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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Defense
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December 16, 1897 - A demonstration was given on the Patapsco River of the Argonaut, the first U.S. submarine fitted with an internal combustion engine; invented by Simon Lake, built in 1897 by the Columbian Iron Works and Dry Dock Company of Baltimore, Maryland; first submarine to salvage sunken objects of value.

March 17, 1898 - John Holland demonstrated the first practical submarine off Staten Island in New York for 100 minutes; -not the first underwater boat, credited as the first practical one.

April 22, 1915 - Modern chemical weapons were first used in a war as German troops released chlorine gas from several metal cylinders on the front lines at Ypres, Belgium during WW I; yellow-green gas blown by wind over the French trenches, painfully killed 5000 soldiers via suffocation, constriction of the chest, tightness in the throat, edema of the lungs.

1922 - MIT professor Vannevar Bush (32) and college roommate Laurence K. Marshall (33) founded American Appliance Co.; teamed with inventor Charles G. Smith to produce a home refrigerator (invented by Smith) based on artificial coolants; never developed; produced earlier Smith invention, gaseous rectifier, S-tube, permits radios, for first time, to be plugged into wall sockets for power instead of depending on costly, short-lived A and B batteries; 1925 - introduced under Raytheon name; end of 1926 - generated  more than $1 million in sales.

1930 - Leroy Grumman, Jake Swirbul, Bill Schwendler, E. Clint Towl and Ed Poor started Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Company, in abandoned auto garage; 1931 - introduced XFF-1, first Navy fighter with retractable landing gear, fully enclosed cockpit; 1943 - first aircraft company to receive Navy "E" flag for production efficiency; 1944 - introduced F6F Hellcat (Hellcat pilots account for 55 percent of all enemy aircraft destroyed by Navy and Marines in World War II); 1948 - Leroy Grumman received Presidential Medal of Merit for wartime production; 1967 - A-6 Intruder, world's only all-weather attack bomber, used by Navy and Marine Corps squadrons in Vietnam; 1969 - Apollo Lunar Module carried man to surface of moon; 1994 - acquired by Northrop Corporation.

1934 - Charles Litton Sr., radio enthusiast and engineering student at Stanford University, started Litton Industries with device to mass-produce radio tubes; 1953 - Charles Bates "Tex" Thornton, Roy L. Ash, formerly of Hughes Aircraft, founded Electro Dynamics Corporation; acquired Litton's small microwave tube company; changed company name to Litton Industries; 1980 - $4 billion in sales; 1981 - major supplier of night vision goggles to U.S. Army , law enforcement agencies; 1983 - produced 20,000th inertial navigation system, milestone in aviation history; created first laser radar used in space (part of U.S. Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative);  1990s - split into separate military, commercial companies:  Litton Industries, Western Atlas Inc. (oilfield services, business and automated assembly line operations); April 2001 - acquired by Northrop Grumman Corporation for $3.6 billion.

April 2, 1935 - Sir Watson-Watt received a patent for radar.

July 2, 1940 - Enrico Fermi, Edoardo Amaldi, Bruno Pontecorve, Franco Rasetti, Emilio Segre, all of Rome, Italy, received a patent for a "Process of Production of Radioactive Substances" ("production of isotopes of elements from other isotopes of the same or different elements by reaction with neutrons, and especially to the production of artificial radio activity by the formation of unstable isotopes"); assigned to G. M. Giannini & Co. (New York).

August 11, 1942 - Hedy Kiesler Markey (Hedy Lamarr), of Los Angeles, CA, and George Antheil, of Manhattan Beach, CA, received a patent for a "Secret Communication System" ("involving the use of carrier waves of different frequencies and is especially useful in the remote control of dirigible craft, such as torpedoes"); "frequency hopping"; 1957 - concept taken up by engineers at Sylvania Electronic Systems Division; their arrangement, using electronics rather than piano rolls, ultimately became basic tool for secure military communications (installed on ships sent to blockade Cuba in 1962, about three years after Lamarr-Antheil patent had expired); subsequent patents in frequency changing, generally unrelated to torpedo control, have referred to Lamarr-Antheil patent as basis of field, concept lies behind principal anti-jamming device used today in U.S. government's Milstar defense communication satellite system.

