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May 22, 1906 - Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright received a patent for a "Flying-Machine" (" which the weight is sustained by the reactions resulting when one or more aeroplanes are moved through the air edge-wise at a small angle of incidence, either by the application of mechanical power or by utilization of the force of provide means for sustaining or restoring the equilibrium or lateral balance of the apparatus, to provide means for guiding the machine both vertically and horizontally, and to provide structure combining lightness, strength, convenience of construction and certain other advantages."

October 8, 1909 - Wilbur Wright gave flight instruction to Lt. Frank Lahm and Lt. Frederic Humphreys, first military aviators, at field in College Park, MD; October 27, 1909 - Mrs. Ralph Van Deman, wife of Capt. Van Deman, became first woman passenger to fly in United States; November 1909 - Humphreys, Lahm soloed after more than three hours of instruction; field later named College Park Airport; oldest continually operated airport in world (owned, operated by The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission).

January 1, 1914 - Tony Jannus piloted first scheduled commercial airline flight in world for St. Petersburg Tampa Airboat Line (23 minute inaugural flight on Benoist XIV flying boat biplane from near downtown St. Petersburg Municipal Pier).

May 15, 1918 - U.S. began first scheduled Air Mail service between Washington, DC (Washington Polo Grounds) and New York (Belmont Park).

August 25, 1919 - Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited (AT&T) launched world's first daily international scheduled air service between London and Paris.

October 7, 1919 - Dr. Albert Plesman organized air transport company, Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij ("Royal Aviation Company"), later KLM; May 17, 1920 - first KLM flight from London to Amsterdam; May 21, 1946 - first continental European airline to launch scheduled service to New York; September 30, 2003 - merged with Air France (known as Air France-KLM).

November 16, 1920 -  W. Hudson Fysh, former Australian Flying Corps officer, Paul McGinness signed papers in  Gresham Hotel, Brisbane; formally established Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited (Qantas); registered with Fergus McMaster as Chairman (wealthy grazier  had organized investors); November 2, 1922 - inaugurated mail service from Charleville to Cloncurry; 1931 - established first link with Britain's Imperial Airways; January 18, 1934 - Qantas Empire Airways Limited registered in Brisbane; effectively combined interests of British Imperial Airways and Qantas (each held half share); Hudson Fysh appointed Managing Director; 1947 - remaining Qantas shares acquired by Australian government; Fysh new Chairman; 1992 - Australian Government approved A$400 million bid by Qantas for Australian Airlines, subsidiaries; announced privatization of enlarged Qantas group; September 1992 - acquisition completed; positioned Qantas as the principal Australian airline; March 1993 - acquired British Airways; April 1993 - Qantas and Australian merged under banner Qantas - 'The Australian Airline'.

1922 - Russia inaugurated first international airline service, German-Soviet venture DeRuLuft ("Deutsche-Russische Luftverkehrgesellschaft"); connected Moscow to Koenigsberg (Russia to the west); February 9, 1923 - Dobrolet airlines established; July 15, 1923 - started operations between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod; 1932 - "Aeroflot" name officially adopted; represented consolidation of all Russian civil aviation activities under name of Grazhdanskiy Wozdushnyy Flot (Civil Air Fleet); 1937 - International flights started as Aeroflot.

May 2-3, 1923 - Lt. John A. Macready, Lt. Oakley G. Kelly, U.S. Army Air Service pilots, made first nonstop transcontinental flight in T-2 transport,  from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Rockwell Field, San Diego, in just under 27 hours.

May 23, 1923 - Belgian government founded Société Anonyme Belge d'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne (Sabena), or Belgian company for exploiting aerial navigation); Belgian national carrier; April 1, 1924 - first paying flight.

September 12, 1923 - Charter signed, established Aero O/Y (Aero Ltd); Bruno Otto Lucander appointed managing director (former general manager of Finland Spedition-Central Ab-Suomen Välityskeskus Oy); March 20, 1924 - first flight from Helsinki to Tallinn, Estonia with Junkers F.13 aircraft equipped with floats; 1946 - Finnish State acquired majority holding; 1952 - passenger traffic exceeded 100 000 mark for first time; 1953 - name Finnair adopted in company's marketing strategy; June 25, 1968 - name changed to Finnair.

1924 - Britain's four main fledgling airlines, Instone, Handley Page, The Daimler Airway , British Marine Air Navigation Company merged; formed Imperial Airways Limited.

1924 - Thomas Huff, Elliot Daland founded Huff-Daland Manufacturing Company; produced Huff-Daland Dusters for aerial crop dusting; 1928 - Duster Division acquired by Collett Everman (C.E.) Woolman (former agricultural engineer and research assistant with US department of Agriculture, employee of Huff-Daland Duster Company) and group of investors; June 17, 1929 - name changed to Delta Air Service; flew first scheduled passenger flight on 6-seater Model 6000 Travelairs.

February 2, 1925 - Air Mail Act of 1925 enacted (Kelly Act, named for Pennsylvania Congressman Clyde Kelly, chairman of the House Post Office Committee); authorized postmaster general to contract for domestic airmail service with commercial air carriers; created national network of airmail routes operated by private couriers.

April 3, 1925 - Henry Ford opened private air freight service between Detroit, Chicago.

July 13, 1925 - Harris M ("Pop") Hanshue, Los Angeles auto dealer, incorporated Western Air Express (six Douglas M-2 mailplanes, 20 employees); November 1925 - won contract for Airmail Route Four, between Los Angeles and Las Vegas with central transcontinental route at Salt Lake City;  received up to 80% of revenue from airmail postage; April 17, 1926 - started service; May 3, 1926 - carried first passengers from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles;  June 1929 - started passenger route between Los Angeles and Texas; April 29, 1930 - Air Mail Act of 1930 (McNary-Watres Act) made law; changed how airlines were paid, gave Walter Folger Brown, President Hoover's postmaster general, authority to change existing postal policy (air transportation system); consolidated airline routes to three companies; forced merger of Western (largest air system in world; covered 16,000 miles with 40 aircraft) with Transcontinental Air Transport (T-A-T); renamed Transcontinental and Western Air (T&WA); February 19, 1934 - President Roosevelt canceled all existing airmail contracts (returned to private contract airmail, with conditions attached, on May 8, 1934); May 18, 1934 - TWA began commercial service; 1939 - Howard Hughes became principal shareholder; 1950 - name changed to Trans World Airlines; May 18, 1953 - T.W.A. made fist nonstop transcontinental flight from Los Angeles to New York City in DC-7; first commercial aircraft able to fly coast to coast nonstop westbound against prevailing winds; 1985 - controlling interest acquired by Carl Icahn; 1988 - carried more than 50% of all trans-Atlantic passengers; took company private (burdened airline with $540 million in debt); 1990 - assets of TWA's operations at London Heathrow acquired by American Airlines for $445 million; 1992 - filed for bankruptcy; April 9, 2001 - acquired by American Airlines.

1926 - Harold F. Pitcairn founded Pitcairn Aviation, Inc. as airmail operation in Byrn Athyn, PA; 1927 - won government contracts to carry airmail along eastern route from New York to Florida via Atlanta; 1929 - acquired by Clement Keys (had established North American Aviation in 1928); 1930 - name changed to Eastern Air Transport; 1931 - added passenger service to 16 eastern seaboard cities; 1933 - North American Aviation acquired by General Motors (Eastern Transport Division); 1935 -combined Eastern Air Transport with Florida Airways, formed Eastern Air Lines; March 2, 1938 - Eastern Air Lines acquired for $3.5 million by Eddie Rickenbacker, manager of airline, group of investors; April 30, 1961 - flew first shuttle flights between Washington DC, Boston, New York City; February 24, 1986 - acquired by Texas Air for $676 million; March 9, 1989 - filed for bankruptcy; June 7, 1989 - Eastern Air Shuttle formally became Trump Shuttle;  April 18, 1990 - Bankruptcy court forced Frank Lorenzo to give up Eastern Airlines; January 18, 1991 - ceased operations; April 12, 1992 - Trump Shuttle became U.S. Air Shuttle.

January 6, 1926 - Deutsche Aero Lloyd (DAL), Junkers Luftverkehr merged; formed "Deutsche Luft Hansa Aktiengesellschaft"; 1933 - renamed "Lufthansa" (derived from Luft (German word for "air") and Hansa (Hanseatic trade organization active in Northern Europe during medieval times; new airline inherited crane logo from DAl (designed by "Deutsche Luft-Reederei" in 1919), blue-and-yellow house colors from Junkers; April 6, 1926 - commenced scheduled flights.

