Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Conglomerates
business biographies  

December 31, 1600 - Queen Elizabeth I of England granted  formal charter to London merchants trading to East Indies, hoped to break Dutch monopoly of spice trade in what is now Indonesia; 1813 - parliamentary acts ended East India Company's trade monopoly; 1834 - transformed into a managing agency for British government of India; 1873 - East India Company dissolved as British government assumed direct control over India.

February 13, 1601 - John Lancaster led first East India Company voyage from London.

March 20, 1602 - The Dutch government founded Dutch East India Company.

June 3, 1621 - The Dutch West India Company received  charter for New Netherlands, present-day New York City.

17th Century - Masatomo Sumitomo opened book, medicine shop in Kyoto; grew into Sumitomo Corporation.

April 27, 1773 - The British Parliament passed the Tea Act, a bill designed to save East India Company, grant it monopoly on American tea trade; low tax allowed East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled into America by Dutch traders.

May 7, 1821 - The Africa Company dissolved because of heavy expenses incurred; Sierra Leone, Gambia, Gold Coast taken over by British government to form British West Africa.

July 1, 1832 - Willaim Jardine (48), former East India Company merchant ship surgeon, and James Matheson (36), Scottish-born aristocratic junior partner, formally registered Jardine, Matheson & Company in Canton, China as trading services (agency) house involved in trading, banking, shipping, insurance, cotton, mines, railways; largest of private traders ('risk-brokers') in Canton trading district; offered "agency services" (banker, bill broker, ship owner, freighter, insurance agent, purveyor); 1832 - four products traded: 1)and 2) tea and silk from China (sold to Great Britain and India, 3) cotton textiles from Great Britain and Europe (sold to China), 4) opium from India (sold to China); 1834 - sent first private shipments of tea to England (East India Company lost monopoly on trade with China); 1836 - promoted founding of Hong Kong; 1844 - first trading firm to buy land in Hong Kong, move headquarters there; 1870 - focused on Japan; 1876 - set up first railroad in China from Shanghai to Woosung; 1885 - primarily interested in railway contracts; 1898 - jointly created British and Chinese Corporation with  Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation, linked Yangtze River to interior by rail to facilitate transport of goods; helped establish The Star Ferry Company; 1885 - established Matheson & Co. (investment division) became investment manager, financier; 1908 - Matheson & Co. incorporated; 1979 - one of first companies to re-establish relations with China, opened representative office in Beijing.

October 1, 1847 - Werner von Siemens, Johann Georg Halske formed Siemens and Halske Telegraph Construction Company in small workshop in back building at 19 Schoneberger Strasse in Berlin; 1848 - built 370 mile underground telegraph line between Berlin and Frankfurt am Main for Prussian army (first electrical long-distance telegraph line in Europe, proved decisive in German revolution of 1848, facilitated rapid communication between Prussian monarch in Berlin, General Assembly in Frankfurt); 1853 - began building telegraph network in Russia, from Finland to Crimea, covered distance of around 6,000 miles; 1866 - discovered dynamo-electric principle, allowed economic generation of electrical energy in large quantities, started new era of electricity, established Siemens as household name throughout world (received German, British patents on it in 1867); contracted to build large sections of 6,600- mile line between London and Calcutta; 1890 - Carl (brother), Arnold and Wilhelm (sons) took control; 1897 - went public; 1903 - acquired Elektrizitts-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Schuckert & Co., formed Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH; 1914 - worldwide workforce of 82,000, quarter outside Germany, 1919 - Carl Friedrich von Siemens became head of company; 1920s - Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH received contract to build power plant on Shannon River to electrify whole of Irish Free State; largest foreign contract awarded to any German company since turn of century; 1941 - Hermann von Siemens took control; 1944 - total workforce of 244,000 (included some 50,000 people put to work against their will); April 20, 1945 - Siemens's plants in Berlin closed due to Germany's political, military economic collapse; lost 80% of total assets as result of World War II; 1957 - Siemens-Electrogerte AG (electrical appliances) founcded; 1965 - introduced Europe's first mass-produced integrated circuit; October 1966 - Siemens & Halske AG, Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG, Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG merged, formed Siemens AG; regained former standing in world markets (over 270,000 employees worldwide, annual sales of more than DM 10 billion); 1990 - Siemens-Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG (SNI) created, largest European company in computer industry (became part of Fujitsu Siemens Computers AG in 1999); 1990s - changed from company dealing mainly with public customers in regulated markets to global competitor under pressure from shareholders; March 12, 2001 - listed on

1851 - Chance meeting with British glassmaker “Gaffer” Teasdale inspired Amory Houghton to see his future in glass; owned small glass companies Cate & Phillip (later called Bay State Glass), Union Glass Works,  Brooklyn Flint Glass Works; 1868 - moved company to Corning, NY, name changed to Corning Glass Works.

1851 - Antti Ahlstrom (24) took over a business with grain mill, rag paper mill, ceramics work shop, share in sawmill; 1860s - moved into shipping; 1873 - acquired Kauttua ironworks; 1890s - one of Finland's largest shipping fleets; 1896 - Walter Ahlstrom (son) took over; 1907 - converted Kauttua ironworks into wood pulp, paper production; 1930s - Finland's largest industrial conglomerate; 1982 - Krister Ahlstrom (fourth-generation) brought in as CEO; sold money-losing bulk paper operation (company's symbolic core); end of 1980s - operations focused on engineering, specialty papers; 1999 - Juha Rantanen (fifth generation) made CEO; 2001 - split into three companies (FiberComposites, LabelPack, Specialties); March 2006 - went public; 2008 - global leader in development, manufacture, marketing of high performance fiber-based materials.

Antti Ahlstrom - A. Ahlstrom Corporation (

1854 - William Russell Grace founded W. R. Grace & Co. in Peru; 1860 - established merchant steamship line to serve Americas; 1865 - relocated to New York; 1872 - formally chartered; 1880 - elected mayor of New York City for two terms; 1885 - accepted Statue of Liberty from people of France; 1899 - W. R. Grace & Co. incorporated; 1907 - Joseph P. Grace became president; 1914 - established Grace National Bank, forerunner of Marine Midland Bank; 1945 - J. Peter Grace (320 became president; 1953 - listed on New York Stock Exchange; 1954 - acquired Davison Chemical Company, Dewey & Almy Chemical Company, established basis for Company's catalysts, packaging, silicas, construction product lines; 1984 - introduced Cryovac® cook-in bags for institutional-sized quantities of foods; 1992 - J. Peter Grace retired as CEO after 48 years (longest reigning CEO of public company); April 2, 2001 - voluntarily filed for reorganization in response to sharply increasing number of asbestos claims (includes 62 domestic entities, no foreign subsidiaries).

William R. Grace William Russell Grace - founder W. R Grace & Co. (

1857 - James Richardson established James Richardson & Sons, Limited (grain merchandising business); 1882 - built first grain elevator; 1883 - first company to ship western Canadian grain overseas (via Great Lakes); 1892 - George and Henry Richardson (sons) took over; 1918 - James A. Richardson (grandson) named fourth president; 1922 - Canada = largest wheat exporting nation in world; 1920 - established Richardson Securities of Canada Limited; 1926 - established Western Canada Airways Limited; pioneered provincial radio (in Winnipeg); 1930 - formed Canadian Airways Limited, Canada's first national airline; 1939 - Muriel Sprague Richardson (widow) named fifth president (more than 800 employees); 1944 - introduced pension plan, first Group Life Insurance Plan for employees; 1950s - launched Marine Pipeline Construction of canada Limited (built first commerciasl pipeline north of 60th parallel); 1966 - James and George Richardson (great grandsons) took over; 1968 - George Taylor Richardson named President; 1982 - Richardson Securities of Canada Limited merged with Greenshields Inc.; renamed Richardson Greenshields of Canada Ltd. (largest privately-owned, independent investment, commodity contracts dealer in Canada, 400,000 customers, $18 billion under management); 1993 - Hartley Richardson (great great grandson) named President; August 1996 - acquired by RBC Dominion Securities Ltd.; 2011 - operations in agriculture and food processing, financial services, oil and gas exploration, property management.

August 2, 1858 - Rule of East India Company transferred to British government.

October 31, 1865 - George Westinghouse, Jr. of Schenectady, NY, received first patent for a "Rotary Steam Engine" ("novel construction of a rotary engine, the cylinder of which is annular and contained in a disk which is made to revolve about a hollow stationary shaft, through the opposite ends of which the steam is admitted and exhausted. The engine is made in the form of a disk whose weight and thickness will or may be made sufficient to make it serve for a balance-wheel"); converted steam power directly into rotary motion (vs. reciprocating type of engine) to turn steamboat’s paddle wheels or spin long drive shafts that ran machines.

1868 - Jamsetji Tata (29) started trading company with capital of Rs 21,000; 1869 - acquired dilapidated, bankrupt oil mill in Chinchpokli in the industrial heart of Bombay, renamed property Alexandra Mill, converted it into a cotton mill; 1871 - sold mill for significant profit to local cotton merchant; 1874 - established Central India Spinning, Weaving and Manufacturing Company with seed capital of Rs 1.5 lakh; January 1, 1877 - Empress Mills opened in Nagpur; 1892 -established JN Tata Endowment (enabled Indian students, regardless of caste or creed, to pursue higher studies in England); 1907 - The Tata Iron and Steel Company went public; December 2, 1911 - first cast of pig-iron produced; February 16, 1912 - first steel made; 1932 - Tata Aviation Service, forerunner to Tata Airlines and Air India, began service (1953 - government of Jawaharlal Nehru nationalized Air India).

April 13, 1869 - George Westinghouse, Jr., of Schenectady, NY, received a patent for a "Improvement in Steam-Power Brake Devices" ("construction of a power car-brake for railway-cars or other like vehicles to be operated by compressed air or other elastic compressible fluid"); demonstrated first straight air brake systems to railroad industry on experimental train carrying officials of The Panhandle Railroad (Steubenville division of Pittsburgh, Columbus, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad); not entirely successful (took longer for air to reach last cars of train, so each car stopped at different time); July 1869 - formed  Westinghouse Air Brake Company (WABC); March 5, 1872 - (of Pittsburgh, PA) received 3 patents: for "Improvement in Relief-Valves for Steam Air-Brake Cylinders"; for "Improvement in Steam-Power for Air-Brakes and Signals"; for "Improvement in Steam Air-Brakes" (steam-power air-brakes for railway use"); January 8, 1886 - granted charter for  Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) by Governor Pattison of Pennsylvania; 1887 - invented an automatic brake; 1890 - moved Westinghouse Air Brake works to Wilmerding, PA (in Turtle Creek Valley, about 14 miles east of Pittsburgh); 1889 - WEC renamed  Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company (WEMC); 1890 - installed over 300 central power stations, annual sales of $4 million; 1895 - installed hydropower AC generators at Niagara Falls, supplied power to Buffalo, NY; 1907 - Westinghouse lost control of his companies (financial panic of 1907); 1909 - removed as chairman of WEMC during bankruptcy reorganization; 1911 - severed all contact with companies; 1919 - one of founding owners of Radio Corporation of America (owned 20% of National Broadcasting Company, established by RCA in 1926); November 2, 1920 - entered broadcasting industry, KDKA in Pittsburgh (founded 1916) went on-air; October 1921 - launched WBZ (AM) in Springfield, MA (moved to Boston in 1931); November 8, 1932 - WEMC registered "Westinghouse" trademark first used in 1888 (ammeters, volt-meters, wattmeters, and integrating watt hour meters); 1945 - renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation, made first automatic elevator; June 9, 1948 - entered television industry, WBZ-TV in Boston went on the air; 1950s - entered consumer finance, created Westinghouse Credit Corporation; 1962 - acquired WINS in New York; 1970s - home appliance division acquired by White Consolidated Industries (became White-Westinghouse); 1981 - acquired cable TV system operator TelePrompTer, renamed Group W Cable (exited cable in 1986); August 1, 1995 - acquired CBS for $5.4 billion; 1996 - acquired Infinity Broadcasting; 1997 - sold most non-broadcast operations; renamed CBS Corporation; 1998 - CBS created Westinghouse Electric Corporation subsidiary to manage Westinghouse brand; 1999 - acquired by Viacom, Inc.; November 1999 - Westinghouse Air Brake merged with Motive Power Industries, Inc.; 2005 - renamed CBS Corporation.

