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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Steel & Iron
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March 4, 1720 - Joshua Gee, Joseph Farmer, William Russell, Thomas Russell, John Ruston, and Stephen Onion found Principio Company; Augustine Washington [father of George Washington] held a one-twelfth interest.

1730 - King of France granted royal warrant to François Poulin de Francheville, Seigneur de Saint-Maurice, a Montreal merchant, to mine iron ore deposits on his seigneury for a 20-year period; 1733 - founded Compagnie des Forges de Saint-Maurice (died same year); August 20, 1738 - St. Maurice Ironworks officially opened near Trois-Rivières, Quebec, first industrial community in Canada, after determining that project could be profitable if another process for reducing iron ore were used; established primarily for the purpose of providing bar iron for building and fitting out ships in the royal navy; March 1883 - oldest operating blast furnace in North America closed; could no longer compete with more modern coke-fired blast furnace ironworks in Ontario and Nova Scotia.

1742 - Benjamin Huntsman discovered the crucible technique for making steel in Sheffield, UK; enormous impact on quantity, quality of steel produces; 1856 - made obsolete invention of Bessemer converter (allowed mass production of steel).

1759 - Dowlais Iron Co. established in Wales; 1767 - John Guest appointed as manager; 1900 - incorporated as Guest, Keen and Co Limited; 1902 - name changed to Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd.; 1986 - name shortened to GKN PLC.

1760 - Carron Iron Works in operation in Scotland.

September 15, 1817 - Isaac Meason opened Plumstock Rolling Mill, first U.S. mill to roll and puddle iron, at Rolling Mill,  at Redstone Creek, PA; reduced the carbon content in cast iron to produce malleable iron; produced wrought iron by roll milling rather than than hammer forging; destroyed by floods in 1824. Meason established the first commercially successful iron furnace and forge west of the Alleghenies in 1791; eventually owned 20,000 acres of land, six iron furnaces, toll ferries and bridges, two sawmills, grist mills, the entire town of New Haven and property in Kentucky.

1828 - Edward Vickers, miller, George Naylor (father-in-law) formed Naylor Vickers and Company, steel foundry, in Sheffield, UK (gained control of steelmaking firm of Naylor & Sanderson); 1867 - incorporated as Vickers, Sons and Co. Ltd.; acquired businesses, diversified; 1868 - manufactured marine shafts; 1872 - cast marine propellers; 1882 - set up forging press; 1888 - produced first armor plate; 1890 - made first artillery piece.

Edward Vickers - Vickers plc (

April 28, 1829 - Henry Robinson Palmer, co-founder of Institute of Civil Engineers in 1818 and resident engineer of London Dock and Harbour Company, received first British patent for "application of metallic plates or sheets, in a fluted, indented, or corrugated form, to the purposes in relation to buildings, for which metallic plates with even or plain surfaces, have been already applied. The advantage to be derived...consists in the additional strength obtained in the metal itself, so that less aid is required from framework supporting or attached thereto..."; application of corrugated iron to roofs, other parts of buildings (stiffness minimized need for supporting framework).

July 4, 1840 - Blast furnaces of Lehigh Crane Iron Company, in what is now known as Catasauqua, Pennsylvania, began production; 1860 - group of executives, headed by Robert H. Sayre, from recently completed Lehigh Valley Railroad, acquired control of paper corporation, renamed the Bethlehem Rolling Mill and Iron Company; produced high-quality wrought-iron rails for Lehigh Valley, other railroads; 1861 - reorganized as Bethlehem Iron Company; 1873 - built new, revolutionary mill (Bessemer process) combined, for first time, production of steel with  rolling of rails in an integrated process in single building; 1899 - reorganized as Bethlehem Steel Company, put up for sale.

Robert H. Sayre - Bethlehem Iron Company  (

May 30, 1844 - Simeon Broadmeadow, of Woodbridge, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement in the Mode of Obtaining Wrought-Iron Directly from the Ore" ("to obtain malleable iron directly from the ore by treating the same in a pudding-furnace").

November 9, 1847 - Ohio legislature granted special charter to Cleveland Iron Company prior to adoption of new constitution in 1850; April 1850 - chartered by Michigan legislature, began operations on land in Marquette Iron District bordering on Lake Superior in Marquette County, MI; April 1853 - Samuel Mather, Dr. Morgan L. Hewitt, Isaac L. Hewitt, John Outhwaite, Henry F. Brayton, Selah Chamberlain, E.M. Clark incorporated Cleveland Iron Mining Company to explore for minerals in remote wilderness of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula (iron ore discovered near Negaunee, MI in 1844); 1890 - acquired Cliffs Iron Company, name changed to Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company; mid-1980s - renamed Cleveland-Cliffs Inc.; 2008 - six iron ore mines account for approximately 46% of North American capacity, 28% for its own account; largest supplier of iron-ore pellets to steel industry, oldest iron-mining firm with headquarters in Cleveland.

William G. Mather - president of Cleveland-Cliffs 1890-1940 (

October 13, 1853 - Samuel Wetherill, of Philadelphia, erected the Pennsylvania and LeHigh Zinc Company Mill in Bethlehem, PA; produced the first commercial zinc, which was obtained from calamine ores; eventually acquired by the New Jersey Zinc Company. 

October 17, 1855 - Sir Harry Bessemer, of London, UK, British inventor and metallurgist, received patent for "Improvements in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel" ("decarbonization process, utilizing a blast of air"); first process for mass-producing cast steel inexpensively from  molten pig iron; the "Bessemer Process": compressed air blasted through molten iron removed impurities and excess carbon; made it possible to mass-produce steel inexpensively; November 11, 1856 - received U.S. patent  for ""Improvement in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel"; 1859 - Bessemer, Robert Longsdon and William D. Allen (brothers-in-law), William Galloway (Manchester engineer) founded Henry Bessemer and Co. to build Bessemer Steel Works on Carlisle St. in Sheffield, UK; manufactured guns, later rails for rapidly expanding railway network.

April 8, 1857 - Augustus Wolle, Charles Brodhead incorporated The Saucona Iron Company to build blast furnace to produce pig iron Saucon Creek at Gangewere mine; persuaded to enlarge functions of mine, relocate to south side of Lehigh, at Bethlehem, PA; backed by Augustus Wolle, Charles Brodhead, Charles W. Rauch, Ambrose H. Rauch, Charles B. Daniel, others; June 14, 1860 - The Bethlehem Rolling Mills and Iron Company organized, Alfred Hunt as president; Augustus Wolle, Asa Packer (founder of Lehigh Valley Railroad), John T. Johnston, John Knecht, Edward Roberts, Charles B. Daniel, Charles W. Rauch as Directors; John Fritz, iron-master of Johnstown, PA, hired as general superintendent, chief engineer; May 1, 1861 - name changed to The Bethlehem Iron Company; 1873 - began making steel; primarily supplier of military products; April 17, 1899 - Bethlehem Steel Co. established as holding company; April 1901 - Charles M. Schwab (facilitated creation, first president of U.S. Steel Company) acquired Bethlehem Steel Company; 1902 - merged Bethlehem Steel with group of seven shipyards, created short-lived United Ship Building Company; 1904 - resigned as president of U.S. Steel, combined shipyards with Bethlehem Steel Company, with Joseph Wharton created Bethlehem Steel Corporation.

Alfred Hunt - President, The Bethlehem Rolling Mills and Iron Company (

May 26, 1857 - Robert Mushet, metallurgist from Coleford, England, received a patent for an "Improvement in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel"; Bessemer-Mushet process of manufacturing cheap steel, achieved by adding spiegeleisen to blown metal during melting process; 1868 - discovered self-hardening steel, became known as Robert Mushet's Special Steel (R.M.S.); first real tool steel, forerunner of modern high-speed steels.

June 23, 1857 - William Kelly, of Lyon County, KY, received patent for the "Improvement in the Manufacture of Iron" ("New and Improved Method of Treating Iron by which I am enabled to refine and decarbonize crude pig metal or iron in a fluid state without the use of fuel"); "a system of air blowing the carbon out of pig iron" a method of steel production known as the pneumatic process of steelmaking; air is blown through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities. Bankruptcy forced Kelly to sell patent to Bessemer.

1862 - Gorran Fredrik Goransson founded Hogbo Stal & Jernwerks AB, steel company, in Sandviken, Swedn (had produced steel on industrial scae, using Bessemer method, for first time in world in 1858); made tyres for railroad cars and locomotives, propeller axles for steamboats, drill steel for rock drilling; 1866 - went bankrupt; 1868 - re-established as Sandvikens Jernverks AB; 1870s - sold cold-rolled, u-shaped wire for umbrella ribs; 1876 - started wire rolling, cold drawing operations; 1883 - started production of cold-rolled, hardened strip steel; 1901 - listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange; 1902 - started to produce and deliver steel conveyor belts; 1919 - established Sandvik Steel Inc., first subsidiary in U.S.; 1921 - began manufacture of stainless steel; 1942 - began manufacture of cemented carbide; 1950s - began manufacture of cemented-carbide tools; 1958 - Goransson family interest acquired by Kinnevik Group; 1968 - annual sales exceeded SEK 1 billion; 1972 - name changed to Sandvik AB; 1983 - acquired by Swedish company Skanska; 1997- majority ownership acquired by Swedish investment company Industrivarden; 1999 - sold Saws and Tools business, concentrated on Tooling, Mining, Construction and Specialty Steels; 2011 - 47,000 employees, operations in 130 countries, annual sales of approximately SEK 83 billion.