December 2, 1942 - Enrico Fermi and his team demonstrated first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction (part of the Manhattan Project, secret wartime project to develop nuclear weapons) in makeshift lab underneath football stands at Stagg Field at University of Chicago; initiated modern nuclear age; physicists and staffers, working around clock, built lattice of 57 layers of uranium metal and uranium oxide embedded in graphite blocks supported by wooden structure.

Enrico Fermi ( FermiEnricoThm.jpg)

August 1, 1943 - Groundbreaking ceremony in Oak Ridge, TN for first uranium 235 manufacturing plant (needed to build A-bomb); facility cost $280,000,000 to build, completed in summer of 1944.

November 29, 1951 - First U.S. underground atom bomb test (to reduce the extensive logistic effort, time and cost) - designed "Uncle" - was detonated; part of Operation Buster-Jangle, caused a hole 800-ft in diameter and 100-ft deep.

February 21, 1952 - General Dynamics established after its predecessor and current operating division, Electric Boat, acquired aircraft company Canadair Ltd.; began building first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus. 

1965 - Puerto Rican immigrant John Mariotta invested $3,000 to start a small company in renovated brick garage in desolate area of the South Bronx to manufacture baby carriages; 1970 - brought in a partner, Fred Neuberger, focused on Department of Defense contracts; 1987 - grew into $117 million Wedtech political scandal (corruption and racketeering).

November 22, 1988 - Northrop Corporation introduced B-2 "stealth" bomber for first time at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, CA; massive cost--more than $40 billion for development and a $1 billion price tag for each unit; wingspan of nearly half a football field, its radar signal was as negligible as that of a bird. The B-2 also successfully evaded infrared, sound detectors, and the visible eye. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the original order for the production of 132 stealth bombers was reduced to 21 aircraft. The B-2 has won a prominent place in the modern U.S. Air Force fleet, serving well in bombing missions during 1990s. 

January 16, 1997 - Raytheon Corp., then the nation's sixth-largest weapons contractor, agreed to acquire Hughes Electronics, General Motors's weapons unit and country's fourth-largest military manufacturer, at cost of $9.5 billion.

April 2001 - Northrop Grumman Corp. acquired Litton Industries Inc. for $3.6 billion.

October 28, 2008 - Defense spending = 4% of GDP (Bush years), 4.7% at nadir of Cold War (Carter years): 


(Blackwater), Suzanne Simons (2009). Master of War: Blackwater USA’s Erik Prince and the Business of War. (New York, NY: Collins, 288 p.). CNN executive producer. Prince, Erik, 1969-; Blackwater USA; Businessmen --United States --Biography; Private military companies --United States; Mercenary troops --United States; Mercenary troops --Middle East; Iraq War, 2003- --Economic aspects; Afghan War, 2001- --Economic aspects. World's largest private military contractor (dwarfs competitors); tip of Erik Prince's empire (mercenary organization for other governments, private spying company, air fleet large enough to serve as miniature air force); one of modern world's most influential military figures.

Erik Prince - Blackwater (

(GEC), Alex Brummer and Roger Cowe. (1998). Weinstock: The Life and Times of Britain's Premier Industrialist. (London, UK: HarperCollinsBusiness, 343 p.). Industrialists -- Great Britain -- Biography; Jewish businesspeople -- Great Britain -- Biography.

(General Dynamics), eds. John Niven, Courtland Canby, Vernon Welsh (1960). Dynamic America; A History of General Dynamics Corporation and Its Predecessor Companies. (New York, NY: General Dynamics Corporation, 426 p.). General Dynamics Corporation.

(General Dynamics), Jacob Goodwin (1985). Brotherhood of Arms: General Dynamics and the Business of Defending America. (New York, NY: Times Books, 419 p.). General Dynamics Corporation; Defense industries -- United States.

(General Dynamics), Roger Franklin (1986). The Defender: The Story of General Dynamics. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 385 p.). General Dynamics Corporation -- History; Defense industries -- United States -- History.

(General Dynamics), Patrick Tyler (1986). Running Critical: The Silent war, Rickover, and General Dynamics. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 374 p.). Rickover, Hyman George; General Dynamics Corporation; War -- Economic aspects -- United States.

(General Dynamics), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1994). Serving the Silent Service: The Legend of Electric Boat. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 176 p.). Submarine development; Defense contracts--United States.