October 1870 - Yataro Iwasaki established shipping company, Tsukumo Shokai, with three steamships chartered from Tosa Clan (island of Shikoku, Nagasaki); 1872 - company name changed to Mitsukawa Shokai; 1874 - name changed to Mitsubishi Shokai ("mitsu" - "three", "hishi" - "water chestnut, diamond shape"); corporate emblem combined three oak leaves of Tosa crest, three stacked diamonds of Iwasaki family crest; 1875 - name changed to Mitsubishi Mail Steamship (inherited employees, facilities of mail service disbanded by government); 1881 - acquired Yoshioka copper mine in Akita, Takashima coal mine in Nagasaki; 1884 - leased Nagasaki Shipbuilding Yard from the government, built Japan's first domestically produced steel steamship; 1885 - succeeded by his brother Yanosuke; merged with government-sponsored competitor; formed Nippon Yusen (NYK Line); 1886 - name changed to Mitsubishi Company; 1893 - Hisaya (Yataro's son, graduate of University of Pennsylvania) assumed presidency; set up divisions for banking, real estate, marketing, administration, original mining and shipbuilding businesses; acquired Kobe Paper Mill (today's Mitsubishi Paper Mills); backed founding of Kirin Brewery; cousin, Toshiya, founded Asahi Glass, Japan's first successful manufacturer of plate glass; 1916 - Koyata (Yanosuke's son, graduate of Cambridge University) assumed presidency; incorporated divisions as semiautonomous companies; established leadership positions in machinery, electrical equipment, chemicals; 1917 - Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. established; 1919 - Mitsubishi Bank founded; 1921 - Mitsubishi Electric Corporation founded (Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co. spun off its marine electric motor factory in Kobe); became a leader in electrical machinery and in home appliances; 1934 - Mitsubishi Shipbuilding renamed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; September 30, 1946 - Mitsubishi Headquarters disbanded; 1950 - Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan's largest trading company; 1970 - MHI's automobile department became independent; Mitsubishi Motors began manufacturing, marketing automobiles.

Yataro Iwasaki -  founder of Mitsubishi (

Yanosuke Iwasaki Yanosuke Iwasaki - 2nd President of Mistubishi (

October 15, 1878 - Thomas Edison opened  Edison Electric Company in New York City; syndicate of leading financiers (J.P. Morgan, the Vanderbilts) advanced $30,000 for research and development; created the first incandescent lamp; 1880 - patented the electricity distribution system which connected lights in a parallel circuit (vs. series circuit in arc lights) by subdividing the current (failure of one light bulb would not cause a whole circuit to fail); company flush with profits, and competitors; J. P. Morgan advised Edison to adopt aggressive tactics of vertical integration, to buy his rivals, to transform his company into a modern enterprise; re-christened the General Electric Company, dominated the field with just one major competitor, Westinghouse Company.

1885 - William Hesketh Lever, James D'Arcy Lever purchased soap factory of Winser & Co in Warrington, UK; established Lever Brothers; manufactured soap from vegetable oils (had introduced Lever's Pure Honey soap in 1874); first product was Sunlight, world's first packaged branded laundry soap; 1887 - acquired 56 acres in Wirral peninsula, between railway line and Mersey; 1889 - began production at factory named Port Sunlight (model community designed to house, support workers of Lever Brothers); 1894 - launched Lifebuoy, desinfectant soap; 1899 - introduced Sunlight Flakes; January 15, 1895 - Lever Brothers, Limited registered "Lifebuoy" trademark first used December 7, 1888 (fancy and perfumed soaps [and oils and greases for toilet use); 1906 - established monopoly soap trust, with Joseph Watson of Leeds and several other large soap manufacturers; 1914 - formed Planter's Margarine Co., joint venture with its major competitor, Watson, for production of margarine (governemnt had anticipated warime syupply disruption); 1915 Lever assumed full control of company; margarine sales boomed during waryears, declined when Netherlands, Denmark resumed production; September 2, 1929 - merged with Margarine Unie NV - Margarine Union Limited in Britain (formed in 1927, by union of Antonius Johannes Jurgens's Jurgens & Prince Margarine Works in Goch and Samuel van den Bergh's Van den Bergh Margarine Works in Kleve - both in northwest of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near Dutch border and River Rhine; formed large group of European businesses involved in production of almost all goods created from oils and fats); January 1, 1930 - Unilever officially established; September 22, 1955 - aired first advertisement on UK commercial TV (for Gibbs SR toothpaste); May 22, 1956 - Lever Brothers Company registered "Wisk" trademark first used September 23, 1955 (detergent for laundry use); America's first liquid detergent; 1959 - introduced margarine in tub, replaced traditional block wrapped in greaseproof paper; 1961 - acquired Good Humor ice cream in U.S.; 1969 - aired UK's first color TV commercial (for Birds Eye peas); 1971 - acquired Lipton International; 1977 - nearly 177,000 employees in 200 offices, factories; 1978 - acquired National Starch, leading U.S. producer of adhesives, starch, speciality organic chemicals; 1986 - acquired Naarden International (doubled business in fragrances, food flavours); Chesebrough-Pond's (Pond's and Vaseline); 1989 - acquired Calvin Klein and Elizabeth Arden/Fabergé; 1993 - acquired Breyers ice cream; 1996 - acquired Helene Curtis hair care business in U.S.; merged Hindustan Lever, Brooke Bond Lipton India, created India’s largest private sector company; 2000 - acquired Bestfoods, Ben & Jerry's; 2001 - 900 brands (down from 1,600); 2005 - Unilever Cosmetics International, global prestige fragrance business, acquired by Coty Inc.; January 1, 2009 - Paul Polman named Chief Executive Officer (first external candidate).

April 23, 1886 -  Albert M. Butz formed Butz Thermo-Electric Regulator Co. in Minneapolis, MN; May 4, 1886 - received a patent for a "Thermo-Electric Damper-Regulator and Alarm" ("designed to operate the dampers of valves of a furnace or stove as the temperature rises or falls in the rooms whose temperature is to be regulated"); August 24, 1886 - received second patent for "Thermo-Electric Damper-Regulator and Alarm"; August 20, 1889 - received a patent for a "Thermostat" ("designed especially for use with electric-heat regulators");  sold patent rights to Consolidated Temperature Controlling Co.; 1893 - name changed to Electric Heat Regulator Co.; 1898 - acquired by William R. Sweatt; 1916 - name changed to Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company, expanded product line, patented first electric motor approved by Underwriters Laboratories; 1906 - Mark Honeywell formed the Honeywell Heating Specialty Co., Inc.; specialized in hot water heat generators; 1927 - Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company and (Wabash, IN-based) Honeywell Heating Specialty Co. merged to form the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., became the largest producer of high-quality jeweled clocks (W. R. Sweatt, chairman; Mark Honeywell, president); 1963 - name changed to Honeywell Inc.; 1999 - acquired by AlliedSignal Corporation.

July 10, 1886 - George Goldie received charter for Royal Niger Company; given political, economic control over hinterland of

July 1887 - Torakusu Yamaha repaired reed organ at Hamamatsu's Jinjo elementary school in Japan; 1888 - established Yamaha Organ Works in Hamamatsu; October 12, 1897 - established Nippon Gakki Co., Ltd.; January 1900 - began making upright pianos; January 1902 - produced first grand piano; April 1914 - introduced first harmonica, began exporting harmonicas worldwide; January 1922 - began production of high-quality hand-wound phonographs; February 1932 - began production of pipe organs; October 1942 - created first acoustic guitar; August 1954 - produced first motorcycle, YA-1; first-year production: 125; manufactured first Hi-Fi Player; July 1955 - founded Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.; May 12, 1959 - Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha Corporation registered Yamaha trademark ([pianos, reed and pipe organs, electronic organs, accordions, saxophones, clarinets, bugles, trumpets, cornets, trombones, etc...); November 17, 1959 - registered trademark (motorcycles); June 1960 - established U.S. subsidiary; May 1962 - formed Yamaha Recreation Co., Ltd.; June 1968 - produced first line of hi-fi stereo equipment; April 1971 - began semiconductor production; October 1974 - introduced CSY-1 synthesizer; June 1976 - began production of electric, electronic pianos; April 1982 - developed line of carbon composite golf clubs; October 1982 - introduced compact disk player; October 1, 1987 - name changed to 'Yamaha Corporation'; April 1991 - production of pianos, wind instruments both surpassed 5 million; May 1991 - created world's first forged titanium golf clubs; April 2000 - founded record company, Yamaha Music Communications Co., Ltd.; February 2003 - withdrew from CD-R/RW business; January 2005 - acquired Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, Germany; May 2005 - 10 millionth wind instrument produced; July 2008 - acquired NEXO S.A.


April 15, 1892 - General Electric Co., formed by the merger of Edison General Electric Co. (Schenectady, NY; founded 1878 as Edison Electric Light Co.) and Thomson-Houston Company (formed in 1883 to produce dynamos and arc lighting, succeeded American Electric Company), incorporated in New York State.

January 22, 1895 - Unilever registered "Lifebuoy" soap trademark.

1902 - Henry S. Bryan, Hermon W. Cable, John Dwan, William A. McGonagle, Dr. J. Danley Budd founded Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. in Two Harbors, MN to mine what they thought was corundum (a mineral)  ideal for making sandpaper and grinding wheels.

