Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Mining
business biographies  

1288 - Stora Koppaberg began copper mining in Falun, Sweden; world's oldest company of shareholders; 1347 - granted charter from King Magnus IV of Sweden; 17th century - largest copper-producer; 1998 - merged with and Finnish forestry products company Enso-Gutzeit Oy; company renamed Stora Enso Oyj.

February 11, 1808 - Judge Jesse Fell of Wilkes-Barre, PA found a cheap, clean burning fuel by burning anthracite coal to keep his house warm; developed a method to burn the stone coal without the use of forced air and his fireplace grate opened up the home heating market; northeast Pennsylvania became an important coal mining area for generations.

1815 - Sir Humphrey Davy of London, English chemist, invented miner's safety lamp ("Davy lamp")  to protect coal miners from firedamp, explosive mix of methane gas and air; January 9, 1816 - first trial of Davy lamp with  wire sieve, at Hebburn Colliery coal mine.

March 23, 1821 - Bauxite discovered in southern France; principal source of aluminum, used in abrasives and refractory for spark plugs, furnace linings.

1834 - Anson Phelps, one-time saddle maker, William Didge (son-in-law,  merchant in dry goods) founded Phelps Dodge as New York City-based mercantile company; traded American products to England in exchange for copper, iron, tin other metals needed in United States; 1881 - entered mining industry when it invested in share of Detroit Copper Mining Co. in Morenci, AZ; 1906 - exited import-export business altogether; early 1900s - among the first in the industry converted to open-pit mining from underground method; 1930s - entered copper refining, manufacturing business; 1970s - converted from trains to wheeled and tracked vehicles to haul equipment and ore within open-pit mines; mid-1980s - first to use solution extraction and electrowinning to process ore on commercial scale; March 19, 2007 - acquired by Freeport-McMoRan for $25.9 billion; created world's largest publicly traded copper mining company; operates under name Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.

May 30, 1844 - Simeon Broadmeadow, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Making Iron Direct from Iron Ore" (an "Improvement in the Mode of Obtaining Wrought-Iron Directly from the Ore"); first patent related to iron ore.

September 5, 1844 - Iron ore discovered in Minnesota's Mesabi Mountains.

January 24, 1848 - James W. Marshall and Peter L. Wimmer discovered gold nugget at Sutter's Mill on banks of Sutter's Creek in northern California (South Fork of American River in Sacramento Valley east of San Francisco), sparked gold rush of '49; 1839 - John Augustus Sutter came to Mexican California, won grant of nearly 50,000 acres in lush Sacramento Valley (hoped to create thriving colony); January 1848 -Sutter hired millwright James Marshall to build sawmill along South Fork of American River; supervised excavation of shallow millrace, Marshall found that much of  millrace was speckled with what appeared to small flakes of gold; gold rush was disaster for Sutter - brought thousands of men to California who overran his property, slaughtered his herds for food, trampled his fields; 1852 - Sutter was nearly wiped out; 1853 - gold mined reached peak of about 4 million ounces ($65 million) for year.

James W. Marshall - discovered gold in California on Jan. 24, 1848 (

Photo of John Augustus Sutter



John Augustus Sutter - gold discovered on his land on Jan. 24, 1848  (

March 15, 1848 - The Californian newspaper (founded in Monterey on August 15, 1846 by Walter Colton, Robert Semple) reported discovery of gold; March 25, 1848 - The California Star newspaper (first published in San Francisco on January 9, 1847 by Sam Brannan, Elbert P. Jones, Edward C. Kemble) reported discovery of gold; April 1, 1848 - printed six-page extra edition; described "immensely rich" gold mine in Sacramento Valley; June 10, 1848 - publication of California Star temporarily halted because the staff had rushed of to the Sierra gold fields; November 11, 1848 - The Californian acquired by California Star; November 18, 1848 - Kemble published California Star and The Californian; January 22, 1849 - name changed to The Alta California; first daily newspaper in California

August 19, 1848 - News of gold discovered in California in January of 1848 made it to the East Coast; New York Herald published news of discovery; confirmed officially by President James Polk.


February 28, 1849 - Ship California arrived at San Francisco, carried  first gold-seekers.

February 12, 1851 - Edward Hargraves (34) discovered 'grain of gold' in waterhole at Summer Hills Creek near Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia (had recently returned from California gold fields); named location 'Ophir' (after Biblical city), reported discovery to authorities, appointed 'Commissioner of Crown Land'; received reward of £10,000, plus life pension; began Australian gold rushes, radical change in economic and social fabric of nation; September 1851 - more than 1000 prospectors; colonial authorities appointed 'Commissioners of Land' to regulate diggings, collect licence fees for each 'claim'; November 1851 - gold discovered at Ballarat, Victoria; 1852 - New South Wales yielded 850,000 ounces of gold (minor compared to Victoria); 370,000 immigrants arrived in Australia; 1850s - Victoria contributed more than one third of world's gold output; 1854 - State's population grew from 77,000 to 540,000; 1851-1871 - population grew from 430,000 to 1.7 million.

Edward Hargraves - Discovered gold in Australia (

June 28, 1851 - Vincent Gildemeester Baron von Tuyll van Serooskerken, John Francis Loudon, their party discovered rich supply of tin on Billiton Island (Belitung), on east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia in Java Sea, on first day of their landing; 1860 - NV Billiton Maatschappij established in The Hague, Netherlands; 1928 - tin smelting began in Netherlands; 1935 - first bauxite mine established on Bintan island, Indonesia; 1958 - tin mining in Indonesia ceased; 1959 - discovered bauxite in Boé region, approximately 150 kilometres east of Bissau; 1970 - acquired by Royal/Dutch Shell Group; 1976 - formed joint venture (14.8% interest) to develop Commissions Mineração Rio de Norte S.A. (MRN) bauxite mine near Trombetas River in Amazon basin, Brazil (began production in 1979); 1977 - first joint venture discussions between Billiton Exploration B.V., PT Broken Hill Proprietary Indonesia to explore for metal mineralisation on island of Belitug, Indonesia; began shipping from Nanisivik zinc and lead mine on Strathcona Sound, Baffin Island, Canada (11.25% interest in joint venture); 1981 - commissioned magnesium plant at Veendam, the Netherlands (began production in 1982); 1983 - commissioned Alumina plant on Aughinish Island in Shannon estuary, Ireland (began production in 1984); 1984 - commissioned Worsley Alumina Venture alumina refinery in Worsley, Western Australia; 1985 - closed tungsten/molybdenum mine in Canada, sold assets; ceased tin dredging in Indonesia, Thailand; sold interests in zinc/lead mine in Canada; sold titanium plant in UK; 1986 - opened world’s first bio-leaching plant at Fairview gold mine, South Africa; 1987 - commissioned Boddington gold mine, Western Australia; 1994 - Royal Dutch/Shell metal, mining, trading interests acquired by Gencor (South Africa); operated as Billiton International BV; acquired coal exploration permit in Queensland, Australia; 1997 - Gencor restructured: 1) Billiton Plc (base metals, coal assets), 2) Gencor (precious metal assets); Billiton Plc listed on London Stock Exchange; 2000 - acquired Rio Algom for $1.2 billion; June 5, 2001 - merged with BHP Limited; June 29, 2001 - BHP Billiton dually listed in London, Australia; reported record combined profit of $2.1 billion; 2002 - spun off BHP Steel.

January 6, 1857 - Samuel Wetherill, Bethlehem, PA, received a patent for a "Method of Obtaining Metallic Zinc from the Ores of Zinc" ("Improvement in the Processes of Reducing Zinc Ores"); first patent related to zinc ore.

June 12, 1859 - Two miners, Pat McLaughlin and Peter O'Reilly, discovered silver at the head of Six-Mile Canyon south of Reno, NV (eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, 40 miles from the Truckee Meadows); fellow miner, Henry Thomas Paige Comstock, stumbled upon their find, claimed it was on his property (sold his mining interests for $10,000); "Comstock Lode" - richest known U.S. silver deposit; 1859-1878 - yielded $400 million in silver and gold; 1877 - peak production: over $14,000,000 of gold and $21,000,000 of silver; 1880 - considered exhausted; 1898 - virtually abandoned.

August 11, 1860 - Nation's first successful silver mill, Virginia City, Nevada.

February 1867 - Stephanus Erasmus Jacobs (15) found transparent stone on his father's farm, in Hopetown, South Africa (roughly center of country), on south bank of Orange River in Cape Colony; identified as 21,25 carat diamond; 1871 - Boer War (Dutch) settlers, Johannes Nicolaas d Beer and Diederik Arnoldus de Beer, bought farm in Bultfontein, South Africa (present capital of Northern Cape provence); July 16, 1871 - Esau Damoense, cook for so-called Red Cap Party led by Fleetwood Rawstorne, discovered handful of diamonds on slopes of Colesberg Kopje mine in Kimberley; July 18, 1871 - diamond rush began; de Beers sold farm to group of mining syndicates; June 5, 1873 - town named Kimberley, after British Secretary of State of the Colonies, John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley; 1870s-1880s - Kimberley mines produced 95% of world's diamonds; 1883 - Barney Barnato merged Barnato Diamond Mining Co. with Kimberley Central Mining Co.; 1889 - Cecil Rhodes prevailed over Barney Barnato, acquired Barnato's interests for £5,338,650 (about $25 million); formed De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd.; 1903 - annual production of 3 million carats; 2006 - annual production of 10 million carats. 

Erasmus Jacobs - found first diamonds (

Barney Barnato - Barnato Diamond Mining Co.  (


1869 - John W. Mackay, James G. Fair, James C. Flood, William S. O'Brien formed partnership, Bonanza Firm; developed Comstock Lode; 1873 - struck one of richest veins in history, Big Bonanza; produced more than $180 million in ore in just over four years.

September 6, 1869 - First major coal mine disaster in U.S. at Avondale, PA; fire broke out in mineshaft, 110 miners trapped, died.

October 19, 1869 - Prussian-born mining engineer, Adolph Sutro, began work on one four-mile-long large horizontal tunnel (Sutro Tunnel) through rock of neighboring Mt. Davidson to Comstock Lode mining district in Virginia City, NV; one of richest silver deposits in world (discovered by prospectors in 1859); tunnel intended to drain mine water found in deep shafts horizontally (rather than through expensive pumps to surface); 1878 - $5 million project completed; tunnel drained some two million gallons of water from mines per year, greatly reduced transportation costs; 1879 - Sutro sold tunnel at fantastic profit, moved to San Francisco, became one of city's largest landowners, city's mayor from 1894 to 1896.

October 19, 1872 - Holtermann's Nugget, a slab of slate containing 82.11 kg of gold, largest mass of reef gold ever, was found at the Bald Hill Mine at Hill End Gold Mine in New South Wales, Australia; not a nugget, but a specimen also known as a matrix, weighed 286kg, measured 150cm by 66cm, an average thickness of 10cm; 1967 - Hill End was proclaimed an historic site.

November 26, 1872 - Article in San Francisco Evening Bulletin exposed The Great Diamond Hoax, one of most notorious mining swindles of time; Kentucky cousins Philip Arnold, John Slack convinced San Francisco capitalists to invest in worthless mine in northwestern corner of Colorado; arrived in San Francisco in 1872, tried to deposit bag of uncut diamonds in bank; when questioned, two men quickly disappeared, acted as if they were reluctant to talk about their discovery; bank director, William Ralston, tracked them down; assumed he was dealing with unsophisticated country bumpkins, set out to take control of diamond mine; two cousins agreed to take blindfolded mining expert to site; reported mine was rich with diamonds, rubies; Ralston joined with number of other prominent San Francisco financiers, formed New York Mining and Commercial Company, capitalized at $10 million; began selling stock to eager investors; Arnold, Slack received about $600,000 (small change in comparison to supposed value of diamond mine); at least 25 diamond exploration companies formed in subsequent months (convinced American West must have many other major deposits of diamonds); Clarence King, little-known young leader of geographical survey of 40th parallel (1867-1869), exposed cousins's diamond mine as hoax; was suspicious of mine from start; correctly deduced location of supposed mine, raced to investigate, realized swindlers had salted mine (some gems showed jewelers-cut marks); exposed fraud in newspapers, Great Diamond Hoax collapsed; Ralston returned $80,000 to each of his investors, never able to recover $600,000 given to two cousins; Arnold lived out few remaining years of his life in luxury in Kentucky, died of pneumonia in 1878; Slack last reported to have worked as coffin maker in New Mexico; King's role in exposing fraud brought him national recognition, became first director of United States Geological Survey.