April 6, 1926 - Walter Varney formed Varney Airlines in Boise, ID as air-mail carrier; flew to railroad mail hub between Pasco, WA and Elko, NV; June 30, 1930 - acquired by United Aircraft and Transport Corp.; March 28, 1931 -formed United Air Lines, Inc. 

May 20, 1926 - President Calvin Coolidge signed Air Commerce Act into law; cornerstone of Federal Government's regulation of civil aviation; charged Secretary of Commerce with authority to foster air commerce, issue, enforce air traffic rules, license pilots, certify aircraft, establish airways, operate, maintain aids to air navigation; new Aeronautics Branch of Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. 

March 14, 1927 - Several army officers incorporated Pan American Airways (contract to deliver mail to Cuba); June 2, 1927 - Juan Trippe formed Aviation Corporation of America to offer air services to Caribbean (landing rights into Havana); October 19, 1927 - Trippe provided first airplane to Pan Am, Fairchild FC-2 floatplane, to make mail delivery; October 11, 1927 - Richard Hoyt established Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways; October 28, 1927 - regularly scheduled Pan Am service began (24 employees); first aircraft, Tri-motor Fokker F-7, made first flight, 90-mile trip to Havana, Cuba; June 23, 1928 - Atlantic, Pan American, Aviation Corporation (40% stock in new holding company) merged; formed Aviation Corporation of the Americas (Pan American Airways Incorporated as main operating subsidiary); fall 1928 - bought land from Seminole Fruit and Land Company along south side of NW 36th street in Miami Springs; called Pan American Field (beginning of Miami International Airport); January 9, 1929 - inaugurated first passenger flight from Miami to San Juan by way of Belize and Managua (2,000-miles, 56 hours, two overnight stops); January 25, 1929 - formed Pan American-Grace Airways, Inc.; September 15, 1930 - acquired prime competitor, New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line; became most important player in Latin American market; 1931 - name changed to Pan American Airways Corporation; November 22, 1935 - first transpacific flight as "China Clipper," Martin flying boat built to Pan Am's specifications, left San Francisco on six day journey to Manila; April 28, 1937 - made first commercial flight across Pacific; May 20, 1939 - inaugurated transatlantic flights as "Yankee Clipper," Boeing B-314, completed New York - Lisbon - Marseille route; January 6, 1942 - Pan American Airways Pacific Clipper arrived in New York; first round-the-world trip by commercial airplane; June 17, 1947 - inaugurated first worldwide passenger airline from New York (around world fare if $1700);  employed 19,000 people in 62 countries; 1950 - name changed to Pan American World Airways, Inc.; October 26, 1958 - "Clipper America," Boeing 707, flew from New York to Paris with 111 passengers; first commercial long-haul jet service took 8 hours, 41 minutes; October 10, 1959 - announced first global airline service; 1970 - carried 11 million passengers almost 20 billion miles; April 26, 1976 - began non-stop flights from New York City to  Tokyo; 1977 - around world flight covered 26,300 miles in 54 hours; January 1980 - merged with National Airlines; attempt several organizational restructures; December 1991 - ceased operations.

June 30, 1927 - William Boeing formed Boeing Air Transport in Seattle, WA; January 1, 1928 - acquired Pacific Air Transport (incorporated in 1926 by Vern Gorst, bus operator in Oregon); October 31, 1928 - Boeing Air Transport acquired by Boeing Airplane Company; renamed Boeing Airplane and Transport Corp.; February 1, 1929 - name changed to United Aircraft and Transport Corp. (dissolved on August 31, 1934); acquired Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, Hamilton Standard Propeller Co., Chance Vought Corp.; March 31, 1930 - acquired National Air Transport Inc. (formed by Clement Keys in 1925 in Chicago, IL); June 30, 1930 - acquired Varney Airlines; March 28, 1931 -formed United Air Lines, Inc. to manage the UATC airline subsidiaries; May 1, 1934 - became operating company; won temporary contracts to resume air mail operations on routes formerly operated by Boeing Air Transport, Pacific Air Transport, National Air Transport and Varney Airlines; July 20, 1934 - formed United Airlines Transport Corporation (UALTC);  succeeded UAL as owner/operator of BAT, NAT, PAT Varney and United Airports of California; July 21, 1934 - spun off non airline subsidiaries; incorporated United Aircraft Corp.; December 28, 1934 - merged BAT, NAT, PAT, Varney into UALTC; United Airports of California acquired by Lockheed Corporation; December 1936 - opened  industry's first flight kitchen in Oakland, CA; October 15, 1943 - launched U.S. coast-to-coast cargo service; December 22, 1943 - name changed from United Air Lines Transport Corp. (UALTC) to United Air Lines, Inc.; June 1, 1954 - inaugurated first U.S. transcontinental nonstop scheduled service between San Francisco and New York (3,000 miles in new Douglas DC-7 aircraft in 7-1/2 hours); June 1, 1961 - merged with Capital Airlines; world's largest commercial airline; October 1965 - launched "Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan; became industry's longest-running marketing message (discontinued May 22, 1997); August 1, 1969 -formed UAL, Inc. as a holding company (United as wholly owned subsidiary); April 30, 1987 - name changed to Allegis Corporation; May 26, 1988 - Allegis name dropped; holding company re-named UAL Corporation; December 31, 1995 - most profitable year eve; reported $662 million in net profits from continuing operations; June 25, 2002 - filed with Air Transportation Stabilization Board (ATSB) for $1.8 billion in federal loan guarantees; December 9, 2002 - United Airlines filed for bankruptcy protection; biggest in aviation history; had lost $4 billion in previous two years; May 10, 2005 - Federal bankruptcy judge approved United Airlines's plan to terminate employees' pension plans.

1928 - Paul Revere Braniff (obtained Pilot's License from Orville Wright in 1923), Tom Braniff (brother), four other investors bought "Stinson Detroiter" Cabin Plane for $11,000; incorporated Paul R. Braniff, Inc., Airline...Oklahoma City to Tulsa" (and vice versa) - one-route, one airplane, part-time mail route airline ; June 20, 1928 - first flight from Oklahoma City; three round-trip flights daily, Monday thru Friday; Paul Braniff - first, only pilot on payroll; April 1929 - inaugurated services to Dallas and Fort Worth; merged with Universal Aviation (St Louis, MO); name changed to Braniff Airlines, Inc.; acquired by Aviation Holdings (AVCO); 1930 - Paul Braniff invested in two Lockheed Vegas (fastest airliner of day); 1931 - flew routes to Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Kansas City, Chicago, Wichita Falls, St. Louis; September 1935 - first in-flight meal service inaugurated on Brownsville to Corpus Christi, Tulsa to Kansas City routes; Paul Braniff forced out Tom Braniff (brother); 1936 - Fort Worth - Braniff's "hub" of operations; 1946 - granted rights by CAB to fly to Southern Continent; name changed to Braniff International Airways; 1954 - Executive Vice President, Charles "Chuck" Beard, took over (Tom Braniff died in plane crash); June 23, 1963 - 5,482 employees, 17,914 route miles serving 46 cities in 10 countries; assets of $96 million, operating revenues of $94 million, 10th largest airline in world; 1964 - acquired by Greatamerica Corporation (insurance holding company in North Texas headed by Troy Post); April 5, 1965 - Harding Lawrence (former Vice President at Continental Airlines, Post's brother-in-law) installed, appointed President; 1973 - renamed Braniff International Corporation; 1980 - Lawrence ousted (debt burden); May 12, 1982 - ceased operations; declared bankruptcy (company size doubled, service expanded into Europe and Asia, multi-million dollar new headquarters built, fuel costs rose, debts not repaid, excessive executive compensation); December 1983 - emerged from bankruptcy by Jay Pritzker (Hyatt Hotels); name changed to Dalfort Corporation (holding company for airline); March 1, 1984 - first flight as Braniff, Inc. from Dallas/Fort Worth to New Orleans; October 1988 - acquired by BIA-COR Holdings, Inc.; April 1989 - flew to 40 locations, fleet of 57 aircraft; September 28, 1989 - filed for bankruptcy; December 1989 - assets liquidated.

January 1929 - John R. Fletcher published 'The Official Aviation Guide Of The Airways' in U.S.; listed 35 airlines offering total of 300 flights; 1949 - name shortened to Official Airline Guide; August 14, 1951 - American Aviation Publications, Inc. registered 'Official Airline Guide' trademark first used August 30, 1948 (periodical published once a month); 1962 - acquired by Dun & Bradstreet; December1988 - acquired by Maxwell Communications Corporation for about $750 million; September 1993 - assets of Official Airline Guides acquired by Reed Elsevier for $417 million; August 1996 - OAG brand re-launched; March 1998 - OAG Worldwide restructured as stand-alone business focused on airline information; July 2001 - acquired by private investors; December 2006 - acquired by Commonwealth Business Media (CBM), wholly-owned subsidiary of United Business Media plc.