1906 - Mr. Fung Pak-liu and Mr. Li To-ming established business in Guangzhou, China; one of first companies financed solely by Chinese capital to engage directly in exports from China; traded largely in porcelain and silk,  diversified into bamboo, rattan ware, jade, ivory, handicrafts, fireworks. December 28, 1937 - formally established Li & Fung (1937) Limited,  privately held, limited company in Hong Kong; controlling shareholder of Li & Fung Group of companies; after WW II - Li To-ming, silent partner, retired,  sold his shares to Fung Family; began to export garments, toys, electronics,  plastic flowers beyond original product lines; one of Hong Kong's biggest exporters in dollar terms; 1970s - third generation of Fung family, Victor and William, joined business; 1973 - went public; 1985 - formed Li & Fung (Retailing) Limited (wholly-owned by Li & Fung (1937) Limited; two chains under retailing: Circle K, Toys "R" Us; 1989 - went private in one of first management buyouts in Hong Kong; restructured in two core businesses - export trading, retail; 1992 - export trading business went public; 1995 -acquired Inchcape Buying Services (Dodwell), almost doubled in size, further expanded customer base in Europe to complement existing strength in USA; 1999 -acquired Swire & Maclaine Limited, Camberley Enterprises Limited; diversified into distribution business through formation of privately held IDS Group; 2000 - acquired Colby Group Holdings Limited; 2002 - acquired Janco Overseas Limited; 2007 - multinational group engaged in export trading (Li & Fung Limited), retailing (Convenience Retail Asia Limited, other privately held entities), distribution (Integrated Distribution Services Group Limited; total staff of over 34,000 across 40 economies worldwide, total revenue of close to US$14 billion.

October 17, 1910 - William Middleton Sime (37), Henry Darby (50) founded Sime, Darby & Co., Ltd. to manage 500 acres of rubber plantations land in Malacca, Malaysia; 1958 - incorporated in United Kingdom as Sime Darby Holdings Ltd.; 1976 - Malaysian government gained control of the company through its state trading corporation, PERNAS; December 1979 - Sime Darby Berhad (SDB), Consolidated Plantations Berhad (CPB) incorporated in Kuala Lampur, Malaysia; 1981 - acquired B.F. Goodrich Philippines; 1990 - control of company acquired by Pemodalan Nasional Berhad; renamed GHPB; 1993 - merged with Consolidated Plantations; 1995 - acquired controlling stake in United Malayan Banking Corporation; renamed Sime Bank and SimeSecurities; January 2007 - merged with Golden Hope Plantations Berhad (established in 1844 as Harrison and Crossfield, by Daniel and Smith Harrison and Joseph Crosfield, as trading business dealing in tea and coffee) and Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad (founded in Singapore in 1821, by Alexander Guthrie, as first British trading company in South East Asia); named Synergy Drive; November 27, 2007 - renamed Sime Darby Berhad; 2010 - world's biggest oil palm plantation company; largest conglomerate in Malaysia, one of largest in southeast Asia.

William Middleton Sime - Sime, Darby & Co., Ltd (

Henry Darby - Sime, Darby & Co., Ltd. (

1918 - Portuguese immigrant Antonio Pereira Ignacio took over Fábrica de Fiação e Tecelagem (Spinning and Weaving Mill), in Votorantim in interior of State of São Paulo, Brazil; renamed Sociedade Anonyma Fabrica Votorantim (harbinger of Brazilian industrialization); 1951 - José Ermírio de Moraes (son-in-law) took over; 1950s - began producing aluminium, hydroelectric power, refining sugar; 1960 - control transferred to three sons, son-in-law; 1970s-80s - entered zinc, nickel mining and smelting, plastics and film wrapping markets; 1990 - Brazilian President Collor introduced major market reforms, eliminated or significantly reduced almost all import tariffs; 2001 - 23 members of third generation broke with eight decades of tradition in response to changing circumstances; 13 cousins removed themselves from direct management positions; places taken by non-family managers; created family board to oversee family matters, social investment; executive board oversees day-to-day business operations (under Votorantim Participações SA); third generation of Ermírio de Moraes family; Brazilian corporate group with global operation in industrial, financial, new businesses services; one of largest private economic conglomerates in Brazil; 2004 - elected by IMD Business School and Lombard Odier Darier Hentsch Bank as best family company in world.

March 7, 1918 - Konosuke Matsushita (23) established Matsushita Electric Housewares Manufacturing Works in rented two-story home; company on first floor, staff of 3; expanded production to include innovative attachment plug, two-way socket (designed himself); developed reputation for high quality at low prices; 1922 - built new factory, office to house growing business; 1931 - began printing English instructions for products; 1932 - set up Export Trading Department to conduct research, market development for international sales; August 1935 - incorporated Export Trading Department as Matsushita Electric Trading Company; December 1935 - incorporated the company (had been sole proprietorship), renamed Matsushita Electric Industrial Company; divisions reorganized as nine subsidiaries, four associated companies, with Matsushita Electric functioning as a holding company; WW II - lost 32 factories, office facilities in Japan (mainly Tokyo, Osaka); 39 overseas factories, sales outlets confiscated; 1952 - made technical, capital cooperation agreement with Philips (Netherlands), set up Matsushita Electronics Corporation as joint venture; 1955 - created Panasonic name ("pan" meaning "all" combined with "sonic" meaning "sound") for brand for audio speakers; February 5, 1957 - registered Panasonic trademark; 1959 - established Matsushita Electric Corporation of America in New York as first post-war overseas sales company; 1962 - established National Panasonic G.m.b.H. in West Germany as first European sales company; April 1965 - Japan's first major manufacturer to introduce five-day work week; March 22, 1974 - acquired Motorola's TV operations in the U.S.A. and Canada; April 1988 - Matsushita Electric Industrial merged with Matsushita Electric Trading Co.; November 1990 - acquired MCA Inc.; June 1995 - transferred 80% share of equity interest in MCA Inc. to Seagram Company Ltd., Canadian liquor manufacturer; October 1, 2008 - renamed Panasonic Corporation.

Konosuke Matsushita (top left)- founder Matsushita (

1920 - Hernand and Lt. Col. Louis Richard Sosthenes Behn, former sugar brokers in Puerto Rico,  founded International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) to create world's first system of interconnected phone lines; started with South Puerto Rico Telephone Company (owned since 1905) and Cuban Telephone Company (owned since 1916); July 31, 1924 - won Spanish telephone service contract, Compania Telefonica Nacional de Espana SA (CTNE) established; September 30, 1925 - acquired International Western Electric for $30 million (AT&T's European-based manufacturer of telephonic equipment); renamed it International Standard Electric Corp.; October 13, 1928 - international telephone service between Spain and United States officially inaugurated; 1928 - added two cable companies (All-American Cables, Inc., Commercial Cable Co.), telegraph company (Postal Telegraph and Cable Corp.), radio company (Mackay Radio and Telegraph Co.); entered five markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay); 1929 - acquired U. S. & Haiti Cable Co., opened line between New York and West Indies; 1933 - Sosthenes took sole control after his brother's death; 1959 - Harold Sydney Geneen took over as head of ITT (acquired 350 companies by 1979); 1978 - Rand Vincent Araskog replaced Geneen; 1995 - split into three companies: ITT corp. (hotel, gaming); ITT Hartford (stand-alone insurance business), ITT Industries (defense, electronics, auto parts).

1928 - Yoshisuke Ayukawa established Nissan Holding Company, one of Japan's largest prewar conglomerates; 1945 - Japan's largest corporate group, seventy-four firms in metals, machinery, chemicals (Hitachi, Nippon Mining, Nissan Motor, Nissan Chemical).

Yoshisuke Ayukawa - NISSAN (

September 2, 1929 - Unilever formed by merger of Margarine Union (founded in 1927 in England and in the Netherlands by Jurgens family and the Van den Bergh family to sell newly invented substitute for butter) and Lever Bros.; name changed to Unilever Limited and Unilever NV.


March 1, 1938 - Byung-Chull Lee started business in Taegu, Korea with 30,000 won; primarily in trade export, sold dried Korean fish, vegetables,  fruit to Manchuria and Beijing; January 1951 - established SAMSUNG Moolsan (Samsung - "three stars" in Korean: 1) To Serve the nation throughout business, 2) To Put the Human Resource over the material resources, 3) Efficient Management Activity); after Korean War - rebuilt company into high-technology manufacturer, South Korea's first major trading company; one of fathers of modern industrial South Korea; expanded from sugar refinery, textiles into electronics, aircraft, semiconductors, shipbuilding, machinery, food processing; January 1969 - SAMSUNG Electronics Manufacturing incorporated; February 1984 - renamed SAMSUNG Electronics; 1987 - 26 subsidiaries, about 75,000 employees; 2005 - world's largest, most profitable consumer electronics company, 123,000 employees; Korea’s oldest and largest trading company.

Byung-Chull Lee - founder SAMSUNG (

June 1, 1947 - Corning Glass Works announced development of photosensitive glass (first made in November 1937); crystal clear, but exposure to ultraviolet light followed by heat treatment formed submicroscopic metal particles, created image within the glass; believed to be the most durable form of photographic medium (as permanent as glass itself).

December 16, 1954 - GE Super Pressure Project research team created first diamonds, began GE's man-made industrial diamond business; February 15, 1955 - General Electric Company announced successful synthesis of 1/16" diamonds using first process that was reproducible (manufactured diamonds used as abrasives in masonry saws, mining drill bits, polishing machinery, cutting tools).

May 22, 1956 - Lever Brothers Company registered "Wisk" trademark first used September 23, 1955 (detergent for laundry use); America's first liquid detergent.

February 11, 1957 - General Electric Company announced that Robert H. Wentorf, Jr., a physical chemist for the company, had made a synthetic crystal material hard enough to scratch diamonds; 1969 - trademarked the name Borazon; used for abrasive tools for such industries as metalworking, stone, and mining.

1958 - Dhirubhai H. Ambani founded Reliance Commercial Corporation, a commodity trading and export firm with investment of about $375; imported, exported nylon, rayon, and polyester; 1966 - opened first textile mill, launched Vimal fabric brand; 1977 - Reliance Textile Industries IPO - 2.8 million shares, raised $1.8 million; pioneer financing channels in India, circumvented traditional reliance on state for capital investment; 1986 - built first plant for production of purified terephtalic acid; 1991 - new subsidiary, Reliance Refineries Private Ltd. (Reliance Petroleum Limited); 2006 - borken into two roughly equal components: 1) petroleum, petrochemical, textiles operations; 2) telecommunications, energy, capital finance, other operations; India's largest private sector enterprise, businesses in energy, materials value chain; annual revenues exceed of $22 billion; Reliance Industries Limited is Fortune Global 500 company, largest private sector company in India.

1967 - Kim Woo Choong borrowed $10,000 to establish Daewoo Industrial Co., Ltd., a textiles trading business; 1976 - South Korean government introduced state-led economic policies, Kim asked to take over a debt-ridden heavy industry company; 1977 - company making a profit; 1978 - took over  shipyard company; 1983 - took over home appliance business; 1988 - 320,000 employees worldwide and $44 billion in assets, ranked 18th on Fortune magazine's Global 500 List of the world's largest corporations; 1998 - Kim Woo Choong, founder and chairman of the Daewoo Group, among the four largest conglomerates in South Korea; once produced 10% of South Korea's gross domestic product; accused of: asset-swapping between Daewoo entities to create fictitious profits; cover-ups of failed ventures; and a London-based slush fund that diverted money from Daewoo's trading arm, Daewoo Corp.; November 2000 - Daewoo Motors filed for bankruptcy - Kim faced criminal and civil fraud charges related to the bankruptcy, fled the country.