Clarence King - Great Diamond Hoax (

April 9, 1876 - Fred and Moses Manuel (Quebec) discovered Homestake Ledge (or Lead, pronounced "Leed") in Northern Black Hills of Dakota Territory; staked 4 1/2 acre claim, built crude mil, took out $5,000 worth of gold; June 1877 - acquired for $70,000 by George Hearst (father of William Randolph Hearst) in partnership with James Haggin, Lloyd Tevis (president of Wells Fargo, 1972-1892); began operations to develop Homestake mine; 1879 - went public; 8,000-foot deep underground mine, open-pit mine, mill, gold refinery; has produced more than 39 million ounces since 1876, company's largest producer.

Moses and Fred Manuel - Homestake Mining  (

  George Hearst -  Homestake Mining  (

1877 - Edward Schieffelin found one of richest silver veins in West in area of present-day southern Arizona, about 70 miles southeast of Tucson in San Pedro Valley; named it Tombstone Lode; 1881 - more than 10,000 people lived in region, Tombstone had become seat of newly created Cochise County; early 1890s - most of mines had closed, town went into decline.

March 3, 1879 - Congress established United States Geological Survey, played a pivotal role in exploration, development of West; focused on practical geographical, geological investigations that might spur western economic development; became one of federal government's most important tools for encouraging exploitation of western natural resources; Clarence King appointed first director; first major reports concerned  economic geology of two important mining districts, Nevada's Comstock Lode, Colorado's Leadville silver district.

1883 - Francis S. Peabody (24), with $100, wagon and two mules, founded  Peabody, Daniels & Company, small coal brokerage business in Chicago; bought coal from mines, sold it to homes, businesses; 1890 - incorporated  as Peabody Coal Company (had bought out his partner); 1895 - opened first coal mine in Williamson County, southern Illinois; began transition from coal retailer to mining company; 1913 - signed first long-term contract with major utility; 1929 - went public; 1949 - Stuyvesant (Jack) Peabody (son) took over; 1955 - merged with Sinclair Coal Company (country's third largest coal mining operation); 1968 - acquired by Kennecott Copper Corporation; 1976 - Federal Trade Commission ordered Kennecott to divest Peabody Coal Company; established holding company, Peabody Holding Company, Inc.; 1977 - acquired Peabody Coal for $1.1 billion; December 1977-March 1978 - 110-day mine workers strike; 1990 - Peabody Holding Company, Inc. acquired by Hanson PLC ; March 1997 - spun off, with Eastern Group plc (acquired 1995), U.K. electricity distribution, generating company, formed The Energy Group PLC; May 1998 - acquired by Texas Utilities for $7.4 billion (with agreement to sell Peabody Group to Lehman Merchant Banking Partners for $2.3 billion); April 2001 - P&L Coal Holdings Corporation (Peabody Group) changed name to Peabody Energy Corporation; May 22, 2001 - went public; 2008 - sales of 256 million tons, $6.6 billion in revenues; world's largest private-sector coal company.

Francis S. Peabody (seated) - Peabody Energy (

September 3, 1883 - Charles Rasp, boundary rider at Mt. Gipps Sheep Station (nee Jerome von Pereira, nobleman of Portuguese-German origin whose turbulent, tragic pre-Australian life had forced him to keep low profile, discovered rich deposits of silver, lead and zinc in Broken Hill in Barrier Ranges of western New South Wales, Australia; formed syndicate of three (David James, former tin miner, James Poole); September 5, 1883 - registered Mining Lease Application for silver, tin; syndicate grew to seven (George McCulloch, manager of Mount Gipp, Philip Charley, bookkeeper George Lind, sheep overseer George Urquhart); each paid in 70 pounds; syndicate expanded to 14 (included William Jamieson, geologist and government surveyor, C. R. Wilson, director of Barrier Ranges Silver Mining Association); established Broken Hill Mining Company; August 13, 1885 - dissolved; incorporated The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited in Victoria, Australia (Australia's Big Mine); developed, mined silver, lead and zinc deposits at Broken Hill; 1890 - smelting began at Port Pine, South Australia; 1899 - refinery operations began at Port Pine; leased iron ore mine at Iron Knob in South Australia; June 2, 1915 - Port Pine operations transferred to The Broken Hill Associated Smelters Pty Limited (BHAS); began operations at New Castle Steelworks (Newcastle, New South Wales); 1919 - began shipping operations; 1923 - acquired 22% interest in Australian Wire Rope Works Limited; established Port Waratah Stevedoring Company Pty Limited (55% equity interest); 1925 - sold interest in BHAS; post WW I - continued to diversify, formed shipping fleet, acquired coal mines, additional reserves of iron ore and limestone; acquired companies that manufactured finished steel products; 1935 - expanded steel production (acquired Australian Iron and Steel Pty Limited, its Port Kembla steelworks); established blast furnace, shipbuilding facilities at Whyalla, South Australia few years later; 1939 - Broken Hill mining operations closed; 1957 - acquired 100% of Australian Wire Rope Works Limited; 1960 - acquired 100% of Port Waratah Stevedoring Company Pty Limited; 1967 - entered petroleum industry with a major oil discovery in Bass Strait, off southeastern coast of Australia; 1970s-1980s - focus shifted offshore; acquired Utah International Inc. (coal mines in New Mexico, Queensland); discovered copper in Chile (became Escondida mine); developed North West Shelf gas and liquid natural gas (LNG) off Western Australia coast; 1983 - Bell Resources launched takeover attempt; 1985 - acquired US Energy Reserves Group; 1990s - acquired several companies, opened new mines, commenced new petroleum production, grew steel operations; Cannington silver, lead and zinc mine (central Queensland, Australia) commenced production; Ekati Diamond Mine  (Canada), Crinum coal mine (Queensland) began production; 1999 - closed New Castle Steelworks; 2000 - name changed to BHP Limited; June 15, 2001 - merged with Billiton Plc; 2007 - bid $150 billion for Rio Tinto.

Charles Rasp (Jerome von Pereira) - Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP)

February 1887 - Cecil Rhodes, Charles Rudd formed Gold Fields of South Africa Ltd. to hold properties acquired on Transvaal, Witwatersrand gold fields; 1892 - renamed The Gold Fields of South Africa; became second largest gold producing group after Anglo American; 1989 - acquired by Hanson plc.

January 25, 1890 - The United Mine Workers of America was founded; 1942 - UMWA pulled up its stakes and withdrew from the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations); 1970 - reform minded president Joseph A. Yablonski, his wife and daughter, were murdered (W.A. (Tony) Boyle, who had preceded Yablonski as the union's chief, was convicted of ordering the murders); 1989 - UMWA joined forces with the AFL-CIO.

1882 - John C. Osgood, associates organized Colorado Fuel Company in Pueblo, CO; 1892 - merged with Colorado Coal and Iron (founded by William J. Palmer), formed Colorado Fuel and Iron Company; produced 75% of Colorado's coal; 1903 - largely owned by John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould's heirs; September 23, 1913 - 9,000 Ludlow coal miners went on strike (protested low wages, dangerous working conditions, feudal domination of company over their lives); April 20, 1914 - Ludlow massacre (over forty miners, their families murdered); company union established; 1933 - company miners affiliated with United Mine Workers of America; December 1944 - Rockefeller holdings, constituted control, acquired by Allen & Co.; 1993 - acquired by Oregon Steel Mills, name changed to Rocky Mountain Steel Mills; January 2007 - acquired (with rest of Oregon Steel's holdings) by Evraz Group SA, Russian steel corporation, for $2.3 billion.

April 4, 1896 - Gold discovery in Yukon announced; August 12, 1896 - gold discovered at Klondike River, near Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada; August 16, 1896 - George Carmack, sometyime prosperctor, started Klondike Gold Rush; stumbled across gold while salmon fishing with two Tagish Indian friends on Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River in the Yukon; sparked the last great western gold rush. Subsequent expeditions in the spring and summer of the following year turned up other sizeable gold deposits. Major mass-circulation newspapers played up the story of the gold strikes, sparked a nationwide sensation. In the years to come, as many as 50,000 eager gold seekers arrived in the Klondike-Yukon region -  inspired romanticized Yukon tales of hardship and adventure by  Jack London and the poems of Robert Service. Carmack reportedly took a million dollars worth of gold out of his Klondike claims, retired to Vancouver, BC.

George W. Carmack - Klondike Gold Rush  ( AAAAAAAAAEQ/jq0ehhsfd7c/s320/george+1.jpg)

1898 - Edward Dickinson Bullard established company in San Francisco, CA to supply carbide lamps, other mining equipment to gold, copper miners in California, Nevada and Arizona; 1919 - introduced "Hard Boiled" protective headgear for miners, designed by E. W. Bullard (son) from his experience with doughboy army helmet in WW I; 1930 - designed Company's first fire helmet; 1930s - supplied hard hats to workers constructing Golden Gate Bridge; 1947 - introduced first fiberglass fire helmet; 1983 - introduced first NFPA-approved thermoplastic fire helmet; 1986 - introduced first ratchet headband used in fire helmet; 1998 - introduced its first thermal imager; leading manufacturer of high quality personal protective equipment and systems for industrial, emergency response applications. 

January 18, 1900 - English brothers Alexander and Francis Elmore, of Leeds, UK, received British patent for "Improvements in Separating Metallic from Rocky Constituents of Ores and Apparatus therefor"; flotation process to separate valuable ore, such as copper, from gangue (worthless rock) when mined; first practical equipment to extract metals from low-content ore.

April 4, 1902 - British financier Cecil Rhodes left $10 million in his will to provide scholarships for Americans at Oxford University in England.

May 12, 1902 - Union chief John Mitchell called for nationwide strike of mine workers; 140,000 members of United Mine Workers struck; lasted 5 months as mine owners, firmly anticipating that Federal government would rush to their side, refused to acknowledge coal union, enter negotiations. President Teddy Roosevelt threatened to hand control of mines to the Army; October 1902 - strikers returned to work, newly formed Commission of Arbitration began probe into conditions at nation's mines; 1903 - Commission recommended pay hikes, reduced hours for workers, mine owners recognize coal union.

January 26, 1905 - Superintendent Captain Frederick Wells of the Premier (Transvaal) Diamond Mining Company Limited (Pretoria, South Africa) discovered the Cullinan Diamond, world's largest gem-quality diamond, 3106 carats; named for Thomas Cullinan, a Johannesburg building contractor who owned the mining company (registered as Premier on December 1, 1902).

December 6, 1907 - An explosion in a network of mines owned by the Fairmont Coal Company in Monongahm, WV killed 361 coal miners; worst mining disaster in American history; 1907 - nationwide, a total of 3,242 Americans were killed in mine accidents; United Mine Workers of America labor union, sympathetic legislators forced safety regulations that brought a steady decline in death rates in West Virginia and elsewhere.