(General Dynamics), James S. Reyburn (2006). Electric Boat Corporation. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Public Affairs Department at Electric Boat Corporation for 16 years. General Dynamics Corporation. Electric Boat Division; Nuclear submarines--Connecticut--Groton; Submarines (Ships)--Connecticut--Groton; Groton (Conn.)--History. 1900 - company delivered Holland, first submarine accepted by United States Navy; world’s first nuclear-powered ship; world’s first ballistic missile–firing submarine company through 10 decades. 

(Grumman), Richard Thruelsen (1976). The Grumman Story. (New York, NY: Praeger, 401 p.). Grumman Corporation; Grumman airplanes.

Leroy Grumman (

(Grumman), Bill Gunston (1988). Grumman: Sixty Years of Excellence. (New York, NY: Orion Books, 159 p.). Grumman Aerospace Corporation--History; Grumman airplanes--History; Aerospace industries--United States--History; Aircraft industry--United States--History.

(Grumman), George M. Skurla and William H. Gregory (2004). Inside the Iron Works: How Grumman’s Glory Days Faded. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 225 p.). Skurla, George M.; Grumman Aerospace Corporation--History; United States. Navy--Aviation--History; Aerospace engineers--Biography.

(Intelligarde International), George S. Rigakos (2002). The New Parapolice: Risk Markets and Commodified Social Control. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 182 p.). Intelligarde International -- Case studies; Police, Private -- Canada -- Case studies; Crime prevention -- Canada.

(Itek Corporation), Jonathan E. Lewis (2002). Spy Capitalism: Itek and the CIA. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 329 p.). Portfolio Manager (OFFITBANK), Cochairman of the Intelligence Capabilities Action Group at Business Executives for National Security (BENS). Rockefeller, Laurance S., 1910- ; United States. Central Intelligence Agency; Itek Corporation. 

(Litton Industries - founded 1953), Beirne Lay; Foreword by James H. Doolittle (1969). Someone Has To Make It Happen; The Inside Story of Tex Thornton, the Man Who Built Litton Industries. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 204 p.). Thornton, Charles Bates, 1913- ; Litton Industries.

Charles B. ("Tex") Thornton - Litton (

(Litton Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2000). The Legend of Litton Industries. (Write Stuff Enterprises: Write Stuff Enterprises, 159 p.). Litton Industries--History; Defense industries--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.

(Nihon Keibi Hosh¯o Kabushiki Kaisha), H.T. Shimazaki (1992). Vision in Japanese Entrepreneurship: The Evolution of a Security Enterprise. (New York, NY: Routledge, 267 p.). Iida, Makoto, 1922- ; Nihon Keibi Hosh¯o Kabushiki Kaisha--Management; Security systems industry--Japan--Management--Case studies; Telecommunication equipment industry--Japan--Management--Case studies; Entrepreneurship--Japan--Case studies.

(Rand Corporation), Alex Abella (2008). Soldiers of Reason: The Rand Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 388 p.). Rand Corporation--History; Rand Corporation--Influence; Research institutes--United States--History--20th century; Military research--United States--History--20th century; United States--Intellectual life--20th century; United States--Foreign relations--1945-1989; United States--Foreign relations--1989-; United States--Military policy. Established in wake of World War II to advise Air Force on how to wage and win wars, created America’s anti-Soviet nuclear strategy; theories of rational warfare steered  conduct in Vietnam (invasion of Iraq); developed rational choice theory, model explaining all human behavior through self-interest (sparked  Reagan-led transformation of social, economic system) .

(Raytheon), Otto J. Scott (1974). The Creative Ordeal: The Story of Raytheon. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 429 p.). Raytheon Company; Electronic industries--United States--Case studies.

(Raytheon), Alan R. Earls and Robert E. Edwards (2005). Raytheon Company: The First Sixty Years. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Raytheon Company--History; Business enterprises--Massachusetts--Lexington--History; Electronic industries--Massachusetts--Lexington--History; Lexington (Mass.)--Commerce--History; Waltham (Mass.)--Commerce--History. From military components (radar components,  miniature tubes for crucial proximity fuse in antiaircraft shells) to civilian products (microwave oven, televisions, marine radars, transistors, miniature hearing aids, medical equipment).

