1,1835 - Carl Bertelsmann founded company to publish
- CBS created CBS Films, television syndication division;
1971 - renamed Viacom (VIdeo & Audio COMmunications);
spun off after FCC ruled that television networks could not
syndicate programs they produced (owning cable systems, TV
stations in same market); 1985 - acquired MTV Networks for $550
million from Warner Communications; June 1987 -
controlling interest acquired by National Amusements Inc.
(founded 1936 as as Northeast Theatre Corporation by Michael
Redstone), large cinema operator (Sumner Redstone); 1993
- acquired Paramount Communications (parent of Paramount
Pictures); sold Madison Square Garden properties to Cablevision,
Simon & Schuster’s educational publishing units to Pearson plc
for almost $4 billion; acquired Blockbuster Entertainment
(subsequently spun off); 2000 - merged with CBS.
- William von Meister announced The Source, first popular online
services company, at Plaza Hotel in New York; Isaac Asimov,
sharing platform, proclaimed, "This is the beginning of the
information age" (recalled Bettie Steiger, former Source
executive, Xerox marketing executive at Palo Alto Research
Center); May 24, 1985
established Quantum Computer
Services to sell video-game software to users electronically;
hired Procter & Gamble marketing executive Stephen M. "Steve"
Case (26); set up chat rooms where people could "talk" to each
other via home computers; October 1991 - name changed to America
William F. von Meister
March 4, 1989
- Time Inc. and Warner Communications Inc. announced plans to
merge into the world's largest media and entertainment
September 22, 1995
- Time Warner announced $7.5 billion acquisition of Turner
Broadcasting System Inc.; FTC did not approve the deal until
September, 1996, during which time the value of Time Warner's
stock lost $6.5 billion.
April 15, 1997
- America On Line, begins service in Japan.
September 8, 1997
- America Online (AOL) brokered elaborate three-way deal
to acquire CompuServe; WorldCom paid $1.2 billion in stock to
acquire H&R Block's 80% stake in CompuServe; handed over
CompuServe's base of 2.6 million subscribers to AOL plus $175
million in exchange for ASN, AOL's Internet telecommunications
division; deal strengthened WorldCom's technological
capabilities: ASN, CompuServe's key technology (speedy
telecommunication lines, Internet connections).
November 24, 1998
- America Online confirmed it was buying Netscape
Communications in a deal ultimately worth $10 billion.
January 10, 2000
- America Online agreed to buy Time-Warner for $162 billion.
December 14, 2000
- The Federal Trade Commission unanimously approved the $111
billion merger of America Online and Time Warner.
January 11, 2001
- The Federal Communications Commission approved the merger of
America Online and Time Warner.
January 12, 2003
- AOL Time Warner chairman Steve Case announced his resignation.
June 4, 2003
- Martha Stewart stepped down as head of her media empire, hours
after federal prosecutors in New York charged her with
obstruction of justice, conspiracy, securities fraud and lying
March 15, 2004
- Martha Stewart resigned from the board of Martha Stewart
Living Omnimedia 10 days after she was convicted in a stock
(AOL), Kara Swisher (1998).
AOL.COM: How Steve Case Beat Bill Gates, Nailed the Netheads,
and Made Millions in the War for the Web. (New York, NY:
Times Books, 333 p.). Reporter (Wall Street Journal). Case,
Stephen McConnell; Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Von Meister, William F.,
1942-1995; America Online, Inc.--History; Online information
services industry--United States--History; Internet service
providers--United States--History; Businesspeople--United
(AOL), George Thornally (1999).
AOL by George!: The Inside Story of America Online. (Livingtone,
NJ: Urly Media, 216 p.). America Online, Inc.--History; Online
information services industry--United States--History; Internet
Service Providers--United States--History.
(AOL), David Stauffer (2000).
It's a Wired Wired World: Business the AOL Way.
(Milford, CT: Capstone, 210 p.). Case, Stephen McConnell;
America Online, Inc.--History; America Online, Inc.--Management;
Internet service providers--United States--History; Online
information services industry--United States--History;
(AOL), Mary E. Foley with Martha I. Flnney
Bodacious: An AOL Insider Cracks the Code to Outrageous Success
for Women. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 240 p.).
Women--Employment--United States; Career development--United
States; Vocational guidance for women--United States; Success in
business--United States; America Online (Online service).
(AOL Time Warner), Alec Klein (2003).
Stealing Time: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Collapse of AOL
Time Warner. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 352 p.).