May 13, 1909 - London and Rhodesian Mining Company Limited incorporated (Lonrho plc); 1961 - Roland "Tiny" Rowland joined company; sales (over 34 years) increased 787-fold, profits rose 1,365 times; January 1993 - Dieter Bock, German financier, became largest shareholder; shared chief executive's position with Rowland; October 1993 - forced to step down as Chairman; November 3, 1994 - Rowland ousted from chief executive position; January 1997 - Anglo American Corporation of South Africa Ltd., South Africa's largest company, acquired 26% controlling interest in Lonrho; changed focus to mining (platinum, gold, coal) in Africa; 1997 - Bock gone; 1999 - renamed Lonmin plc to symbolize return to mining roots.

1917 - Sir Ernest Oppenheimer founded Anglo American Corporation to exploit gold mining potential of East Rand; 1926 - Anglo American became largest single shareholder in De Beers (Oppenheimer became chairman in 1929); 1928 -became involved in developing what is now known as the Zambian Copperbelt; 1957 - opened Western Deep Levels (gold mined at twice the depth previously recorded); 1961 - acquired interest in Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company in Canada, first major investment outside southern Africa; early 1970s - acquired Latin American assets, founded Minerals and Resources Corporation (later Minorco); 1981 - first mining house to encourage recognition of black trades unions; 1993 - major reorganization of assets with Anglo American holding assets in Africa, Minorco interests in other parts of the world; May 1999 - Anglo American plc formed through combination of Anglo American Corporation of South Africa (AACSA) and Minorco.

November 1919 - Mesabi Iron Co. of Babbitt, MN began operations; June 21, 1922 - produced first cargo of taconite, hard rock containing 25% - 30% iron (low-grade ore containing only up to 30% magnetite and hematite as tiny particles scattered throughout a very tough variety of quartz called chert); October 1, 1933 - first cargo shipped to the Ford Motor Company of River Rouge, MI.

January 25, 1946 - The United Mine Workers rejoined the American Federation of Labor.

June 1, 1951 - A titanium plant opened in Henderson, NV; first fully self-contained and integrated facility in the U.S.; converted titanium ore into titanium sponge, melted down and formed into ingots of titanium metal.

February 16, 1953 - Research in Sweden, headed by Erik Lundblad, funded by Swedish electrical company ASEA, produced man-made diamond crystals, size of grains of sand in high pressure press, by subjecting graphite to 83,000 atmospheres pressure, about 2000°C for an hour; despite one success, equipment unreliable, dangerous; December 16, 1954 - General Electric produced man-made diamonds, recognized as first process that was reproducible.

September 13, 1956 - Reserve Mining Company, Duluth, MN, built E.W. Davis Works at Silver Bay, MN (jointly owned by the Armco Steel,  Republican Steel); began full production of taconite (hard ore containing 25 to 30% iron); first U.S. plant established for large-scale commercial production.

June 4, 1957 - First commercial coal pipeline placed in operation; more than one million tons of coal per year could be moved from mine in Ohio to power station 108 miles away; extended from Georgetown Preparation Plant of Hanna Coal Company (near Cadiz, Ohio), to Cleveland Illuminating Company power station (Eastlake, Ohio); pipeline, 10-3/4 inches in diameter, designed to move equal mixture of coal, water at rate of 150 tons of coal per hour.

November 2, 1957 - Titanium Metals Corp. of America opened first titanium mill in Toronto, OH; first in U.S. for rolling, forging titanium; birth of tonnage structural metal industry.

March 14, 1960 - First offshore sulphur mine, off Louisiana coast, obtained sulphur.

July 11, 1971 - Chilean parliament nationalized U.S. copper mines.

1992 - British coal industry privatized.

June 26, 2006 - Phelps Dodge agreed to acquire two Canadian companies, Inco and Falconbridge for approximately $40 billion in total; will made it global leader in copper and nickel mining business, close to being largest.

March 29, 2007 - Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold acquired Phelps Dodge, world's second largest copper producer, for $25.9 billion; created world's largest copper miner, largest mining company based in North America.

March 19, 2008 - United States as major exporter of coal, for first time in years (49 million tons in 2006 to about 59 million tons in 2007);  spot prices for two benchmark American grades of coal (from central Appalachia, Powder River Basin of Wyoming), have risen 93%, 64%  respectively in last year. (source: Doyle Trading Consultants and Evolution Markets).

( business/20080319_COAL_GRAPHIC.jpg)

(American Zinc), James D. Norris (1968). AZ: A History of the American Zinc Company. (Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 244 p.). American Zinc Company.

(Anaconda), Issac F. Marcosson (1976). Anaconda. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 370 p. [Reprint of 1957 ed.]). Anaconda Company.

(Anglo American Corporation), Duncan Innes (1984). Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa. (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 358 p.). Anglo American Corporation of South Africa, ltd. -- History; Mineral industries -- South Africa -- History; South Africa -- Economic conditions; Industries -- South Africa -- History.

(Anglo American Corporation), Bill Jamieson (1990). Goldstrike!: The Oppenheimer Empire in Crisis. (London, UK: Business Books, 252 p.). Anglo American Corporation of South Africa, ltd. -- History.

(Anzin Coal Company), Reed G. Geiger (1974). The Anzin Coal Company, 1800-1833: Big Business in the Early Stages of the French Industrial Revolution. (Newark, DE: University of Delaware, 345 p.). Compagnie des mines d'Anzin; Coal trade--France--Case studies; Industrial management--France--History.

(Arch Mineral), Otto J. Scott (1989). Buried Treasure: The Story of Arch Mineral Corporation. (Washington, DC: Braddock Communications, 246 p.). Arch Mineral Corporation--History; Coal trade--United States--History.

(ASARCO), Harvey O'Connor (1937). The Guggenheims; The Making of an American Dynasty. (New York, NY: Covici, Friede, 496 p.). Guggenheim family; Mineral industries--United States.

Meyer Guggenheim (

(ASARCO), Issac Frederick Marcosson (1949). Metal Magic; The Story of the American Smelting & Refining Company. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, 313 p.). American Smelting and Refining Company.

(ASARCO), Milton Lomask (1964). Seed Money: The Guggenheim Story. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, 307 p.). Guggenheim family.

(ASARCO), Edwin P. Hoyt, Jr. (1967). The Guggenheims and the American Dream. (New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 382 p.). Guggenheim Family.

(ASARCO), John H. Davis (1978). The Guggenheims: An American Epic. (New York, NY: Morrow, 608 p.). Guggenheim family; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Art patrons--United States--Biography; Jews--United States--Biography; United States--Biography.

(ASARCO), Monica Perales (2010). Smeltertown: Making and Remembering a Southwest Border Community. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 336 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Houston). Mexican Americans --Texas --Smeltertown --History; Mexican Americans --Texas --Smeltertown --Biography; Mexican Americans --Texas --Smeltertown --Ethnic identity; Working class --Texas --Smeltertown --History; Smelting --Social aspects --Texas --Smeltertown --History; Community life --Texas --Smeltertown --History; Collective memory --Texas --Smeltertown; Company towns --Mexican-American Border Region --Case studies; Smeltertown (Tex.) --History; Smeltertown (Tex.) --Biography. Birth, growth, ultimate demise of working class community in largest U.S. city on Mexican border (on banks of Rio Grande) at heart of railroad, mining, smelting empire; home to generations of ethnic Mexicans (labored at American Smelting and Refining Company in El Paso, Texas); ethnic Mexicans at center of transnational capitalism; making of urban West; multiple real and imagined social worlds created by company, church, schools, residents themselves; residents forged permanence and meaning in shadow of smelter's giant smokestacks; how people and places invent, reinvent themselves; vibrant community grappling with own sense of itself, its place in history,  collective memory.

(Ashanti Goldfields Co.), Edward S. Ayensu (1997). Ashanti Gold: The African Legacy of the World's Most Precious Metal. (Accra, Ghana: Ashanti Goldfields, 200 p.). Ashanti Goldfields Co.--History; Gold mines and mining--Ghana--History.

(Barrick Gold), Richard Rohmer (1997). The Golden Phoenix: A Biography of Peter Munk. (Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books, 360 p.). Munk, Peter, 1927- ; Barrick Gold Corp.--History; Businessmen--Canada--Biography; Gold industry--Canada--History; International business enterprises--Canada--History.

(Batopilas Mining Company), John Mason Hart (2008). The Silver of the Sierra Madre: John Robinson, Boss Shepherd, and the People of the Canyons. (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 237 p.). John and Rebecca Moores Professor of History (University of Houston). Shepherd, Alexander Robey, 1835-1902; Robinson, John Riley; Batopilas Mining Company; Silver mines and mining --Mexico --Copper Canyon; Tarahumara Indians --History; Batopilas (Mexico) --History. Mining center in Chihuahua’s remote copper canyon country controlled, from 1860 to 1910, by two American men; their styles of entrepreneurship: their ability to build network of connections in U.S., for investment, Mexico, for support and protection; impact on local region.

(Best Coal Company), David P. Bridges (2003). The Best Coal Company in All Chicago: And How It Got That Way. (Martinsville, IN: Bookman Pub., 155 p.). Best family; Best, Jacob, 1878-1963; Best Coal Company; Coal trade--Illinois--Chicago; Germans--Illinois--Chicago; Chicago (Ill.)--Biography. 

(BHP Billiton), Peter Thompson and Robert Macklin (2009). The Big Fella: The Rise and Rise of BHP Billiton. (North Sydney, N.S.W.: William Heinemann, 448 p.). BHP Billiton - History; Mining corporations - Australia - History. How BHP, its partner, Billiton, rose from humblest beginnings in Australian Outback to heights on great bourses of world; visions, schemes, scandals, corporate life-and-death struggles that have characterized BHP's evolution; story of foresight, blunder, nation-building, rampant ego, greed and grace.

(British South Africa Company), John S. Galbraith (1974). Crown and Charter: The Early Years of the British South Africa Company. (Berekeley, CA: University of California Press, 354 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; British South Africa Company.

(British South Africa Company), Paul Maylam (1980). Rhodes, the Tswana, and the British: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Conflict in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1885-1899. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 245 p.). British South Africa Company; Tswana (African people); Botswana -- Colonization.

(British South Africa Company), Fergus Macpherson (1981). Anatomy of a Conquest--the British Occupation of Zambia, 1884-1924. (Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Longman, 266 p.). British South Africa Company; Zambia -- History -- To 1890; Zambia -- History -- 1890-1924.

(British South Africa Company), Arthur Keppel-Jones (1983). Rhodes and Rhodesia: The White Conquest of Zimbabwe, 1884-1902. (Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen's University Press, 674 p.). British South Africa Company; Zimbabwe -- History -- 1890-1965; Zimbabwe -- History; Zimbabwe -- Colonization.

(Broken Hill Proprietary), Geoffrey Blainey (1968). The Rise of Broken Hill. (Melbourne, AU: Macmillan of Australia, 184 p.). Mineral industries--Australia--Broken Hill (N.S.W.)--History.

(Broken Hill Proprietary), Christopher Jay (1999). A Future More Prosperous: The History of Newcastle Steelworks, 1912-1999. (Newcastle, NSW: Broken Hill Proprietary Co., 280 p.). BHP Newcastle Steelworks (Newcastle, N.S.W.)--History; Steel industry and trade--Australia--Newcastle (N.S.W.)--History.

(Broken Hill South), Brian Carroll (1986). Built on Silver: A History of Broken Hill South. (Melbourne, AU: Hill of Content, 187 p.). Broken Hill South Pty. Ltd.--History; Mineral industries--Australia--History; Mining corporations--Australia--History.

(Bunker Hill Company), Ray Chapman (1994). Uncle Bunker: Memories in Words and Pictures. (Kellogg, ID, Chapman Pub., 162 p.). Author. Bunker Hill Company --History; Lead mines and mining --Idaho --Kellogg --History; Silver mines and mining --Idaho --Kellogg --History; Silver mines and mining --Idaho --Kellogg --History. 