January 25, 1930 - American Airways incorporated as single company in New York (controlled by Aviation Corporation, formed by Fairchild Aviation Corp. in March 1929 as aircraft dealer and airmail provider; holding company held interests in 90 aviation-related companies by end of 1929); routes from Boston, New York and Chicago to Dallas, from Dallas to Los Angeles; 1934 - forced to divest by Air Mail Act of 1934; acquired by E.L. Cord; renamed "American Air Lines"; January 25, 1959 - American Airlines Flight 2 (Boeing 707) completed first transcontinental commercial jet flight from Los Angeles to Idlewild Airport in New York City (now Kennedy International); shortened coast-to-coast flight by 3 hours; filled with alcohol, cigarette smoke; round-trip fare of $238.80 ($1,750 in 2009 dollars); May 1, 1981 - Tom Plaskett, head of marketing, introduced incentive program for passengers, called AAdvantage; birth of frequent flier miles programs (modeled on S&H Green Stamp program).

May 15, 1930 - Ellen Church, first airline stewardess, went on duty aboard United Airlines flight between San Francisco and Cheyenne, WY.

October 25, 1930 - TWA began first transcontinental air service from New York City to Los Angeles (36 hours, with overnight stop in Kansas City).

March 26, 1931 - Merger of Zurich-based Ad Astra Aero AG and Basler Luftverkehr (Balair) created Schweizerische Luftverkehrs AG (Swissair) with fleet of 13 airplanes, 64 employees, 20 cities served; 1989 - first European airline to seal partnership agreement with overseas carriers; December 6, 1992 - 50.3% of Swiss population voted against ratification of European Economic Area (EEA) Treaty; December 14, 1994 - acquired 49.5% ownership of Sabena, Belgium’s flag carrier; March 1998 - Qualiflyer Group created (equity-based alliances with smaller non-aligned European flag carriers); January 25, 2001 - raised ownership in Sabena to 85%;  maintenance and repair, ground handling, IT, aircraft leasing, catering, duty free, hotels, aerial photography, agriculture accounted for more than half of Swissair employees, most of profits; October 2, 2001 - airline grounded; declared bankruptcy (Belgian government, big Swiss banks, September 11 terrorist attacks blamed); March 31, 2002 - SAirGroup’s commercial successor, SWISS, began operations as Switzerland’s new flag carrier; March 22, 2005 - minority shareholding in SWISS acquired by Deutsche Lufthansa AG; July 1, 2007 - Swiss International Air Lines AG (10.5 million passengers to 70 destinations on 73 planes in 2006) acquired by Deutsche Lufthansa AG (53.4 million passengers to 185 destinations on 430 planes in 2006).

January 1932 - Linious "Mac" McGee, Harvey Barnhill  advertised company in Anchorage Daily Times as furrier, airline offering service between Anchorage, Bristol Bay (had acquired three-seat Stinson airplane in 1931 for $5,000 to support McGee's fur-buying business); dissolved partnership; April 1932 - Charlie Ruttan, Steve Mills, Jack Waterworth founded Star Air Service; offered flight instruction, charter service from Anchorage; 1934 - acquired McGee Airways (seven silver-and-black Stinsons) for $50,000 with caveat (if Mcgee didn't get paid on time, would return to manage airline until he got all of his money); largest airline in Alaska (22 aircraft); 1936 - Star's gross income $190,000/year; passengers paid 20 cents/mile, 35% of all freight moved in territory by plane; acquired struggling Alaska Interior Airlines (founded by McGee Airways' first pilot, Oscar Winchell); late 1937 - acquired by investors led by Don Goodman (former pilot), Strandbergs (successful Kuskokwim mining family); name changed to Star Air Lines; 1942 - airline sold, name changed to Alaska Star Airlines; 1944 - name changed to Alaska Airlines.

October 15, 1932 - Tata Aviation Service, forerunner to Tata Airlines and Air India, began service (1953 - government of Jawaharlal Nehru nationalized Air India).

October 7, 1933 - Five airlines merged, formed Air France (Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Generale Aeropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aerienne, Societe Generale de Transport Aerien).

June 12, 1934 - Air Mail Act of 1934 enacted; broke up aviation holding companies (owned aircraft manufacturing companies, airlines); government set airmail contracts, routes, schedules; fixed subsidy rates, airmail payments; regulated airways and license pilots; locked temporary, low bids accepted from airlines in place; airmail carriers began to lose money.

July 15, 1934 - Walter T. Varney, Louis Mueller founded Varney Speed Lines; Varney ceded control to Mueller; 1936 - acquired by Robert Six; 1937 - name changed to Continental.

1935 - Several small UK air transport companies merged, created original privately-owned British Airways Limited; became Imperial Airways (principal UK competitor on European routes); 1939 - Imperial Airways, British Airways nationalized; formed British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC); May 2, 1952 - British Overseas Airways Corporation (B.O.A.C.) made first commercial jet flight from London to Johannesburg in 23 1/2 hours; first jet-engine commercial transport; October 26, 1952 - Comet crashed on takeoff from Rome, nobody killed; May 2, 1953 - Comet crashed six minutes after takeoff from Calcutta, killed 43; April 12, 1954 - Prime Minister Winston Churchill grounded B.O.A.C. comets (5 of 21 had crashed); undertook most extensive, expensive air investigation to that point in history; October 4, 1958 - British Overseas Airways Corp. began first trans-Atlantic passenger jetliner service with flights between London Heathrow airport, New York Idlewild airport; inaugural flight completed in 8 hours 53 minutes (including stop-over 10 hrs. 5 min.) at average ground speed of 404 m.p.h.; October 21, 1970 - Caledonian Airways took over British United Airways; renamed British Caledonian; formed to compete on international routes against state monopoly carriers BEA, BOAC; 1974 - businesses of BOAC and BEA combined under newly formed British Airways Board; formed British Airways; July 1979 - Government announced intention to sell shares in British Airways; February 1987 - British Airways privatized; July 1987 - merged with British Caledonian.

May 9, 1936 - Hindenburg zeppelin arrived at Lakehurst, NJ; beginning of regular commercial service across Atlantic from Germany; flight took 61-hr 38-min, carried 51 passengers, 56 crew.

January 19, 1937 - Millionaire Howard Hughes set  transcontinental air record; flew monoplane from Los Angeles to Newark, NJ in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds.

June 23, 1938 - Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 made law; regulatory organization authorized to supervise air transport industry, promote and develop it (known after 1940 as Civil Aeronautics Board); transferred federal civil aviation responsibilities from Commerce Department to Civil Aeronautics Authority; expanded government's role; gave it authority, power to regulate airline fares, determine routes that air carriers would serve; goals of CAB: to provide American public with safest, most efficient, least expensive, widest ranging air service possible; regulated entry into, exit from individual markets (dictated route patterns between cities, frequency of flights), fares for passengers and cargo, safety, financing, subsidies to carriers flying on less profitable routes, mergers and acquisitions, inter-carrier agreements, quality of service.

October 15, 1939 - New York Municipal Airport dedicated (later renamed La Guardia Airport); December 2, 1939 - Airport began operations; December 24, 1963 - Idlewild Airport renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport.

August 16, 1949 - Leonard Greene, of Mineola, NY, received a patent for a "Stall Warning Device for Airplanes".

April 18, 1950 - Avro Canada flew first U.S. jet passenger international flight from Malton Airport (Toronto, ON) to International Airport in New York City; crew of three, three passengers, 15,000 airmail letters (first airmail letters carried in U.S. by jet plane); 359 mile flight took one hour, powered by four Rolls-Royce Derwent jet engines.

May 2, 1952 - B.O.A.C. made first commercial jet flight from London to Rome to Johannesburg (De Havilland Comet 1 carried 36 passengers). 

July 9, 1953 - New York Airways became first scheduled passenger helicopter air carrier to operate in U.S.

October 19, 1953 - TWA began first non-stop eastbound scheduled transcontinental service (Super Constellations) from Los Angeles to New York (8 hours in piston-engine aircraft, not jet).

January 30, 1958 - First two-way, moving sidewalk, passenger conveyor put in service at Love Field Air Terminal in Dallas, TX (1,425 feet long).