September 19, 1985 - Allied Corporation merged with Signal Companies; company named Allied-Signal; 1993 - renamed AlliedSignal.

August 1, 1995 - Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired CBS for $5.4 billion; moved from primarily power company to media power.

July 3, 2001 - General Electric's $41 billion purchase of Honeywell International vetoed by the European Union.

(Allied-Signal Inc.), James D. Best (1997). The Digital Organization: AlliedSignal's Success with Business Technology. (New York, NY: Wiley, 234 p.). Former Vice President of AlliedSignal's Computing and Network Operations. Allied-Signal Inc.--Management; High technology industries--United States--Management--Case studies; International business enterprises--United States--Management--Case studies; Management information systems--Case studies.

(Amfac), Frederick Simpich, Jr. (1974). Dynasty in the Pacific. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 270 p.). Amfac, inc.

(Berkshire Hathaway), Janet Lowe (2000). Damn Right!: Behind the Scenes with Berkshire Hathaway Billionaire Charlie Munger (New York, NY: Wiley, 294 p.). Journalist. Munger, Charles T., 1924- ; Berkshire Hathaway Inc.--History; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography.

(Bird and Company), Godfrey Harrison (1964). Bird and Company of Calcutta: A History Produced To Mark the Firm's Centenary, 1864-1964. (Calcutta, India: Anna Art Press Private, 340 p.). Bird and Company; Agency Houses--India--History.

(C. K. Birla Group - founded 1857), P. Chentsal Rao; foreword by L.K. Jha (1983). B.M. Birla: His Deeds & Dreams. (New Delhi, India: Arnold Heinemann, 152 p.). Birla, B. M. (Braj Mohan), 1905-1982; Industrialists--India--Biography.

(C. K. Birla Group - founded 1857), D.K. Taknet (1996). B.M. Birla: A Great Visionary. (New Delhi, India: Indus., 188 p.). Birla, B. M. (Braj Mohan), 1905-1982; Industrialists--India--Biography. With annual sales of A$3 billion = one of the top 3 Indian business houses.

(Borneo Company Limited), Henry Longhurst (1956). The Borneo Story; The History of the First 100 Years of Trading in the Far East by the Borneo Company Limited. (London, UK: Newman Neame, 120 p.). Borneo Company Limited; Sarawak--Commerce; Southeast Asia--Commerce.

(House of Chettinad), K. Nagarajan (1989). Dr. Rajah Sir Muthiah Chettiar: A Biography. (Annamalainagar, India: Annamalai University, 311 p.). Muthiah Chettiar, Sir, 1905- ; Businesspeople--India--Biography; Philanthropists--India--Biography; Educators--India--Biography.

(Organización Cisneros), Pablo Bachelet; foreword byCarlos Fuentes; translated by Edith Grossman (2004). Gustavo Cisneros: Pioneer. (Barcelona, Spain: Planeta, 311 p.). Cisneros, Gustavo; Organización Cisneros--History; Businessmen--Venezuela--Biography. 

(Corning), Davis Dyer, Daniel Gross (2001). The Generations of Corning: The Life and Times of a Global Corporation. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 507 p.). Corning Incorporated; Conglomerate corporations--United States.

Amory Houghton Sr. Amory Houghton Sr. -  founder Corning Glass ( Corporate/ww/Assets/Images/houghton_amory_sr(2).jpg)

(Daewoo), Kim Woo-Choong; introduction by Louis Kraar (1992). Every Street Is Paved with Gold: The Road to Real Success. (New York, NY: Morrow, 254 p.). Founder, Daewoo Group. Kim, U-jung; Taeu Group; Success in business--Korea (South); Industrial management--Korea (South). 

(Dutch East India Company -1602-1798), C. R. Boxer (1979). Jan Compagnie in War and Peace, 1602-1799: A Short History of the Dutch East-India Company. (Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 115 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History.

(Dutch East India Company), Om Prakash (1984). The Dutch Factories in India, 1617-1623: A Collection of Dutch East India Company Documents Pertaining to India. (New Delhi, India: Munshiram Manoharlal, 332 p.). Head of the Department of Economics (Delhi School of Economics). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie; Dutch -- India -- History -- Sources; India -- History -- 1500-1765 -- Sources.

(Dutch East India Company), Om Prakash (1985). The Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal, 1630-1720. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 291 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie; Bengal (India)--Economic conditions; Asia--Commerce--Europe--History--17th century; Europe--Commerce--Asia--History--17th century.

(Dutch East India Company), John Landwehr (1991). VOC: A Bibliography of Publications Relating to the Dutch East India Company, 1602-1800. (Utrecht, NE: HES Publishers, 840 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--Bibliography.

(Dutch East India Company), Reinout Vos; translated by Beverly Jackson. (1993). Gentle Janus, Merchant Prince: The VOC and the Tightrope of Diplomacy in the Malay World, 1740-1800. (Leiden, NE: KITLV, 252 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History; Malacca, Strait of--Commerce--History--18th century.

(Dutch East India Company), Dianne Lewis (1995). Jan Compagnie in the Straits of Malacca, 1641-1795. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 160 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History; Malaya--History--18th century; Malacca, Strait of--History--18th century; Malaya--History--17th century; Malacca, Strait of--History--17th century.

(Dutch East India Company), Gerrit Knaap (1996). Shallow Waters, Rising Tide: Shipping and Trade in Java Around 1775. (Leiden, NE: KITLV Press, 255 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History--18th century; Shipping--Indonesia--Java--History--18th century; Java (Indonesia)--Commerce--History--18th century.

(Dutch East India Company), Giles Milton (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg: Or, The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of History. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 388 p.). Courthope, Nathaniel; Coen, Jan Pieterszoon, 1587-1629; Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie -- History; Spice trade -- Indonesia -- Maluku -- History -- 17th century; Nutmeg industry -- Indonesia -- Maluku -- History -- 17th century; Maluku (Indonesia) -- History; Indonesia -- History -- 1478-1798.

(Dutch East India Company), Ryuto Shimada (2005). The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company During the Eightenth Century. (Boston, MA: Brill, 225 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History--18th century; Copper industry and trade--Japan--History--18th century; Copper mines and mining--Japan--History--18th century; Copper industry and trade--History--18th century; Netherlands--Commerce--Asia--History--18th century; Asia--Commerce--Netherlands--History--18th century. 

(East India Company - formed 1600), R. H. Mottram (1939). Traders' Dream; The Romance of the East India Company. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century, 322 p.). East India Company; India--History--British occupation, 1765-1947.

(East India Company), Lucy S. Sutherland (1952). The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Politics. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 430 p.). East India Company; Great Britain--Politics and government--18th century.

(East India Company), C. H. (Cyril Henry) Philips (1961). The East India Company, 1784-1834. (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 374 p.). East India Company.

(East India Company), Lucy S. Sutherland (1962). A London Merchant, 1695-1774. (London, UK: F. Cass, 164 p.). Braund, William, 1695-1774; East India Company; Great Britain--Commerce--History--18th century.

(East India Company), K.N. Chaudhuri. (1965). The English East India Company; The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. (LOndon, UK: F. Cass, 245 p.). East India Company.

(East India Company), C. Northcote Parkinson (1966). Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1813. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 434 p. [orig. pub. 1937]). East India Company; Merchant marine--Great Britain--History; East Indies--Commerce--Great Britain; Great Britain--Commerce--East Indies.

(East India Company), P. J. Marshall (1968). Problems of Empire: Britain and India 1757-1813. (New York, NY: Barnes & Noble, 239 p.). East India Company; India--History--18th century; Great Britain--Politics and government--18th century.

(East India Company), Brian Gardner (1972). The East India Company: A History. (New York, NY: McCall Pub. Co., 319 p.). East India Company--History; India--History--18th century; India--History--19th century.

(East India Company), Ramkrishna Mukherjee (1974). The Rise and Fall of the East India Company; A Sociological Appraisal. (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 445 p.). East India Company--History.

(East India Company), D. C. Coleman (1975). Sir John Banks, Baronet and Businessman: A Study of Business, Politics, and Society in Later Stuart England. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 215 p, [orig. pub. 1963]). Banks, John, Sir, bart., 1627-1699; Businessmen--Great Britain--Biography; Great Britain--History--Stuarts, 1603-1714--Biography. Banks - executive with East India Company.

(East India Company), P. J. Marshall (1976). East Indian Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 284 p.). East India Company; Merchants--Great Britain--History--18th century; Merchants--India--Bengal--History--18th century; British--India--Bengal--History--18th century; Bengal (India)--Commerce--History.

(East India Company), K. N. Chaudhuri (1978). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 628 p.). East India Company--History; Europe--Commerce--Asia--History; Asia--Commerce--Europe--History. One of the most significant works of the twentieth century.

(East India Company), Hoh-cheung Mui and Lorna H. Mui (1984). The Management of Monopoly: A Study of the English East India Company's Conduct of Its Tea Trade, 1784-1833. (Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 192 p.). East India Company--History; Tea trade--Great Britain--History.

(East India Company), Hameeda Hossain (1988). The Company Weavers of Bengal: The East India Company and the Organization of Textile Production in Bengal, 1750-1813. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 211 p.). East India Company--History; Cotton textile industry--India--Bengal--History; Bengal (India)--Economic conditions.

(East India Company), Anthony Farrington (1991). The English Factory in Japan, 1613-1623. (London, UK: British Library, 1658 p.). East India Company--History--17th century--Sources; Great Britain--Commerce--Japan--History--17th century--Sources; Japan--Commerce--Great Britain--History--17th century--Sources.

(East India Company), Philip Lawson (1993). The East India Company: A History. (New York, NY: Longman, 188 p.). East India Company--Histor; Great Britain--Commerce--India--History; India--Commerce--Great Britain--History; India--History--1526-1765.

(East India Company), John Keay (1994). The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 474 p.). East India Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--India--History; India--History--1500-1765.

(East India Company), Ed. Patrick Tuck (1998). The East India Company, 1600-1858. (New York, NY: Routledge, 6 vols.). East India Company; India --History --18th century; Great Britain --Politics and government --18th century; Great Britain --Commerce --History; India --Relations --Great Britain; Great Britain --Relations --India. Functions beyond trading: merged military force, government, colonization with economic expansion.

(East India Company), James H. Thomas (1999). The East India Company and Provinces in the Eighteenth Century. (Lewiston, ME: Edwin Mellen Press, 1 vol.). East India Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--History.

(East India Company), Antony Wild (1999). The East India Company: Trade and Conquest from 1600. (New Delhi, India: HarperCollins, 191 p.). East India Company--History.

(East India Company), Jean Sutton (2000). Lords of the East: the East India Company and Its Ships (1600-1874). (London, UK: Conway Maritime Press, 160 p. [2nd ed.]). East India Company; Merchant marine --Great Britain --History. Social, maritime history of East India Company, its contributions to expansion of British Empire; 1600-1863 - East India Company prevailed against rival European companies and almost continual warfare to gradually win control of India, spearhead Western penetration of China.

(East India Company), Anthony Farrington (2002). Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1600-1834. (London, UK: British Library, 128 p.). East India Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History; Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History. Published on occasion of exhibition at British Library, 24 May-15 Sept. 2002.