Gorran Fredrik Goransson - Sandvik AB (

1872 - Union General William J. Palmer , colleagues in Denver and Rio Grande Railway (D&RG), created Central Colorado Improvement, Southern Colorado and Coal Town, South Pueblo Colony, Colorado Coal and Steel Works companies as local source for steel rail for their expanding narrow railroad business; 1880 - consolidated into Colorado Coal and Iron Company (CC&I); 1892 - merged with John Cleveland Osgood's Colorado Fuel and Company in Pueblo, form Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation; 1903 - John D. Rockefeller, George Gould gained control of company; 1944 - controlling interest acquired by Allen Group; 1969 - acquired by Crane Company; 1990 - declared bankruptcy; assets acquired by Oregon Steel Company.

1877 - John Maneely, Irish immigrant, launched John Maneely Company, pipe distribution business in Philadelphia, PA; sold pipe, valves and fittings; 1920s - one of largest independent distributors of steel, iron pipe on East Coast; 1931 - organized Wheatland Tube Company (Wheatland. PA) as steel pipe manufacturing subsidiary; 1944 - Wheatland began production of couplings; 1963 - installed new Aetna Standard Mill (eliminated "tong and bell" method of manufacturing pipe); introduced rigid conduit; 1960s - introduced Electrical Metallic Tubing (thinner wall tubular product); 1992 - acquired Omega Tube and Conduit (Little Rock, AR), entered residential fence tubing market; 2002 - acquired Sawhill Tubular from AK Steel (largest expansion company's history); increased capabilities, annual production to 800,000 tons; 2003 - Peter S. Dooner, fourth generation family member, appointed president and CEO; March 2006 - acquired by The Carlyle Group, private equity firm; largest independent manufacturer of tubular steel in North America; August 12, 2008 - agreed to sell company to Russian steelmaker Novolipetsk Steel for $3.53 billion; October 8, 2010 - restructured, name changed to JMC Steel Group.

November 1, 1879 - First all-steel railroad bridge built in Glasgow, MO.

1880 - Colonel James Withers Sloss, North Alabama planter and investor, founded Sloss Furnace Company in Birmingham, AL; April 18, 1882 - "blew-in" second blast furnace in Birmingham; 1885 - company sold to group of financiers, renamed Sloss Iron & Steel Company; August 1899 - merged with Sheffield Steel and Iron Company, incorporated Sloss- Sheffield Steel and Iron Company (seven furnaces in Alabama, 1500 beehive coke ovens, 120,000 acres of coal and ore land, five Jefferson County coal mines, two red ore mines, brown ore mines, quarries in North Birmingham); became second largest merchant pig-iron company in Birmingham district; start of WW II - among largest producers of pig iron in world; 1952 - merged with U.S. Pipe and Foundry Company; 1960s-1970s - merchant pig iron industry undermined by technological changes, introduction of ductile iron and plastic pipe, foundry trade’s increasing reliance on scrap iron; American iron and steel industry due to stricter air pollution standards, competition from foreign imports, mismanagement in industry; 1969 - acquired by Jim Walter Corporation; 1971 - oldest remaining blast furnaces in Birmingham shut; 2008 - only 20th-century blast furnace in U.S. preserved, interpreted as historic industrial site, example of 20th-century iron-making technology in era when America grew to world industrial dominance.

Colonel James Withers Sloss - Sloss Furnace Company (

June 1, 1880 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Magnetic Ore-Separator" ("means by which, while simple and cheap in construction, shall economically and effectually separate magnetic from non-magnetic substances").

March 17, 1885 - Fayette Brown, of Cleveland, OH, received a patent for "Hoisting and Top Filling Apparatus for Blast Furnaces"; blast furnace charger.

1890 - Reinhard and Max Mannesmann established Deutsch-Österreichische Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG with pipe mills at Remscheid, Bous/Saar and Komotau/Bohemia, headquarters in Berlin (invented pierce rolling process for manufacture of seamless steel tubes in 1885); 1897 - Deutsche Röhrenwerke A.-G. established in Düsseldorf to produce welded pipe; January 5, 1907 - went public; 1920s - integrated vertically: acquired steelworks at Duisburg- Huckingen, piping systems fabricator at Bitterfeld, engineering concern, Gebruder Meer of Monchengladbach; 1930s - one of six giant iron, steel works of Ruhr; 1952 - split into three parts in post-war settlement (reunited in 1955); 1970 - acquired pipe-making opeartions of Thyssen Corporation; October 1999 - acquired UK's  third-largest cellular operator, Orange PLC (3.5 million U.K. subscribers ) for $32.8 billion; February 10, 2000 - acquired by Vodaphone AirTouch for $187 billion, largest corporate merger in history.

Reinhard Mannesmann - Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG (

June 7, 1892 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Ore Screening Apparatus" ("for keeping the screen perforations free from obstruction by lumps of ore too large to readily pass through them").

June 14, 1892 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Method of and Apparatus for Separating Ores" ("separating gold or other non-magnetic ore from the quartz by a dry process").

July 1, 1892 - Carnegie Brothers and Carnegie, Phipps, Company merged, formed Carnegie Steel with capitalization of $25,000,000; Carnegie owned 55%, Frick 11%, Phipps 11%, nineteen other partners 1% each; remaining 4% held in reserve to reward successful young men in plants; 1900 - vertically integrated, controlled ore, coke, limestone, shipping facilities on Great Lakes and from Great Lakes to Pittsburgh; H.C. Frick Company combined with Carnegie Steel; January 1900 - Carnegie tried to force out Frick; March 1900 - Frick ousted from management; March 2, 1901 - acquired by J. P. Morgan for $480,000,000.

June 28, 1892 - Henry Clay Frick, general manager of Carnegie Steel's Homestead Steel Works in Homestead, PA, began to shutdown operations as wage negotiations Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (700 of 3,800 workers) had proved unsuccessful; workers' wage contract, sliding scale based on price of 4 x 4 standard Bessemer steel billets, set to expire on June 30 (Frick had refused to negotiate after June 25); Frick wanted to cut wages by nearly 20% as price of rolled-steel products had declined to $22/gross ton from $35; July 2, 1892 - Frick shut mills with intent to hire non-union workers to replace strikers; built fence three miles long, 12 feet high around steelworks plant with peepholes for rifles, topped with barbed wire; July 6, 1892 - steel workers clashed with 300 Pinkerton detectives hired to break strike; nine strikers, seven agents dead; July 9, 1892 - strike ended as State of Pennsylvania sent 7000 troops to "restore law and order"; September 1892 - production resumed; November 1892 - union conceded defeat, called off strike; Carnegie fired, blacklisted strikers.

May 30, 1893 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Rollers for Crushing Ore or Other Materials" ("especially adapted for crushing iron ore...three or more rollers supported side by side in a frame and moveable towards or away from each other, instead of using them in pairs, and a single weight and lever serves to press all of said rollers together").

1898 - Elbert H. Gary became first president of newly organized Federal Steel Company (backed by J.P. Morgan); 1901 - merged with U.S. Steel Corporation; Gary elected chairman of the board, corporation's chief executive officer for 26 years; 1906 - town of Gary, IN, named in his honor.

June 14, 1898 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Drying Apparatus" ("drying or baking oven suitable for the drying or baking of iron-ore briquets or analagous material"); received a patent for a "Mixer" ("suitable apparatus for mixing concentrated pulverized iron ore with a binding material preparatory to the molding of the material into briquets").

December 2, 1899 - George M. Verity (35), owner of American Steel Roofing (assumed management in 1889 of Sagendorf Iron Roofing and Corrugating Company, reorganized in 1891 as American Steel Roofing Company), incorporated American Rolling Mill Company; July 12, 1900 - moved company to one-room slab building in Middletown, OH; March 7, 1901 - first furnace fires lighted to produce rolled steel (continuous process for converting white hot ingot into long, thin sheet or strips), mainly for other manufacturers to use in their own products; reduced price of automobile body steel from $83 per ton to $7 per ton; grew to country's eighth largest steel company; 1948 - adopted acronym "ARMCO"; soon name changed to Armco Steel Corporation; 1978 - name changed to Armco Inc.; 1989 - name changed to AK Steel; 1994 - AK Steel Holding Corporation created, went public; 1999 - AK Steel subsidiary merged with Armco Inc.; combined company produced flat-rolled carbon, stainless and electrical steel products for automotive, appliance, construction, manufacturing markets, standard pipe and tubular steel products, employed about 11,500 people.

March 24, 1900 - Andrew Carnegie incorporated Carnegie Steel Company (thumbed his nose at Sherman Anti-Trust Law).

April 1901 - Charles M. Schwab (facilitated creation, first president of U.S. Steel Company) acquired Bethlehem Steel Company; 1902 - merged Bethlehem Steel with group of seven shipyards, created short-lived United Ship Building Company; 1904 - resigned as president of U.S. Steel, combined shipyards with Bethlehem Steel Company, created Bethlehem Steel Corporation; 1907-1908 - began producing Grey beams (radical new rolling mill invented by English engineer Henry Grey) - (H-section steel structural members that are wider, lighter, cheaper to produce than conventional, riveted I-section beams); made possible erection of taller skyscrapers, longer-span bridges, greatly diversified Bethlehem's product line, lessened almost exclusive dependence on military orders; 1922 - acquired Lackawanna Steel Company; 1995 - steelmaking ceased at Bethlehem Steel plant; 1997 - remaining parts of plant, coke works shut down (couldn't compete with profitable mini-mill type steel manufacturers, which re-melted scrap steel, recast it into new products); October 11, 2001 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy; December 18, 2002 - U.S. Pension Benefit Security announced that it would take over the company's pensions, assets, and obligations.