Reporter (Washington Post). Case, Stephen McConnell; Levin,
Gerald M.; America Online, Inc.--History; AOL Time
(AOL Time Warner), Kara Swisher with Lisa
There Must Be a Pony in Here Somewhere: The AOL Time Warner
Debacle and the Quest for a Digital Future. (New York,
NY: Crown Business, 320 p.). Reporter (Wall Street Journal).
America Online, Inc.--History; AOL Time Warner--History.
(AOL Time Warner), Nina Monk (2004).
Fools Rush In: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Fall of AOL Time
Warner. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 368 p.). Reporter
(Vanity Fair). Case, Stephen McConnell; Levin, Gerald M.; AOL
Time Warner--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography;
Internet service providers--United States--History; Online
information services industry--United States--History;
Publishers and publishing--United States--History; Motion
picture industry--United States--History; Consolidation and
merger of corporations--United States--Case studies.
(AOL Time Warner),
Ted Leonsis; with John Buckley (2010).
The Business of
Happiness: 6 Secrets to Extraordinary Success in Life and Work.
(Washington, DC, Regnery Pub., 256 p.). Vice Chairman
Emeritus, AOL. Success in business. Humble beginnings to college at Georgetown
University to start in the tech industry at Wang to first
successful forays into entrepreneurship (Redgate Communications
acquired by AOL); main screw-up of merger with
Time-Warner:–inability, due to internal politics, to sell AOL
broadband over Time Warner’s powerful cable system.
(Blackburn Group), Michael Nolan (1989).
Walter J. Blackburn: A Man for All Media. (Toronto, ON:
Macmillan of Canada, 258 p.). Blackburn, Walter J. (Walter
Juxon), 1914-1983; Blackburn Group -- History; London free press
-- History; Broadcasting -- Ontario -- London -- History;
Publishers and publishing -- Ontario -- London -- Biography;
Broadcasters -- Ontario -- London -- Biography.
(CanWest), Marc Edge (2007).
Asper Nation: Canada's Most Dangerous Media Company.
(Point Roberts, WA: New Star Books,, 326 p.). Israel ("Izzy")
Asper;. Mass media -- Canada.
Canada's largest news media
company; political perils involved in allowing Asper family to
dominate Canadian media.
Asper - CanWest
(CanWest), Peter C. Newman (2008).
Izzy: The Passionate Life and Turbulent Times of Izzy Asper,
Canada's Media Mogul. (Toronto, ON: Harpercollins
Canada, 512 p.). Former Editor-in-Chief of the Toronto Star and
Maclean’s. Mass media -- Canada. Canada's
leading media mogul; epic, unauthorized life story of Izzy Asper,
true visionary and a self-made billionaire; one of most
charismatic, powerful Canadian tycoons of past quarter
century; grew tiny television station into CanWest empire; became Canada's most
profitable television network; ability to create warm, electric moments
among friends and loyalists, inspire fear in his critics and
(Clear Channel), Roger Parry (2003).
Enterprise: The Leadership Role. (London, UK: Profile
Business, 308 p.). CEO of the International Division of Clear
Channel International Ltd. Leadership; executives.
(Cox Enterprises), Charles Glover (1998).
Journey Through Our Years: The Story of Cox Enterprises, Inc.
(Marietta, GA: Longstreet, 224 p.). Cox Enterprises, Inc.
(Diller), George Mair (1997).
The Barry Diller Story: The Life and Times of America's Greatest
Entertainment Mogul. (New York, NY: Wiley, 348 p.).
Diller, Barry; Chief executive officers -- United States --
(Diller), Jerome Tuccille (1998). Barry
Diller: The Life and Times of a Media Mogul. (Seacaucus, NJ:
Carol Pub. Group, p.). Diller, Barry; Chief executive
(Fininvest s.p.a.), Giovanni Ruggeri, Mario
Guarino (1994). Berlusconi: Inchiesta sul Signor TV.
(Milano, Italy: Kaos, 294 p. [2nd ed.]). Berlusconi, Silvio,
1936- ; Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Television and
politics--Italy; Italy--Politics and government--1994-.
(Fininvest s.p.a.), Giuseppe Fiori (1995).
Il Venditore: Storia di Silvio Berlusconi e della Fininvest.
(Milano, Italy: Garzanti, 217 p.). Berlusconi, Silvio, 1936- ;
Fininvest, s.p.a.; Prime ministers--Italy--Biography;
Businesspeople--Italy--Biography; Television and
politics--Italy; Italy--Politics and government--1976-1994.
(Hachette), Vincent Nouzille, Alexandra
L'Acrobate: Jean-Luc Lagardère, ou, Les Armes du Pouvoir.
