1954).
Ford: The Times, the Man, the Company - Volume 1.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 688 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford
(Ford), Allan Nevins
with Frank Ernest Hill (1954).
Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915-1933 - Volume 2.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 688 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford
(Ford), Allan Nevins
with collaboration of Frank E. Hill (1963).
Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962 - Volume 3.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 563 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford
(Ford), Charles E.
Sorensen with Samuel T. Williamson (1956).
My Forty Years with Ford. (New
York, NY: Norton, 345 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor
Greenleaf. With a foreword by Allan Nevins (1961).
Monopoly on Wheels; Henry Ford and the Selden Automobile Patent.
(Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 302 p.). Ford,
Henry, 1863-1947.; Selden, George Baldwin, 1846-1922; Automobile
industry and trade--United States; Automobiles--Patents.
(Ford), Mira Wilkins &
Frank Ernest Hill. With an introd. by Allan Nevins (1964).
American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents.
(Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 541 p.). Ford Motor
Company; Automobiles; Economics.
(Ford), J. Mel Hickerson
with a foreword by Henry Ford, II (1968).
Ernie Breech; The Story of His Remarkable Career at General
Motors, Ford, and TWA. (New York,
NY: Meredith Press, 241 p.). Breech, Ernie, 1897-.
(Ford), Keith Sward.
With a new pref. by William Greenleaf (1968).
The Legend of Henry Ford (New
York, NY: Atheneum, 550 p. [orig. pub. 1948]). Ford, Henry,
1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Automobile
industry and trade -- United States -- Biography; Industrialists
-- United States -- Biography.
(Ford), Booton Herndon
Ford; An Unconventional Biography of the Men and Their Times.
(New York, NY: Weybright and Talley, 408 p.). Ford, Henry,
1863-1947; Ford, Henry, 1917-1987; Ford Motor Company.
(Ford), Anne Jardim
The First Henry Ford: A Study in Personality and Business
Leadership. (Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 278 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford, Henry, b.1863.
(Ford), Reynold M. Wik
Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America.
(Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 266 p.). Ford,
Henry, 1863-1947; United States--Rural conditions.
(Ford), Jan Deutsch (1976).
Selling the People`s Cadillac: The Edsel and Corporate
Responsibility. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
261 p.). Edsel automobile--History; Ford Motor Company.
(Ford), David L. Lewis
The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His
Company. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State
University Press, 598 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor
Company; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.
(Ford), James Brough
The Ford Dynasty: An American Story.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 352 p.). Ford
family; Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Executives--Michigan--Biography;
(Ford), John Côté
Dahlinger as told to Frances Spatz Leighton (1978).
The Secret Life of Henry Ford
(Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 243 p.). Ford, Henry,
1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.
(Ford), Carol W.
Henry Ford: The Wayward Capitalist.
(New York, NY: Dial Press, 463 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History;
(Ford), Victor Lasky
Never Complain, Never Explain: The Story of Henry Ford II.
(New York, NY: Richard Marek Publishers, 307 p.). Ford, Henry,
1917-1987; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Automobile
industry and trade--United States--History.
(Ford), Huw Beynon
Working for Ford. (Hammondsworth,
UK: Penguin, 409 p. [2nd ed.]). Ford Motor Company; Automobile
industry workers--Great Britain--Case studies; Industrial
relations--Case studies; Trade-unions--Automobile industry
(Ford), Robert Lacey
Ford, the Men and the Machine.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 778 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
Ford family; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile industry
and trade--United States--Biography.
(Ford), Paul F. Lorenz (1986).
Recollections from the Back of the Wagon. (Bloomfield
Hills, MI: P.F. Lorenz, 834 p.). President (Ford of Europe,
1968-1973); Introduced Mercury Cougar. Lorenz, Paul F.; World
War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, American;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; United
(Ford), Peter Collier
and David Horowitz (1987).
The Fords: An American Epic. (New
York, NY: Summit Books, 496 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947
--Family; Ford family; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile
industry and trade--United States--History.
(Ford), Alton F. Doody
and Ron Bingaman (1988).
Reinventing the Wheels: Ford's Spectacular Comeback.
(Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing, 135 p.). Ford Motor
Company, Automobile Industry, Corporate Turnaround.
(Ford), Ford R. Bryan
The Fords of Dearborn. (Detroit,
MI: Harlo, 301 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 -- Family; Ford
family; Dearborn (Mich.) -- Biography; Dearborn (Mich.) --
(Ford), Walter Hayes
Henry: A Life of Henry Ford II.