October 1958 - BOAC inaugurated first fare-paying jet service across North Atlantic, operated Comet 4s between London, New York; Pan American inaugurated its first Boeing 707-120 service between New York-London three weeks later.

December 10, 1958 - National Airlines Boeing 707 flew 111 passengers from New York City to Miami; first domestic passenger jet flight in U.S.

January 25, 1959 - American Airlines Flight 2 made first scheduled nonstop transcontinental passenger commercial jet trip from Los Angeles to New York (Idlewild Airport, later renamed JFK); cut more than three hours off cross-country propeller-plane flights; round-trip in coach cost $238.80.

April 23, 1959 - First heliport in Britain opened in London.

November 17, 1962 - President John F. Kennedy dedicated Dulles International Airport in Washington, DC.

November 24, 1971 - Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from Northwest Orient Airlines 727 at 10,000 feet over Washington state with $200,000 in ransom; wore only wraparound sunglasses, thin suit, raincoat; parachuted  into a thunderstorm with winds in excess of 100 mph, temperatures below zero; no trace of Cooper found during a massive search; 1980 - an eight-year-old boy uncovered a stack of nearly $5,880 of the ransom money in the sands along the north bank of the Columbia River, five miles from Vancouver, WA; Cooper's fate still a mystery.

1972 - Government of Singapore established Singapore Airlines.

February 5, 1972 - U.S. airlines began mandatory inspection of passengers, baggage.

January 21, 1976 - Britain and France simultaneously put supersonic Concorde jet into service; first Concordes with commercial passengers simultaneously took off from London's Heathrow Airport and Orly Airport outside Paris; London flight headed to Bahrain (Persian Gulf), Paris flight headed to Rio de Janeiro via Senegal in West Africa; cruising speeds well over sound barrier at 1,350 miles an hour, cut air travel time by more than half; May 24, 1976 - Britain and France started transatlantic Concorde service to Washington; November 22, 1977 - regular passenger service between New York, Europe on supersonic Concorde began on trial basis; October 24, 2003 - Era of supersonic jet travel ended due to rising operating costs, reduced ticket sales.

October 24, 1978 - Airline Deregulation Act made law; phased out Civil Aeronautics Board 's economic regulation of airlines (CAB ceased to exist at end of 1984); phased out federal government's control over airfares and services; relied on competitive market forces to determine price, quantity, quality of domestic air service; removed government control from commercial aviation; exposed passenger airline industry to market forces; maintained  safety as highest priority in air commerce; placed maximum reliance on competition in providing air transportation services; encouraged air service at major urban areas through secondary or satellite airports; avoided  unreasonable industry concentration to prevent one or more air carriers to unreasonably increase prices, reduce services, exclude competition;  encouraged entry into air transportation markets by new air carriers, entry into additional markets by existing air carriers, continued strengthening of small air carriers.

February 5, 1982 - Laker Airways collapsed; owed 270 million pounds ($351million).

January 9, 1990 - Air Transport Association reported that nation's air carriers suffered $2 billion in losses during previous twelve months; industry's worst annual performance since deregulation in 1978; skyrocketing jet fuel costs, downturn in U.S. economy, Iraq's offensive against Kuwait offered as primary reasons.

July 1, 1997 - American Airlines became first United States air carrier to place automatic external defibrillators on fleet of 700 aircraft to give immediate coronary care to in-flight heart-attack victims; trained over 22,000 flight attendants on use of defibrillator; February 18, 1998 - saved  first passenger (had collapsed on an aircraft after rushing to catch connecting flight); April 12, 2004 - U.S. Federal Aviation Administration required AEDs to be on commercial passenger aircraft of certain size.

September 21, 2001 - Congress approved $15 billion to help airline industry; in spiral after September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City.

August 11, 2002 - US Airways filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

May 5, 2004 - Air France merged with KLM.

September 14, 2005 - Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

2007 - OAG Worldwide Limited reported that world's airlines scheduled record 29.6 million flights in 2007 (increase of 4.7 million from 2006); average of 81,000 takeoffs per day; low-cost carriers scheduled 4.6 million flights, increase of 20% over 2006.

April 11, 2008 - Frontier Airlines (Denver, CO) became 5th low-fare carrier  to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection (Aloha Air, ATA, Maxjet Airways, Skybus): growing shake-up of global aviation, carriers struggled to cope with record oil prices and weakening economic growth; cut domestic capacity, grounded older aircraft.


April 17, 2008 - Effect of deregulation on airline industry.


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(Air Inter), Philippe-Michel Thibault; preface de Rene Lapautre et Jean-Cyril Spinetta (2006). Air Inter: La Revolution Interieure. (Paris, FR: Cherche Midi, 286 p.). (Firm)--History; Airlines--France--History--20th century.

(Air Midwest), I.E. Quastler (1980). Pioneer of the Third Level: A History of Air Midwest. (San Diego, CA: Commuter Airline Press, 174 p.). Air Midwest--History.

(Air Midwest), I.E. Quastler (1985). Air Midwest: The First Twenty Years. (San Diego, CA: Airline Press of California, 298 p.). Air Midwest--History; Local service airlines--Middle West--History.

(Air New Zealand), Ian H. Driscoll (1979). Airline: The Making of a National Flag Carrier. (Auckland, NZ: Shortland Publications, 302 p.). Air New Zealand--History; Aeronautics; Commercial--New Zealand--History.

(Air New Zealand), Noel Holmes (1982). To Fly a Desk: Sir Geoffrey Roberts Father of Air New Zealand. (Wellington, NZ: Reed, 196 p.). Roberts, Geoffrey, Sir, 1906- ; Air New Zealand--History; Air New Zealand--Biography; Businesspeople--New Zealand--Biography.

(Alaska Airlines), Archie Satterfield (1981). The Alaska Airlines Story. (Anchorage, AK: Alaska Northwest Pub. Co., 207 p.). Alaska Airlines--History.

Mac McGee Mac McGee (left) - Alaska Air (

(Alaska Airlines), Robert Serling (2008). Character & Characters: The Spirit of Alaska Airlines. (Seattle, WA: Documentary Media, 496 p.). Alaska Airlines --History; Airlines --Alaska. America’s oldest, most colorful airline from humble beginnings in 1932; evolved from bush carrier to major airline; began as a gnat-sized passenger and cargo transportation service connecting remote locations across vast reaches; since 1970s - has supported Trans Alaska Pipeline during construction and operation; has partnered with others to promote develop state of Alaska as one of nation’s finest tourist destinations; 2008 - stretches north to Canada, 19 destinations in 49th state, south along the West Coast, deep into Mexico, to major cities across continental United States, across Pacific to Hawaii.

(American), Robert J. Serling (1985). Eagle: The Story of American Airlines. (New York, NY: St. Martin's, 482 p.). American Airlines, Inc.--History.

Cyrus Rowlett Smith (President, American Airlines, 1934-1968) ( CyrusRowlettSmith.jpg/220px-CyrusRowlettSmith.jpg)

(American), Dan Reed (1993). The American Eagle: The Ascent of Bob Crandall and American Airlines. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 302 p.). Crandall, Bob; American Airlines, inc.--History; Airlines--United States--History; Airlines--United States--Biography.

(American), Al Casey with Dick Seaver; foreword by Jack Valenti (1997). Casey's Law: If Something Can Go Right, It Should. (New York, NY: Arcade Publishing, 324 p.). Management; Problem solving; Success in business.

(Austin Airways), Larry Milberry (1985). Austin Airways: Canada's Oldest Airline. (Toronto: Canav Books, 160 p.). Austin Airways -- History; Local service airlines -- Ontario -- History.

(Braniff), John J. Nance (1984). Splash of Colors: The Self-Destruction of Braniff International. (New York, NY: Morrow, 426). Braniff Airways.

Paul Revere Braniff - Braniff Airlines (

Harding Lawrence - Braniff ( 1965/images/Lawrence.jpg)

(British Airways - origins date to August 1919; Imperial Airways and British Airways were nationalised in 1939 to form British Overseas Airways Corporation [BOAC]; 1972 - BOAC and British European Airways [BEA] combined; named British Airways in 1974), Harald Penrose (1980). Wings Across the World: An Illustrated History of British Airways. (London, UK: Cassell, 304 p.). British Airways -- History.

(British Airways), Mark Ashworth and Peter Forsyth (1984). Civil Aviation Policy and the Privatisation of British Airways. (London, UK: Institute for Fiscal Studies, 168 p.). British Airways -- Valuation; Aeronautics, Commercial -- Great Britain; Corporations, Government -- Great Britain; Privatization -- Great Britain -- Valuation.