(Bunker Hill Company), Katherine G. Aiken (2005). Idaho's Bunker Hill: The Rise and Fall of a Great Mining Company, 1885-1981. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 284 p.). Bunker Hill Company--History; Mineral industries--Idaho--Kellogg--History; Lead mines and mining--Idaho--Kellogg--History; Zinc mines and mining--Idaho--Kellogg--History; Silver mines and mining--Idaho--Kellogg--History. 1968 - acquired in hostile takeover by Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation.

(Calumet and Hecla), C. Harry Benedict (1952). Red Metal; The Calumet and Hecla Story. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 257 p.). Calumet and Hecla, Inc.

(Cash-On-Delivery Mine), Thomas J. Noel and Cathleen M. Norman (2000). Pikes Peak Partnership: The Penroses and the Tutts. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 264 p.). Penrose, Spencer, b. 1865; Tutt, Charles Leaming; Businessmen--Colorado--Colorado Springs--Biography; Industrialists--Colorado--Colorado Springs--Biography; Philanthropists--Colorado--Colorado Springs--Biography; Colorado Springs (Colo.)--Biography.

Spencer Penrose - C.O.D. Mine  (

(Cash-on-Delivery Mine), Robert C. Olson (2008). Speck: The Life and Times of Spencer Penrose. (Lake City, CO: Western Reflections Pub. Co., 209 p.). Penrose, Spencer, b. 1865; Broadmoor (Hotel : Colorado Springs, Colo.) --History; Businessmen --Colorado --Biography; Industrialists --Colorado --Biography; Real estate developers --Colorado --Biography; Philanthropists --Colorado --Biography; Civic leaders --Colorado --Biography; Mines and mineral resources --Colorado --History; Colorado Springs (Colo.) --Biography; Colorado --History --1876-1950. Colorado Springs mining magnate, hotelier; made first fortune in C.O.D. mine; invested in speculative technology for extracting copper from low-grade ore at Bingham Canyon, UT (beginning of Utah Copper Co., later Kennecott, source of Penrose millions); 1918 - built Broadmoor.

(Chamber of Mines of South Africa), John Lang (1986). Bullion Johannesburg: Men, Mines, and the Challenge of Conflict. (Johannesburg, SA: J. Ball, 509 p.). Chamber of Mines of South Africa--History; Mineral industries--South Africa--History; Miners--South Africa--History.

(Coal & Allied), Christopher Jay (1994). The Coal Masters: The History of Coal & Allied 1844-1994. (Double Bay, NSW: Focus, 240 p.). Coal & Allied--History; Coal mines and mining--Australia--History.

(Coal), Howard N. Eavenson (1942). The First Century and a Quarter of American Coal Industry. (Pittsburgh, PA: Privately Printed, 701 p.). Coal trade--United States; Coal mines and mining--United States.

(Coal), Norman L. Dalsted and F. Larry Leistritz (1974). A Selected Bibliography on Coal-Energy Development of Particular Interest to the Western States. (Fargo, ND: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, North Dakota Agricultural Experimental Station, North Dakota State University, 82 p.). Coal mines and mining--Bibliography; Coal mines and mining--West (U.S.)--Bibliography.

(Coal), M. W. Kirby (1977). The British Coalmining Industry, 1870-1946: A Political and Economic History. (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 278 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Industrial policy--Great Britain--History.

(Coal), H. Benjamin Powell (1978). Philadelphia's First Fuel Crisis: Jacob Cist and the Developing Market for Pennsylvania Anthracite. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Pres, 167 p.). Cist, Jacob, 1782-1825; Anthracite coal -- Pennsylvania -- History; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

(Coal), Michael W. Flinn (1984). The History of the British Coal Industry: 1700-1830, The Industrial Revolution. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal trade--Government ownership--Great Britain--History.  

(Coal), B.R. Mitchell (1984). Economic Development of the British Coal Industry, 1800-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 381 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal miners--Labor unions--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal miners--Great Britain--History.

(Coal), William Ashworth (1986). The History of the British Coal Industry 1946-1982: The Nationalized Industry. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 800 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal trade--Government ownership--Great Britain--History. 

(Coal), Roy Church (1986). The History of the British Coal Industry: 1830-1913: Victorian Pre-Eminence. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 850 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal trade--Government ownership--Great Britain--History.  

(Coal), Barry Supple (1988). The History of the British Coal Industry, 1913-1946: The Political Economy of Decline. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 770 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal trade--Government ownership--Great Britain--History.

A. Dudley Gardner and Verla R. Flores (1989). Forgotten Frontier: A History of Wyoming Coal Mining. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 243 p.). Coal mines and mining --Wyoming --History.

(Coal), John Hatcher (1993). The History of the British Coal Industry: Before 1700 : Towards the Age of Coal  (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 656 p.). Coal trade--Great Britain--History; Coal mines and mining--Great Britain--History; Coal trade--Government ownership--Great Britain--History.    

(Coal), Barbara Freese (2003). Coal: A Human History. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 320 p.). Former Assistant Attorney General of Minnesota. Coal mines and mining. How coal transformed England and US into industrial giants and is reshaping emerging giants like China.

(Coal), David A. Wolff (2003). Industrializing the Rockies: Growth, Competition, and Turmoil in the Coalfields of Colorado and Wyoming, 1868-1914. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado 270 p.). Coal miners -- Colorado -- History; Coal miners -- Wyoming -- History; Strikes and lockouts -- Coal mining -- Rocky Mountains Region -- History; Coal Strike, Colo., 1913-1914; Rock Springs Massacre, Rock Springs, Wyo., 1885; Coal miners -- Labor unions -- Colorado -- History; Coal miners -- Labor unions -- Wyoming -- History; Industrial relations -- Rocky Mountains Region -- History; Coal trade -- Rocky Mountains Region -- History. 

(Coal), Sean Patrick Adams (2004). Old Dominion, Industrial Commonwealth: Coal, Politics, and Economy in Antebellum America. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 305 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Central Florida). Coal trade--Pennsylvania--History; Coal trade--Virginia--History. Political economies of coal in Virginia, Pennsylvania from late 18th century through Civil War, divergent paths they took in developing their ample coal reserves during critical period of American industrialization.

(Coal), R.G. Healey (2007). The Pennsylvania Anthracite Coal Industry, 1860-1902: Economic Cycles, Business Decision-Making and Regional Dynamics. (Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 512 p.). Professor of Geography (University of Portsmouth in England). Anthracite coal industry--Pennsylvania--History. Development of anthracite coal industry, in national, regional contexts, from onset of American Civil War to "Great Strike" of 1902; restricted coalfields contrasted with widening coal distribution region; changing relationships between anthracite carrying railroads, mining companies; evaluation of decision-making, investment behavior of entrepreneurs, corporate managers.

(Coal), Paul Lucier (2008). Scientists & Swindlers: Consulting on Coal and Oil in America, 1820-1890. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 426 p.). Historian of Science and Technology. Science and industry --Moral and ethical aspects --United States --History --19th century; Petroleum industry and trade --United States --History --19th century; Petroleum industry and trade --Canada --History --19th century; Coal trade --United States --History --19th century; Coal trade --Canada --History --19th century; Science and law --United States --History --19th century. How science became integral part of American technology, industry; role played by science, business in nation’s industrialization, transformation into new energy era; development of geology, birth of petroleum geology, through series of scientific advances, legal controversies; 1860 - coal-oil industry produced 7-9 million gallons of lamp oil annually; industry grew too large, too fast; collapsed in speculative bubble; oversupply of coal oil drove down prices, costs of production could not easily be reduced; bankruptcies swept industry at moment when petroleum was possible source of supply for kerosene; transformation not inevitable.

(Coal), Richard J. Callahan, Jr. (2009). Work and Faith in the Kentucky Coal Fields: Subject to Dust. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 259 p.). Assistant Professor of Religious Studies (University of Missouri-Columbia). Coal miners --Religious life; Kentucky --Religious life and customs. Transition Appalachian families made from subsistence farming to industrial coal mining in early 1900s; discovered key role religion played in their development as  coal mining society; how coal miners used religion to interpret their circumstances, particularly unsafe work place.

(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company), Sylvia Ruland (1981). The Lion of Redstone. (Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 116 p.). Osgood, John Cleveland, 1851-1926; Coal trade--Colorado--History; Mineral industries--Colorado--History; Businesspeople--Colorado--Biography.

(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company), F. Darrell Munsell (2009). From Redstone to Ludlow: John Cleaveland Osgood's Struggle Against the United Mine Workers of America. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 392 p.). Professor Emeritus (West Texas A&M University). Coal trade -- Colorado -- History; Coal miners -- Labor unions -- Colorado -- History; Capitalists and financiers -- Colorado -- Biography; United Mine Workers of America -- History; Osgood, John Cleveland, 1851-1926. Events from 1892, when Osgood and associates organized Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, to 1917, when Osgood signed contract with United Mine Workers of America, end of his long history of battling the union; leading coal baron in western mountain region, most prominent spokesperson for coal industry for over three decades; "Redstone experiment," model industrial village designed to improve lives of workers through social programs, showed Osgood's efforts to attain anti-union goals through compassion; Ludlow tent colony, events there, marked by armed gunmen, machine guns paid for by Osgood, illustrated willingness to resort to violence, intimidation for same purpose.

(Comstock Lode), George D. Lyman (1934). The Saga of the Comstock Lode; Boom Days in Virginia City. (New York, NY: Scribner, 309 p.). Mines and mineral resources--Nevada--History; Mineral industries--Nevada--History; Comstock Lode (Nev.); Virginia City (Nev.).

--- (1937). Ralston’s Ring; California Plunders the Comstock Lode. (New York, NY: Scribner, 368 p.). Ralston, William Chapman, 1826-1875; Sutro, Adolph, 1830-1898; Comstock Lode (Nev.); California--History.

(Comstock Lode), Grant H. Smith; with new material by Joseph V. Tingley (1998). The History of the Comstock Lode, 1850-1997. (Reno, NV: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 328 p.[rev. 1943 ed.]). Gold mines and mining--Nevada--Virginia City Region--History; Silver mines and mining--Nevada--Virginia City Region--History; Mineral industries--Nevada--Virginia City Region--History; Comstock Lode (Nev.)--History; Virginia City (Nev.)--Social life and customs.

(Conrey Placer Mining Company), Clark C. Spence (1989). The Conrey Placer Mining Company: A Pioneer Gold-Dredging Enterprise in Montana, 1897-1922. (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press, 161 p.). Conrey Placer Mining Company--History; Gold industry--Montana--Alder--History; Gold dredging--Montana--Alder--History.

(Consolidated Gold Fields), The Company (1937). The Gold Fields1887-1937. (Johannesburg, SA: Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, 185 p.). History of The Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, to mark the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Company (February 1887).

(Consolidated Gold Fields), Alan Patrick Cartwright (1967). Gold Paved the Way: The Story of the Gold Fields Group of Companies. (London, UK: Macmillan, 326 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; Rudd, Charles Dunell, 1844-1916; Consolidated Gold Fields Ltd.

(Consolidated Gold Fields), Paul Johnson (1987). Consolidated Gold Fields: A Centenary Portrait. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 256 p.). Consolidated Gold Fields Limited--History; Gold industry--South Africa--History; Gold mines and mining--History.

(Consolidation Coal Company), Geoffrey L. Buckley (2004). Extracting Appalachia: Images of the Consolidation Coal Company, 1910/1945. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 215 p.). Consolidation Coal Company--History; Consolidation Coal Company--Pictorial works; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region--History; Coal mines and mining--Appalachian Region--Pictorial works; Appalachian Region--Pictorial works.  

(Copper), Issac F. Marcosson (1953). Industrial Main Street; The Story of Rome, The Copper City. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 220 p.). Copper industry and trade--New York (State)--Rome; Rome (N.Y.)--Industries.

(Copper), Maxwell Whiteman (1971). Copper for America; The Hendricks Family and a National Industry, 1755-1939. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 353 p.). Hendricks family; Copper industry and trade--United States.