April 1, 1901 - J. Pierpont Morgan formed U.S. Steel Corp.; largest business enterprise ever launched, with an authorized capitalization of $1.4 billion; combined business interests of Carnegie Steel Company and Federal Steel Company formed nucleus of U. S. Steel (also included American Steel & Wire Co., National Tube Company, American Tin Plate Co., American Steel Hoop Co., American Sheet Steel Co.); first full year of operation,  made 67 percent of all steel produced in United States.

May 28, 1901 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Magnetic Separator" ("for ground material containing magnetic and non-magnetic particles particularly adapted for the separation of ground magnetic iron ore"); received a patent for an "Apparatus for Screening Pulverized Material".

1907 - Tata Iron and Steel Company went public; December 2, 1911 - first cast of pig-iron produced; February 16, 1912 - first steel made.

August 13, 1913 - English metallurgist, Harry Brearley cast  first true stainless steel in Sheffield, England; steel alloy  contained 0.24% carbon and 12.8% chromium - strongly resisted chemical attack, including vinegar and other food acids such as lemon juice; realized that this new steel could also revolutionize the cutlery industry.

October 1, 1933 - Mesabi Iron Co. of Babbitt, MN shipped the first cargo of taconite, a low-grade ore containing 25% - 30% iron (magnetite and hematite as tiny particles scattered throughout a very tough variety of quartz called chert), to the Ford Motor Company of River Rouge, MI.

March 1, 1937 - John L. Lewis of Congress of Industrial Organizations and U.S. Steel President Myron Taylor signed landmark contract; heart of the deal was U.S. Steel's official recognition of the CIO's steel arm as the sole negotiator for the company's unionized workers; concessions to U.S. Steel employees: adoption of overtime pay, forty-hour work week, pay hike that raised wages by nearly forty cents an hour; Taylor viewed the UAW-GM strike as a clear indication that "complete industrial organization was inevitable", reached out to his workers in hopes of averting a showdown.

November 17, 1948 - Britain's House of Commons voted to nationalize steel industry.

March 14, 1950 - Permanente Metals Corporation registered "Kaiser" trademark first used November 23, 1946 (aluminum products-namely. pig, ingot, strip, coil, [general utility sheet and plate, aircraft ] sheet and plate [and sheet] including flat corrugated and coiled sheet). 

April 8, 1952 - President Harry S. Truman seized steel industry to avert a nationwide strike; June 1952 - Supreme Court ruled in Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer that Truman had overstepped his bounds. The finding effectively proscribed the president's power during times of national emergency.

February 5, 1953 - American Iron and Steel Institution announced that U.S. steel companies had produced 117,500,000 short tons of steel during the past year.

June 15, 1954 - Great Britain's second biggest steel factory nationalized.

1955 - John H. McConnell, former salesman for Weirton Steel in Columbus, OH, started business as a custom processed steel broker with $1,200 in savings; borrowed $600 against 1952 Oldsmobile, worked from basement of his home; founded Worthington Industries.

July 2, 1957 - Bethlehem Steel Corporation poured first vacuum-cast steel ingot made in the U.S.; 93,900-pound ingot, 78 inches in diameter; can be made using either an electric or open-hearth furnace to melt the metal.

April 10, 1962 - President John F. Kennedy sharply chided the steel industry for its recent decision to jack up prices which he deemed a "wholly unjustified and irresponsible" move; few days later, steel leaders rolled back the price hikes.

July 28,1967 - British Steel formed from UK's 14 main steel producing companies.

November 27, 1979 - U.S. Steel announced on this day that it was shutting down twelve of its plants,  threatened jobs of 13,000 employees; placed much of the blame on "restrictive government policies and rules," which putatively resulted in "unfairly priced imports" and excessive environmental spending requirements.

December 27, 1983 - U.S. Steel announced it was reducing steelmaking capacity by roughly 20 percent, taking a $1.2 billion pre-tax write-off for the year (biggest pre-tax charge in the steel industry; Bethlehem Steel had earlier taken a $930 million write-off), laying off 4,600 workers; plant closings and write-offs affected 15,400 U.S. Steel employees (10,800 workers who were previously laid-off had now permanently lost their jobs).

June 26, 2006 - Mittal Steel agreed to acquire Arcelor for $33.5 billion; currently the two largest steel manufacturers in the world, combination will account for nearly 10% of world's total industry, three times capacity (100 million tons annually) of nearest rival, Nippon Steel; 320,000 employees, $70 billion in sales.

(Algoma), Lord Beaverbrook (1961). Courage: The Story of Sir James Dunn. (Fredericton, NB: Brunswick Press, 280 p.). Dunn, James Hamet, Sir, 1875-1956; Algoma Steel Corporation.





Francis H. Clergue - Algoma Steel (

(Algoma), Duncan McDowall (1984). Steel at the Sault: Francis H. Clergue, Sir James Dunn and the Algoma Steel Corporation, 1901-1956. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 326 p.). Clergue, Francis H. (Francis Hector), b. 1856; Dunn, James Hamet, Sir, 1875-1956; Algoma Steel Corporation -- History; Steel industry and trade -- Ontario -- Sault Ste. Marie -- History.

(American Steel and Wire Company), Lloyd Wendt and Herman Kogan (1981). Bet a Million!: The Story of John W. Gates. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 357 p. [orig. pub. 1948]). Gates, John Warne, 1855-1911; United States--Biography.

(Ames Iron Works), Gregory Galer, Robert Gordon, Frances Kemmish (1998). Connecticut’s Ames Iron Works: Family, Community, Nature, and Innovation in an Enterprise of the early American Republic. (New Haven, CT: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 194 p.). Ames Iron Works (Salisbury, Conn.) --History; Iron foundries --Connecticut --Salisbury --History; Salisbury (Conn.) --History --19th century; Salisbury (Conn.) --Economic conditions --19th century.

(Armco Steel), The Company (1922). The First Twenty Years; A History of the Growth and Development of the American Rolling Mill Company, Middletown, Ohio, Beginning 1901 and Ending 1922. (Middletown, OH: The Company, 320 p.). American Rolling Mill Co.; steel.

George M. Verity - Armco Steel (

(Armco Steel), Christy Borth (1941). True Steel; The Story of George Matthew Verity and His Associates. (New York, NY: Bobbs-Merrill, 319 p.). Verity, George Matthew, 1865-.

(Armco Steel), Roger l. Miller, George C. Crout. (2000). Middletown, Ohio: The Steel City. (Chicago, IL g: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Ohio--Middletown--history; American Rolling Mill Co.--Middletown--history; Verity, George Matthew, 1865-.

(Atlantic Steel), Charles F. Stone (1951). The Story of Dixisteel: The First Fifty Years, 1901-1951, Atlanta Steel Hoop Company, Atlanta Steel Company, Atlantic Steel Company. (Atlanta, GA: Atlantic Steel Co., 177 p.). Atlanta Steel Company; Atlantic Steel Company.

(Atlantic Steel), Harry Richard Kuniansky (1976). A Business History of Atlantic Steel Company, 1901-1968. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 395 p.). Atlantic Steel Company.

(Wendell August Forge), Bonita J. Campbell (1999). Wendell August Forge: Seventy Five Years of Artistry in Metal. (Upland, CA: Dragonflyer Press, 192 p.). Wendell August Forge (Firm); Aluminum giftware--Pennsylvania--Brockway; Decoration and ornament--Pennsylvania--Brockway.

(Bath Iron Works), Michael S. Sanders (1999). The Yard: Building a Destroyer at the Bath Iron Works. (New York, NY: HarperCollins. Bath Iron Works; Destroyers (Warships)--United States.

(Bessemer), Sir Henry Bessemer (1989). Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S.: An Autobiography, with a Concluding Chapter. (Brookfield, VT: Institute of Metals, 380 p. [orig. pub. 1905]). Founder of the Bessemer Process (furnace). Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898; Metallurgists--Great Britain--Biography; Bessemer process. 

Sir Henry Bessemer- Bessemer Process  (

(Bethlehem Steel), John Fritz (1912). The Autobiography of John Fritz. (New York, NY: Wiley, 326 p.). Superintendent of The Bethlehem Rolling Mills and Iron Company in 1860. Fritz, John, 1822- ; The Bethlehem Rolling Mills and Iron Company; Iron and Steel -- history.

photo Charles M. Schwab - first president of U. S. Steel; 1904 formed  Bethlehem Steel Corp. ( schwabcharles.jpg)

(Bethlehem Steel), John Strohmeyer (1986). Crisis in Bethlehem: Big Steel's Struggle to Survive. (Bethesda, MD: Adler & Adler, 242 p.). Bethlehem Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Trade-unions--Iron and steel workers--Pennsylvania--Bethlehem--History; Iron and steel workers--Pennsylvania--Bethlehem--History.