(British Airways), Ducan Campbell-Smith (1986). The British Airways Story: Struggle for Take-off. (London, UK: Coronet Books: Hodder and Stoughton, 327 p.). British Airways--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Great Britain--History; Airlines--Great Britain--History.

(British Airways), Alison Corke (1986). British Airways: The Path to Profitability. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 145 p.). British Airways--History; Airlines--Great Britain--History.

(British Airways), Arthur Reed (1990). Airline - The Inside Story of British Airways. (London, UK: BBC, 160 p.). British Airways; airlines--Great Britain--History.

(British Airways), Martyn Gregory (1996). Dirty Tricks: British Airways' Secret War Against Virgin Atlantic. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 520 p.). British Airways; Virgin Group; Competition--Great Britain; Aeronautics, Commercial--Great Britain. 

(British Airways), Neville Doyle (2001). The Triple Alliance: The Predecessors of the First British Airways. (Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain Historians, 128 p.). British Airways--History; Hillman’s Airways; Spartan Air Lines.

(British European Airways), Charles Woodley (2005). History of British European Airways 1946-1972. (Barnsley, UK: Leo Cooper Ltd., 224 p.). British European Airways -- History. 

(Canadian Airlines International), Peter Pigott (1998). Wingwalkers: A History of Canadian Airlines International. (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Pub., 391 p.). Canadian Airlines International--History; Canadian Airlines International--Biography; Lignes ae´riennes Canadian international--Histoire; Lignes ae´riennes Canadian international--Biographies.

(Canadian Airways), Shirley Render; foreword by Max Ward (1999). Double Cross: The Inside Story of James A. Richardson and Canadian Airways. (Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 334 p.). Richardson, James A. (James Armstrong), 1885-1939; Canadian Airways Limited -- History; Canadian Airways Limited -- Biography; Airlines -- Canada -- History.

(Channel Island Airlines), Neville Doyle (1991). From Sea-Eagle to Flamingo: Channel Island Airlines, 1923-1939. (Upton-upon-Severn, Worcs, UK: Self Pub. Association, 316 p.). Aeronautics, Commercial--Channel Islands--History.

(China National Aviation Corporation), William M. Leary, Jr. (1976). The Dragon's Wings: The China National Aviation Corporation and the Development of Commercial Aviation in China. (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 279 p.). China National Aviation Corporation; Pan American Airways Corporation; Airlines -- China -- History; Aeronautics, Commercial -- China -- History.

(Cityjet), Pat Byrne (2004). Fuelled by Belief: The Cityjet Story. (Dublin, IR: Liffey Press, 228 p.). Ireland--Airlines; Ireland--Business.

(Connellan Airways), E.J. Connellan; introduced and edited by Peter Donovan (1992). Failure of Triumph: The Story of Connellan Airways. (Alice Springs, N. T.: Paradigm Investments, 420 p.). Connellan, E. J. (Edward John), 1912-1983; Connellan Airways--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Australia--Northern Territory--History; Airlines--Australia--Northern Territory--History; Businesspeople--Australia--Northern Territory--Biography; Local service airlines--Australia--Northern Territory--History.

(Continental), Robert J. Serling (1974). Maverick: The Story of Robert Six and Continental Airlines. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 351 p.). Six, Robert F.; Continental Airlines.

Robert F. Six - bought 40% of company in 1936, President of Continental for 40 Years (

(Continental), R.E.G. Davies (1984). Continental Airlines: The First Fifty Years, 1934-1984. (The Woodlands, TX: Pioneer Publications, 192 p.). Continental Airlines--History.

(Continental), Michael E. Murphy (1986). The Airline That Pride Almost Bought: The Struggle To Take Over Continental Airlines. (New York, NY: F. Watts, 289 p.). Continental Airlines.

(Continental), Ray Scippa (1994). Point to Point: The Sixty Year History of Continental Airlines. (Houston, TX: Pioneer Pub., 116 p.). Continental Airlines--History.

(Continental), Gordon Bethune with Scott Huler (1998). From Worst to First: Behind the Scenes of Continental's Remarkable Comeback. (New York, NY: Wiley, 294 p.). Continental Airlines--History; Airlines--United States--Management--Case studies; Corporate turnarounds--United States--Case studies.

(Delta), W. David Lewis and Wesley Phillips Newton (1979). Delta: The History of an Airline. (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 503 p.). Delta Air Lines--History.

Collett "C. E." Woolman - bought Huff Daland Dusters, turned it into Delta (

(Delta), Sidney F. Davis (1988). Delta Air Lines: Debunking the Myth. (Atlanta, GA: Peachtree, 191 p.). Delta Air Lines; Airlines--United States.

(Delta), Geoff Jones (2003). Delta Air Lines: 75 Years of Airline Excellence. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, Freelance Aviation Journalist and Photographer). 127 p. Delta Air Lines--History; Transport planes--United States--History--Pictorial works. 

(Eastern), Robert J. Serling (1980). From the Captain to the Colonel: An Informal History of Eastern Airlines. (New York, NY: Dial Press, 535 p.). Rickenbacker, Eddie, 1890-1973; Borman, Frank, 1928- ; Eastern Air Lines, Inc.--History.

Edward V. Rickenbacker (top, second from right) - named GM of Eastern in 1934, President in 1938, Chairman in 1954-1963 (

Frank Lorenzo - Eastern ( BigNameinbussiness3.jpg)

(Eastern), Joan Lacey Mazauskas (1990). Mayday! Mayday!: Eastern Airlines in a Tailspin! (Ashland, OH: BookMasters, 314 p.). Eastern Air Lines, inc.; Eastern Air Lines, inc.--Reorganization.

(Eastern), Aaron Bernstein (1990). Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction of Eastern Airlines. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 256 p.). Lorenzo, Frank; Eastern Air Lines, inc.; Strikes and lockouts--Airlines--United States; Eastern Air Lines, inc., Strike, 1989-1991.

(Eastern), Martha Dunagin Saunders (1992). Eastern's Armageddon: Labor Conflict and the Destruction of Eastern Airlines. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 164 p.). Lorenzo, Frank; Eastern Air Lines, inc.--Reorganization; Eastern Air Lines, inc.--Personnel management; Eastern Air Lines, inc., Strike, 1989-1991; Strikes and lockouts--Airlines--United States.

(Eastern), Jack E. Robinson (1992). Freefall: The Needless Destruction of Eastern Air Lines and the Valiant Struggle To Save It. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 270 p.). Eastern Air Lines, inc.; Bankruptcy--United States.

(easyJet), Lois Jones (2005). EasyJet: The Story of Britain’s Biggest Low-Cost Airline. (London, UK: Aurum, 232 p.). Haji-Ioannou, Stelios, 1967- ; easyJet--History; Airlines--Great Britain--Management--History. Story of easyJet's business success, flamboyant stunts to beat competitors, wider social changes its cheap flights have brought about.

(Ellis Air Lines), Faith Sherman (1981). Goodbye Goose: The Story of Ellis Air Lines. (Tygh Valley, OR: F. Sherman, 76 p.). Ellis Air Lines --History; Grumman airplanes --History.

(Go Fly Ltd.), Barbara Cassani with Kenny Kemp (2003). Go: An Airline Adventure. (London, UK: Time Warner, 312 p.). CEO of Go Fly, Ltd. Airlines; Businesswomen; Entrepreneurship. 

(Hawaiian Airlines Inc.), Stan Cohen (1986). Hawaiian Airlines: A Pictorial History of the Pioneer Carrier in the Pacific. (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., 108 p.). Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.--History; Airlines--Hawaii--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Hawaii--History.

(Hawaiian Airlines Inc.), Ray Thiele (1994). Kennedy's Hawaiian Air: Hawaii's Pioneer Airline. (Kailua, HI: Olomana Publishers, 271 p.). Kennedy, Stanley C., 1890- ; Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.--History; Airlines--Hawaii--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Hawaii--History.

(Heathrow), Alan Gallop (2006). Time Flies: Heathrow at 60. (Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 256 p.). Heathrow Airport; Transportation; Aviation. How small agricultural community on outskirts of London became site of world’s leading international airport.

(Horizon Air), Bill Endicott (2001). Remember the Magic: The Story of Horizon Air. (Paducah, KY: Turner Pub. Co., 280 p.). Horizon Air--History; Airlines--West (U.S.)--History.

(Imperial Airways), Alexander Frater (1987). Beyond the Blue Horizon: On the Track of Imperial Airways. (New York, NY: Scribner, 430 p.). Imperial Airways--History; Air travel--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Passenger traffic--History.