(Copper), Thomas R. Navin (1978). Copper Mining & Management. (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 426 p.). Copper industry and trade--Management; Copper industry and trade--United States--History.

(Copper), Charles K. Hyde (1998). Copper for America: The United States Copper Industry from Colonial Times to the 1990s. (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 267 p.). Copper mines and mining--United States--History; Copper industry and trade--United States--History. 

(Cyprus Mines Corporation), David Sievert Lavender (1961). The Story of Cyprus Mines Corporation. (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 387 p.). Cyprus Mines Corporation.

(De Beers), T.E. Gregory (1962). Ernest Oppenheimer and the Economic Development of Southern Africa. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 637 p.). Oppenheimer, Ernest, Sir, 1880-1957; Diamonds; South Africa--Economic conditions.

Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (Chairman, DeBeers, 1888-1902)  []

Sir Ernest Oppenheimer Sir Ernest Oppenheimer (Chairman, DeBeers, 1929-1957)  []

Harry Oppenheimer Harry Oppenheimer (Chairman, DeBeers, 1957-1985)  []

(De Beers), J.G. Lockhart and C.M. Woodhouse (1963). Cecil Rhodes; The Colossus of Southern Africa. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 525 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; South Africa--Politics and government--1836-1909.

(De Beers), Anthony Hocking (1973). Oppenheimer and Son. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 526 p.). Oppenheimer, Ernest, Sir, 1880-1957; Oppenheimer, H. F. (Harry Frederick), 1908-.

(De Beers), John Flint (1974). Cecil Rhodes. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 268 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; Statesmen--Africa, Southern--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Africa, Southern--Biography; Africa, Southern--History.

(De Beers), Edward Jesup (1979). Ernest Oppenheimer: A Study in Power. (London, UK: Collings, 357 p.). Oppenheimer, Ernest, Sir, 1880-1957; Businessmen--South Africa--Biography; Diamond industry and trade--South Africa--History.

(De Beers), Robert I. Rotberg, with the collaboration of Miles F. Shore (1988). The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 800 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; Statesmen--Africa, Southern--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Africa, Southern--Biography.

(De Beers), Brian Roberts (1988). Cecil Rhodes: Flawed Colossus. (New York, NY: Norton, 319 p.). Rhodes, Cecil, 1853-1902; Statesmen--Africa, Southern--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Africa, Southern--Biography.

(De Beers), Stefan Kanfer (1993). The Last Empire: De Beers, Diamonds, and the World. (New York, NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 409 p.). De Beers Consolidated Mines--History; Diamond mines and mining--South Africa--History; South Africa--History--1836-1909; South Africa--History--1909-1961; South Africa--History--1961-.

(De Beers), Peter Carstens (2001). In the Company of Diamonds: De Beers, Kleinzee, and the Control of a Town. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 257 p.). De Beers Consolidated Mines--History; Diamond industry and trade--South Africa--Kleinzee--History; Diamond miners--South Africa--Kleinzee--History; Blacks--Employment--South Africa--Kleinzee--History; Industrial relations--South Africa--Kleinzee--History; Capitalism--South Africa--Kleinzee--History.

(De Beers), Donna J. Bergenstock (2004). An Analysis of the International Diamond Market. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 164 p.). De Beers Consolidated Mines; Diamond industry and trade; Diamonds--Russia (Federation); Diamonds--Prices; Cartels. Marketing strategies, monopoly power of De Beers' Central Selling Organization (CSO) in face of Russia Federation's "leakage" of rough (uncut and unpolished) diamonds on the open market in violation of their sales agreement with De Beers.

(Denison Mines Limited), Paul McKay (1990). The Roman Empire: The Unauthorized Life and Times of Stephen Roman. (Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books, 242 p.). Roman, Stephen; Denison Mines Limited--History; Denison Mines Limited--Histoire; Businessmen--Canada--Biography; Slovak Canadians--Biography; Hommes d'affaires--Canada--Biographies; Canadiens d'origine slovaque--Biographies.

(Diamonds), Edited by James H. Wilkins, with a foreword by Glen Dawson (1958). The Great Diamond Hoax and Other Stirring Incidents in the Life of Asbury Harpending. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 211 p.). Mines and mineral resources--California; California--History. 

(Diamonds), Brian Roberts (1973). The Diamond Magnates. (New York, NY: Scribner, 335 p.). Diamond mines and mining--South Africa.

(Diamonds), Marian Robertson (1974). Diamond Fever; South African Diamond History, 1866-9 from Primary Sources. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 250 p.). Diamond mines and mining--South Africa--History.

(Diamonds), David E. Kosikoff (1981). The Diamond World. (New York, NY: Harper v& Row, 356 p.). Diamond industry and trade.

(Diamonds), Murray Schumach (1981). The Diamond People. (New York, NY: Norton, 255 p.). Diamond industry and trade--United States.

(Diamonds), Edward Jay Epstein (1982). The Rise and Fall of Diamonds: The Shattering of a Brilliant Illusion. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 301 p.). Diamond industry and trade. Classic on the industry.

(Diamonds), Colin Newbury (1989). The Diamond Ring: Business, Politics, and Precious Stones in South Africa, 1867-1947. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 431 p.). Diamond industry and trade--South Africa--History.

(Diamonds), Kevin Krajick (2001). Barren Lands: An Epic Search for Diamonds in the North American Arctic. (New York, NY: Holt, 442 p.). Winner 1998 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism (American Geophysical Union). Diamonds--Northwest Territories--Gras, Lac de, Region. 

(Diamonds), Matthew Hart (2001). Diamond: A Journey to the Heart of an Obsession. (New York, NY: Walker, 256 p.). Diamonds. 

(Diamonds), Renée Rose Shield (2002). Diamond Stories: Enduring Change on 47th Street. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 233 p.). Diamond industry and trade--New York (State)--New York--History; Jews in the diamond industry--New York (State)--New York--History; Jewish businesspeople--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Diamonds), Greg Campbell (2002). Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 251 p.). Freelance Journalist. Diamond industry and trade--Social aspects--Sierra Leone; Diamond miners--Crimes against--Sierra Leone; Diamond industry and trade--Corrupt practices; Sierra Leone--History--Civil War, 1991.

(Diamonds), Douglas Farah (2004). Blood from Stones: The Secret Financial Network of Terror. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 225 p.). Terrorism--Economic aspects--Africa, West; Diamond mines and mining--Africa, West; Diamond industry and trade--Africa, West; Terrorism--Religious aspects--Islam; Political corruption--Africa, West; Africa, West--Politics and government; Africa, West--Social conditions; Africa, West--Economic conditions.

(Diamonds), Martin Meredith (2007). Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa. (New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 570 p.) South African War, 1899-1902--Causes; Diamond industry and trade--South Africa--History--19th century; Gold industry--South Africa--History--19th century; Afrikaners--South Africa--History; Great Britain--Colonies--Africa--Administration; Great Britain--Foreign relations--1837-1901; South Africa--History--1836-1909; South Africa--Politics and government--1836-1909. Turbulent years leading to founding of modern state of South Africa in 1910; prospectors chanced first upon world's richest deposits of diamonds, then upon richest deposits of gold;  titanic struggle between British, Boers for control of land followed,  culminated in costliest, bloodiest, most humiliating war that Britain had waged in nearly a century, devastation of Boer republics.

(Diamonds), Ian Smillie (2010). Blood on the Stone: Greed, Corruption and War in the Global Diamond Trade. (New York, NY: Anthem Press, 237 p.). Diamond industry and trade -- Africa; Conflict diamonds -- Africa; Political corruption -- Africa. How diamonds came to be so dangerous; history of great diamond cartel, how it lost control of precious mineral; diamond pipeline, from war-torn Africa to glittering showrooms; campaign, began in 1999, eventually forced industry, more than 50 governments to create global certification system, Kimberley Process, to wring blood diamonds out of retail trade; assessment of certification system.

(Dome Mines), Peter Foster (1993). Other People's Money: The Banks, the Government and Dome. (Don Mills, ON: Collins, 286 p.). Dome Petroleum Limited -- History.

(Dome Mines), Charles P. Girdwood, Lawrence F. Jones and George Lonn (1983). The Big Dome: Over Seventy Years of Gold Mining in Canada. (Toronto, ON: Cybergraphics Co., 249 p.). Dome Mines Limited -- History; Gold mines and mining -- Canada -- History; Gold mines and mining -- Ontario -- History.

(Dome Mines), Jim Lyon (1983). Dome: The Rise and Fall of the House That Jack Built. (Scarborough, ON: Avon Books of Canada, 250 p.). Dome Petroleum Limited -- History.

(Eldorado Mining and Refining), Robert Bothwell (1984). Eldorado: Canada's National Uranium Company. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 470 p.). Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited -- History; Eldorado Nuclear Limited -- History.

(Empire Mine), Ferol Egan (1998). Last Bonanza Kings: The Bourns of San Francisco. (Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 289 p.). Bourn, William, b. 1813; Bourn, William, 1857-1936; Bourne family; Pioneers--California--San Francisco--Biography; Businessmen--California--San Francisco--Biography; San Francisco (Calif.)--Biography; San Francisco (Calif.)--History.

(Falconbridge), John Deverell and the Latin American Working Group (1975). Falconbridge: Portrait of a Canadian Mining Multinational. (Toronto, ON: J. Lorimer, 184 p.). Falconbridge Nickel Mines Limited; International business enterprises; Nickel industry--Canada.

(John Fyfe Ltd.), The Company (1996). John Fyfe: One Hundred and Fifty Years, 1846 - 1996. (Kemnay, UK: Time Pieces Publications, 72 p.). -- History; Granite industry and trade -- Scotland -- Kemnay -- History; Granite Quarrying History; Grampian (Scotland).

(Gold), George F. Willison (1931). Here They Dug the Gold. (New York, NY: Brentano's, 299 p.). Tabor, Horace Austin Warner, 1830-1899; Colorado -- Gold discoveries; Frontier and pioneer life -- Colorado. Protagonist in epic of Colorado's creation.

(Gold), Frank Waters (1937). Midas of the Rockies; The Story of Stratton and Cripple Creek. (New York, NY: Covici, Friede, 344 p.). Stratton, Winfield Scott, 1848-1902; Gold mines and mining -- Colorado -- Cripple Creek.

(Gold), Rodman L. Paul (1947). California Gold; The Beginning of Mining in the Far West. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 380 p.). Gold mines and mining--California; Frontier and pioneer life--California; California--Gold discoveries.

(Gold), Pierre Berton (1972). Klondike; The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 472 p. [rev. ed.]). Klondike River Valley (Yukon)--Gold discoveries.

(Gold), Duane A. Smith (1973). Horace Tabor: His Life and the Legend. (Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press, 395 p.). Tabor, Horace Austin Warner, 1830-1899.

(Gold), Ray Vicker (1975). The Realms of Gold. (New York, NY: Scribner, 244 p.). Gold--History.

(Gold), H. Willia, Axford (1976). Gilpin County Gold : Peter McFarlane, 1848-1929, Mining Entrepreneur in Central City, Colorado. (Chicago, IL: Sage Books, 210 p.). McFarlane, Peter Barclay, 1848-1929; Gilpin County (Colo.) -- Gold discoveries; Central City (Colo.) -- Biography.

(Gold), Joseph E. King (1977). A Mine To Make a Mine: Financing the Colorado Mining Industry, 1859-1902. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 209 p.). Gold industry--Colorado--Finance--History; Gold mines and mining--Colorado--Finance--History; Silver mines and mining--Colorado--Finance--History; Mineral industries--Colorado--Finance--History.

(Gold), Eric Cousineau, Peter R. Richardson (1979). Gold: The World Industry and Canadian Corporate Strategy. (Kingston, ON: Queen's University, Centre for Resources Studies, 192 p.). Gold mines and mining--Canada; Mines and mineral resources--Canada.