(Sandia National Laboratories), Necah Stewart Furman (1990). Sandia National Laboratories: The Postwar Decade. (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 858 p.). Sandia Laboratories -- History; Manhattan Project (U.S.) -- History.

(Thorn EMI Electronics. Radar Division), Derek Martin (1986). Thorn EMI: 50 Years of Radar: 50 Years of Company Involvement with Radar Technology 1936-1986. (Hayes, UK: Thorn EMI Electronics, Radar Division, 85 p.). Thorn EMI Electronics. Radar Division -- History; Great Britain Military radar equipment industries.

(Wedtech), William Sternberg and Matthew C. Harrison, Jr. (1989). Feeding Frenzy. (New York, NY: Holt, 326 p.). Wedtech (Firm); Defense contracts--Corrupt practices--United States.

(Wedtech), Marilyn W. Thompson (1990). Feeding the Beast: How Wedtech Became the Most Corrupt Little Company in America. (New York, NY: Scribner, 337 p.). Wedtech (Firm); Defense contracts--Corrupt practices--United States; Government purchasing--Corrupt practices--United States.

(Wedtech), James Traub (1990). Too Good To Be True: The Outlandish Story of Wedtech. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 379 p.). Wedtech (Firm); Defense contracts--Corrupt practices--United States; Government purchasing--Corrupt practices--United States.

Deborah D. Avant (2005). The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 328 p.). Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the Institute for Global and International Studies at the Elliott School of International Affairs (George Washington University). Private security services; Police--Contracting out; Mercenary troops; Internal security; National security; Contracting out; Privatization. 

Eds. John Barber and Mark Harrison (2000). The Soviet Defence-Industry Complex from Stalin to Khrushchev. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press in association with Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham, 283 p.). Fellow and Vice-Provost (King's College, Cambridge); Professor of Economics (University of Warwick). Defense industries --Soviet Union --History. Economic dynamics, social and political significance of Soviet defense (powerfully influenced course of 20th century through resistance to imperial Japan, defeat of Nazi Germany, nuclear stalemate with America in Cold War).

Eli Berman (2009). Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism. (Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 300 p.). Professor of Economics (University of California, San Diego). Terrorism --Economic aspects; Terrorism --Religious aspects. Economics of organizations; leaders of most lethal terrorist groups have found way to control defection; deadly effectiveness lies in resilience, cohesion despite strong incentives to defect.

Stuart D. Brandes (1997). Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 371 p.). War--Economic aspects--United States--History; Profiteering--United States--History. History of war profits in America (semi-legitimate wealth - not specifically illegal, not entirely ethical) - across nearly entire scope of American history through four major military mobilizations,  smaller conflicts.

Jurgen Brauer and Hubert van Tuyll (2008). Castles, Battles, & Bombs: How Economics Explains Military History. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 403 p.). Professor of Economics in the James M. Hull College of Business (Augusta State University); Professor of History and Chair of the Department of History, Anthropology, and Philosophy (Augusta State University). War --Economic aspects --History; Military history. Key episodes of military history from point of view of economics - building of castles in Middle Ages, great commanders of the Age of Battle, strategic bombing of Germany in World War II, France's decision to develop nuclear weapons; lessons for today's military.

Marc Egnal (2009). Clash of Extremes: The Economic Origins of the Civil War. (New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 432 p.). Professor of History (York University). Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- ); United States --History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Economic aspects. Reinterpretation of American Civil War from 1820s through Reconstruction; economics moved country to war; 1820-1850 - patterns of trade, production drew North, South together, brokered series of compromises; after 1850 - rise of Great Lakes economy reoriented Northern trade along east-west lines; South - soil exhaustion, concerns about country's westward expansion, growing ties between Upper South, free states led many cotton planters to contemplate secession; resulted in "clash of extremes"; civil war.

David Hambling (2005). Weapons Grade: How Modern Warfare Gave Birth to Our High-Tech World. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf, 402 p.). British Defense Journalist. Military research; Technology; Technological innovations. 

Ed. Mark Harrison (2008). Guns and Rubles: The Defense Industry in the Stalinist State. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 272 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Warwick). Defense industries --Soviet Union; Weapons industry --Soviet Union; Soviet Union --Military policy; Soviet Union --History --1925-1953. Early decades of Soviet defense industry, problems of defense procurement - why Stalin wanted a large defense sector. how production and allocation of military goods actually took place over first four decades of Soviet Union.