(JetBlue Airways), Barbara S. Peterson (2004). Blue Streak: Inside JetBlue, the Upstart that Rocked an Industry. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 288 p.). Contributing Editor, Condé Nast Traveler. JetBlue Airways--History; Airlines--United States--History. 

(JetBlue Airways), James Wynbrandt (2004). Flying High: JetBlue Founder and CEO David Neeleman Beats the Competition --- Even in the World's Most Turbulent Industry. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 298 p.). Aviation, Business Reporter. Neeleman, David, 1959- ; JettBlue Airways--History; Airlines--United States--History. 

(Kenmore Air), Marin C. Faure (2004). Success on the Step: Flying with Kenmore Air. (Seattle, WA: Elton-Wolf Publishing, 448 p.). Kenmore Air; Seaplanes--United States--History.

(KLM), W. van Veenendaal (1964). Ze Vlogen als Vogels: Plesman’s Vliegers van het Eerste Uur. (Amersfoort: A. Roelofs van Goor, 201 p.). Plesman, Albert, 1889-1953; KLM (Airline)--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Netherlands--Biography.

Albert Plesman, 1935 Dr. Albert Plesman - Co-founder KLM ( baas.jpg)

(KLM), G.I. Smit, R.C.J. Wunderink, I. Hoogland (1994). KLM in Beeld: 75 Haar Vormgeving en Promotie. (Naarden, Netherlands: V+K Publishing/Inmerc i.s.m. KLM, Amstelveen, 179 p.). KLM (Airline)--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Netherlands--History.

(KLM), Marc L.J. Dierikx (1999). Blauw in de Lucht: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij 1919-1999. (Den Haag: Adu, 390 p.). KLM (Airline)--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Netherlands--History.

(Laker), Roger Eglin and Berry Ritchie (1980). Fly Me, I'm Freddie! (London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 238 p.). Laker, Freddie; Laker Airways; Aeronautics--Great Britain--Biography.

Freddie Laker - Laker Airways ( media/images/ 38278000/jpg/_38278413_freddie1502.jpg)

(Laker), Howard Banks (1982). The Rise and Fall of Freddie Laker (London, UK: Faber and Faber, 155 p.).

(Midway Airport), Christopher Lynch (2003). Chicago’s Midway Airport: The First Seventy-Five Years. (Chicago, IL: Lake Claremont Press, 199 p.). Public Affairs Bureau for the City of Chicago, Department of Buildings. Midway Airport--History; Airports--Illinois--Chicago--History; Chicago (Ill.)--Buildings, structures, etc.

(National Airlines Inc.), Brad Williams (1970). The Anatomy of an Airline. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 233 p.). National Airlines, Inc.

(New York Rio & Buenos Aires Line), Ralph A. O'Neill, with Joseph F. Hood (1973). A Dream of Eagles. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 324 p.). New York, Rio & Buenos Aires Line.

(North Central), Robert J. Serling (1973). Ceiling Unlimited; The Story of North Central Airlines. (Marceline, MO: Walsworth Pub. Co., 245 p.). North Central Airlines.

(Northeast), Alvin Moscow (1961). Tiger on a Leash. (New York, NY: Putnam, 252 p.). Northeast Airlines, inc.; Aeronautics--Accidents--1957; Aeronautics, Commercial--United States--Statistics.

(Northeast), Robert W. Mudge (1969). Adventures of a Yellowbird; The Biography of an Airline. (Boston, MA: Branden Press, 374 p.). Northeast Airlines, inc.

(Northwest), Kenneth D. Ruble. (1986). Flight to the Top: How a Home Town Airline Made History-- And Keeps on Making It: The Absorbing 60-Year Story of Northwest Airlines. (New York, NY: Viking, 271 p.). Northwest Airlines, inc.--History; Airlines--United States--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--United States--History.

(Pacific Southwest Airlines), Alan Renga, Mark E. Mentges (2010). Pacific Southwest Airlines. (San Francisco, CA Arcadia Pub. , 128 p.). Associate Archivist at the San Diego Air and Space Museum; Former Head of Reference Department at the Education-Psychology Library (University of California at Berkeley). Pacific Southwest Airlines -- history. History of airline (San Diego Air and Space Museum extensive PSA photograph collection); 1949 - Kenny Friedkin founded PSA after World War II as flight school to provide civilian flight instruction to former military pilots hoping to get jobs in post-war airline industry; began with one leased DC-3; expanded fleet, served millions of passengers each year; 1988 - acquired by USAir.

(Pacific Western), John Condit with a foreword by Pierre Berton (1984). Wings over the West: Russ Baker & the Rise of Pacific Western Airlines. (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Pub., 235 p.). Baker, Russ, 1910-1958; Pacific Western Airlines--History; Airlines--Canada--History; Air pilots--British Columbia--Biography.

(Pan American), William Stephen Grooch (1938). Winged Highway. (New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co., 250 p.). Pan American World Airways, Inc.; Airlines. Establishing new routes to South America and China, mainly in  interests of Pan America Airways.

Juan Trippe - founder, Pan American ( images/7a.jpg)

(Pan American), Matthew Josephson (1972). Empire of the Air: Juan Trippe and the Struggle for World Airways. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 236 p. [Reprint 1943 ed.]). Trippe, J. T. (Juan Terry), 1899-; Pan American World Airways, inc.; Aeronautics, Commercial--History.

(Pan American), Najeeb E. Halaby (1978). Crosswinds: An Airman's Memoir. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 371 p.). Former CEO, Pan Am (1969-1971. Halaby, Najeeb E., 1915-2003; Aeronautics--United States--Biography.

(Pan American), Wesley Phillips Newton (1978). The Perilous Sky: U.S. Aviation Diplomacy and Latin America, 1919-1931. (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 457 p.). Pan American Airways Corporation; Aeronautics, Commercial -- Latin America -- History; United States -- Foreign relations -- Latin America; Latin America -- Foreign relations -- United States.

(Pan American), Robert Daley (1980). An American Saga: Juan Trippe and His Pan Am Empire. (New York, NY: Random House, 529 p.). Trippe, J. T. (Juan Terry), 1899- ; Pan American World Airways, inc.; Aeronautics--United States--Biography.

(Pan American), Marylin Bender and Selig Altschul (1982). The Chosen Instrument: Pan Am, Juan Trippe, The Rise and Fall of an American Entrepreneur. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 605 p.). Trippe, J. T. (Juan Terry), 1899- ; Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Pan American), Horace Brock (1983). Flying the Oceans: A Pilot's Story of Pan Am, 1935-1955. (New York, NY: J. Aronson, 323 p. [3rd ed.]). Pan American World Airways, inc.--History.

(Pan American), Jack E. Robinson (1994). American Icarus: The Majestic Rise and Tragic Fall of Pan Am. (Baltimore, MD: Noble House, 231 p.). Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Seaplanes--United States--History.

(Pan American), Robert L. Gandt (1995). Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am. (New York, NY: Morrow, 326 p.). Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Airlines--United States--History.

(Pan American), S.B. Kauffman; edited by George Hopkins (1995). Pan Am Pioneer: A Manager's Memoir from Seaplane Clippers to Jumbo Jets. (Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 242 p.). Kauffman, S. B. (Sanford B.), 1907-1993; Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Businesspeople--United States-Biography.

(Pan American), M. Emmett Ratts (1996). Those Were the Days, My Friend. (Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Pub. Co., 285 p.). Trippe, J. T. (Juan Terry), 1899- ; Ratts, M. Emmett; Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Pan American), Barnaby Conrad III; design by Tom Morgan (1999). Pan Am: An Aviation Legend. (Emeryville, CA: Woodford Press, 208 p.). Pan American World Airways, inc.--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--United States--History; Airlines--United States--History.

(Pan American), Larry Weirather (2006). The China Clipper, Pan American Airways and Popular Culture. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 351 p.). Pan American Airways Corporation--History; China Clipper (Airplane)--History; Popular culture--United States. Strategies used to represent clipper as paragon of U.S. interests, values, beliefs; variety of ways iconographic status manifested itself through toys, movies, pulp fiction, comic books, music. 

(Qantas Airways), Hudson Fysh (1966). Qantas Rising: The Autobiography of the Flying Fysh. (London, UK: Angus and Robertson, 296 p.). Founder, Q.A.N.T.A.S. Qantas Empire Airways, Ltd.

Fysh and McGinness Quantas Founders ( PIC/Fysh and McGinness.jpg)

--- (1970). Wings to the World; The Story of Qantas 1945-1966. (Sydney, AU: Angus and Robertson, 236 p.). Founder, Q.A.N.T.A.S. Qantas Airways.