(East India Company), H.V. Bowen (2005). The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756-1833. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 304 p.). Senior Lecturer in Economic and Social History (University of Leicester). East India Company; Great Britain--Colonies--Asia; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History; Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History. What happened in Britain when East India Company acquired vast territorial empire in South Asia.

(East India Company), S. Babu (2006). Merchants of Politics: East India Company and Dawn of the Raj. (New Delhi, IN: Dominant Publishers and Distributors, 18o p.). East India Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History; Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History.

(East India Company), Eds. H. V. Bowen, Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby (2006). The Worlds of the East India Company. (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 264 p.). Senior Lecturer in Economic and Social History (University of Leicester); Research Department of the National Maritime Museum, London. East India Company --History --Congresses; Great Britain --Commerce --India --History --Congresses; India --Commerce --Great Britain --History --Congresses; Great Britain --Commerce --Asia --History --Congresses; Asia --Commerce --Great Britain --History --Congresses. Laid foundations of British empire in South Asia, at very heart of interlinked histories of Britain and Asia; multi-disciplinary history (art, culture, cartography, empire, politics, sea, trade) of Company: origins, operation, influence as organisation that remained firmly engaged in maritime commercial activity in many different spheres, even as it acted as powerful agent of territorial expansion on Indian subcontinent.

(East India Company), George K. McGilvary (2006). Guardian of the East India Company: The Life of Laurence Sulivan. (London, UK: Tauris Academic Studies, 328 p.). Sulivan, Laurence, d. 1786; East India Company -- History -- 18th century; Businessmen -- Great Britain -- Biography; Businessmen -- India -- Biography; Great Britain -- Colonies -- Commerce. Influential businessman who controlled most powerful private company of his day. 

(East India Company), Nick Robins (2006). The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. (Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 218 p.). East India Company--History; International business enterprises--Great Britain--History; International business enterprises--Government policy--Great Britain; International business enterprises; International trade; India--Economic conditions.

(East India Company), Anthony Webster (2009). The Twilight of the East India Company: The Evolution of Anglo-Asian Commerce and Politics, 1790-1860. (Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 205 p.). Head of the History Department (Liverpool John Moores University). East India Company --History; Great Britain --Commerce --India --History; India --Commerce --Great Britain --History; Great Britain --Commerce --Asia --History; Asia --Commerce --Great Britain --History; Great Britain --Foreign relations --India; India --Foreign relations --Great Britain; Great Britain --Foreign relations --Asia; Asia --Foreign relations --Great Britain. Development of British commercial, financial, political relations with India, Far East during final period of East India Company's reign as sovereign power in India: began with renewal of East India Company's Charter, its component monopolies of trade with India and China; followed by outbreak of Napoleonic Wars (spread to east, saw completion of Britain's assertion of power over India, much of Southeast Asia, strengthened political forces in Britain against Company's monopolies of trade with India and China - abolished under Charter Acts of 1813 and 1833); rebellion of 1857 spelt death knell for Company, ushered in new phase of Anglo-Indian economic relations (British foreign investment grew substantially).

(East India Company), Jean Sutton (2010). The East India Company's Maritime Service 1746-1834: Masters of the Eastern Seas. (Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 311 p.). Maritime Historian. East India Company -- History. East India Company's trade during final century of its commercial life as focus moved eastwards, driven by Britain's thirst for China tea (seen through careers of three generations of Larkins, important East India shipping family).

(East India Company), Philip J. Stern (2011). The Company-State: Corporate Sovereignty and the Early Modern Foundation of the British Empire in India. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 300 p.). Assistant Professor of History (Duke University). Corporations, British -- India; India -- History -- British occupation, 1765-1947; East India Company -- History. History of corporation concerned with bottom line, science of colonial governance; how Company leadership wrestled with typical early modern problems of political authority (mutual obligations of subjects and rulers; relationships among law, economy, sound civil and colonial society; constitution of civic institutions ranging from tax collection and religious practice to diplomacy and warmaking; nature of jurisdiction and sovereignty over people, territory, sea); ideas emerged from abstract ideological, historical, philosophical principles, from real-world entanglements of East India Company employees, governors with host of allies, rivals, polyglot populations in overseas plantations; Company shaped colonial polity, confronted shifting definitions of state and sovereignty across Eurasia that ultimately laid groundwork for Company's incorporation into British empire, state through 18th century.

(Eaton), Donald N. Scobel (1981). Creative Worklife. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 244 p.). Eaton Corporation; Industrial relations--United States--Case studies; Machinery industry--United States--Personnel management--Case studies.

(Eaton), The Company (1985). The History of Eaton Corporation, 1911-1985. (Cleveland, OH: Eaton, 94 p.). Eaton Corporation--History; Truck industry--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.

(Elders IXL Ltd. - dates to 1840's partnership between Alexander Elder and T.E. Barr Smith), Bruce Brown; foreword by Tim Bowden (1991). I Excel!: The Life and Times of Sir Henry Jones. (Hobart, AU: Libra, 207 p.). Jones, Henry, Sir, 1862-1926; Businesspeople--Australia--Tasmania--Biography.

(Elders IXL Ltd.), Peter Denton (1986). Elliott: A Biography of John D. Elliott. (Bedford, UK: Little Hills Press, 266 p.). Elliott, John D. (John Dorman), 1941- ; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography.

(Ethyl Corporation), Joseph C. Robert (1983). Ethyl: A History of the Corporation and the People Who Made It. (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 448 p.). Ethyl Corporation -- History; Conglomerate corporations -- United States -- History.

(Federal Paperboard), Richard Blodgett (1991). Federal Paper Board at Seventy-Five: The Intimate History of an American Enterprise (Essex, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 223 p.). Federal Paper Board Company--History; Paperboard industry--United States--History; Paper box industry--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.

(French East India Companies),,Donald C. Wellington  (2006). French East India Companies: A Historical Account and Record of Trade. (Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books, 241 p.). Compagnie des Indes; Compagnie des Indes orientales; France --Commerce --India --History --18th century; India --Commerce --France --History --18th century. Historical narrative, economic statistical analysis of France's import trade with Far East during 17th and 18th centuries.

(Fuqua Industries), J.B. Fuqua; Foreword by Tom Johnson (2001). Fuqua: A Memoir: How I Made My Fortune Using Other People's Money. (Atlanta, GA: Longstreet Press, 328 p.). Founder, Fuqua Industries; Endowed Duke University School of Business. Fuqua, J.B.; Fuqua Industries; Conglomerate corporations--United States.

(GE - company traces its beginnings to Thomas A. Edison's Edison Electric Light Company in 1878), John T. Broderick (1929). Forty Years with General Electric. (Albany, NY: Fort Orange Press, 218 p.). General Electric Company.

Thomas A. Edison (

Elihu Thomson (in 1892 merged his company with Edison's to form GE) (

Owen D. Young (GE chairman, 1922-1940, 1942-1945) (

Jack Welch Jack Welch - GE ( archives/02/02-01/welch.jpg)

(GE), Ida M. Tarbell (1932). Owen D. Young, A New Type of Industrial Leader. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 353 p.). Young, Owen D., 1874-.

(GE), John Winthrop Hammond and Arthur Pound (1941). Men and Volts; The Story of General Electric. (Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 436 p.). General Electric Company; Electric engineering--United States.

(GE), John Anderson Miller (1947). Men and Volts at War; The Story of General Electric in World War II. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 272 p.). General Electric Company; Munitions.

(GE), David Loth (1976). Swope of G.E. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 309 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Swope, Gerard, 1872-1957; General Electric Company.

(GE), Josephine Young Case, Everett Needham Case (1982). Owen D. Young and American Enterprise: A Biography. (Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, 964 p.). Young, Owen D., 1874- ; Electric household appliances industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(GE), David E. Nye (1985). Image Worlds: Corporate Identities at General Electric, 1890-1930. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 188 p.). General Electric Company; Photography, Industrial--United States.

(GE), W. Bernard Carlson (1991). Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu Thomson and the Rise of General Electric, 1870-1900 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 377 p.). Thomson, Elihu, 1853-1937; General Electric Company -- History; Inventors -- United States -- Biography; Electric industries -- United States -- History -- 19th century; Electric power systems -- United States -- History -- 19th century; Industrial organization -- United States -- History -- 19th century.  

(GE), Edward J. Covington (1994). Franklin S. Terry (1862-1926), Industrialist: Paragon of Organization, Harmony, and Generosity. (Highland Heights, OH: E.J. Covington, 101 p.). Terry, Franklin S., 1862-1926; Terry family; General Electric Company--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography; Electric lamp industry--United States--History; Blind--United States--Printing and writing systems--History; Deaf--Means of communication--United States--History; Ansonia (Conn.)--Biography.

(GE), Stephen Aris (1998). Arnold Weinstock and the Making of GEC. (London, UK: Aurum, 244 p.). Weinstock, Arnold, Baron, 1924- ; General Electric Company (Great Britain)--History; Electric industries--Great Britain--History; Jewish businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.

(GE), Alex Brummer and Roger Cowe. (1998). Weinstock: The Life and Times of Britain’s Premier Industrialist. (London, UK: HarperCollinsBusiness, 343 p.). Weinstock, Arnold Weinstock, Baron, 1924- ; Industrialists -- Great Britain -- Biography; Jewish businesspeople -- Great Britain -- Biography; General Electric Company (Great Britain)--History; Electric industries--Great Britain--History. Managing Director, GE, UK (30 years); religious, cultural influences which shaped Weinstock philosophy; central themes of political influence, financial management, industrial policy; from son of immigrant Polish-Jewish tailor to Whitehall, property world, electronics, defense industry.

(GE), Max H. Kirsch (1998). In the Wake of the Giant: Multinational Restructuring and Uneven Development in a New England Community. (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 146 p.). General Electric Company; Downsizing of organizations--Social aspects--Massachusetts--Pittsfield; Industries--Social aspects--Massachusetts--Pittsfield; Community development--Massachusetts--Pittsfield; Pittsfield (Mass.)--Economic conditions; Pittsfield (Mass.)--Social conditions.

(GE), Thomas F.O'Boyle (1998). At Any Cost: Jack Welch, General Electric, and the Pursuit of Profit (New York, NY: Knopf, 449 p.). Welch, Jack (John Francis), 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies.

(GE), Jerome T. Coe (2000). Unlikely Victory: How General Electric Succeeded in the Chemical Industry. (New York, NY: American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 219 p.). General Electric Company; Chemical industry--United States; Conglomerate corporations--United States; International business enterprises--United States.

(GE), Janet Lowe (2001). Welch: An American Icon. (New York, NY: Wiley, 304 p.). Welch, Jack (John Francis), 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography; Leadership--United States.

(GE), Jack Welch, John A. Byrne (2001). Jack: Straight from the Gut. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 479 p.). Chairman (20 years) of GE, Business Week Journalist. Welch, Jack, 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography; Electric industries--United States--Management; Industrial management--United States.