James Hasik (2008). Arms and Innovation: Entrepreneurship and Alliances in the Twenty-First-Century Defense Industry. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 189 p.). Defense industries --United States; Defense industries --Technological innovations --United States. Entrepreneurship and alliances in defense industry; small firms have number of advantages relative to their bigger competitors;  significant challenges in access to capital, customers - can form alliances with each other or with larger companies.

Ed. Gregory D. Hess (2009). Guns and Butter: The Economic Causes and Consequences of Conflict. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 314 p.). Vice President for Academic Affairs, Dean of the Faculty and the Russell S. Bock Chair of Public Economics and Taxation at the Robert Day School of Economics and Finance (Claremont McKenna College). War --Economic aspects. Causes, consequences of war from political economy perspective (consideration of incentives, constraints faced by individuals, groups in conflict decision making - vs. standard state-centric approach); several themes: 1) war as equilibrium phenomenon rather than exogenous process; 2) interaction of politics, economics, institutions and its effect on frequency, severity of conflicts; 3) cost of fighting; 4) innovative character of conflict; theoretical aspects of ways in which domestic politics affects decision to go to war; globalization, its effect on net supply of terrorism; open markets and likelihood of war, domestic insecurity; costs of going to war.

Robert D. Hormats (2007). The Price of Liberty: Paying for America’s Wars. (New York, NY: Times Books, 384 p.). Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs (International), Managing Director of Goldman, Sachs & Co. United States. Dept. of Defense--Appropriations and expenditures; Debts, Public--United States; Finance, Public--United States--History; War--Economic aspects--United States; National security--United States--Finance--History; United States--Armed Forces--Appropriations and expenditures. How leaders (Madison,  Lincoln, FDR, Reagan) have followed Hamilton’s ideals (from greenback, progressive income tax to Victory Bond, Victory Garden campaign, cost-sharing with allies); rampant borrowing to pay for war in Iraq, short-sighted tax cuts in face of long-term war on terrorism run counter to American tradition, place  country’s security in peril.

Solomon Hughes (2007). War on Terror, Inc.: Corporate Profiteering from the Politics of Fear. (New York, NY: Verso, 262 p.). Defense industries; Defense industries--Political aspects; Military readiness--Economic aspects; Military-industrial complex; Great Britain--Defenses--Economic aspects; United States--Defenses--Economic aspects. Private contractors doing governments' dirtiest work; who is behind companies that reap dividend of war? how close are they to political decision-makers? do they actually deliver at cost-effective price?; how to justify delivering area of public life which requires very highest standards of scrupulousness, integrity into hands of market forces.

Jonathan Kirshner (2007). Appeasing Bankers: Financial Caution on the Road to War. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 248 p.). Professor of Government (Cornell University). War--Economic aspects; Banks and banking--History--20th century; Military history, Modern--20th century--Economic aspects. Financial communities favor caution, demonstrate marked aversion to war; value economic stability; interest in peace both pronounced, predictable; states that pursue appeasement when assertiveness is warranted are often appeasing their  bankers.

Armin Krishnan (2008). War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 207 p.). Research Assistant at Salford Business School (University of Salford, UK). War--Economic aspects--United States; Technology--Military aspects; Defense contracts--Economic aspects--United States; Defense industries--Technological innovations--Economic aspects--United States; Security, International. Privatization of the defense sector - due to technology (weapons and logistics, computer software behind them, have become so complicated, armed forces cannot keep up, have to employ contractors); government at war can lower casualties among its soldiers (pay for contractors to guard embassies, convoys, airports).

Edward S. Miller (2007). Bankrupting the Enemy: The U.S. Financial Siege of Japan before Pearl Harbor. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 323 p.). Former CFO of a major international mining corporation, U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Economic sanctions, American--Japan--History--20th century; United States--Foreign economic relations--Japan; Japan--Foreign economic relations--United States; Japan--Economic conditions--1918-1945. United States forced Japan into international bankruptcy to deter its aggression but deprivations facing Japanese people in financial limbo led to its choice of war at Pearl Harbor.