(Qantas Airways), Timothy Hall (1979). Flying High: The Story of Hudson Fysh, Qantas, and the Trail-Blazing Days of Aviation. (Sydney, AU: Methuen of Australia, 265 p.). Fysh, Wilmot Hudson, Sir; Qantas Airways--History; Air pilots--Australia--Biography; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography.

(Qantas Airways), John Gunn (1985). The Defeat of Distance: Qantas 1919-1939. (St. Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, 400 p.). Qantas Airways--History.

--- (1987). Challenging Horizons: Qantas 1939-1954. (St. Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, 434 p.). Qantas Airways--History; Airlines--Australia--History.

--- (1988). High Corridors: Qantas, 1954-1970. (St. Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, 468 p.). Qantas Airways--History; Airlines--Australia--History.

(Qantas Airways), John Stackhouse (1995). --From the Dawn of Aviation: The Qantas Story, 1920-1995. (Double Bay, NSW: Focus Pub., 224 p.). Qantas Airways--History.

(Quad-City International Airport), David T. Coopman (2011). Quad-City International Airport. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.) Past President of the Rock Island County Historical Society. People, planes, events, development of former pastureland in 1922 into modern Quad City International Airport, third largest airport for passenger traffic in state of Illinois.

(Queen Charlotte Airlines), Howard White, Jim Spilsbury (1988). The Accidental Airline: Spilsbury's QCA. (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Pub., 246 p.). Queen Charlotte Airlines -- History.; Airlines -- British Columbia -- Vancouver -- History.

(Reeve Aleutian Airways), Stan Cohen (1988). Flying Beats Work: The Story of Reeve Aleutian Airways. (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., 116 p.). Reeve, Robert Campbell, 1902- ; Reeve Aleutian Airways.

(Ryanair), Siobhan Creaton (2004). Ryanair: How a Small Irish Airline Conquered Europe. (London, UK: Aurun Press, 263 p.). Ryanair History; Airlines Ireland History; Business planning Ireland. 

(Ryanair), Alan Ruddock (2006). Michael O'Leary: A Life in Full Flight. (New York, NY: Penguin, 448 p.). O'Leary, Michael; Ryanair History. Ryanair's evolution from small local airline to European giant in just 10 years; fresh insight into the personality of flamboyant chief executive.

(Sabena Belgian World Airlines), Steven Decraene, Peter Denruyter, Geert Sciot (2002). De Crash van Sabena: De Geschiedenis, de Intriges, de Getuigen. (Leuven, Belgium: Van Halewyck, 324 p.). Sabena Belgian World Airlines; Business failures--Netherlands.

(Sabena Belgian World Airlines), Guy Vanthemsche (2002). La Sabena: L’Aviation Commerciale Belge 1923-2001: Des Origines au Crash. (Bruxelles, bELGIUM: De Boeck, 341 P.). Sabena Belgian World Airlines--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Belgium--History.

(Sabena Belgian World Airlines), Jacques Naveau (2004). La de´Colonisation Aeronautique du Congo: Essai sur L’experience Sabena-Air Congo dans la Perspective des Relations Europe-Afrique. (Bruxelles, Belgium: Bruylant, 166 p.). Sabena Belgian World Airlines--History; Air Congo--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Congo (Democratic Republic)--History.

(SAS), Anders Buraas (1979). The SAS Saga: A History of Scandinavian Airlines System. (Oslo, Norway: SAS, 166 p.). Scandinavian Airlines System--History.

(SAS), Jan Carlzon (1987). Moments of Truth. (Cambridge,. MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 135 p.). Scandinavian Airlines System--Management; Aeronautics, Commercial--Sweden--Management; Airlines--Sweden--Management.

(Silver City Airways), Keith J. Dagwell (2010). Silver City Airways: Pioneers of the Skies. (Stroud, UK History Press, 159 p.). Silver City (Airline) --History; Airlines --Great Britain --History. 

(Singapore Airlines), Loizos Heracleous, Jochen Wirtz, Nitin Pangarkar (2005). Flying High in a Competitive Industry: Cost-Effective Service Excellence at Singapore Airlines. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 217 p.). Fellow in Strategy and Organization (Templeton College, Oxford University); Associate Professor of Marketing (National University of Singapore); Associate Professor (National University of Singapore). Singapore Airlines; Airlines--Singapore--History; Airlines-Strategy. How Singapore Airlines has outperformed other flag-carriers for decades.

(Singapore Airlines), Katherine Penaloza (2007). Singapore Airlines (Great Asian Brands). (London, UK: Cyan Books, 192 p.). Senior Consultant at McKinsey & Company in Singapore. Singapore Airlines. Second largest carrier in world by market value; brand built on enduring image of Singapore Girl, extraordinary service standards, introduction of service-related innovations.

(Southwest), Kevin Freiberg and Jackie Freiberg ; foreword by Tom Peters (1998). Nuts!: Southwest Airlines' Crazy Recipe for Business and Personal Success. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 363 p. [orig. pub. 1996]). Southwest Airlines Co.; Airlines--United States--Management.

(Southwest), Lamar Muse (2002). Southwest Passage: The Inside Story of Southwest Airlines' Formative Years. (Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 245 p.). Founder Muse Air. Muse, Lamar, 1920- ; Southwest Airlines Co.--Management; Airlines--United States--Management.; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.  

(Trans Australia Airlines), John Gunn (1999). Contested Skies: Trans-Australian Airlines, 1946-1992. (St. Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, 550 p.). Trans Australia Airlines--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Australia--History; Airlines--Australia--History.

(Trans-Canada Airlines), Peter Pigott (2001). National Treasure: The History of Trans Canada Airlines. (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Pub., 476 p.). Trans-Canada Airlines--History.; Airlines--Canada--History.

(Transocean), Richard Thruelsen (1953). Transocean: The Story of an Unusual Airline. (New York, NY: Holt, 241 p.). Nelson, Orvis Marcus, 1907- ; Transocean Air Lines.

(Transportes Aereos Centroamericanos), Erik Benson (2006). Aviator of Fortune: Lowell Yerex and the Anglo-American Commercial Rivalry, 1931-1946. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 264 p.). Assistant Professor (Cornerstone University). Yerex, Lowell, 1895-1968.; Transportes Aereos Centroamericanos--History--20th century; Airlines--Central America--History--20th century; Aeronautics, Commercial--Government policy--United States--History--20th century; Aeronautics, Commercial--Government policy--Great Britain--History--20th century; Competition, International--Case studies. Entrepreneur’s background enabled him to empathize with Great Britain and United States, to foster working relationships with these rivals. 

(TWA), David B. Tinnin (1973). Just About Everybody vs. Howard Hughes. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 462 p.). Hughes, Howard, 1905-1976; Trans World Airlines, Inc.

Jack Frye - President TWA in 1934 ( images/comp_twa_68.jpg)

(TWA), Robert Serling (1983). Howard Hughes' Airline: An Informal History of TWA. (New York, NY: St. Martin's, 338 p.). Hughes, Howard, 1905-1976; Trans World Airlines--History.

(TWA), Robert W. Rummel (1991). Howard Hughes and TWA. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 431 p.). Hughes, Howard, 1905-1976; Trans World Airlines--History; 

(TWA), Charles Higham (1993). Howard Hughes: The Secret Life. (New York, NY: Putnam, 368 p.). Hughes, Howard, 1905-1976; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Millionaires--United States--Biography.

(United), Frank J. Taylor (1955). High Horizons; Daredevil Flying Postmen to Modern Magic Carpet, the United Air Lines Story. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 208 p. United Air Lines, Inc.

William A. 'Pat' Patterson (

Photo of Edward E. Carlson



Edward E. Carlson - UAL ( members/jpegs/car75.jpg)

(United), Frank J. Taylor (1962). High Horizons; Daredevil Flying Postmen to Modern Magic Carpet, the United Air Lines Story. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 266 p. [rev. ed.]). United Air Lines, Inc.

(United), Frank J. Taylor (1967). "Pat" Patterson. (Menlo Park, CA: Lane Magazine & Book Co., 160 p.). Patterson, William Allen, 1899-.

(United), Robert E. Johnson (1974). Airway One: A Narrative of United Airlines and Its Leaders. (Chicago, IL: United Airlines, 208 p.). United Air Lines, inc.