(Bethlehem Steel), Edmund F. Martin with David J. Morrison (1992). Bethlehem Steelmaker: My 90 Years in Life’s Loop: A Memoir. (Bethlehem, PA: BMS Press, 168 p.). Martin, Edmund F.; Bethlehem Steel Corporation--Employees--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

(Bethlehem Steel), David Kuchta (1995). Memoirs of a Steelworker. ( Easton, PA: Canal History and Technology Press, 117 p.). Kuchta, David; Bethlehem Steel Corporation--History--Sources; Iron and steel workers--United States--Biography; Steel industry and trade--United States--History--Sources; Steelwork--Pennsylvania--Bethlehem--History--Sources.

(Bethlehem Steel), Andrew Garn with an Introduction by Lance E. Metz (1999). Bethlehem Steel/Photographs. (New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 108 p.). Bethlehem Steel Company, Steel-works-Pennsylvania. Photographic chronicle of the Bethlehem Steel Company, a prime supplier of steel for railroads, highways and structures (Chrysler Building, Panama Canal).

(Bethlehem Steel), Kenneth Warren (2007). Industrial Genius: The Working Life of Charles Michael Schwab. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 304 p.). Emeritus Fellow of Jesus College (University of Oxford). Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Steel industry and trade--United States--History. Startling success of Schwab's business career, his leadership abilities, his drive to advance steel-making technology and operations; visionary in industrial history of America. 

(British Steel), John Vaizey (1974). History of British Steel. (London, Uk: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 205 p.). British Steel Corporation.

(British Steel), Elizabeth Cottrell (1981). The Giant with Feet of Clay: The British Steel Industry 1945-1981. (London, UK: Centre for Policy Studies, 222 p.). British Steel Corporation -- History; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain.

(British Steel), R.A. Bryer, T.J. Brignall, A.R. Maunders (1982). Accounting for British Steel: A Financial Analysis of the Failure of the British Steel Corporation 1967-80, And who Was to Blame. (Aldershot, UK: Gower, 303 p.). British Steel Corporation -- Finance; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain.

(British Steel), G.F. Dudley and J.J. Richardson (1990). Politics and Steel in Britain, 1967-1988: The Life and Times of the British Steel Corporation. (Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth,     p.). British Steel Corporation; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain.

(British Steel), Charles Villiers (1992). Beyond the Sunset. (Stoke Abbott, UK: T. Harmsworth Pub., 267 p.). Villiers, Charles, 1912- ; British Steel Corporation--Biography; Great Britain. Army--Biography; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.

(British Steel), Bob Haslam (2003). An Industrial Cocktail. (London, UK: Robert Hale & Company, 292 p.). Former Chairman, British Steel. Haslam, Bob; Industrial management--Britain--History. 

(Broken Hill Proprietary), Geoffrey Blainey (1995). The Steel Master: A Life of Essington Lewis. (Carlton South, Vic., AU: Melbourne University Press, 217 p.). Lewis, Essington, 1881-1961; Broken Hill Proprietary Company, ltd.--History; Steel industry and trade--Australia--History--20th century.

(Broken Hill Proprietary), Donald G. Hoskins (1995). The Ironmaster: The Life of Charles Hoskins, 1851-1926. (North Wollongong, N.S.W.: University of Wollongong Press, 166 p.). Hoskins, Charles Henry, 1851-1926; Broken Hill Proprietary Company, ltd.--History; Iron industry and trade--Australia--History; Steel industry and trade--Australia--History; Port Kembla (N.S.W.)--History.

(Buckeye), Mansel G. Blackford (1982). A Portrait Cast in Steel: Buckeye International and Columbus, Ohio, 1881-1980. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 225 p.). Buckeye International (Firm)--History; Columbus (Ohio)--Economic conditions.

(Cameron Iron Works), Patrick J. Nicholson (1983). Mr. Jim: The Biography of James Smither Abercrombie. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 364 p.). Abercrombie, James Smither; Abercrombie family; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Oil field equipment and supplies industry--United States--History.

(Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry), George William Cannon, Wally E. George (1964). That First Casting Must Be Good; George W. Cannons Story of the Partnership and the Foundries of Campbell, Wyant and Cannon, as Told to Wally E. George. (Muskegon, MI: G.W. Cannon Co., 175 p.). Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry Company; Textron, inc. Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry Company.

(Cape Gate Fence and Wire Works), Mendel Kaplan, with Solomon Kaplan and Marian Robertson (1979). From Shtetl to Steelmaking: The Story of Three Immigrant Families and a Family Business. (Cape Town, SA: Kaplan-Kushlick Foundation, 144 p.). Kaplan family; Cape Gate Fence and Wire Works--History; Jews--South Africa--History.

(Carron Company), R. H. (Roy Hutcheson) Campbell (1961). Carron Company. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Oliver and Boyd, 346 p.). Carron Company.

(Carron Iron Works), Watters, W.B. (1998). Where Iron Runs Like Water: A New History of the Carron Iron Works 1759-1982. (Edinburgh, Scotland: John Donald Publishers Ltd., 230 p.). Carron Iron Works.

(Charter Manufacturing), John Gurda (2006). The Will To Grow: A History of Charter Manufacturing Company. (Milwaukee, WI: Charter Manufacturing Co., 117 p.). Charter Manufacturing --History; Manufacturing industries --Wisconsin --Milwaukee; Steel industry and trade --Wisconsin --Milwaukee.

(Cockerill-Sambre), Francis Groff (1995). Albert Frere: Le Pouvoir et La Discretion. (Bruxelles, Belgium: Editions Labor, 167 p.). Frere, Albert, 1926- ; Businesspeople--Belgium--Biography.

(Cockerill-Sambre), Jose-Alain Fralon. (1997). Albert Frere: Le Fils du Marchand de Clous. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 345 p.). Frere, Albert, 1926- ; Businesspeople--Belgium--Biography; Iron and steel trade--Belgium; Capitalists and financiers--Belgium--Biography.

(Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation), H. Lee Scamehorn (1976). Pioneer Steelmaker in the West: The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, 1872-1903. (Boulder, CO: Pruett Pub. Co., 231 p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron Company; Steel industry and trade--Colorado--History; Colorado--History.

--- (1992). Mill & Mine: The CF&I in the Twentieth Century. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 247 p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation--History--20th century; Steel industry and trade--United States--History--20th century; Iron and steel workers--Colorado--History--20th century; Coal miners--Colorado--History--20th century; Labor unions--United States--History--20th century; Industrial relations--United States--History--20th century.

(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company), Robert MacCannon (2005). Sunrise, A Chronology of a Wyoming Mine. (Pueblo, CO: Bessemer Historical Society, 437 p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron Company; Sunrise Mine; Iron mines and mining -- United States. Mining history, labor and management relations, oral histories of Sunrise iron ore mine from its geologic occurrence to its closure, beyond. 

(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company), Jonathan H. Rees (2010). Representation and rebellion : the Rockefeller plan at the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, 1914-1942. (Boulder, CO : University Press of Colorado, 325 p.). Associate Professor of History (Colorado State University- Pueblo). Colorado Fuel and Iron Company Management History. 1915 - John D. Rockefeller Jr. introduced one of nation's first employee representation plans (ERPs) to Colorado Fuel and Iron Company (in use until 1942); became model for ERPs all over world; Rockefeller Plan, those who lived under it, various successes and failures; limited but temporarily effective alternative to independent unionism in wake of Ludlow Massacre; not story of ceaseless oppression, stifled militancy; not story of creation of paternalist panacea for labor unrest.

(Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional), Oliver J. Dinius (2010). Brazil’s Steel City: Developmentalism, Strategic Power, and Industrial Relations in Volta Redonda, 1941-1964. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 352 p.). Croft Associate Professor of History and International Studies (University of Mississippi). Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional --History; Iron and steel workers --Brazil --Volta Redonda --History --20th century; Industrial relations --Brazil --Volta Redonda --History --20th century. Social history of National Steel Company (CSN), Brazil's foremost state-owned company, largest industrial enterprise in mid-20th century; role steelworkers played in Brazil's social, economic development under country's import substitution policies from early 1940s to 1964 military coup; CSN workers held strategic power, used it to reshape company's labor regime, extract impressive wage gains and benefits; workers, their peers in similarly strategic industries, had power to undermine state capitalist development model prevalent in large economies of postwar Latin America.

(Consett Iron), Kenneth Warren (1990). Consett Iron, 1840-1980: A Study in Industrial Location. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 193 p.). Consett Iron Company--History; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--Location--Case studies; Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--Location--Case studies.

(William Cook Company), Philip Hansen (1998). The History of the William Cook Company and the Cook Family: From the 18th Century to 1985. (Sheffield, UK: William Cook Ltd., 295 p.). ; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain -- History.

(William Cook Company), Andrew Cook (1999). Thrice Through the Fire: A History of the William Cook Company from 1985 to 1998. (Sheffield, UK: William Cook, 225 p.). William Cook Company -- History.

(Esmark), Craig T. Bouchard and James V. Koch (2009). America for Sale: How the Foreign Pack Circled and Devoured Esmark. (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO, 210 p.). Steel industry and trade -- United States; Investments, Foreign -- United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations -- United States; Esmark -- History. Events leading to 2008 sale of steel giant Esmark to Russian firm (more than half of U.S. steel production in foreign hands); actions of main players before the sale (Esmark's board of directors, officials of United Steelworkers Union, major public stockholders); legislative and policy prescriptions aimed at preventing similar sell-offs of important industrial assets in future.  