(Gold), J.S. Holliday (1981). The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 559 p.). Swain, William, 1821-1904; California -- History -- 1846-1850; California -- Gold discoveries; Overland journeys to the Pacific; Pioneers -- California -- Biography; California -- Biography.

(Gold), E. Hazard Wells (1984). Magnificence and Misery: A Firsthand Account of the 1897 Klondike Gold Rush. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 254 p.). Wells, E. Hazard; Klondike River Valley (Yukon)--Gold discoveries; Klondike River Valley (Yukon)--Description and travel.

(Gold), Matthew Hart (1985). Golden Giant: Hemlo and the Rush for Canada's Gold. (Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 176 p.). Gold mines and mining--Ontario--Hemlo Region--History.

(Gold), James P. Delgado (1990). To California by Sea: A Maritime History of the California Gold Rush. (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 237 p.). Maritime Historian of the National Park Service. Navigation --California --History --19th century; Shipping --California --History --19th century; California --Gold discoveries. Gold Rush's affect on maritime industry (trade prior to 1848--furs, hides, whaling); sea-faring gold seekers as they sailed to California; development of San Francisco waterfront, maritime industries along coast.

(Gold), Jo Ann Levy (1992). They Saw the Elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 265 p.). Women pioneers--California--History--19th century; Women--California--History--19th century; Frontier and pioneer life--California; California--Gold discoveries.

(Gold), Paula Mitchell Marks (1994). Precious Dust: The American Gold Rush Era, 1848-1900. (New York, NY: Morrow, 448 p.). Gold mines and mining--North America--History--19th century; North America--Gold discoveries.

(Gold), Hal Colebatch (1996). Claude de Bernales, The Magnificent Miner: A Biography. (Carlisle, W.A.: Hesperian Press, 323 p.). Bernales, Claude de, 1876-1963; Businessmen--Australia--Biography; Gold industry--Australia--History. 

(Gold), Gary F. Kurutz; introduction by J.S. Holliday (1997). The California Gold Rush: A Descriptive Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets Covering the Years 1848-1853. (San Francisco, CA: Book Club of California, 771 p.). Gold mines and mining--California--History--19th century--Sources--Bibliography--Union lists; Catalogs, Union--United States; California--Gold discoveries--Sources--Bibliography--Union lists.

(Gold), Malcolm J. Rohrbough (1997). Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 353 p.). Professor of History (University of Iowa). California--Gold discoveries. Most significant event in first half of nineteenth century; produced vast movement of people; called into question basic values of marriage, family, work, wealth, leisure; led to so many varied consequences; left such vivid memories among its participants; touched lives of families, communities everywhere in United States.

(Gold), Raymond E. Dumett (1998). El Dorado in West Africa: The Gold-Mining Frontier, African Labor, and Colonial Capitalism in the Gold Coast, 1875-1900. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 396 p.). Gold mines and mining--Ghana--History--19th century; Gold miners--Ghana--History--19th century; Capitalism--Ghana--History--19th century. First modern mechanized gold rush in West Africa, its aftermath.

(Gold), Edited by Ramon Gutierrez, Richard J. Orsi (1998). Contested Eden: California Before the Gold Rush. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 396 p.). Professor of Ethnic Studies and History (University of California, San Diego); Professor of History (California State University, Hayward). California --History --To 1846; California --History --1846-1850. California history before American conquest; re-evaluation of European-Indian relations in California prior to 1848; natural environment, history of the Indians, exploration, social and economic history; contemporary perspective on evolution of distinctive California culture, interaction between people and natural environment, ways in which California's development affected United States and world, legacy of cultural and ethnic diversity in the state.

(Gold), Mary Hill (1999). Gold: The California Story. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 306 p.). California -- Gold discoveries; California -- History -- 1846-1850.

(Gold), J.S. Holliday (1999). Rush For Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (with Oakland Museum of California), 355 p.). California -- Gold discoveries; California -- History -- 1846-1850; California -- History -- 1850-1950.

(Gold), Editors James J. Rawls and Richard J. Orsi; associate editor Marlene Smith-Baranzini (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 313 p.). Instructor of History (Diablo Valley College); Professor of History (California State University, Hayward). Gold mines and mining --California --History --19th century; California --Economic conditions --19th century. Economic impact of epoch-making event; how Gold Rush precipitated veritable economic revolution; relationship between technology and society, environmental impact from mining, sudden increase in California's population, influence of Gold Rush on agriculture, manufacturing, banking, transportation; impact on peoples, economies of Latin America, Europe, Asia; economic forces, for good or ill, that transformed California forever into Golden State.

(Gold), Susan Lee Johnson (2000). Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush. (New York, NY: Norton, 464 p.). Professor of History (University of Colorado). Mining camps--Sierra Nevada (Calif. and Nev.)--History--19th century; California--Gold discoveries--Social aspects; California--Social life and customs--19th century; Sierra Nevada (Calif. and Nev.)--Gold discoveries--Social aspects; California--Ethnic relations. Cosmopolitan, multicultural event - Mexicans, French, Chinese, African-Americans, Chileans, Miwok Indians, WASPs panned for gold in foothills of the Sierra Nevadas Mountains, around town of Stockton; dynamic social world in which conventions of ethnic, national, sexual identity were reshaped (all-male households of diggings, mines where men worked, fandango houses where they played).

(Gold), Brian Roberts (2000). American Alchemy: The California Gold Rush and Middle-Class Culture. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 328 p.). Assistant Professor of History (California State University in Sacramento). Frontier and pioneer life--California; Frontier and pioneer life--West (U.S.); Pioneers--California--History--19th century; Pioneers--Northeastern States--History--19th century; Middle class--California--History--19th century; Middle class--Northeastern States--History--19th century; California--Gold discoveries--Social aspects; California--Social conditions--19th century; Northeastern States--Social conditions--19th century. Long-neglected truth of gold rush: many of northeastern forty-niners who ventured westward were middle-class in origin, status, values; did not turn their backs on middle-class culture; overlooked chapter in history of formation of middle class - rebellion against standards of respectability.

(Gold), H. W. Brands (2002). The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the Birth of Modern America. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 547 p.). California--Gold discoveries; California--Gold discoveries--Social aspects; United States--Civilization--1783-1865; United States--Social conditions--To 1865. 

(Gold), Edited by Kenneth N. Owens (2002). Riches for All: The California Gold Rush and the World. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 367 p.). Professor Emeritus of History and Ethnic Studies (California State University, Sacramento). California --Ethnic relations; California --Social conditions --19th century; Minorities --California --Social conditions --19th century; Immigrants --California --Social conditions --19th century; Frontier and pioneer life --California; California --Gold discoveries --Social aspects. California gold rush created more diverse, metropolitan society than world had ever known; leading scholars reexamine gold rush, evaluate its trajectory and legacy within global context of religion and race, economics, technology, law, culture.

(Gold), Dale L. Walker (2003). Eldorado: The California Gold Rush. (New York, NY: Forge, p.). Pioneers--California--History--19th century; Pioneers--California--Biography; Frontier and pioneer life--California; California--Gold discoveries; California--History--1846-1850; California--Biography. Toll on humans, nature far outweighed benefits; brutal era, arduous journeys, collision of cultures in San Francisco, perils of chasing gold; greed undercuts greed until nothing remains.

(Gold), Albert L. Hurtado (2006). John Sutter: A Life on the North American Frontier. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 416 p.). Paul H. and Doris Eaton Travis Chair of Modern American History (University of Oklahoma). Sutter, John. First fully documented account of John Sutter in broader context of America’s rush for westward expansion.

(Gold), John Stewart (2007). Thomas F. Walsh: Progressive Businessman and Colorado Mining Tycoon. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 230 p.). Walsh, Thomas F. (Thomas Francis), 1850-1910; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Colorado -- Gold discoveries; Gold mines and mining -- Colorado -- History. Struck gold at Camp Bird Mine in Ouray, CO;  developed mine properly; enlightened employer (mines cleaner and safer than most, provided miners with comfortable living quarters, decent food, supported eight-hour day).

(Gold), Aims McGuinness (2007). Path of Empire: Panama and the California Gold Rush. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 249 P.). Assistant Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Americans --Panama --History --19th century; Watermelon Riot, Colon, Panama, 1856; United States --Foreign relations --Panama; Panama --Foreign relations --United States; Panama --History --19th century; California --History --1846-1850; California --Gold discoveries. Intertwined histories of California Gold Rush, course of U.S. empire, anti-imperialist politics in Latin America; how U.S. imperial projects in Panama were integral to developments in California, larger process of U.S. continental expansion.

Charlotte Gray (2010). Gold Diggers: Striking It Rich in the Klondike. (Berkeley, CA Counterpoint, 416 p.). Adjunct Research Professor in the Department of History (Carleton University). Gold mines and mining --Yukon --Klondike River Valley --History --19th century; Frontier and pioneer life --Yukon --Klondike River Valley; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --History --19th century; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --Gold discoveries; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --Biography; Dawson (Yukon) --History --19th century. 1896 - rich gold deposits discovered in Bonanza Creek; 1896-1899 - gold madness that swept through a continent, changed a landscape and its people forever; thousands of people braved grueling journey into remote wilderness of North America; Dawson City, in Canadian Yukon, grew in two years, from mining camp of 400 to raucous town of over 30,000 people; last great gold rush in history; seen intimate lives of six extraordinary people; frontier town where desperados, saloon keepers, gamblers, dance hall girls, churchmen, law-makers were thrown together in volatile time.

(Homestake Mining), Joseph H. Cash (1973). Working the Homestake. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 141 p.). Homestake Mining Company; Gold miners -- South Dakota.

(International Mining Corporation), Patrick O'Neill (2007). From Snowshoes to Wingtips: The Life of Patrick O'Neill. (Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Foundation, 208 p.). Former President of International Mining Corporation. O'Neill, Patrick; Mining corporations--Alaska--History.

(International Nickel), John F. Thompson and Norman Beasley (1960). For the Years To Come: A Story of International Nickel of Canada. (New York, NY: Putnam, 374 p.). International Nickel Company of Canada--History.

(International Nickel Company), Jamie Swift and the Development Education Centre ; foreword by Dave Patterson (1977). The Big Nickel: Inco at Home and Abroad. (Kitchener, ON: Between the Lines. International Nickel Company of Canada -- History; Nickel industry -- Ontario -- Sudbury.

(International Nickel Company), Wallace Clement (1981). Hardrock Mining: Industrial Relations and Technological Changes at INCO. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 392 p.). International Nickel Company; Nickel mines and mining -- Canada -- Case studies; Nickel mines and mining -- Canada -- Technological innovations; Industrial relations -- Canada -- Case studies.

(Imperial Smelting Corporation), E. J. Cocks and B. Walters (1968). A History of the Zinc Smelting Industry in Britain. (London, UK: Harrap, 224 p.). Imperial Smelting Corporation Ltd., London; Zinc industry and trade--Great Britain.

(Jadeite), Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark (2002). The Stone of Heaven: Unearthing the Secret History of Imperial Green Jade. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 408 p.). British Freelance Journalists. Jadeite (Petrology)--Burma. 

(Lead), James Alexander Gardner (1980). Lead King, Moses Austin. (St. Louis, MO: Sunrise Pub. Co., 249 p.). Austin, Moses, 1761-1821; Lead mines and mining--Southwest, Old--History; Pioneers--Texas--Biography; Businesspeople--Texas--Biography; Pioneers--Southwest, Old--Biography; Businesspeople--Southwest, Old--Biography; Texas--History--To 1846; Southwest, Old--History.

(Lead), David B. Gracy II; foreword by Mary Austin Perry Beretta (1987). Moses Austin: His Life. (San Antonio, TX: Trinity University Press, 303 p.). Austin, Moses, 1761-1821; Pioneers--Texas--Biography; Businesspeople--Texas--Biography; Pioneers--Southwest, Old--Biography; sinesspeople--Southwest, Old--Biography; Texas--History--To 1846; Southwest, Old--History. Father of lead industry.

(Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company), W. Julian Parton (1998). The Death of a Great Company: Reflections on the Decline and Fall of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. (Easton, PA: Canal History and Technology Press, 123 p. [2nd ed.]). Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company--History; Coal trade--Pennsylvania--History; Coal--Pennsylvania--History.

(Lilleshall Company - formed 1802), W.K.V. Gale & C.R. Nicholls (1979). The Lilleshall Company Limited: A History, 1764-1964. (Ashbourne, Derbyshire, UK: Published on behalf of the Lilleshall Company by Moorland Pub. Co., 134 p.). Lilleshall Company--History.

(London Lead Company), Arthur Raistrick (1988). Two Centuries of Industrial Welfare: The London (Quaker) Lead Company, 1692-1905. (London, UK: Kelsall & Davis, 172 p. [2nd rev. ed.]). London Lead Company -- History; Welfare work in industry -- Great Britain -- History; Great Britain Lead mining industries; London Lead Company Welfare services 1692-1905.

(Lonrho), Suzanne Cronje, Margaret Ling, and Gillian Cronjé (1976). Lonrho: Portrait of a Multinational. (London, UK: J. Friedmann, 316 p.). Lonrho (Firm).

The late former Chief Executive of Lonrho, Roland 'Tiny' Rowland "Tiny" Rowland - Lonrho (

(Lonrho), Richard Hall (1987). My Life with Tiny: Biography of Tiny Rowland. (London, UK: Faber and Faber, 250 p.). Rowland, Roland Walter "Tiny", 1917-; Lonhro; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography;. Rowland’s career from birth in centre for enemy aliens in India, through successes with Lonhro, unsuccessful fight for Harrods. 1962 - recruited to London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company, later Lonrho; October 1993 - forced to step down as Chairman.

(Lonrho), Tom Bower (1993). Tiny Rowland: A Rebel Tycoon. (London, UK: Heinemann, 659 p.). Rowland, Tiny, 1917- ; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Millionaires--Great Britain--Biography; Mineral industries--Africa--History--20th century. 

(Lonrho), EIR investigative team (1993). Tiny Rowland: The Ugly Face of Neocolonialism in Africa. (Washington, DC: Executive Intelligence Review, 165 p.). Rowland, Tiny, 1917- ; Industrialists--Great Britain--Biography; Africa--Economic conditions--1960-. London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company, later renamed Lonrho.

(Minerals), Harold Barger and Sam H. Schurr (1944). The Mining Industries, 1899-1939: A Study of Output, Employment, and Productivity. (New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 452 p.). Mineral industries -- United States -- History; Mining engineering -- United States -- History.

(Minerals), James E. Fell, Jr. (1979). Ores to Metals: The Rocky Mountain Smelting Industry. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 341 p.). Mineral industries--Rocky Mountains Region--History; Smelting--History; Rocky Mountains Region--History.

(Minerals), C. Pardee Foulke and William G. Foulke (1979). Calvin Pardee, 1841-1923: His Family and His Enterprises. (Philadelphia, PA: Pardee Company, 415 p.). Pardee, Calvin, 1841-1923; Pardee family; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Mineral industries--United States--History.

(Minerals), Richard H. Peterson (1991). The Bonanza Kings: The Social Origins and Business Behavior of Western Mining Entrepreneurs, 1870-1900. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 191 p.). Mineral industries--West (U.S.)--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Mineral industries--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; West (U.S.)--Social conditions.

--- (1991). Bonanza Rich: Lifestyles of the Western Mining Entrepreneurs. (Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 192 p.; sequel to Bonanza Kings). Mineral industries--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; Industrialists--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; Millionaires--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; Wealth--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; West (U.S.)--Social conditions.

(Mount Isa Mines Ltd.), Geoffrey Blainey (1970). Mines in the Spinifex; The Story of Mount Isa Mines. (Sydney, AU: Angus and Robertson, 256 p.). Mount Isa Mines, ltd.

(Mount Isa Mines Ltd.), Donald A. Berkman (1996). Making the Mount Isa Mine, 1923-1933: The Discovery of the Giant Mount Isa Silver-Lead-Zinc Ore Deposit, the Formation of Mount Isa Mines Limited, and the Development of the Mine and Township. (Carlton, Vic.: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 161 p.). Mount Isa Mines, ltd.--History; Lead mines and mining--Australia--Mount Isa Region (Qld.)--History; Silver mines and mining--Australia--Mount Isa Region (Qld.)--History; Zinc mines and mining--Australia--Mount Isa Region (Qld.)--History.

(Newmont Mining), Robert H. Ramsey (1973). Men and Mines of Newmont; A Fifty-Year History. (New York, NY: Octagon Books, 344 p.). Newmont Mining Corporation.

(Newmont Mining), Jack H. Morris. (2010). Going for Gold: The History of Newmont Mining Corporation. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 395 p.). Retired Vice President, Investor Relations, for Newmont Mining Corporation. Newmont Mining Corporation; Colorado -- Gold discoveries; Gold mines and mining -- Colorado -- History. How world's second largest gold mining company revolutionized industry; 1917 - helped finance South Africa’s largest gold company, later owned famous gold mines in California, Colorado; 1960s - developed process to capture "invisible gold" from small distributions of metal in large quantities of rock; heavy odds for modern corporate miners: extract value from ores containing as little as 1/100 of an ounce per ton; often-remote locations, high capital cost of new mine (can top $2 billion).

(Nickel - Gap Nickel Mine), W. Ross Yates (1987). Joseph Wharton: Quaker Industrial Pioneer. (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 413 p.). Wharton, Joseph, 1826-1909; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Quakers--United States--Biography; Industries--United States--History. Driving force in establishing zinc, nickel metal industries in U.S.

Joseph Wharton  (

(Noranda Mines), Robert Leslie (1956). Noranda. (Toronto, ON: Clarke, Irwin, 223 p.). Noranda.

(Pacific Coast Borax Company), George H. Hildebrand (1982). Borax Pioneer: Francis Marion Smith. (San Diego, CA: Howell-North Books, 318 p.). Smith, Francis Marion, 1846-1931; Pacific Coast Borax Company; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Pacific Coast Borax Company), N.J. Travis and E.J. Cocks (1984). The Tincal Trail: A History of Borax. (London, UK: Harrap, 311 p.). Smith, Francis Marion, 1846-1931; Pacific Coast Borax Company; Borax mines and mining--History; Borax mines and mining--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Phelps Dodge), Robert Glass Cleland (1952). A History of Phelps Dodge, 1834-1950. (New York, NY: Knopf, 307 p.). Phelps Dodge Corporation.

Anson Greene Phelps  (

William Earl Dodge  (

(Phelps Dodge), Richard Lowitt (1954). A Merchant Prince of the Nineteenth Century, William E. Dodge. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 384 p.). Dodge, William Earl, 1805-1883; Phelps, Dodge and Company. 

(Phelps Dodge), Phyllis B. Dodge; with a foreword by Arthur S. Link (1987). Tales of the Phelps-Dodge Family: A Chronicle of Five Generations. (New York, NY: New York Historical Society, 370 p.). Phelps family; Dodge family; New York (State)--Biography.

(Phelps Dodge), Carlos A. Schwantes (2000). Vision & Enterprise: Exploring the History of Phelps Dodge Corporation. (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 464 p.). Phelps Dodge Corporation--History; Metal trade--United States--History.

(Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company), Anthony Hocking (1986). Randfontein Estates: The First Hundred Years. (Bethulie, Orange Free State, South Africa: Hollards, 280 p.). Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company--History; Gold industry--South Africa--Witwatersrand--History; Gold mines and mining--South Africa--Witwatersrand--History.

(Rheinbraun), Boris Gehlen (2007). Paul Silverberg (1876-1959): Ein Unternehmer. (Stuttgart, Germany: Steiner, 605 p.). Silverberg, Paul, 1876-; Rheinische Aktiengesellschaft für Braunkohlenbergbau und Brikettfabrikation; Rheinisches Elektrizitätswerk im Braunkohlrevier AG. 1903 - took over Fortuna AG, brown-coal (lignite) mining firm in Rhineland, one of family businesses, when his heavily indebted father died unexpectedly; turned company into regional powerhouse; formed cartel with 35 regional lignite producers; 1927 - became vice president of Reichsverband der deutschen Industrie (RDI, National Association of German Industry; 1930 - close confidant of Chancellor Bruening, offered seat in cabinet (declined); 1931 - sat on 61 supervisory boards; November 1932 - Friedrich Flick, Fritz Thyssen, Albert Voegler acquired majority position in Rheinbraun shares; pushed Silverberg out of company; April 1933 - stripped of post at RDI, presidency of Industrie- und Handelskammer (Chamber of Industry and Trade) in Cologne; 1934 - moved to Switzerland; 1936 - became citizen of Liechtenstein; never returned to Germany; refused to permit any German entity to be named after him.

(Rio Tinto Company), David Avery (1974). Not on Queen Victoria's Birthday; The Story of the Rio Tinto Mines. (London, UK: Collins, 464 p.). Rio Tinto Company; Copper mines and mining--Spain; Copper industry and trade--Great Britain.

(Rio Tinto Company), Charles E. Harvey (1981). The Rio Tinto Company: An Economic History of a Leading International Mining Concern, 1873-1954. (Penzance, Cornwall, UK: A. Hodge, 390 p.). Rio Tinto Company--History; Mineral industries--History; International business enterprises--History.

(Rio Tinto-Zinc), Richard West (1972). River of Tears: The Rise of the Rio Tinto-Zinc Mining Corporation. (London, UK: Earth Island Ltd., 201 p.). Rio Tinto-Zinc Corporation.

(Roan Selection Trust), Sir Ronald Prain (1981). Reflections on an Era: Fifty Years of Mining in Changing Africa: The Autobiography of Sir Ronald Prain. (Worcester Park, Surrey, UK: Metal Bulletin Books, 262 p.). Prain, Ronald, Sir, 1907- ; Copper industry and trade--History--20th century; Mineral industries--History--20th century; Copper industry and trade--Africa--History--20th century; Mineral industries--Africa--History--20th century; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.

(Alexander Russell PLC), John Pollock (1992). Alexander Russell PLC: The First Hundred Years. (Glasgow, Scotland: Alexander Russell PLC,, 106 p.). Alexander Russell PLC; Coal trade -- Scotland -- History; Coal Trades History Glasgow (Scotland).

(Saint John d'El Rey Mining), Marshall C. Eakin (1989). British Enterprise in Brazil: The St. John d'el Rey Mining Company and the Morro Velho Gold Mine, 1830-1960. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 334 p.). Saint John d'El Rey Mining Company--History; Gold industry--Brazil--Nova Lima--History; Investments, British--Brazil--Nova Lima--History; Corporations, British--Brazil--Nova Lima--History; Nova Lima (Brazil)--History.

(Silver), Oscar Lewis; new foreword by James J. Rawls (1986). Silver Kings: The Lives and Times of Mackay, Fair, Flood, and O’Brien, Lords of the Nevada Comstock Lode. (Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 286 p. [orig. pub. 1947]). Mackay, John William, 1831-1902; Fair, James Graham, 1831-1894; Flood, James Clair, 1826-1888; O’Brien, William Shoney, 1825 or 6-1878; Pioneers--Nevada--Biography; Mines and mineral resources--Nevada--History--19th century; Comstock Lode (Nev.); Nevada--Biography.