(New York, NY: Grove Weidenfeld, 285 p.). Ford, Henry,
1917-1987; Ford Motor Company--History; Executives--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United
(Ford), Robert L. Shook
Turnaround: The New Ford Motor Company.
(New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 260 p.). Ford Motor Company;
Automobile industry and trade--United States; Corporate
(Ford), Donald E. Petersen and
John Hillkirk (1991).
A Better Idea: Redefining the Way Americans Work.
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 270 p.). President, Chairman of
the Ford Motor Company in the 1980s. Ford Motor
Company--Management; Industrial management--Employee
participation--United States; Teams in the workplace--United
States; Competition--United States.
(Ford), Eric Taub
Taurus: The Making of the Car That Saved Ford.
(New York, NY: Dutton, 278 p.). Ford Motor Company--History;
(Ford), John A. Byrne
The Whiz Kids: The Founding Fathers of American Business--and
the Legacy They Left Us. (New
York, NY: Currency, 581 p.). Ford Motor Company--History;
Businessmen--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship--United
(Ford), Ford R. Bryan
Henry's Lieutenants. (Detroit, MI:
Wayne State University Press, 321 p.). Ford Motor Company --
History; Automobile industry and trade -- United States --
Biography; Industrialists -- United States -- Biography.
Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford.
(Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 232 p. [rev. ed.]).
Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Businessmen -- United States --
Biography; Industrialists -- United States -- Biography;
Millionaires -- United States -- Biography; Philanthropists --
United States -- Biography.
(Ford), Mary Walton
Car: A Drama of the American Workplace.
(New York, NY: Norton, 360 p.). Taurus automobile--Design and
(Ford), Rudolph Alvarado
and Sonya Alvarado (2001).
Drawing Conclusions on Henry Ford.
(Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 196 p.). Ford,
Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile
industry and trade--History; Industrialists--United
(Ford), Neil Baldwin
Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.
(New York, NY: Public Affairs, 416 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Antisemitism--United
States; Jews--United States; Automobile industry and
(Ford), Martin Rawbone
Ford in Britain: A History of the Company and the Cars.
(Newbury Park, CA: Haynes North America, 302 p.). Ford Motor
Company--History; Ford automobile--History; Automobiles--Great
(Ford), Russ Banham;
foreword by Paul Newman (2002).
The Ford Century: Ford Motor Company and the Innovations That
Shaped the World. (New York, NY:
Artisan, 272 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile
industry and trade--United States--History.
(Ford), Thomas E.
Disaster in Dearborn: The Story of the Edsel.
(Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 230 p.). Ford Motor
Company--Decision making; Edsel automobile--History; Product
(Ford), Michael W.R. Davis,
James K. Wagner (2002).
Ford Dynasty. (Chicago , IL: Arcadia Pub, 128 p.).
executive director of the Detroit Historical Society. Ford,
Henry, 1863-1947 -- Family; Ford family; Dearborn (Mich.) --
Biography; Dearborn (Mich.) -- History.
American family, its company, its accomplishments over course of a century.
(Ford), Eds. Hubert Bonin,
Yannick Lung, Steven Tolliday (2003). Ford, 1903-2003: The
European History. (Paris, FR: P.L.A.G.E., 2 vols.). Ford
Motor Company--History--Congresses; Automobile industry and
trade--Europe--History--Congresses; International business
Results of Bordeaux conference on first hundred years of Ford Motor Company in Europe.
(Ford), Douglas Brinkley
Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of
Progress, 1903-2003. (New York,
NY: Viking, 880 p.). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor
Company--History; Automobile engineers--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--History;
(Ford), David L. Lewis and the
auto editors of Consumer Guide (2003).
100 Years of Ford: A Centennial Celebration of the Ford Motor
Company. (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International,
480 p.). Ford Motor Company--History; Ford automobile--History.
(Ford), David Magee
Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle To Rebuild America's
Automaker. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley,
272 p.). Ford, Bill, 1957- ; Ford Motor Company--History.
(Ford), Steven Watts
The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.
(New York, NY: Knopf, 640 p.). Chair, Department of History
(University of Missouri—Columbia). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Automobile industry
and trade--United States--History; Mass production--United
(Ford), Howard P. Segal
Recasting the Machine Age: Henry Ford's Village Industries.
(Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 272 p.).
Adelaide & Alan Bird Professor of History (University of Maine).
Ford, Henry, 1863-1947; Ford Motor Company--History; Automobile
industry and trade--Location--Michigan--Case studies; Industrial
location--Social aspects--United States; Labor
unions--Michigan--History; Technology--Social aspects--United
States; Industrialists--United States--Biography. Henry
Ford's efforts to shift production of Ford cars, trucks from
large-scale factories to 19 decentralized, small-scale plants
within sixty miles of Ford headquarters ("village industries").
(Ford), Robert Casey (2008).
The Model T: A Centennial History. (Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 166 p.). John and Horace Dodge Curator
of Transportation at The Henry Ford Museum. Ford Motor
Company--History; Ford Model T automobile --History.
Car's history and development,
its long-lasting impact on America; iconographic piece of
American technology; nation’s first mass-produced, affordable,
versatile vehicle; made Americans mobile as never before,
spurred revolution in manufacturing methods, marked sea change
in automotive design and engineering; how few engineering
innovations led to car's reliability, popularity, innovations
across motor vehicle industry.
(Ford), Greg Grandin (2009).
Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten Jungle
City. (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 432 p.).
Associate Professor of Latin American History (New York
University). Ford, Henry, 1863-1947 --Political and social
views. Ford Motor Company --Influence --History --20th century;
Planned communities --Brazil --History --20th century; Rubber
plantations --Brazil --Fordlándia --History --20th century;
Fordlândia (Brazil) --History; Brazil --Civilization --American
influences --History --20th century. 1927 - Henry Ford, richest
man in world, bought tract of land in Brazilian Amazon, twice size of Delaware,
on which to grow rubber; became more ambitious bid to export America itself;
became site of epic clash between Ford and Amazon; Ford’s early
success in imposing time clocks, square dances on jungle
collapsed, turned place into ribald tropical boomtown;
(Ford), Gerhard Geyer (2011).
Ford Motor Company: The Greatest Corporate Turnaround In U.S.
History. (Seattle, WA: CreateSpace, 518 p.). Former
Executive at Ford Motor Company (in business planning, corporate
strategy, business development, product planning, divestitures,
and he negotiated joint ventures and licensing deals). Ford
Motor Company; corporate turnarounds. Mid-2006
- William Clay
Ford Jr., Chairman and CEO of Ford, recognized that current
business model di not work, appointed Alan Mulally as
company's new CEO - completely changed existing business model
(declining profits, uncompetitive cost structure, rapidly
decreasing sales, unattractive cars, unhappy dealers, low
employee morale); systematically transformed Ford's culture, products, technology, manufacturing
facilities, union relations; led Ford from weakest of
automotive industry's "Big Three" to top of its class.
(Ford Motor Company of
Canada), David Roberts (2006).
In the Shadow of Detroit: Gordon M. McGregor, Ford of Canada,
and Motoropolis. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University
Press, 326 p.). Editor with the Dictionary of Canadian Biography
(University of Toronto). McGregor, Gordon M. (Gordon Morton),
1873-1922; Ford Motor Company of Canada--History; Automobile
Windsor (Ont.)--History; Detroit (Mich.)--History.
Dominated, defined growing
automotive industry in Windsor-Detroit.
- Ford of Canada
Group), Bill Cullen; with a foreword by An Taoiseach Bertie
It's a Long Way from Penny Apples.
(New York, NY: Forge, 382 p. [orig. pub. 2001]). Cullen, Bill,
1942- --Homes and haunts--Ireland--Dublin; Cullen, Bill, 1942-
--Childhood and youth; Cullen, Bill, 1942- --Family; Poor
families--Ireland--Dublin; Dublin (Ireland)--Social life and
customs; Dublin (Ireland)--Biography.
(GM), Arthur Pound
The Turning Wheel; The Story of General Motors through
Twenty-five Years, 1908-1933.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 517 p.). General Motors
Corporation; General Motors Company; Automobile industry and
founder General Motors (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/WilliamCDurant.jpg/200px-WilliamCDurant.jpg)
(elected President of GM
in 1923) (http://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/uploads/0/02/Alfred_P._Sloan%2C_Jr.jpg)
Sloan's February 18, 1966 Obituary:
(GM), Franklin M. Reck;
illustrations by Rainey Bennett (1950).