(GE), Noel Tichy and Stratford Sherman (2001). Control Your Destiny or Someone Else Will. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, p. [orig. pub. 1993]). Welch, Jack, 1935- ; General Electric Company--History; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United States--Case studies.

(GE), Jack Welch with Suzy Welch (2005). Winning. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 384 p.). Former CEO (GE). Success in business; Strategic planning; Negotiation in business. 

(GE), William E. Rothschild (2007). The Secret to GE’s Success. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 293 p.). General Electric Company--History; General Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies. 5 keys that made GE a global phenomenon;  GE Code (hallmark of all GE leadership teams); prescriptive plan for strategizing the GE way. 

(GE), Bill Lane (2008). Jacked Up: The Inside Story of How Jack Welch Talked GE into Becoming the World's Greatest Company. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Welch's speechwriter of 20 years. Business presentations; General Electric Company; Welch, Jack, 1935-. Welch's ability as a master communicator; simple, often brutally enforced guidelines for making a great pitch; zero-tolerance of BS.

(GE), David Magee (2009). Jeff Immelt and the New GE Way: Innovation, Transformation and Winning in the 21st Century. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 272 p.). Immelt, Jeff; General Electric Company--History; General Electric Company--Management. How Immelt defied skeptics, successfully reengineered one of world's oldest, largest global conglomerates to meet challenges of 21st century; trendsetting innovations; October 2008 - persuaded Warren Buffett to invest $3 billion in GE.

(Globe Corporation), Dean Smith (1993). Tall Shadows: The Story of the Getz Family and Globe Corporation. (Scottsdale, AZ: Globe, 225 p.). Getz family; --History; Coal trade--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History. Founded in 1901, managed by fourth generation of Getz family members (Bert and his older brother George).

(Grace), Eugene Willard Burgess (1980). Casa Grace in Peru. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 111 p.). W.R. Grace & Co.--History; International business enterprises--Peru--History.

J. Peter Grace J. Peter Grace  (

(Grace), Lawrence A. Clayton (1985). Grace: W.R. Grace & Co., The Formative Years, 1850-1930. (Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books, 403 p.). W.R. Grace & Co.--History; International business enterprises--Peru--History; International business enterprises--Latin America--History; United States--Foreign economic relations--Latin America; Latin America--Foreign economic relations--United States.

(Grace), Marquis James with an introduction by Lawrence A. Clayton (1993). Merchant Adventurer: The Story of W.R. Grace. (Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 385 p.). Grace, William Russell 1832-1904; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Merchants--United States--Biography; Mayors--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Judges--New York (State)--New York--Biography; United States--Relations--Latin America; Latin America--Relations--United States.

(Honeywell), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1995). The Legend of Honeywell. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 208 p.). Honeywell Inc.--History; High technology industries--United States--History; International business enterprises--United States--History.

Mark Honeywell  (

(Honeywell), Larry Bossidy & Ram Charan; with Charles Burck (2002). Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done. (New York, NY: Crown Business, p.). CEO (Honeywell); Former CEO (Allied Signal), Former Vice Chairman (General Electric). Management; Performance; Achievement motivation. 

(Immsi S.p.A.), Roberto Colaninno; con Rinaldo Gianola (2006). Primo Tempo: Olivetti, Telecom, Piaggio, Una Storia Privata di 10 Anni di Capitalismo Italiano. (Milano, IT: Rizzoli, 224 p.). Chairman of the Board. Colaninno, Roberto, 1943- --Interviews; Businessmen--Italy--Interviews; Italy--Economic conditions--20th century; Italy--Economic conditions--21st century.

(Imperial British East Africa Company), John S. Galbraith (1972). Mackinnon and East Africa 1878-1895: A Study in the 'New Imperialism'. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 253 p.). Imperial British East Africa Company; Africa, East -- History; Mackinnon, William Henry, Sir, 1852-1929.

(Ingram Industries), Martha Rivers Ingram (2001). E. Bronson Ingram: Complete These Unfinished Tasks of Mine. (Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press, 306 p.). Chairman, Ingram Industries. Ingram, Erskine Bronson, 1931-1995; Ingram Corporation; Ingram Industries; Businessmen --United States --Biography.

(ITT), Anthony Sampson (1973). The Sovereign State of ITT. (New York, NY: Stein & Day, 323 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation; Business and politics -- Case studies.

Harold Geneen - ITT (




Rand Araskog - ITT ( beardbooks/bb_images/araskog.jpg)

(ITT), Thomas S. Burns (1974). Tales of ITT; An Insider's Report. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 246 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation; Business and politics--United States.

(ITT), Maurice Deloraine (1976). When Telecom and ITT Were Young. (New York, NY: Lehigh Books, 161 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation--History.

(ITT), Robert Sobel (1982). I.T.T.: The Management of Opportunity. (New York, NY: Times Books, 421 p.). Academic (Hofstra University). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation-History.

(ITT), Harold Geneen with Alvin Moscow (1984). Managing. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 297 p.). Former CEO, Journalist. Management; International business enterprises--Management; Management--United States.

(ITT), Robert J. Schoenberg (1985). Geneen. (New York, NY: Norton, 429 p.). Geneen, Harold; International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation--Biography; Telecommunication--United States--Biography.

(ITT), Rand V. Araskog (1989). The ITT Wars. (New York, NY: Holt, 241 p.). Former CEO (ITT). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation--Reorganization.

(ITT), Harold Geneen with Brent Bowers (1997). The Synergy Myth and Other Ailments of Business Today. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 248 p.). Industrial management; Business.

(Jardine Matheson - formed in Canton, China in 1832), Edward Le Fevour (1968). Western Enterprise in Late Ch`ing China; A Selective Survey of Jardine, Matheson and Company's Operations, 1842-1895. (Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University; distributed by Harvard University Press, 215 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co.; China--Foreign economic relations.

William Jardine, James Matheson (

(Jardine Matheson), W. E. Cheong (1979). Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine, Matheson, & Co., A China Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. (London, UK: Curzon Press, 298 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co.; China--Commerce.

(Jardine Matheson), edited by Maggie Keswick (1982). The Thistle and the Jade: A Celebration of 150 years of Jardine, Matheson & Co. (London, UK: Octopus Books, 272 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co.--History; China--Commerce--History.

(Jardine Matheson), Alain Le Pichon (1998). Aux Origines de Hong Kong: Apects de la Civilisation Commerciale à Canton: Le Fonds de Commerce de Jardine, Matheson & Co, 1827-1839. (Paris, FR: Harmattan, 602 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co.--History; Corporations, British--China--Hong Kong--History--19th century; Hong Kong (China)--Commerce--History--19th century.

(Jardine Matheson), Robert Blake (1999). Jardine Matheson: Traders of the Far East. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 280 p.). Jardine Matheson Holdings -- History; China -- Commerce -- History; Hong Kong (China) -- Commerce -- History.

(Jardine Matheson), Carol Matheson Connell (2004). A Business in Risk: Jardine Matheson and the Hong Kong Trading Industry. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 188 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co. History; Corporations, British China Hong Kong History; Trading companies China Hong Kong History; Consolidation and merger of corporations China Hong Kong History; Risk management China Hong Kong; Globalization Economic aspects China Hong Kong; Competition, International; Hong Kong (China) Commerce History.

(Koch Industries), Charles G. Koch (2007). The Science of Success: How Market Based Management Built the World's Largest Private Company. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 208 p.). Chairman of the Board and CEO of Koch Industries, Inc. Organizational change; Industrial management; Organizational behavior. World's largest privately held company - 2,000-fold growth since 1967, 80,000 employees in 60 countries, $90 billion in revenues in 2006; Market-Based Management for continuous transformation and positive growth: 1) Vision, 2) Virtue and Talents, 3) Knowledge Processes, 4) Decision Rights, 5) Incentives.

Picture of Charles Koch Charles G. Koch - Koch Industries (

(Li & Fung Group), Feng Bang-yan (2006). 100 Years of Li & Fung: Rise From Family Business to Multinational. (Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, 376 p.). Dean of College of Economics, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China. Li & Fung. Rise, success of one of oldest Chinese trading companies in Hong Kong through generations of entrepreneurship, perseverance, ingenuity, coupled with Chinese values, modern management practices; evolved into leading global supply chain management multinational.

(Matsushita), John P. Kotter (1997). Matsushita Leadership: Lessons from the 20th Century's Most Remarkable Entrepreneur. (New York, NY: Free Press, 302 p.). Professor (Harvard Business School). Matsushita, K¯onosuke, 1894-; Matsushita Denki Sangy¯o--History; Industrialists--Japan--Biography; Electronic industries--Japan--History. Winner of 1997 Global Business Book Awards sponsored by The Financial Times and Booz-Allen & Hamilton.

(Mitsubishi), Yasuo Mishima; translated by Emiko Yamaguchi (1989). The Mitsubishi: Its Challenge and Strategy. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 349 p.). Mitsubishi Zaibatsu--History.

Hisaya Iwasaki - Mitsubishi's 3rd President (22 years)  (

Koyata Iwasaki - 4th, last President of 'unified' Mitsubishi (

(Mitsubishi), Sol Sanders (1996). Mitsubishi Electric: The Challenge of Globalization. (New York, NY: Penguin, 176 p.). Mitsubishi Electric; Electronic industries--Japan--History. Examines how companies like Mitsubishi Electric must change to stay in front in the global market.

(Mitsubishi), Pernille Rudlin (2000). The History of Mitsubishi Corporation in London: 1915 to Present Day. (New York, NY: Routledge, 245 p.). Mitsubishi Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History; Mitsubishi Corporation; Conglomerate corporations--Japan. 

(Mitsubishi), Niall Murtagh (2005). The Blue-eyed Salaryman: From World Traveller to Lifer at Mitsubishi. (London, UK: Profile Books, 288 p.). Murtagh, Niall; Mitsubishi Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History. Corporate life in Japan; author promoted to manager class, first westerner to reach position  in company inside Japan.

(Mitsubishi), Michael Gardiner (2007). At the Edge of Empire: The Life of Thomas Blake Glover. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Birlinn, 256 p.). Formerly Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Letters (Chiba University, Chiba, Japan), Research Fellow (University of Aberdeen). Glover, Thomas Blake; Japan--Commerce--Scotland--History--19th century--Sources; Mitsubishi Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History; Kirin Brewery. Widely-traveled merchant, key figure in industrialization of Japan; central to modern system of Japanese government, Japanese Imperial Navy, growth of Mitsubishi, Kirin beer, communications between Japan and Scotland.

(Mitsui), Oland D. Russell (1970). The House of Mitsui. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Reprint of 1939 ed., 328 p.). Mitsui Family.

(Mitsui), John G. Roberts (1973). Mitsui ; Three Centuries of Japanese Business. (New York, NY: Weatherhill, 564 p.). Mitsui Zaibatsu, Business and Politics-Japan.

(Mitsui), Mitsui & Co. (1977). The 100 Year History of Mitsui & Co., Ltd., 1876-1976. (Tokyo: The Company). Corporate Conglomerates-Japan, Business Enterprises-Japan.

(MMM), Virginia Huck (1955). Brand of the Tartan; The 3M Story. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 260 p.). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company.