(Robert Findlay Iron Works), Robert S. Davis, Jr. (1998). Cotton, Fire, and Dreams: The Robert Findlay Iron Works and Heavy Industry in Macon, Georgia, 1839-1912. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 198 p.). Findlay, Robert, 1808-1859; Robert Findlay Iron Works; Iron works--Georgia--Macon--History; Macon (Ga.)--History.

(GKN), Edgar Jones (1987). A History of GKN. (London, UK: Macmillan, 2 vols.). Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland, N.V.; Steel foundries--Great Britain--History; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--History. 

* John Guest - GKN (

(Grede Foundries), Craig Miner (1989). Grede of Milwaukee. (Wichita, KS: Watermark Press, 253 p.). Grede, Bill, 1897-1989; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Foundries--United States--History.

(Inland Steel), Anthony Mitchell Ryerson (1999). Humorous Hubbub: Memoirs of Anthony Mitchell Ryerson. (Lake Forest, IL: A.M. Ryerson, 383 p.). Ryerson, Anthony Mitchell, 1918- ; Inland Steel Company; Businessmen--Illinois--Lake Forest--Biography; Manic-depressive persons--Illinois--Lake Forest--Biography; Lake Forest (Ill.)--Biography.

(Jones & Laughlin - founded by Benjamin Franklin Jones and Pittsburgh banker James Laughlin), David H. Wollman and Donald R. Inman (1999). Portraits in Steel: An Illustrated History of Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation. (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 331 p.). Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Iron industry and trade--United States--History.

(Kaiser Steel), Mark S. Foster; foreword by William H. Goetzman (1989). Henry J. Kaiser Builder in the Modern American West. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 358 p.). Kaiser, Henry J., 1882- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

Henry J. Kaiser





Henry J. Kaiser (

(Kaiser Steel), Albert P. Heiner (1991). Henry J. Kaiser, Western Colossus: An Insider's View. (San Francisco, CA: Halo Books, 434 p.). Public Relations Executive at Kaiser Steel. Kaiser, Henry J., 1882- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Kaiser Steel), Stephen B. Adams (1997). Mr. Kaiser Goes to Washington: The Rise of a Government Entrepreneur. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 239 p.). Kaiser, Henry J., 1882- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Industrial policy--United States--History.

(Kaiser Steel), John Charles Anicic, Jr. (2006). Kaiser Steel Fontana. (San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Pub., 127 p.). Past President and Past Board Member of the Fontana Historical Society. Kaiser Steel Corporation; Steel industry and trade--California--Fontana--Pictorial works; Historic buildings--California--Fontana--Pictorial works; Fontana (Calif.).--History--Pictorial works. For two generations, Kaiser Steel Corporation at Fontana was among California’s, nation’s industrial giants.

(LTV - 1963 was # 14 on the Fortune 500 list), Stanley H. Brown (1972). Ling; The Rise, Fall, and Return of a Texas Titan. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 308 p.). Ling, James Joseph; Ling-Temco-Vought; Texas--Biography.

(LTV), Christopher J. Dawson (2008). Steel Remembered: Photographs from the LTV Steel Collection. (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press: Published in Cooperation with the Western Reserve Historical Society, 153 p.). Western Reserve Historical Society--Photograph collections; LTV Steel Company--Archives.; Steel-works--Ohio--History--Sources; Steel-works--Ohio--Pictorial works.

(P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd.), John R. Hume and Michael S. Moss (1983). A Bed of Nails: The History of P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd of Greenock, 1781-1981, A Study in Survival. (Greenock, UK: Lang & Fulton, 148 p.). P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd.--History; Nail industry--Great Britain--History; Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Shipbuilding industry--Great Britain--History.

(Maramec Iron Works), James D. Norris (1964). Frontier Iron; The Maramec Iron Works, 1826-1876. (Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 206 p.). Maramec Iron Works.

(Maxwell Steel Company), Vera Maxwell (1979). Hostile Witness: The Story of Maxwell Steel Company, 1933-1959. (Fort Worth, TX: Maxwell, 183 p.). Maxwell Steel Company.

(Middleburg Steel & Alloys), Anthony Hocking (1992). The Chrome Connection: A Commemorative History of Middleburg Steel & Alloys. (Bethulie, Orange Free State, South Africa: Hollards, 368 p.). Middelburg Steel & Alloys; Stainless steel industry--South Africa; Chrome steel industry--South Africa.

(Minnesota Iron Company), Hal Bridges (1952). Iron Millionaire: Life of Charlemagne Tower. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 322 p.). Tower, Charlemagne, 1809-1889; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(Mittal Steel), Tim Bouquet and Byron Ousey (2008). Cold Steel: The Multi-Billion-Dollar Battle for a Global Empire. (London, UK: Little, Bown, 352 p.). Steel industry and trade; Mittal, Lakshmi; Mittal Steel; Dolle, Guy, Arcelor S. A. Battle for total market domination in steel industry sent shockwaves through political corridors of Europe, excited world’s financial markets, enriched 30 hedge funds, transformed global steel.

(Nucor Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1997). The Legend of Nucor Corporation. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 144 p.). Nucor Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Nuclear counter industry--United States--History.

(Nucor), Ken Iverson with Tom Varian (1998). Plain Talk: Lessons from a Business Maverick. (New York, NY: Wiley, 196 p.). Former CEO of Nucor Corporation. Nucor Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United States--Case studies.

(Oliver Chilled Plow Works), Joan Romine (1978). Copshaholm: The Oliver Story. (South Bend, IN: Northern Indiana Historical Society, 138 p.). Oliver, James, 1823-1908; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Iron industry and trade--United States--History; Agricultural machinery--United States--History.

(Otis Steel), Margaret Bourke-White (1929). The Otis Steel Company -- Pioneer, Cleveland, Ohio. (Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press (privately printed), 18 p.). First Photographer for Fortune magazine. Steel industry and trade--United States. Limited edition of 550 copies printed for the Otis Steel Company and signed: E.J. Kulas, president.

(Preussag AG), von Bernhard Stier und Johannes Laufer (2005). Von der Preussag zur TUI: Wege und Wandlungen eines Unternehmens 1923-2003. (Essen, germany: Klartext, 632 p.). Preussag zur TUI;. One of most radical restructuring processes in German business history.  

(Principio Company), Ear Chapin May (1945). Principio of Wheeling, 1715-1915, A Pageant of Iron and Steel. (New York, Ny: Harper & Brothers, 335 p.). Principio company, Principio, Md.; Wheeling steel corporation; Iron industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--United States. [from old catalog].

(Principio Company), Michael W. Robbins (1986). The Principio Company: Iron-Making in Colonial Maryland, 1720-1781. (New York, NY: Garland, 345 p.). Principio Company--History; Iron industry and trade--Maryland--History--18th century. Series: American business history.

(Republic Steel), Tom M. Girdler and Boyden Sparkes (1943). Boot straps: The Autobiography of Tom M. Girdler. (New York, NY: Scribner, 471 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; Republic steel corporation.

(Rylands Brothers ltd.), H. Hurford Janes (1956). Rylands of Warrington, 1805-1955; The Story of Rylands Brothers Limited. (London, UK: Harley Pub. Co., 141 p.). Rylands Brothers, ltd. [from old catalog].

(Sandmeyer Steel Company), Jim H. Smith (2002). Stainless Determination: The History of Sandmeyer Steel Company. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 104 p.). Sandmeyer Steel Company--History; Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania--History.

(Sendzimir Cold Strip Mill), Vanda Sendzimir (1994). Steel Will: The Life of Tad Sendzimir. (New York, NY: Hippocrene Books,, 368 p.). Daughter. Sendzimir, Tadeusz; Inventors --United States --Biography. One of top five inventors in history of steel; 1920s - starting from ramshackle Shanghai nail factory; 1931 - first Sendzimir Cold Strip Mill and a Galvanizing plant installed in Poland; his method of rolling continuously cast steel slabs in so-called planetary mill, cold-rolling system known worldwide; his invention opened new horizons for use of galvanized, stainless steels.

(H. E. Shacklock Limited), John H. Angus (1973). The Ironmasters: The First One Hundred Years of H. E. Shacklock Limited. (Dunedin, NZ: H. E. Shacklock, 111 p.). Shacklock (H. E.) Limited.

(Shotton Steel Works), Brian Redhead & Sheila Gooddie (1987). The Summers of Shotton. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 160 p.). Summers family; Industrialists--Wales--Shotton (Clwyd)--Biography; Steel industry and trade--Wales--Shotton (Clwyd)--History; Shotton (Clwyd)--History. September 1896 - Harry and James Summers established Shotton Steel, produced first sheets of galvanized steel sheetings from steam-driven mills on 10,000 acres of marshland on banks of Dee River in Deeside, Shotton, Wales.

(Shotts Iron Company), Augustus Muir (1952). The Story of Shotts: A Short History of the Shotts Iron Company Limited. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Shotts Iron Company, 80 p.). Shotts Iron Company Limited.

(Sloss Furnace Co.), W. David Lewis (1994). Sloss Furnaces and the Rise of the Birmingham District: An Industrial Epic. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 645 p.). Sloss Furnace Company--History; Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark--History; Iron industry and trade--Alabama--Birmingham--History; Iron foundries--Alabama--Birmingham--History; Iron founding--Alabama--Birmingham--History; Iron--Metallurgy; Industries--Alabama--Birmingham--History; Birmingham (Ala.)--Economic conditions; Birmingham (Ala.)--Social conditions.