(United), Edward E. Carlson (1989). Recollections of a Lucky Fellow. (Seattle, WA: E.E. Carlson, 461 p.). Chairman Emeritus (United Air Lines). Carlson, Edward E. (Edward Elmer), 1911- ; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(United), Howard D. Putnam with Gene Busnar (1991).The Winds of Turbulence: A CEO's Reflections on Surviving and Thriving on the Cutting Edge of Corporate Crisis. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 227 p.). Putnam, Howard D., 1937- ; United Air Lines, inc.--Management; Braniff Airways--Management; Southwest Airlines Co.--Management; Airlines--United States--Management; Chief executive officers--United States.

(Virgin Atlantic), Tim Jackson (1996). Richard Branson, Virgin King: Inside Richard Branson's Business Empire. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 440 p. [orig. pub. 1994]). Branson, Richard; Virgin Group--Great Britain--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Statesmen--Great Britain--Biography; Balloonists--Great Britain--Biography; Aeronautics, Commercial--Great Britain--History.

Richard Branson ( images/2001/ 06/13/richard_branson_150x140.jpg)

(Virgin Atlantic), Richard Branson (1998). Losing My Virginity: The Autobiography. (London, UK: Virgin Pub., 488 p.). Founder, Virgin Atlantic Airways. Branson, Richard; Virgin Group; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Airlines; Music trade.

(Virgin Atlantic), Tom Bower (2000). Branson (London, UK: Fourth Estate, 320 p.). Branson, Richard; Businessmen--Great Britain--Biography.

(Wardair Canada Inc.), Max Ward (1991). The Max Ward Story: A Bush Pilot in the Bureaucratic Jungle. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 342 p.). Ward, Max, 1921- ; Wardair Canada Inc.; Bussinessmen--Canada--Biography; Bush pilots--Canada--Biography.

(Washington Dulles International Airport), Margaret C. Peck (2005). Washington Dulles International Airport. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Washington Dulles International Airport; Airports--Washington (D.C.)--History. 

(Western), Jack and Peggy Hereford (1946). The Flying Years, A History of America's Pioneer Airline. (Los Angeles, CA: The Company, 114 p.). Western Air Lines, inc.

(Western), Robert J. Serling (1976). The Only Way To Fly: The Story of Western Airlines, America's Senior Air Carrier. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 494 p.). Western Air Lines, Inc.

(WestJet), Paul Grescoe (2004). Flight Path: How WestJet Is Flying High in Canada's Most Turbulent Industry. (Etobicoke, ON: Wiley Canada, 278 p.). WestJet; Airlines--discount. Success of Canada's leading low-fare airline.

Greg J. Bamber, Jody Hoffer Gittell, Thomas A. Kochan , Andrew Von Nordenflycht (2009). Up in the Air: How Can Airlines Compete by Engaging Their Workforce? (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 224 p.). Professor (Monash University in Melbourne, Australia); Gittell is Associate Professor in The Heller School for Social Policy and Management (Brandeis University); George Maverick Bunker Professor of Management at Sloan School of Management (MIT); Assistant Professor of Business Administration (Simon Fraser University). Airlines --United States --Employees; Airlines --United States --Personnel management; Airlines --Employees --Labor unions --United States; Industrial relations --United States; Airlines --Employees; Airlines --Personnel management; Airlines --Employees --Labor unions; Industrial relations.

Greg J. Gittell, Thomas A. Kochan , Andrew Von Nordenflycht (2009). Up in the Air: How Can Airlines Compete by Engaging Their Workforce? (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 224 p.). Professor (Monash University, Melbourne, Australia); Associate Professor in The Heller School for Social Policy and Management (Brandeis University); George Maverick Bunker Professor of Management at Sloan School of Management (MIT); Assistant Professor of Business Administration (Simon Fraser University). Airlines --United States --Employees; Airlines --United States --Personnel management; Airlines --Employees --Labor unions --United States; Industrial relations --United States; Airlines --Employees; Airlines --Personnel management; Airlines --Employees --Labor unions; Industrial relations. Strategies for achieving better, more equitable balance among interests of airline customers, employees, shareholders; innovations of Southwest, Continental Airlines to build positive workplace culture that fosters coordination, commitment to high-quality service, labor relations policies that avoid long drawn-out conflicts in negotiating new agreements, business strategies that can sustain investor, employee, customer support through ups, downs of business cycles. 

Kathleen M. Barry (2007). Femininity in Flight: A History of Flight Attendants. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 304 p.). Flight attendants--United States--History; Flight attendants--Labor unions--United States; Feminism--United States. History of women’s work and working women’s activism;  evolution of glamorized image as ideal women and their activism as trade unionists and feminists.

E. Andrew Boyd (2007). The Future of Pricing: How Airline Ticket Pricing Has Inspired a Revolution. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 280 p.). Chief Scientist and Senior Vice President of Science and Research at PROS (Pricing and Revenue Optimization Solutions). Airlines--Rates; Airlines--Prices; Transportation--Tickets; Pricing. Growth of scientific pricing - how airlines price tickets, how industry practices are revolutionizing world of pricing; how leading companies have dealt with obstacles.

William E. Fruhan (1972). The Fight for Competitive Advantage: A Study of the United States Domestic Trunk Air Carriers. (Boston, MA: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 200 p.). Professor (Harvard Business School). Aeronautics, Commercial--United States; Airlines--United States.

Susan Goldenberg (1994). Troubled Skies: Crisis, Competition & Control in Canada's Airline Industry. (Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 169 p.). Air Canada; PWA Corporation; Airlines -- Canada -- Finance -- History; Airlines -- Canada -- History.

James P. Hanlon (1999). Global Airlines: Competition in a Transnational Industry. (Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 295 p. [2nd ed.]). Aeronautics, Commercial; Competition, International.

Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab (1994). Rapid Descent: Deregulation and the Shakeout in the Airlines. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 352 p.). Aeronautics, Commercial--Deregulation--United States; Airlines--Deregulation--United States; Competition.

Thomas Petzinger, Jr. (1996). Hard Landing: The Epic Contest for Power and Profits that Plunged the Airlines into Chaos. (New York, NY: Times Books, 594 p.). Airlines--United States--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--United States--History; Aeronautics, Commercial--Deregulation--United States--History.

Daniel L. Rust (2009). Flying Across America: The Airline Passenger Experience. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 259 p.). Assistant Director of the Center for Transportation Studies (University of Missouri, St. Louis). Aeronautics, Commercial --United States --Passenger traffic --History; Air travel --United States --History. Evolution of commercial air travel from first transcontinental expeditions of 1920s, through luxurious airline environments of 1960s, to more tedious after 1978 deregulation, cost reductions to hectic, regimented, fatiguing experiences of flying in post-9/11 era.


Business History Links

Airlines for America                                                                                                 

Premier trade group of the principal U.S. airlines. A4A airline members and their affiliates transport more than 90 percent of U.S. airline passenger and cargo traffic. A4A represents the collective interests of the airlines (not a governmental organization, nor an airline).

American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum                                                                                       

One of the few museums in the world dedicated solely to commercial aviation; opened in July 1993, dedicated to past and present American Airlines employees and C.R. Smith, longtime American Airlines president and aviator.

British Airways Heritage Collection                                                                

The British Airways Archive and Museum Collection was formed to preserve the records and artefacts of British Airways predecessor companies BOAC, BEA, BSAA and the pre-war Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.

Delta Air Transport Heritage Museum                                                                                           

Museum preserves materials, interprets histories, discovers meanings, and explores the impacts of air transportation on technology, economic development, global events, and the personal lives of those touched by aviation.

International Air Transport Association (IATA): Industry Economics & Facts                                                                                                        

Fact sheets, statistics, and other material about the international air travel industry. Provides data on airlines (such as number of passengers and miles flown), a monthly newsletter on industry trends, list of acronyms, and fact sheets on topics such as fuel prices, emissions, avian flu, and safety. [Windows Media Player]                                                                               

On January 16, 1928, seven passengers on board a Fokker-7 inaugurated Pan American World Airlines passenger services; flew from Key West to Havana. Over the next six decades, PanAm grew and prospered, created an extensive system of routes that took early jet-setters all around the world; its demise was hastened after the tragedy onboard Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988. Created by Beth Cozzi-Stewart, this site provides access to a great deal of colorful material on the history of the company (detailed history spanning PanAm’s years, chronology of the aircraft it utilized, information about various accidents that befell the company); "Multimedia" section  includes PanAm jingles ("Just Say Hello to PanAm" and "We Fly the Way the World Wants to Fly").

Qantas Founders' Outback Museum                                                                                       

The original charter of the museum was to tell the story of the foundations of Qantas up to 1936; but acceded to the public’s wishes, expanded to tell the whole story of Qantas’s history.


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