Henry S. Bryan - MMM ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId= 7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)


Hermon W. Cable - MMM ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute= ImageFile&placeId=7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)



John Dwan - MMM ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId= 7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)



William A, McGonagle - MMM ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId= 7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)



Dr. J. Danley Budd - MMM ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId= 7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)



William M. McKnight - 1st 3M Chairman ( MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId= 7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88E4927000076&version=current)

(MMM), Mildred Houghton Comfort (1962). William L. McKnight, Industrialist; A Biographical Sketch of the Chairman of the Board, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company. (Minneapolis, MN: T. S. Denison, 202 p,). McKnight, William L. (William Lester), 1887-1957; Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company.

(MMM), Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (1977). Our Story So Far: Notes from the First 75 Years of 3M Company. (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, 130 p.). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company--History.

(MMM), Ernest Gundling (2000). The 3M Way to Innovation: Balancing People and Profit. (Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Intl., 240 p.). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company--History; Management.

(Norton Simon), David Mahoney with Richard Conarroe; introduction by William Safire (1988). Confessions of a Street-Smart Manager. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 191 p.). Former CEO (Norton Simon, Inc.). Success in business.

(Jim Pattison Group), Russell Kelly (1986). Pattison: Portrait of a Capitalist Superstar. (Vancouver , BC: New Star Books, 263 p.). Businessmen -- British Columbia -- Biography. 1961 - Jim Pattison acquired a Pontiac Buick dealership in Vancouver, BC; started Jim Pattison Lease; employees: 51 Sales: $2.2 million; 2005 - employees: 28,000; sales: $6.1 billion.

(Pentair Inc.), Murray J. Harpole (1992). Living the American Dream: Pentair, Inc., the First Twenty-Five Years. (St. Paul, MN: St. Thomas Technology Press, 252 p.). Harpole, Murray J.; Pentair, Inc. (Saint Paul, Minn.)--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Peruzzi Company), Edwin S. Hunt (1994). The Medieval Super-Companies: A Study of the Peruzzi Company of Florence. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 291 p.). Compagnia dei Peruzzi--History; Merchants--Italy--Florence--History; Florence (Italy)--Commerce--History.

(Power Corporation), Dave Greber (1987). Rising to Power: Paul Desmarais & Power Corporation. (Toronto, ON: Methuen, 299 p.). Desmarais, Paul, 1927- ; Power Corporation of Canada; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography.

(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas), Roland Dennis Hussey (1977). The Caracas Company, 1728-1784: A Study in the History of Spanish Monopolistic Trade. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 358 p. [orig. pub. 1934]). Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas; Spain--Commerce--Venezuela--History; Venezuela--Commerce--Spain--History.

(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas), Vicente de Amezaga]; prologo, por Pedro Grases (1979). Hombres de la Compania Guipuzcoana. (Bilbao, SP: Editorial La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, 395 p.). Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas; Venezuela--History--To 1810.

(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas), Gerardo Vivas Pineda (1998). La Aventura Naval de la Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas. (Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Polar, 418 p.). Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas; Spain--Commerce--Venezuela--History; Venezuela--Commerce--Spain--History.

(Reliance Industries), S.R. Mohnot (1987). Reliance, An Industrial Legend. (New Delhi, India: Centre for Industrial & Economic Research, 375 p.). Reliance Industries Limited.

Dhirubhai Ambani - Reliance Industries (

(Reliance Industries), Hamish McDonald (1999). The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani. (St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 296 p.). Ambani, Dhirubhai; Reliance Group.  

(Reliance Industries), K. Bhushan (2002). Dhirubhai Ambani: The Man Behind Reliance. (New Delhi, IN: APH Publishing, 190 p.). Ambani, Dhirubhai; Reliance Industries, Ltd.

(Reliance Industries), Alam Srinivas (2005). Ambani vs Ambani: Storms in the Sea Wind. (New Delhi, India: Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 242 p.). Ambani, Anil; Ambani, Mukesh; Industrialists--India--Biography.

(Reliance Industries Limited), Hamish McDonald (2010). Mahabharata in Polyester: The Making of the World's Richest Brothers and Their Feud. (Sydney, NSW, Australia: University of New South Wales Press, 402 p.). Asia-Pacific editor of the Sydney Morning Herald. Ambani, Dhirubhai, 1932-2002; Ambani family; Reliance Industries Limited -- History; Businessmen -- India -- Biography; Industrialists -- India -- Biography; Corporations -- History; Vendetta -- India. Anil and Mukesh sons of (Dhirubhai Ambani, rags-to-riches Indian tycoon whose company Reliance is now one of India’s major corporations), took over after their father's death in 2002; worth $43 billion and $42 billion respectively, but their relationship is far from amiable; complicated links between government and big business, one of wealthiest families in world, India’s transformation into global economic powerhouse.

(James Richardson & Sons), Tim Higgins (2010). Just Common Sense: The Life and Times of George Taylor Richardson. (Winnipeg, MB: Heartland Associates, 245 p.). Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography; Directors of corporations -- Canada -- Biography; Philanthropists -- Canada -- Biography; Winnipeg (Man.) -- Biography; Richardson, George Taylor; James Richardson & Sons -- Biography.

(Seibu Group), Lesley Downer (1994). The Bothers: The Hidden World of Japan's Richest Family. (New York, NY: Random House, 418 p.). Tsutsumi family; Tsutsumi, Yasujir¯o, 1889-1964; Tsutsumi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki, 1934- ; Executives--Japan--Biography; Businesspeople--Japan--Biography; Conglomerate corporations--Japan--History--20th century.

(Seibu Group), Thomas R.H. Havens (1994). Architects of Affluence: The Tsutsumi Family and the Seibu-Saison Enterprises in Twentieth-Century Japan. (Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 335 p.). Tsutsumi family; Seibu Group--History; Conglomerate corporations--Japan--History.

(Shinkong Group), Huang Chin-shing; translated, with an introduction and epilogue, by Hoyt Cleveland Tillman (2002). Business as a Vocation: The Autobiography of Wu Ho-su. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press [for East Asian Legal Studies Program, Harvard Law Shool], 262 p.). Historian, Academia Sinica. Wu, Huoshi, 1919-1986; Industrialists Taiwan Biography. 

(Siemens), Georg Siemens ; translated by A. F. Rodger (1957). History of the House of Siemens. (Freiburg, Germany: Karl Alber, 2 Vols.). Siemens & Halske A.-G.; Siemens-Schuckertwerke A.-G.; Electric industries -- Germany.

Werner von Siemens ( 10_oct/sc_upload_file_sosep200729_01_072dpi_1465242.jpg)

(Siemens), Wilfried Feldenkirchen (1994). Werner Von Siemens: Inventor and International Entrepreneur. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 203 p.). Siemens, Werner von, 1816-1892; Electric engineers--Germany--Biography; Businesspeople--Germany--Biography; Electric engineering--Germany--History--19th century; Business enterprises--Germany--History--19th century.

(Siemens), Wilfried Feldenkirchen (1999). Siemens, 1918-1945. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 714 p.). Siemens Aktiengesellschaft--History, Conglomerate Corporations-Germany.  

(Tata Group), D. E. Wacha (1915). The Life and Life Work of J. N. Tata. (Madras, IN: Ganesh, 204 p. [2nd ed.]). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji, 1839-1904.

Jamsetji Tata Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata - founder Tata Group (

J. R. D. Tata - Tata Group (

(Tata Group), J.R.D. Tata; edited by S.A. Sabavala and R.M. Lala (1986). Keynote: Excerpts from His Speeches and Chairman’s Statements to Shareholders. (Bombay, IN: Tata Press, 155 p.). Industries--India; India--Economic conditions--1947- ; India--Social conditions--1947-.

(Tata Group), Murad Fyzee ; with a foreword by G. Leonard Cheshire (1991). Aircraft and Engine Perfect: The Story of JRD Tata Who Opened Up Skies for His Country. (New Delhi, IN: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 176 p.). Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Air pilots--India--Biography; Aeronautics--India--History.

(Tata Group), R.M. Lala (1992). Beyond the Last Blue Mountain: A Life of J.R.D. Tata. (New York, NY: Penguin Books, 398 p.). Tata, J.R.D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Steel industry and Trade--India--Biography.

--- (1995). The Joy of Achievement: Conversations with J.R.D. Tata. (New York, NY: Viking, 194 p.). Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratenji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Industrial policy--India.

--- (2004). For the Love of India: The Life and Times of Jamsetji Tata. (New York, NY: Penguin, 247 p.). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji, 1839-1904; Industrialists--India--Biography; Philanthropists--India--Biography. On life and achievements of Jamsetji Nasarwanji Tata, 1839-1904, Indian industrialist and philanthropist.

(Tata Group), R.M. Lala ; foreword by J.R.D. Tata ; epilogue by Ratan N. Tata (2004). The Creation of Wealth: The Tatas from the 19th to the 21st Century. ( New York, NY: Penguin Group, 303 p.). Tata Industries Private Limited--History.

(Tata Group), Aman Nath & Jay Vithalani with Tulsi Vatsal (2004). Horizons: The Tata-India Century, 1904-2004. (Mumbai, IN: India Book House, 357 p.). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji, 1839-1904; Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Tata, Naval; Tata Group--History. History of Tata Group, business conglomerate of India, juxtaposed with history of modern India and industrialization.

(Tata Group), Bakhtiar K. Dadabhoy (2005). "Jeh", A Life of J.R.D. Tata. (New Delhi, IN: Rupa & Co., 165 p.). Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Industrialists--India--Biography.

(Textron), Robert S. Eisenhauer (1979). Textron ... From the Beginning. (Providence, RI: Textron, 147 p.). Textron, inc.--History.

(Textron), Royal Little (1979). How to Lose $100,000,000 and Other Valuable Advice. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 334 p.). Little, Royal, 1896-; Textron, inc.; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Conglomerate corporations--United States.

(Trafalgar House), Nigel Broackes (1979). A Growing Concern: An Autobiography. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 278 p.). British Entrepreneur. Nigel Broackes, Trafalgar House Limited.

(TRW), Davis Dyer (1998). TRW : Pioneering Technology and Innovation Since 1900 (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 503 p.).

(Unilever), Charles Wilson (1968). Unilever 1945-1965: Challenge & Response in the Post-War Industrial Revolution. (London, UK: Cassell, 290 p.). Unilever (Firm); Unilever, N.V.

William Lever (http://www.spartacus.

(Unilever), Charles Wilson (1970). The History of Unilever: A Study in Economic Growth and Social Change. (London, UK: Cassell, 3 vols.). Unilever, N. V.; Unilever (Firm); Soap trade--Great Britain.  

(Unilever), Andrew M. Knox (1976). Coming Clean: A Postscript After Retirement from Unilever. (London, UK: Heinemann, 252 p.). Knox, Andrew Marshall, 1903- ; Unilever (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.

(Unilever), D. K. Fieldhouse (1978). Unilever Overseas: The Anatomy of a Multinational 1895-1965. (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 620 p.). Unilever (Firm); International business enterprises--Developing countries--Case studies. Series: Hoover Institution publication.