(Steel Company of Canada), William Kilbourn (1960). The Elements Combined: A History of the Steel Company of Canada. (Toronto, ON: Clarke, Irwin, 335 p.). Steel Company of Canada.

(Stelco), Courtney Pratt and Larry Gaudet (2008). Into the Blast Furnace: The Forging of a CEO’s Conscience. (Toronto, ON: Random House Canada, 320 p.). Formed CEO Stelco. Pratt, Courtney; Pratt, Courtney; Stelco Inc.; Stelco inc.; Chief executive officers --Canada --Biography; Business ethics. How to stay human in a bottom-line world; 2004 - Steel manufacturer Stelco Inc. entered bankruptcy; 6,000 jobs, 10,000 pensions; struggling economy of company town at risk; 2006 - emerged from bankruptcy protection, announced plans to cut 15% of work force, settled new four-year contract with United Steelworkers union; October 31, 2007 - acquired by United States Steel Corp. for $1.2 billion; renamed U.S. Steel Canada Inc.; world's fifth-largest steel producer (production capacity to 33 million net tons from current 26.8 million tons).

(Taskers of Andover Ltd.), L.T.C. Rolt (1969). Waterloo Ironworks; A History of Taskers of Andover, 1809-1968. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 240 p.). Taskers of Andover (1932) Ltd.

(Tata Iron and Steel Company), John L. Keenan, with the collaboration of Lenore Sorsby; introduction by Louis Bromfield (1943). A Steel Man in India. (New York, NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 224 p.). Tata iron and steel company, limited; Iron industry and trade--India; Steel industry and trade--India.

(Tata Iron and Steel Company), Satya Brata Datta (1986). Capital Accumulation and Workers’ Struggle in Indian Industrialisation: The Case of Tata Iron and Steel Company, 1910-1970. (Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 295 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company--History--20th century; Iron and steel workers--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th century; Steel industry and trade--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th century; Iron industry and trade--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th century.

(Tata Iron and Steel Company), S.N. Pandey (1991). Social Side of Tata Steel. (New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 185 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company; Corporate sponsorship--India.

(Tata Iron and Steel Company), Vinay Bahl (1995). The Making of the Indian Working Class: A Case of the Tata Iron and Steel Company, 1880-1946. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 432 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company--History; Iron and steel workers--India--History; Labor movement--India--History; Working class--India--History.

(Tata Iron and Steel Company), R.M. Lala; foreword by Ratan N. Tata (2007). The Romance of Tata Steel. (New York, NY: Penguin, Viking,, 169 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company; Steel industry and trade--India--History. Saga of India’s industrialization. associated with development of Indian nation as no other company in India.

(Richard Thomas & Co.), David Wainwright (1986). Men of Steel: A History of Richard Thomas and His Family. (London, UK: Quiller, 149 p.). Richard Thomas & Co.; South Wales Steel industries Companies history.

(Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel), Helmut Uebbing (1991). Wege und Wegmarken: 100 Jahre Thyssen. (Berlin, GR: Siedler, 348 p.). Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel--History; Steel industry and trade--Germany--History.

August Thyssen (left), Alfred Krupp (right) - Thyssen Industrie  (

Alfred Krupp (right) - Thyssen Industrie  (

(Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel), Jeffrey R. Fear (2005). Organizing Control: August Thyssen and the Construction of German Corporate Management. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 976 p.). Associate Professor (Harvard Business School). Those, August, 1842-1926; Dinkelbach, Heinrich, b. 1891; Thyssen & Co. (Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany)--History; Vereinigte Stahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft--History; Industrial management--Germany--History; Industrialists--Germany--History. Evolution of management inside Thyssen-Konzern and Vereinigte Stahlwerke (United Steel Works) between 1871 and 1934; focus on organization, internal dynamics of company.

(Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel), David R. L. Litchfield (2006). The Thyssen Art Macabre. (London, UK: Quartet Books, 450 p.). Thyssen, August; Thyssen Family; Thyssen & Co. (Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany)--History. Thyssen family history much darker than family has portrayed.  

(Tredegar Iron Works), Charles B. Dew (1999). Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works. (Richmond, VA: Library of Virginia, 345 p.). Anderson, Joseph Reid, 1813-1892; Tredegar Iron Works (Richmond, Va.); Confederate States of America. Army--Ordnance and ordnance stores; Iron industry and trade--Southern States.

(U.S. Steel), Arundel Cotter (1916). The Authentic History of the United States Steel Corporation. (New York, NY: Moody Magazine and Book Company, 231 p.). United States Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

Andrew Carnegie (

Elbert Gary

Elbert H. Gary -  (

Henry Clay Frick (Carnegie partner, in 1889 made chairman of Carnegie Steel) (

Henry Phipps, c. 1900 Henry Phipps - Carnegie partner  (

(U.S. Steel), Douglas A. Fisher (1951). Steel Serves the Nation, 1901-1951: The Fifty Year Story of United States Steel. (New York, NY: United States Steel Corp., 227 p.). United States Steel Corporation.

(U.S. Steel), Abraham Berglund (1968). The United States Steel Corporation; A Study of the Growth and Influence of Combination in the Iron and Steel Industry. (New York, NY: AMS Press, 179 p. [orig. pub. 1907]). United States Steel Corporation.

(U.S. Steel), Ida M. Tarbell (1969). The Life of Elbert H. Gary; A Story of Steel. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 361 p. [orig. pub. 1925]). Gary, Elbert H. (Elbert Henry), 1846-1927; United States Steel Corporation.

(U.S. Steel), Robert Hessen (1990). Steel Titan: The Life of Charles M. Schwab. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 350 p. (orig. pub. 1975)). Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939; United States Steel Corporation--History; Bethlehem Steel Corporation--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

(U.S. Steel), James H. Bridge (1991). The inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company: A Romance of Millions. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, First published in 1903, NY: Aldine Book Co.; 380 p.). Steel Industry, Carnegie Steel. Part of Pittsburgh series in social and labor history.

(U.S. Steel), Brian Apelt; Warren Hull, editor (2000). The Corporation: A Centennial Biography of United States Steel Corporation, 1901-2001. (Pittsburgh, PA: Cathedral Publishing, University of Pittsburgh, 546 p.). United States Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

(U.S. Steel), Kenneth Warren (2001). Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation, 1901-2001. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 405 p.). United States Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh Region--History.

(U.S. Steel), Tyler Priest (2003). Global Gambits: Big Steel and the U.S. Quest for Manganese. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 332 p.). Manganese industry--Political aspects--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Strategic materials--United States; Strategic materials--Developing countries; Raw materials--Developing countries; Manganese--Metallurgy; Steel--Metallurgy; Developing countries--Foreign economic relations--United States; United States--Foreign economic relations--Developing countries.

(U.S. Steel), Les Standiford (2005). Meet You in Hell: Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, and the Bitter Partnership that Transformed America. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 336 p.). Professor of English and Director of the Creative Writing Program (Florida International University). Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919; Frick, Henry Clay, 1849-1919.; Carnegie Steel Company--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Homestead Strike, Homestead, Pa., 1892; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography.

(U.S. Steel), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2010). Henry Clay Frick: The Life of the Perfect Capitalist. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 262 p.). Associate Professor of Business (University of Findlay). Businesspeople -- United States -- Biography; Capitalists and financiers -- United States -- Biography; Frick, Henry Clay, 1849-1919. Reviled, infamous; blamed for Johnston Flood, violent Homestead Strike of 1892; survived multiple assassination attempts; ardent philanthropist; gave more than $100 million during his lifetime; insisted on anonymity.

SEE ALSO: Capitalists

(Weirton Steel), James B, Lieber (1995). Friendly Takeover: How an Employee Buyout Saved a Steel Town. (New York, NY: Viking, 382 p.). Lawyer. Weirton Steel Corporation; Employee ownership--West Virginia--Weirton Steel industry and trade--West Virginia--Weirton.

(Wendel Investissement - founded 1704 in Alsace), Pierre Fritsch (1976). Les Wendel, Rois de l'Acier Français. (Paris, FR: Laffont, 279 p.). Wendel family; Steel industry and trade--France--History; Businesspeople--France--Biography.

(Wheeling Steel Corporation), Earl C. May (1945). Principio of Wheeling, 1715-1915, A Pageant of Iron and Steel. (New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 335 p.). Principio company, Principio, Md.; Wheeling steel corporation; Iron industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--United States.

(Worthington Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2000). The Legend of Worthington Industries. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). --History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

(Worthington Industries), John H. McConnell (2004). Our Golden Rule. (Columbus, OH: Franklin University Press, 161 p.). Founder, Worthington Industries. Worthington Industries; Leadership; Chief executive officers; Executive ability.

Zolton J. Ács; foreword by Charles P. Kindleberger (1984). The Changing Structure of the U.S. Economy: Lessons from the Steel Industry. (New York, NY: Praeger, 246 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1981-; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993.

Roger S. Ahlbrandt, Richard J. Fruehan and Frank Giarratani (1996). The Renaissance of American Steel: Lessons for Managers in Competitive Industries. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 178 p.). Steel, Corporate Turnarounds

Donald F. Barnett and Louis Schorsch (1983). Steel: Upheaval in a Basic Industry. (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 326 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States.