On Time: The History of General Motors Locomotives in the United
States and Canada. (Detroit, MI:
General Motors Corp., 200 p.). General Motors Corporation.
Eletro-Motor division; General Motors Diesel ltd., London, Ont.;
(GM), J. Mel Hickerson. With a
foreword by Henry Ford, II (1968).
Ernie Breech; The Story of His Remarkable Career at General
Motors, Ford, and TWA. (New York, NY: Meredith Press,
241 p.). Breech, Ernie, 1897-. Chairman of the Ford Motor
Company from 1955-1960.
(GM), Alfred P. Sloan,
Jr., in collaboration with Boyden Sparkes (1970).
Adventures of a White-Collar Man.
(Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 208 p. [orig. pub.
1941]). General Motors Corporation.
(GM), Donaldson Brown; introd.
by Ernest Dale (1977). Some Reminiscences of an Industrialist.
(Easton, PA: Hive Pub. Co., 185 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Former
DuPont and GM Executive. Brown, Donaldson, 1885-1965;
(GM), Bernard A.
The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 396 p.). Durant, William Crapo,
1861-1947; General Motors Corporation--History;
(GM), J. Patrick Wright
On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors: John Z. De Lorean's
Look Inside the Automotive Giant.
(Grosse Point, MI: Wright Enterprises, 237 p.). De Lorean, John
Z.; General Motors Corporation; Businessmen--United
(GM), Ed Cray (1980).
Chrome Colossus: General Motors and Its Times.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 616 p.). General Motors
(GM), Stuart W. Leslie (1983).
Boss Kettering. (New York, NY: Columbia University
Press, 382 p.). Kettering, Charles Franklin, 1876-1958.;
(GM), Arthur J. Kuhn
GM Passes Ford, 1918-1938: Designing the General Motors
(University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 380
p.). General Motors Corporation--Management--History--20th
century; Ford Motor Company--Management--History--20th century;
Automobile industry and trade--United
(GM), Albert Lee (1988).
Call Me Roger. (Chicago, IL:
Contemporary Books, 324 p.). Smith, Roger B., 1925- ; General
Motors Corporation--History; Businessmen--United
States--Biography; Automobile industry and trade--United
(GM), Maryann Keller
Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of
General Motors. (New York, NY:
Morrow, 275 p.). General Motors Corporation; Automobile industry
and trade--United States.
(GM), Alfred P. Sloan,
Jr.; with a new introduction by Peter F. Drucker (1990).
My Years at General Motors.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 472 p. [orig. pub. 1964]). Sloan,
Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966; General Motors
Corporation--Management--History; Automobile industry and
trade--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial
management--United States--Case studies.
(GM), Peter F. Drucker;
with a new introduction by the author (1993).
Concept of the Corporation. (New
Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 329 p. [orig. pub.
1946]). Professor of Management (Claremont). General Motors
Corporation; Corporations; Corporations--United States.
(GM), Maryann Keller
Collision: GM, Toyota, Volkswagen and the Race to Own the 21st
Century. (New York, NY: Doubleday,
287 p.). General Motors Corporation; Toyota Jid¯osha K¯ogy¯o
Kabushiki Kaisha; Volkswagenwerk; Automobile industry and trade;
Automobile industry and trade--United States; Automobile
industry and trade--Japan; Automobile industry and
trade--Germany; Competition, International.
(GM), Joe Sherman
In the Rings of Saturn. (New York,
NY: Oxford University Press, 337 p.). General Motors
Corporation; Saturn automobile; Automobile industry and
(GM), Micheline Maynard
Collision Course: Inside the Battle for General Motors.
(New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 306 p.). General Motors
Corporation; Automobile industry and trade--United States.
(GM), Jack O'Toole
Forming the Future: Lessons from the Saturn Corporation.
(Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 208 p.). Member of the "99
group" (full-study committee of GM management and United
Automotive Workers (UAW) members that developed the unorthodox
program of the Saturn). Saturn automobile; Automobile industry
and trade--United States.
(GM), Michael Shnayerson
The Car That Could: The Inside Story of GM's Revolutionary
Electric Vehicle. (New York, NY:
Random House, 295 p.). General Motors Corporation -- History;
(GM), Axel Madsen
The Deal Maker: How William C. Durant Made General Motors.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 310 p.). Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947;
General Motors Corporation--History; Businesspeople--United
States--Biography; Chief executive officers--Biography; Motor
vehicle industry--United States.