(Unilever), W. J. Reader (1980). Fifty Years of Unilever, 1930-1980. (London, UK: Heinemann, 148 p.). Unilever (Firm)--History.

(Unilever), T. Thomas (1992). To Challenge and To Change. (New York, NY: Viking, 237 p.). Former chairman of Hindustan Lever, director of Unilever Ltd., London and Unilever, NV, Rotterdam. Thomas, T. (Thomas), 1927- ; Businesspeople--India--Biography.

(Unilever), Philip Mirvis, Karen Ayas, George Roth (2003). To the Desert and Back: The Story of One of the Most Dramatic Business Transformations on Record. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 257 p.). Organizational Psychologist, Research Fellow (Erasmus University, Rotterdam), Research Associate (MIT). Unilever N.V.; Food industry and trade--Netherlands; Consolidation and merger of corporations--Netherlands--Case studies; Corporate reorganizations--Netherlands--Case studies; International business enterprises--Case studies. 

(Unilever), Adam Macqueen (2004). The King of Sunlight: How William Lever Cleaned Up the World. (London, UK: Bantam, 328 p.). Journalist (Private Eye Magazine). Philanthropists -- Great Britain -- Biography; Soap trade -- Great Britain -- Biography; Landowners -- Great Britain -- Biography.  

(Unilever), Geoffrey Jones (2005). Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 375 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Unilever (Firm); Conglomerate corporations -- History. Evolution of company over last half century.

(Unilever), Ben Wubs (2008). International Business and National War Interests: Unilever Between Reich and Empire, 1939-45. (London, UK: Routledge, 256 p.). Postdoc Researcher (University of Utrecht, The Netherlands). Unilever (Firm) -- History; International business enterprises -- Management -- Europe -- History; World War, 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- Germany; World War, 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- Great Britain. Effects of World War II on structure, strategy, performance of Unilever (huge interests in British Empire, German Reich); company in Britain, Netherlands, Germany in 1939-1945 period; business history, history of the Nazi economic administration, European history.

(Unilever), Brian Lewis (2009). So Clean: Lord Leverhulme, Soap and Civilisation. (New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 246 p.). (New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 246 p.). Associate Professor of History (McGill University). Leverhulme, William Hesketh Lever, Viscount, 1851-1925. Founder of Lever Brothers’ Sunlight Soap empire; contextualized, comparative essays on history of advertising, factory paternalism, town planning, Garden City movement, their ramifications across 20th century; on colonialism, forced labor in Belgian Congo, South Pacific.

(Unilever - Hindustan Lever Ltd.), Prakash Tandon (1981). Return to Punjab. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 211 p.). First National Chairman. Tandon, Prakash; Businesspeople--India--Biography.

(United Africa Company Ltd. - founded in 1879 by George Taubman Goldie; taken over by Unilever in 1929), John E. Flint (1960). Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria. (London, UK: Oxford University Press, 340 p.). Goldie, George Dashwood Taubman, Sir, 1846-1925; Nigeria--History.

(United Africa Company, Ltd.), Frederick Pedler; with a chapter by Alan Burns (1974). The Lion and the Unicorn in Africa: A History of the Origins of the United Africa Company 1787-1931. (London, UK: Heinemann Educational, 343 p.). United Africa Company, ltd.

(United Africa Company Ltd.), D. J. M. Muffett (1978). Empire Builder Extraordinary, Sir George Goldie: His Philosophy of Government and Empire. (Douglas Isle of Man, UK: Shearwater Press, 334 p.). Goldie, George Dashwood Taubman, Sir, 1846-1925; Royal Niger Company; Colonial administrators--Nigeria--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Great Britain--Biography; Nigeria--Colonization.

(United Africa Company, Ltd.), D.K. Fieldhouse (1994). Merchant Capital and Economic Decolonization: The United Africa Company, 1929-1987. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 832 p.). United Africa Company, ltd.--History; Capital--Africa--History; Africa--Economic conditions; Africa--Colonial influence; Africa--Dependency on foreign countries.

(United Africa Company, Ltd.), Geoffrey L. Baker (1996). Trade Winds on the Niger: The Saga of the Royal Niger Company, 1830 -1971. (New York, NY: Radcliffe Press, 333 p.). Royal Niger Company--History; United Africa Company, ltd.--History; Colonial companies--Nigeria--History; Nigeria--Commerce--History.

(United Technologies), Ronald Fernandez (1983). Excess Profits: The Rise of United Technologies. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 320 p.). United Technologies Corporation--History; Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.

(Veba AG), Heiner Radzio (1979). Unternehmen Energie: Aus d. Geschichte d. Veba. (Düsseldorf; Wien, germany: Econ-Verlag, 368 p.). Veba AG--History; Industries--Germany--Ruhr (Region)--History; Ruhr (Germany : Region)--Economic conditions. Holding compamy for state-owned industrial enterprises.

(Westinghouse), Francis E. Leupp (1918). George Westinghouse; His Life and Achievements. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 304 p.). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914.

George Westinghouse ( Westinghouse_George/WestinghouseGeorge1884Thm.jpg)

(Westinghouse), Henry Goslee Prout (1922). A Life of George Westinghouse. (New York, NY: Scribner, 375 p.). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914.

(Westinghouse), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2006). George Westinghouse: Gentle Genius. (New York, NY: Algora Pub., 272 p.). Associate Professor of Business (Findlay University). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914; Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company--History; Inventors--United States--Biography; Electric engineering--History. Manager of innovation; developed corporate model of invention, research; took lead in electrical distribution; .nation favored AC current system of Westinghouse; natural gas distribution system made Pittsburgh the Steel City.

(Wickes), George Bush (1976). The Wide World of Wickes: An Unusual Story of an Unusual Growth Company. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 486 p.). Wickes Corporation; Conglomerate corporations--United States.

Ed. Sea-Jin Chang (2006). Business Groups in East Asia: Financial Crisis, Restructuring, and New Growth. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 264 p.). Conglomerate corporations--East Asia; Financial crises--East Asia; East Asia--Economic conditions--20th century. Most business groups did not immediately collapse during 1997 Asian Crisis, proved remarkably robust, subsequently restructured.

Editors of Fortune Magazine (1970). The Conglomerate Commotion. (New York, NY: Viking, 180 p.). Conglomerate corporations--United States. Notes: "A majority of the chapters were originally published in 1968 or 1969 ... in Fortune."

ed. Charles Gilbert (1972). The Making of a Conglomerate (Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University Press, 586 p.). Conglomerate corporations--United States--Case studies.

Edward M. Graham (2003). Reforming Korea’s Industrial Conglomerates. (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 198 p.). Senior Fellow at the Institute for International Economics. Industrial organization --Korea (South); Industrial concentration --Korea (South); Industrial policy --Korea (South). History of chaebol, their role in creating "economic miracle", role they played in bringing about 1997 crisis in Korea; weaknesses within industrial groups of Korea persist that could cloud Korea's economic future, despite impressive rebound that Korean economy has experienced since 1998; uncorrected weaknesses, steps that should be now taken.

Michael Greenberg (1979). British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-42. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 238 p. [orig. pub. 1951]). Great Britain -- Commerce -- China; China -- Commerce -- Great Britain; China -- History -- War of 1840-1842; Great Britain Foreign trade with China 1800-1842; China Foreign trade with Great Britain 1800-1842.

Roger L. Janelli with Dawnhee Yim (1993). Making Capitalism: The Social and Cultural Construction of a South Korean Conglomerate. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 276 p.). Professor, Folklore and Ethnomusicology (Indiana University). Corporate culture--Korea (South); Industrial management--Korea (South); Elite (Social sciences)--Korea (South); Middle class--Korea (South) Capitalism--Korea (South). 

Ed. Geoffrey Jones (1986). British Multinationals: Origins, Management, and Performance. (Brookfield, VT: Gower, 212 p.). International business enterprises--History; Corporations, British--History. 

--- (1994). The Making of Global Enterprise. (Portland, OR: F. Cass, 209 p.). International business enterprises--History; International business enterprises--Case studies. Two main themes: 1) How has global business developed over the last century? 2) What has been its impact on host economies?

Geoffrey Jones (2000). Merchants to Multinationals: British Trading Companies in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 404 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Trading companies--Great Britain--History; International business enterprises--Great Britain--History; Investments, British--History; International trade--History.

--- (2005). Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 340 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). International business enterprises--History--19th century; International business enterprises--History--20th century; Capitalism--History--19th century; Capitalism--History--20th century; Globalization--Economic aspects--History--19th century; Globalization--Economic aspects--History--20th century.

Yoshiro Miwa and J. Mark Ramseyer (2006). The Fable of the Keiretsu: Urban Legends of the Japanese Economy. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 192 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Tokyo); Mitsubishi Professor of Japanese Legal Studies (Harvard Law School). Conglomerate corporations--Japan; Corporations--Finance; Japan--Economic policy--1989- ; Japan--Economic conditions--1989-. Talk of keiretsu is urban legend; very idea  created, propagated by Marxist scholars in post-war Japan.

Kenichi Miyashita, David W. Russell (1994). Keiretsu: Inside the Hidden Japanese Conglomerates. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 225 p.). Conglomerate corporations--Japan; Industrial concentration--Japan.

Ronald W. Schatz (1983). The Electrical Workers: A History of Labor at General Electric and Westinghouse, 1923-1960. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 279 p.). General Electric Company--History; Westinghouse Electric Corporation--History; Electric industry workers--United States--History; Electric industry workers--Labor unions--United States--History; Labor unions and communism--United States--History; Working class--United States--History--20th century.

Robert Sobel (1999). The Rise and Fall of the Conglomerate Kings. (Washington, DC: Beard Books, 240 p. [orig. pub. 1984]). Conglomerate corporations--United States--History; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--History; Directors of corporations--United States--History.

Richard M. Steers, Yoo Keun Shin, Gerardo R. Ungson (1989). The Chaebol: Korea's New Industrial Might (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 164 p.). Conglomerate corporations--Korea (South); Industrial policy--Korea (South); Industrial management--Korea (South); Industrial organization--Korea (South).

ed. Shin'ichi Yonekawa (1990). General Trading Companies: A Comparative and Historical Study. (Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 229 p.). Trading companies--Japan--History.

Alexander K. Young (1979). The Sogo Shosha: Japan's Multinational Trading Companies. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 247 p.). Conglomerate corporations--Japan; Exports--Japan; Trading companies--Japan.


Business History Links

Corning Museum of Glass                                                                                                

The Museum houses over 29,000 objects representing 3,500 years of glassmaking; also houses the Rakow Library, the most comprehensive research library in the world. Images of some of the collection, and an extensive educational section called "A Resource of Glass "that is used as a syllabus for many schools and researchers. Recently added a new multi-million dollar Innovation Center that represents key stories of inventions and breakthroughs in glassmaking.

3M's Logo History (Identity Strategy & Standards)                              

Developed in 1997 to help 3M build and protect its brand.

George Westinghouse Virtual Museum                                          Http://Www.Georgewestinghouse.Com/Museum.Html             

Memorial to George Westinghouse, his achievements and contributions to society. The Museum preserves an important part of the nation's industrial history and provides a means to share this rich heritage with present and future generations.


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