Donald F. Barnett and Robert W. Crandall (1986). Up from the Ashes: The Rise of the Steel Minimill in the United States. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 135 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel minimills--United States.

David Bensman and Roberta Lynch (1987). Rusted Dreams: Hard Times in a Steel Community. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 250 p.). Unemployment--Illinois--Chicago; Plant shutdowns--Illinois--Chicago; Chicago (Ill.)--Economic conditions; South Chicago (Chicago, Ill.)--Economic conditions. 

John Bezís-Selfa (2004). Forging America: Ironworkers, Adventurers, and the Industrious Revolution. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 279 p.). Iron industry and trade--United States--History--18th century; Work ethic--United States--History; United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.

Diane F. Britton (1991). The Iron and Steel Industry in the Far West: Irondale, Washington. (Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 226 p.). Steel industry and trade--Washington (State)--Irondale--History; Iron industry and trade--Washington (State)--Irondale--History; Irondale (Wash.)--History.

J. C. Carr and W. Taplin (1962). History of the British Steel Industry. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 632 p.). Steel industry and trade--Great Britain.

Herbert N. Casson (1971). The Romance of Steel; The Story of a Thousand Millionaires. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries, 376 p. [orig. pub. 1907]). Steel industry and trade--United States.

Harold M. Cobb (2010). The History of Stainless Steel. (Materials Park, OH: ASM International 359 p.). Metallurgist. Stainless steel --History; Stainless steel industry --History. Called miracle metal by renowned metallurgist Carl Zapffe; work of famous pioneers like Harry Brearley, Elwood Haynes, Benno Strauss, significant technical contributions of lesser known figures like William Krivsky; from stainless steel cutlery of Brearley in 1913 to early architectural use of stainless steel, revolution in rail travel (Edward G. Budd Company built first light-weight stainless steel passenger trains with 90% reduction in fuel costs).

Anthony P. D'Costa (1999). The Global Restructuring of the Steel Industry: Innovations, Institutions, and Industrial Change. (New York, NY: Routledge, 228 p.). Professor in Comparative International Development (University of Washington). Steel industry and trade; Steel industry and trade--Government policy.

Eds. Chris Evans and Goran Ryden (2005). The Industrial Revolution in Iron: The Impact of British Coal Technology in Nineteenth-Century Europe. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 200 p.). Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--History--19th century; Iron industry and trade--Europe--History--19th century. 

Chris Evans, Goran Ryden (2007). Baltic Iron in the Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century. (Boston, MA: Brill, 359 p.). Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--History--18th century; Iron industry and trade--Sweden--History--18th century' Iron industry and trade--Russia--History--18th century. 

Gerald D. Feldman (1977). Iron and Steel in the German Inflation, 1916-1923. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 518 p.). Iron industry and trade--Germany--History; Steel industry and trade--Germany--History; Trusts, Industrial--Germany--History; Industrial policy--Germany--History; Inflation (Finance)--Germany--History.

Douglas A. Fisher (1963). The Epic of Steel. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 344 p.). Steel--History.

Walter H. Goldberg (1986). Ailing Steel: The Transoceanic Quarrel. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 535 p.). Steel industry and trade--Europe; Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--Japan; Competition, International.

Robert B. Gordon (1996). American Iron, 1607-1900. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 341 p.). Professor of geophysics and applied mechanics (Yale University). Iron-works--North America--History--18th century; Iron-works--North America--History--19th century; Iron--Metallurgy--History--18th century; Iron--Metallurgy--History--19th century. Iron technology in America from colonial period to industry's demise at about turn of the 20th century; labor, innovation, product quality in ironmaking, industry's environmental consequences; high level of skills required to ensure efficient, safe operation of furnaces, improve quality of iron product; ironworkers gained degree of control over their lives through mastery of founding, fining, puddling, or bloom smelting.

Christopher G. L. Hall (1997). Steel Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of the U.S. Steel Industry. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 427 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

John P. Hoerr (1988). And the Wolf Finally Came: The Decline of the American Steel Industry. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pitsburgh Press, 689 p.). Steel industry and trade--Monongahela River Region (W.Va. and Pa.); Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania; Steel industry and trade--West Virginia; Iron and steel workers--Monongahela River Region (W.Va. and Pa.); Iron and steel workers--Pennsylvania; Iron and steel workers--West Virginia; Collective bargaining--Monongahela River Region (W.Va. and Pa.); Collective bargaining--Pennsylvania; Collective bargaining--West Virginia.

William T. Hogan (1971). Economic History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States. (Lexington, MA: Heath, 2178 p. [5 vols.]). Iron industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History. 

Stewart H. Holbrook (1939). Iron Brew; a Century of American Ore and Steel. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 352 p.). Iron industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--United States.

John N. Ingham (1978). The Iron Barons: A Social Analysis of an American Urban Elite, 1874-1965. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 242 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Social classes--United States--History.

--- (1991). Making Iron and Steel: Independent Mills in Pittsburgh, 1820-1920. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 297 p.). Iron industry and trade--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh--History; Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh--History.

Kris E. Inwood (1986). The Canadian Charcoal Iron Industry, 1870-1914. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 398 p.). Iron industry and trade--Canada--History; Iron foundries--Canada--History; Fuel--Canada--History; Charcoal--Canada--History.

W. T. Jeans (1884). The Creators of the Age of Steel. (London, UK: Chapman and Hall, Limited, 348 p.). Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898; Siemens, William, Sir, 1816-1896; Whitworth, Joseph, Sir, 1806-1887; Brown, John, Sir, 1816-1896; Thomas, Sidney Gilchrist, 1850-1885; Snelus, George James, 1837-1906; Steel--History; Inventors. 

Barbara L. Jones with Edward K. Muller and Joel A. Tarr (2006). Born of Fire: The Valley of Work: Industrial Scenes of Southwestern Pennsylvania. (Greensburg, PA: Westmoreland Museum of American Art, 160 p.). Industries in art; Steel industry and trade in art; Art, American --Pennsylvania --Pittsburgh --19th century; Art, American --Pennsylvania --Pittsburgh --20th century. Development, distribution and promotional social enterprise that generates products and other offerings promoting southwestern Pennsylvania’s industrial and cultural heritage.

Donald J. Jonovic (1985). Iron, Industry, and Independence: A Biographical Portrait of Courtney Burton, Jr., American Industrialist and Patriot. (Cleveland, OH: Jamieson Press, 269 p.). Burton, Courtney; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography.

Humphrey Lloyd (1975). The Quaker Lloyds in the Industrial Revolution. (London, UK: Hutchinson, 322 p.). Lloyd family; Industrialists--Great Britain--Biography; Iron industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.

Amos J. Loveday, Jr. (1983). The Rise and Decline of the American Cut Nail Industry: A Study of the Interrelationships of Technology, Business Organization, and Management Techniques. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 160 p.). Nail industry--United States--History.

Jeanne McHugh (1980). Alexander Holley and the Makers of Steel. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 402 p.). Holley, Alexander Lyman, 1832-1882; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Steel industry and trade--United States.

Thomas J. Misa (1995). A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 367 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--Social aspects--United States--History.

Adam Mornement and Simon Holloway (2007). Corrugated Iron: Building on the Frontier. (New York, NY: Norton, 224 p.). Building, Iron and steel; Sheet-metal, Corrugated. History, recent revival of building material (patented in 1829, above) once revered as miracle of industrial age; durable, biodegradable, environmentally sound cladding system; residential, corporate, industrial uses, disaster zone housing, roofing in developing world.

Robert J. Norrell (1991). James Bowron: The Autobiography of a New South Industrialist. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 285 p.). Bowron, James, 1844-1928; Industrialists--United States--History; Iron industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Tennessee--History; Alabama--History.

Harvey O'Connor (1935). Steel--Dictator. (New York, NY: The John Day Company, 383 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States.

Paul F. Paskoff (1983). Industrial Evolution: Organization, Structure, and Growth of the Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1750-1860. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 182 p.). Iron industry and trade--Pennsylvania--History.

Peter Lester Payne (1979). Colvilles and the Scottish Steel Industry. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 458 p.). Colvilles Ltd.--History; Industries--Scotland--History.

Daniel K. Perry (1994). A Fine Substantial Piece of Masonry: Scranton’s Historic Furnaces. (Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 47 p.). Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company (Scranton, Pa.); Lackawanna Iron and Steel Company; Iron foundries --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History --19th century; Iron industry and trade --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History --19th century; Architecture, Industrial --Pennsylvania --Scranton; Architecture --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History --19th century; Scranton (Pa.) --History; Scranton (Pa.) --Buildings, structures, etc. 150th anniversary of construction of first blast furnace in Slocum Hollow in 1840-41.

Richard Preston (1991). American Steel: Hot Metal Men and the Resurrection of the Rust Belt. (New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 278 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States--Case studies.

Mark Reutter (1988). Sparrows Point: Making Steel: The Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might. (New York, NY: Summit Books, 494 p.). Steel industry and trade--Maryland--Sparrows Point--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

Robert P. Rogers (2009). An Economic History of the American Steel Industry. (New York, NY: Routledge, 210 p.). Associate Professor of Economics (Ashland University). Steel industry and trade --United States --History --19th century; Steel industry and trade --United States --History --20th century. History of American steel industry,1860-2001; most used metal in world.