(GM), Robert F. Freeland
The Struggle for Control of the Modern Corporation:
Organizational Change at General Motors, 1924-1970.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 364 p.). General
Motors Corporation--Management; Organizational change;
(GM), Saul A.
Rubinstein, Thomas A. Kochan (2001).
Learning from Saturn: Possibilities for Corporate Governance and
Employee Relations. (Ithaca, NY:
ILR Press, 156 p.). Saturn automobile; Automobile industry and
(GM), David Farber
Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors.
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 292 p.). Professor of
History (University of New Mexico). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred
Pritchard), 1875-1966; General Motors Corporation--History;
Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.
(GM), John McDonald
A Ghost's Memoir: The Making of Alfred P. Sloan's "My Years with
General Motors". (Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 202 p.). Sloan's Ghostwriter; Writer/Editor (Fortune
Magazine). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard), 1875-1966. My
years with General Motors; General Motors
Corporation--Management--History; Automobile industry and
trade--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial
management--United States--Case studies.
(GM), Vincent P. Barabba
Surviving Transformation: Lessons from GM's Surprising
Turnaround. (New York, NY: Oxford
University Press, 256 p.). Former General Manager of GM
Corporate Strategy and Knowledge Development. General Motors
Corporation Management Case studies; Automobile industry and
trade United States Management Case studies; Organizational
change United States Case studies.
(GM), Michael W.R. Davis
General Motors: A Photographic History. (Charleston, SC:
Arcadia Pub.,, 128 p.). Executive Director of the Detroit
Historical Society. General Motors Company--pictorial history.
Growth of company in
series of over 200 black-and-white images: first assembly line
to post-Second World War recovery.
(GM), Lawrence R. Gustin
(2006). David Buick’s Marvelous Motor Car: The Men and the
Automobile That Launched General Motors. (Flint, MI: Buick
Gallery and Research Center; Alfred P. Sloan Musuem, 231 p.).
Assistant Public Relations Director for Buick Division of
General Motors. Buick, David Dunbar; Durant, William Crapo,
1861-1947; Buick Motor Company; General Motors Corporation.
Buick Motor Division--History; Buick automobile--History.
(GM), William Pelfrey (2006).
Billy, Alfred, and General Motors: The Story of
Two Unique Men, a Legendary Company, and a Remarkable Time in
American History. (New
York, NY: AMACOM, 315 p.). Former Director of Executive
Communications (GM). Sloan, Alfred P. (Alfred Pritchard),
1875-1966; General Motors Corporation--History; Durant, William
Crapo, 1861-1947; Automobile industry and trade--United
States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.
Wheeler-dealer with grand
plans and intellectual master of all things organizational.
(GM), Lawrence R. Gustin
Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors.
(Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 304 p. [updated,
expanded). Durant, William Crapo, 1861-1947; General Motors
Corporation. Mastermind behind what
became world's largest company;
what explains Billy Durant's
powerful influence on auto industry during its early days? why
has he been nearly forgotten for decades?
(GM), William Holstein (2009).
Why GM Matters: Inside the Race to Transform an American Icon.
(New York, NY: Walker, 267 p.). General Motors Corporation.
Entire operation radically retooled (manufacturing,
cost structure, design); inextricably linked to nation's
economy (country's largest private buyer of IT, world's largest
buyer of steel, holder of pensions for 780,000 Americans,
accounts for 1% of US GDP).
(GM), Alex Taylor III; foreword by Mike
Sixty to Zero: An Inside Look at the Collapse of General
Motors—and the Detroit Auto Industry. (New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press, 272 p.). Senior Editor (Fortune
magazine); Former President and Chief Executive Officer of
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC. General Motors Corporation --Management;
Automobile industry and trade --Michigan --Detroit --History;
Bankruptcy --Michigan --Detroit --History.
GM’s meltdown - 40
years in the making; many missteps of GM, its competitors:
refusal to follow market cues, consumer trends; lack of
follow-through on major initiatives; history of hesitance,
inaction, failure to learn from mistakes; corporate
decision-making, at company as large as GM, not as
simple as may seem.
Driving Force: The McLaughlin Family and the Age of the Car.
(Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 402 p.). McLaughlin, Robert
Samuel, 1871-1972; McLaughlin family; General Motors of Canada
-- History; Automobile industry and trade -- Canada --
Business History Links
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