(Paris, FR: Seuil, 345 p.). Lagardère, Jean-Luc, 1928-2003;
Industrialists--France--Biography. Chairman of media and defense
(Purple Moon Media), Brenda Laurel (2001).
Utopian Entrepreneur. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 116
p.). Laurel, Brenda; Purple Moon Media (Firm)--History; Interval
Research Corporation--History; Entrepreneurship--United States;
Corporations--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Social
responsibility of business--United States; Children's
software--United States; Computer software industry--United
States; Businesswomen--United States--Biography.
(Morgan Murphy Media), Bill Beck and Richard
S. Nickeson (1996).
Murphy: The Beginning of a Media Empire. (Superior,
WI: Evening Telegram Company, 64 p.). 1890 - John T. Murphy
acquired newspaper in Superior, WI; Morgan Murphy (son)
diversified into electronic media (radio, television, cable
(Martha Stewart Living), Jerry Oppenheimer
Martha Stewart-- Just Desserts: The Unauthorized Biography.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 399 p.). Stewart, Martha; Home
economists--United States--Biography; Businesswomen--United
(Martha Stewart Living), Christopher M. Byron
Martha Inc.: The Incredible Story of Martha Stewart Living
Omnimedia. (New York, NY: Wiley, 405 p.). Stewart,
Martha; Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia; Artisans--United
States--Biography; Businesswomen--United States--Biography.
(Martha Stewart Living), Lloyd Allen (2006).
Being Martha: The Inside Story of Martha Stewart and Her Amazing
Life. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 240 p.). Friend of Family.
Stewart, Martha; Home economists--United States--Biography;
Businesswomen--United States--Biography. Flesh-and-blood woman behind glamorous public image.
(Martha Stewart Living), Joann F. Price
Martha Stewart: A Biography. (Westport, CT : Greenwood
Press: Westport, Conn : Greenwood Press, 132 p.). Writing Coach
and Instructor (Metropolitan State College of Denver). Stewart,
Martha; Home economists--United States--Biography;
Businesswomen--United States--Biography. Self-made woman behind media,
merchandising empire; rose from modest upbringing, became one of
most successful, wealthiest businesswomen in history.
(Time Inc.), Christopher M. Byron (1986).
The Fanciest Dive: What Happened When the Media Empire of
Time/Life Leaped without Looking into the Age of High-Tech
(New York, NY: Norton, 280 p.). Time, inc.; TV-cable week;
Television programs--United States--Periodicals--History; Cable
Periodicals--Publishing--United States--History; Mass
(Time Warner), Connie Bruck (1994).
Master of the Game: Steve Ross and the Creation of Time Warner.
(New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 395 p.). Ross, Steve,
1927-1992; Time Warner, Inc.; Mass media--United
- Time Warner
(Turner), Reese Schonfeld (2001).
Me and Ted Against the World: The Unauthorized Story of the
Founding of CNN. (New York, NY: Cliff Street, 407 p.).
Turner, Ted; Schonfeld, Reese; Cable News Network; Television
broadcasting of news--United States.
(Turner), Ken Auletta (2004).
Media Man: Ted Turner's Improbable Empire. (New York,
NY: Norton, 205 p.). Turner, Ted; Businesspeople--United
States--Biography; Sports team owners--United States--Biography;
(Viacom), Sumner Redstone with Peter Knobler
A Passion to Win (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 322
p.). CEO, Viacom. Redstone, Sumner; Viacom International.
(Virgin Group Ltd.), Richard Branson (2006).
Screw It, Let's Do It : Lessons In Life. (London, UK:
Virgin Group, 128 p.). Chairman of the Virgin Group. Branson,
Sir Richard; Virgin Group, Ltd. Lessons from life that have
helped him through his business and personal life.
(Vivendi), Jean-Marie Messier (2000).
J6M.com: Faut-Il Avoir Peur de la Nouvelle Economie? (Tr.:
"Who's Afraid of the New Economy"). (Paris, FR: Hachette
littératures, 237 p.). Former CEO, Vivendi Universal. Messier,
Jean-Marie, 1956- ; Vivendi (Firm)--Anecdotes; Information
technology--Economic aspects--France; Big business--France.
(Vivendi), Jo Johnson and Martine Orange
The Man Who Tried To Buy the World: Jean-Marie Messier and
Vivendi Universal. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 268 p.).
Paris Correspondent (Financial Times); Business Reporter (Le
Monde). Messier, Jean-Marie, 1956- ; Bronfman family; Vivendi
(Firm)--History; Universal Pictures (Firm); Seagram
corporations--France; Conglomerate corporations--Canada;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--France--Case studies;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--Canada--Case studies;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--Case
(Whittle Communications) Vance H. Trimble
An Empire Undone: The Wild Rise and Hard Fall of Chris Whittle.
(Seacaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Co., 371 p.). Whittle, Chris;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Advertising--United
States; Business failures--United States.
Ken Auletta (1997).
The Highwaymen: Warriors of the Information Superhighway.
(New York, NY: Random House, 346 p.). Businessmen--United
States--Biography; High technology industries--United
Ben H. Bagdikian; with a New Preface on the
Internet and Communications Cartels (2000).
The Media Monopoly. (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 288 p.
[6th pbk. ed.]). Mass media--Economic aspects--United States;
Ben H. Bagdikian (2004).
The New Media Monopoly. (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 299
p.). Mass media--Ownership.
Asa Briggs and Peter Burke (2001).
A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet
(Malden, MA: Blackwell). Mass media--History; Mass media--Social
Jean Folkerts, Dwight L. Teeter, Jr. (2002).
Voices of a Nation: A History of Mass Media in the United States
(Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, [4th ed.]). Mass media--United
Alec Foege (1996).
The Empire God Built: Inside Pat Robertson's Media Machine.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 242 p.). Robertson, Pat; Television in
religion--United States; Evangelicalism--United States.
Richard Hack (2003).
Clash of the Titans: How the Unbridled Ambition of Ted Turner
and Rupert Murdoch Has Created Global Empires That Control What
We Read and Watch. (Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium
Press, 448 p.). Turner, Ted; Murdoch, Rupert, 1931- ; News
Corporation; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Mass
media--United States--Biography; Mass
media--Australia--Biography; Cable News Network.
Jonathan A. Knee, Bruce C.N.
Greenwald, Ava Seave (2009).
The Curse of the Mogul: What's
Wrong with the World's Leading Media Companies.
(New York, NY, Portfolio.320 p.).investment banker; Robert
Heilbrunn Professor of Finance and Asset Management (Columbia
Business School); Principal, Cofounder of Quantum Media. Mass
media Management. Inexcusable financial performance beneath Big
Media's false veneer of power; since 2000 - largest media conglomerates have lost $200
billion in market capitalization; consistently
underperformed for over generation; misguided investment,
acquisition strategies have created paradox - faster revenues
grow, worse stocks perform.
Kevin Maney (1995).
Megamedia Shakeout: The Inside Story of the Leaders and the
Losers in the Exploding Communications Industry. (New
York, NY: Wiley, 358 p.). Mass media--United States--Finance;
Mass media--Technological innovations; Corporations, American.
Robert G. Picard (2002).
The Economics and Financing of Media Companies. (New
York, NY: Fordham University Press, 270 p.). Mass
media--Economic aspects; Mass media--Finance.
Gordon Pitts (2002). Kings of Convergence:
The Fight for Control of Canada's Media. (Toronto, ON:
Doubleday Canada, 346 p.). Business Columnist (Toronto Globe and
Mail). Mass media--Canada--Biography; Mass media--Canada.
Robert Sobel (1976).
The Manipulators: America in the Media Age. (Garden
City, NY: Doubleday, 458 p.). Mass media--United
States--History; Popular culture--United States; Universities
and colleges--United States.
Richard T. Stillson (2006).
Spreading the Word: A History of Information in the California
Gold Rush. (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,
274 p.). Teaches History (George Mason University).
century; Mass media--United States--History--19th century;
Catalogs, Publishers’--United States--Bibliography;
California--Maps--Bibliography. Communications culture in mid-nineteenth century; how easterners who traveled West during
California gold rush of 1849–51 obtained, assessed, and used
Dana Lee Thomas (1981).
The Media Moguls : From Joseph Pulitzer to William S. Paley:
Their Lives and Boisterous Times. (New York, NY: Putnam,
237 p.). Press -- United States -- History.
Mark Tungate (2004).
Media Monoliths: How Great Media Brands Thrive and Survive.
(Sterling, VA: Kogan Page, 261 p.). Mass media--Economic
aspects; Brand name products.
Business History Links
Chronomedia (Terra Media)
Designed by David Fisher, editor of the international media
journal Screen Digest for more than 30 years, to become the most
comprehensive and accurate timeline of developments in
communications media ever compiled. Integrates references to all
audio-visual media (film and cinema, radio and television, cable
and satellite, interactive (multi)media, photography,
telegraphy, telephony, printing and publishing) to see the
parallel developments and interactions that have formed today's
media. However, for anyone wishing to follow a particular
thread, links are included to allow chains of references to be