Deborah Rudacille (2010). Roots of Steel: The Boom and Bust of an American Mill Town.  (New York, NY, Pantheon Books, 304 p.). Science Writer. Steel industry and trade --Maryland --Sparrows Point --History; Sparrows Point (Md.) --Economic conditions; Sparrows Point (Md.) --History. Character, history of once-prosperous community of Dundalk, MD; from 19th-century origins of Sparrows Point’s to height in 20th century (one of largest producers of steel in world, provided material that built America’s bridges, skyscrapers, battleships); racial, class, gender politics that played out in mill, neighboring towns; arduous, dangerous work at plant; environmental cost of industrial progress to air, waterways of Maryland shore.

Harold J. Rutterberg (2001). My Life in Steel. (Tarentum, PA: Word Association Publishers, 294 p.). Ruttenberg, Harold J.; Steel industry--Pennsylvania. 

Roch Samson and Parks Canada (1998). The Forges Du Saint-Maurice : Beginnings of the Iron and Steel Industry in Canada, 1730-1883. (Sainte-Foy, Quebec: Presses de l'Université Laval, 458 p.). Foundries--Québec (Province)--Trois-Rivières Region--History; Iron industry and trade--Québec (Province)--Trois-Rivières Region--History; Forges du Saint-Maurice (Québec)--History.

Gertrude G. Schroeder (1953). The Growth of Major Steel Companies, 1900-1950. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 244 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States.

H. R. Schubert. Foreword by the president of the Iron and Steel Institute (1957). History of the British Iron and Steel Industry from c. 450 B.C. to A.D. 1775. (London, UK: Routledge & K. Paul, 445 p.). Iron industry and trade--Great Britain; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain.

John Scott (1989). Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia's City of Steel. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 306 p. [orig. pub. 1942]). Scott, John, 1912- --Journeys--Russia (Federation)--Magnitogorsk; Steel industry and trade--Russia (Federation)--Magnitogorsk; Magnitogorsk (Russia)--Description and travel; Soviet Union--Politics and government--1917-1936.

William Serrin (1992). Homestead: The Glory and Tragedy of an American Steel Town. (New York, NY: Times Books, 452 p.). Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania--Homestead--History; Iron and steel workers--Pennsylvania--Homestead--History; Homestead (Pa.)--History.

Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2004). The Boys of Braddock: Andrew Carnegie and the Men Who Changed Industrial History. (Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, 230 p.). Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919.; Jones, William (William R.); Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939; Edgar Thomson Works; Industrial revolution--United States; Industrialists--Pennsylvania--Biography; Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania--Braddock--History; Braddock (Pa.)--History.

James M. Swank (1884). History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, and Particularly in the United States for Three Hundred Years, from 1585 to 1885. (Philadelphia, PA: The Author, 428 p.). Iron industry and trade--United States; Iron industry and trade.

--- (1965). History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, and Particularly in the United States from Colonial Times to 1891; also a Short History of Early Coal Mining in the United States and a Full Account of the Influences Which Long Delayed the Development of All American Manufacturing Industries. (New York, NY: B. Franklin, 554 p. [2nd ed.]). Iron industry and trade--United States; Iron industry and trade; Coal mines and mining--United States--History.

Peter Temin (1964). Iron and Steel in Nineteenth-Century America, An Economic Inquiry. (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 304 p.). Iron industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History. Series: MIT monographs in economics.

Paul A. Tiffany (1988). The Decline of American Steel: How Management, Labor, and Government Went Wrong. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 282 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--Government policy--United States; Iron and steel workers--Labor unions--United States.

Steven Tolliday (1987). Business, Banking, and Politics: The Case of British Steel, 1918-1939. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 433 p.). Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--History--20th century.

Geoffrey Tweedale (1987). Sheffield Steel and America: A Century of Commercial and Technological Interdependence, 1830-1930. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 296 p.). Steel industry and trade--England--Sheffield--History; Steel industry and trade--United States--History.

--- (1995). Steel City: Entrepreneurship, Strategy, and Technology in Sheffield, 1743-1993. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 436 p.). Steel industry and trade -- England -- Sheffield -- History; Sheffield (England) -- History.

David A. Walker (1979). Iron Frontier: The Discovery and Early Development of Minnesota's Three Ranges. (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 315 p.). Iron industry and trade--Minnesota--History; Iron mines and mining--Minnesota--History; Frontier and pioneer life--Minnesota.

Kenneth Warren (1973). The American Steel Industry, 1850-1970; A Geographical Interpretation. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 337 p.). Steel industry and trade--Location--United States--History.

--- (2001). Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth and Decline in the Connellsville Coke Industry. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 297 p.). Coke industry--Pennsylvania--Connellsville--History; Coke industry--History; Connellsville (Pa.)--History. 


Business History Links

American Iron & Steel Institute                                                                                                          

AISI comprises producer member companies, including integrated, electric furnace, and reconstituted mills; associate member companies, which are suppliers to or customers of the industry; and affiliate member organizations, which are downstream steel producers of products such as cold rolled strip, pipe and tube, and coated sheet - Overall mission: To provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers; To lead the world in innovation and technology in the production of steel; To produce steel in a safe and environmentally friendly manner; and To increase the market for North American Steel in both traditional and innovative applications.

CF&I (Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation) Steel Collection                                       

The CF&I Museum of Industry and Culture will feature exhibits related to all facets of the CF&I, including but not limited to history of mining, labor history, history of steel production, railroad history, and history of Pueblo and Colorado and the CF&I's impact on the region. The Bessemer Historical Society provides permanent care for significant archives and artifacts of the CF&I Steel collection from its beginning in 1872 to 1993; focus of the collection includes the Pueblo steel works, the company mines and towns, as well as real estate in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico and other states and the company-owned Colorado and Wyoming Railroad. The Society will collect, preserve and interpret materials that signify the contributions of the steel industry to Colorado's history and honor the company's employees. Additionally, the Society will collect, preserve and interpret materials citing the contributions of the Bessemer area residents and merchants to Pueblo's history.

Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust                                                                                  

International icon for industrial heritage and a major player in the tourism industry; 1986- UNESCO awarded World Heritage status to Ironbridge Gorge, one of the first group of 7 UK sites; recognised the area’s unique contribution to the birth of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the impact of which was felt across the world. It was the achievements of pioneering industrialists including Abraham Darby, William Reynolds and John Wilkinson that led to the Ironbridge Gorge becoming by the close of the 18th century the most technologically advanced area in the world. The surviving built and natural environment with its museums, monuments and artefacts, including the world famous Iron Bridge of 1779, serve to remind us of this area’s unique contribution to the history and development of industrialised society; 2010 - won the Heart of England Excellence in Tourism Chairman’s award for the 2010 most ‘Outstanding Contribution to Tourism’ by an organisation and the Joint Gold Regional Culture Award.

Michigan Iron Industry Museum                                               ,1607,7-153-54463_18595_18611---,00.html 

Located amid the forested ravines of the Marquette Iron Range, overlooks the Carp River and the site of the first iron forge in the Lake Superior region; 1848 to 1855 - Jackson Iron Company and others manufactured wrought iron from local ore and demonstrated the high quality of Michigan's iron ore deposits; seed of the Michigan iron industry that flourished for 125 years,  still produces nearly one-quarter of the iron ore mined in the United States. Museum exhibits, audiovisual programs and outdoor interpretive paths depict the large-scale capital and human investment that made Michigan an industrial leader.

Images from Sloss Furnace                                                                                     

The Sloss Company's City Furnaces, built in what is now the center of Birmingham, Alabama, in 1881-1882, produced pig iron for the foundry market until their close in 1970. The furnaces remain a central element of Birmingham's skyline, a visual reminder of it's industrial past.

Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark                                     php    

Sloss Furnaces produced iron for nearly 90 years, gave rise to the city of Birmingham. Now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, Sloss Furnaces, with its web of pipes and tall smokestacks, offers a glimpse into the great industrial past of the South and our nation.

Tennessee Iron Furnace Trail                                                        

The purpose of the project is to research, identify, and document existing 19th century iron industry resources along the Western Highland Rim, and to assist the counties within the Trail to tell the stories of these places. This website is designed to introduce some of the most intact and significant existing iron industry sites along the Trail and to provide individual histories as well as context. A Glossary and a list of Selected Sources are provided for those readers who wish to have more information on the technology associated with the production of iron.

US Steel Gary Works Photograph Collection, 1905-1971                         

Presented by the Indiana University Library Program and the Calumet Regional Archives, the US Steel Gary Works Photograph Collection provides access to more than 2,200 digital images documenting the creation of the world's largest steel mill during the height of America's industrial revolution. While the tour takes Internet users through the building of the U.S. Steel Gary Works, it also depicts the life of the city during this period. Not only is this site a valuable resource for scholars and historians of American history and the Industrial Revolution, it also meets the needs of school teachers and students. The site includes a teacher's guide equipped with lesson plans, learning objectives, and online activities for classroom use for fourth grade, middle school, and high school teachers. In addition, viewers can either perform a basic, advanced, or ID search, or browse this easily navigable site by subject, date, or box.

Youngstown Historical Center of Industry and Labor                                 

The Center provides a dramatic overview of the impact of the iron and steel industry on Youngstown and other Mahoning Valley communities. The museum's permanent exhibit, By the Sweat of Their Brow: Forging the Steel Valley, explores labor, immigration and urban history, using videos, artifacts, photographs, and reconstructed scenes.


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