T. Christian Miller (2006). Blood Money: Wasted Billions, Lost Lives, and Corporate Greed in Iraq. (New York, NY: Little, Brown, 334 p.). Reporter (Los Angeles Times). Bush, George W. (George Walker), 1946- ; Iraq War, 2003---Economic aspects; Iraq War, 2003---Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Iraq War, 2003---Equipment and supplies; Petroleum industry and trade--Political aspects--United States; United States--Politics and government--2001-. Bungling of government spending and private contracts, some $30 billion committed to rebuilding Iraq, greater sum than for Marshall Plan.

James C. Mulvenon (2001). Soldiers of Fortune: The Rise and Fall of the Chinese Military-Business Complex, 1978-1998. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 283 p.). Deputy Director, Advanced Analysis (Center for Intelligence Research and Analysis, Defense Group Inc.). China. Zhongguo ren min jie fang jun; Military-owned business enterprises--China. Rise, fall of Chinese military's multi-billion dollar international business empire.

Paul Poast (2005). The Economics of War. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 240 p.). Lecturer in Economics (Ohio State University). War--Economic aspects; War--Economic aspects--United States. Examples of war to explain economic concepts  (macroeconomics of public spending on war, game theory from cold war strategy, market monopoly and industrial structure of arms industry).  

Vernon W. Ruttan (2006). Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 219 p.). Regents Professor Emeritus in the Department of Applied Economics and Adjunct Professor in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs (University of Minnesota). Technological innovations--Economic aspects; High technology--Military aspects; Economic development; Defense industries--Economic aspects--United States; Technological innovations--Economic aspects--United States; High technology industries--United States. Relationship, if any, between U.S. government's preparation for or engagement in warfare, creation of new general-purpose technologies that contribute to increasing rate of economic growth.

Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (1995). The Economics of Defense. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 387 p.). Robert R. and Katheryn A. Dockson Chair of International Relations and Economics (University of Southern California); Professor of Economics and Director, Centre for Defence Economics (University of York, UK). Economic conversion--United States; United States--Defenses--Economic aspects; United States--Military policy. Economic analysis of defense and peace issues. 

Ayesha Siddiqa (2007). Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy. (Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 292 p.). Military government--Pakistan; Civil-military relations--Pakistan; Military-owned business enterprises--Pakistan; Pakistan--Politics and government. Hollow economic growth of armed forces-dominated economy; military capital estimate of $20.7 billion; Pakistan military as oppressive holding company, in charge of economic development.

Peter W. Singer (2007). Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 360 p [rev. and updated). Fellow, Brookings Institution. Defense industries; Military-industrial complex; Privatization; Defense industries--United States; Military-industrial complex--United States; Privatization--United States; United States--Military policy. Corporations sell skills, services that, until recently, only state militaries possessed; products range from trained commando teams to strategic advice from generals;  new "Privatized Military Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of employees, billions in revenue.

Joseph E. Stiglitz and Linda J. Bilmes (2008). The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. (New York, NY: Norton, 311 p.). 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics, University Professor (Columbia University); Professor of Public Finance (Harvard's Kennedy School of Government), former assistant secretary for management and budget in the U.S. Department of Commerce. Iraq War, 2003- -- Finance -- United States; War -- Economic aspects -- United States; War -- Economic aspects -- Iraq. White House has kept Congress, Comptroller General from clear idea on war's true costs; expense items hidden from U.S. taxpayer (replacing military equipment used up at six times peacetime rate, cost of caring for thousands of wounded veterans for rest of their lives); cost in lives, economic damage within Iraq, region; what U.S. taxpayer's money would have produced if instead it had been invested in further growth of U.S. economy.

William Urban and Introduction by Terry Jones (2006). Medieval Mercenaries: The Business of War. (London, UK: Greenhill Books, 304 p.). Lee L. Morgan Professor of History (Monmouth College). Mercenaries; Middle Ages; Soldiers of Fortune. VVital importance of mercenary to medieval power-broker, from the Byzantine Varangian Guard to fifteenth-century soldiers of fortune in the Baltic.

Mark R. Wilson (2006). u> The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861-1865. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 306 p.). Teaches American History (University of North Carolina at Charlotte). United States. Army--Mobilization--History--Civil War, 1861-1865; Contracting out--United States--History--19th century; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Economic aspects. History of army procurement arena in United States during third quarter of nineteenth century; military struggles of Civil War rested on giant project of economic mobilization that was object of high-stakes struggles over resources. 


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