(Silver), Dennis Drabelle (2009). Mile-High Fever: Silver Mines, Boom Towns, and High Living on the Comstock Lode. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 288 p.). Contributing Editor (The Washington Post Book World). Silver mines and mining --Nevada --Comstock Lode; Mines and mineral resources --Nevada --Virginia City --History; Comstock Lode (Nev.); Virginia City (Nev.) --History. Silver-mining in late-19th-century American West - wealth extracted from Lode spurred growth of San Francisco, Virginia City; risks, expenses of deep mining, stock-market manipulations, fraud on grand scale; innovations in Comstock mining made possible modern skyscraper.

(Sonora Exploring and Mining Company), Diane M.T. North (1980). Samuel Peter Heintzelman and the Sonora Exploring and Mining Company. (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 248 p.). Heintzelman, Samuel Peter, 1805-1880; Sonora Exploring and Mining Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Industries--Arizona--History.

(Steel Brothers and Company), H. E. W. Braund (1975). Calling to Mind: Being Some Account of the First Hundred Years (1870 to 1970) of Steel Brothers and Company Limited. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 151 p.). Steel Brothers and Company; Commerce--History.

(Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag), Sven Rydberg  (1979). Stora Kopparberg: 1000 Years of an Industrial Activity. (Stockholm, Sweden: Gullers international, 93 p.). Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag--History; Mineral industries--Sweden--Stora Kopparberg--History.

--- (1985). En man for sig, Emil Lundqvist och Stora Kopparberg under Mellankrigstiden. (Stockholm, Sweden: Atlantis, 154 p.). Lundqvist, Emil, 1872-1942; Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag--History; Mineral industries--Sweden--Stora Kopparberg--History; Copper industry and trade--Sweden--History.

--- (1988). The Great Copper Mountain: The Stora Story. (Hedemora, Sweden: Published by Stora Kopparbergs bergslags AB in colloboration with Gidlunds Publishers, 244 p.). Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag--History; Mineral industries--Sweden--History; Copper industry and trade--Sweden--History.

(Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag), Sture Kristiansson (1993). Falu Kopparvag 1546-1873: Historiska Inblickar i en Institution och Livet Kring Denna. (Falun, Sweden: S. Kristiansson, 143 p.). Stora Kopparbergs bergslags aktiebolag--History; Mineral industries--Sweden--Stora Kopparberg--History.

(Stratton & Cripple Creek Mining and Development Company), Frank Waters (1937). Midas Of Rockies: Story Of Stratton & Cripple Creek. (Athens, OH: Swallow Press, 372 p.). Stratton & Cripple Creek Mining and Development Company.

(Texas Pacific Coal and Oil Company), Don Woodard (1998). Black Diamonds! Black Gold!: The Saga of Texas Pacific Coal and Oil Company. (Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 322 p.). Texas Pacific Coal and Oil Company--History; Coal trade--Texas--Fort Worth--History; Coal mines and mining--Texas--Fort Worth--History; Petroleum industry and trade--Texas--Fort Worth--History; Businesspeople--Texas--Fort Worth--Biography.

(Tin), William Robertson (1982). Tin, Its Production and Marketing. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 212 p.). Tin industry. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

(Turner & Newall), Geoffrey Tweedale, with additional research by Philip Hansen (2000). Magic Mineral to Killer Dust: Turner & Newall and the Asbestos Hazard. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 313 p.). Turner & Newall; Asbestos industry -- Health aspects -- Great Britain; Asbestos -- Toxicology. 

(Turner & Newall), P.W.J. Bartrip. (2001). The Way from Dusty Death: Turner and Newall and the Regulation of Occupational Health in the British Asbestos Industry, 1890s-1970. (New York, NY: Athlone Press, 386 p.). Turner & Newall; Asbestos industry -- Health aspects -- Great Britain; Asbestos -- Toxicology; Industrial hygiene -- Law and legislation -- Great Britain.

(Uranium), Raye C. Ringholz (1989). Uranium Frenzy: Boom and Bust on the Colorado Plateau. (New York, NY: Norton, 310 p.). Uranium industry--Colorado Plateau--History.

--- (2002). Uranium Frenzy: Saga of the Nuclear West. (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, p.). Uranium industry--Four Corners Region--History. 

(Uranium), Tom Zoellner (2009). Uranium: War, Energy, and the Rock that Shaped the World. (New York, NY: Viking, 337 p.). Contributing Editor (Men’s Health magazine). Uranium; Uranium --History. Most powerful source of energy earth can yield; common element in earth's crust, only naturally occurring mineral with power to end all life on planet.

(Utah International), Sterling D. Sessions and Gene A. Sessions (2005). A History of Utah International: From Construction to Mining. (Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 256 p.). Utah Construction Company--History; Utah Construction & Mining Co.--History; Utah International Inc.--History; Construction industry--United States; Mining industry--United States. Company transformed into largest, most profitable mining company in United States.

(Vivian and Sons), Robert R. Toomey (1985). Vivian and Sons, 1809-1924: A Study of the Firm in the Copper and Related Industries. (New York, NY: Garland, 427 p.). Vivian and Sons (Firm)--History; Copper industry and trade--Great Britain--History; Nonferrous metal industries--Great Britain--History.

Jeff Biggers (2010). Reckoning at Eagle Creek: The Secret Legacy of Coal in the Heartland. (New York, NY: Nation Books, 320 p.). Coal mines and mining --Illinois --Eagle Creek Region --History; Coal mines and mining --Social aspects --Illinois Eagle Creek Region --History; Mountain life --Illinois --Eagle Creek Region --History; Shawnee National Forest Region (Ill.) --History. Human cost of more than two centuries of coal mining in southern Illinois (called "Saudi Arabia of coal"); historical nightmare of coal outside of Appalachia, exposé of secret legacy of shame, resiliency.

Geoff Coyle (2010). The Riches Beneath Our Feet: How Mining Shaped Britain. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 267 p.). Former Mining Engineer. Mines and mineral resources -- Great Britain -- History; Mineral industries -- Great Britain -- History. Metals were foundation of industrial wealth; King Coal drove ease of living (peak - employed million men, produced more than 200 million tons/year); granite from Scotland, limestone from Southern England, sandstone and Welsh slate provided homes, factories, roads, harbors; mineral wealth of Britain, its exploitation, from simple quarrying to mass production; miners' lives, great mining families, miner's work, conditions in mines, mining disasters; industrial history, geology, technology; main mining fields, exploitation; how technological changes affected mining techniques.

Thomas Dublin and Walter Licht (2005). The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,, 277 p.). Professor of History, Binghamton University (State University of New York); Professor of History (University of Pennsylvania). Anthracite coal industry--Pennsylvania--History--20th century; Coal miners--Pennsylvania--History--20th century; Pennsylvania--Economic conditions--20th century. Impact of enduring economic decline across wide region, especially mining communities in Panther Valley.

Raymond E. Dumett (2008). Mining Tycoons in the Age of Empire, 1870-1945: Entrepreneurship, High Finance, Politics and Territorial Expansion. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 255 P.). Professor in the Department of History (Purdue University). Mineral industries --History; Capitalists and financiers --Biography. Role of mining tycoons in shaping economic, political map of globe, in setting new standard for extravagant displays of wealth amongst world's rich.

James E. Fell, Jr. (2009). Ores to Metals: The Rocky Mountain Smelting Industry. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 341 p. [orig. pub. 1979] ). Senior Instructor (University of Colorado, Denver). Mineral industries -- Rocky Mountains Region -- History; Smelting -- History; Rocky Mountains Region -- History. People, technologies, business decisions that shaped smelting industry in Rockies since introduced to Colorado in 1860s to recover gold, silver from ores resistant to milling; majority of industry absorbed into American Smelting and Refining Company; triumphs, troubles of entrepreneurs who built one of great industries of West.

Charlotte Gray (2010). Gold Diggers: Striking It Rich in the Klondike. (Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint, 416 p.). Adjunct Research Professor in the Department of History (Carleton University). Gold mines and mining --Yukon --Klondike River Valley --History --19th century; Frontier and pioneer life --Yukon --Klondike River Valley; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --History --19th century; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --Gold discoveries; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) --Biography; Dawson (Yukon) --History --19th century. 1896 - rich gold deposits discovered in Bonanza Creek; gold madness swept through continent from 1896 and 1899, changed landscape, its people forever; thousands of people made grueling journey into remote wilderness of North America; Dawson City, in Canadian Yukon, grew from mining camp of 400 to raucous town of over 30,000 in two years (desperados, saloon keepers, gamblers, dance hall girls, churchmen, law-makers thrown together in volatile time); last great gold rush in history seen through intimate lives of six extraordinary people.

John Gillingham (1985). Industry and Politics in the Third Reich: Ruhr Coal, Hitler, and Europe. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 183 p.). Industrial mobilization--Germany--History--20th century; Coal trade--Germany--Ruhr (Region)--Military aspects--History--20th century.

Harlan Henthorne Hatcher (1950). A Century of Iron and Men. (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 295 p.). Iron mines and mining -- United States.

Donat Marc Le Bourdais (1957). Metals and Men; The Story of Canadian Mining. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 416 p.). Mines and mineral resources--Canada--History; Mining industry and finance--Canada.

Melanie J. Mayer & Robert N. DeArmond (2000). Staking Her Claim: The Life of Belinda Mulrooney, Klondike and Alaska Entrepreneur. (Athens, OH: Swallow Press/Ohio University Press, 415 p.). Mulrooney, Belinda, 1872-1967; Klondike River Valley (Yukon) -- Gold discoveries; Alaska -- Gold discoveries; Women pioneers -- Yukon Territory -- Klondike River Valley -- Biography; Women pioneers -- Alaska -- Biography; Businesswomen -- Yukon Territory -- Klondike River Valley -- Biography; Businesswomen -- Alaska -- Biography; Frontier and pioneer life -- Yukon Territory -- Klondike River Valley; Frontier and pioneer life -- Alaska.

Steven F. Mehls (1989). David H. Moffat, Jr.: Early Colorado Business Leader. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 366 p.). Moffat, David H. (David Halliday), 1839-1911; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Railroads--Colorado--History; Mineral industries--Colorado--History; Banks and banking--Colorado--History.

Eds. Laurie Mercier and Jaclyn Gier (2006). Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2000. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 368 p.). Associate Professor of History (Washington State University); Director of European Studies and Associate Professor of History in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Women miners--History; Mineral industries--History. How gender identities, inequality have been constructed historically and sustained in mining.

Jeremy Mouat (2000). Metal Mining in Canada, 1840-1950. (Ottawa, QU: National Museum of Science and Technology, 125 p.). Mines and mineral resources--Canada--History--19th century; Mines and mineral resources--Canada--History--20th century; Ores--Canada; Mineral industries--Canada--History--19th century; Mineral industries--Canada--History--20th century.

Patricia Roppel (2005). Gold Mining in Southern Southeast Alaska. (Greenwich, CT: Coachlamp Productions, 286 p.). Gold mines and mining --Alaska, Southeast --History; Mines and mineral resources --Alaska, Southeast --History; Alaska, Southeast --History.

H. Lee Scamehorn (1995). Albert Eugene Reynolds: Colorado's Mining King. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 308 p.). Reynolds, Albert Eugene, 1840-1921; Pioneers--Colorado--Biography; Businesspeople--Colorado--Biography; Silver mines and mining--Colorado--History; Gold mines and mining--Colorado--History; Colorado--Biography.

Clark C. Spence (2000). British Investments and the American Mining Frontier, 1860-1901. (New York, NY: Routledge, 288 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Mineral industries--West (U.S.)--Foreign ownership--History--19th century; Corporations, British--West (U.S.)--History--19th century; Investments, British--West (U.S.)--History--19th century.

June H. Taylor, Michael D. Yokell (1979). Yellowcake: The International Uranium Cartel. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 245 p.). Uranium industry; Cartels; Uranium industry--United States.

Geoffrey Wheatcroft (1986). The Randlords: The Exploits and Exploitations of South Africa's Mining Magnates. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 314 p.). Gold industry--South Africa--History--19th century; Diamond industry and trade--South Africa--History--19th century; Capitalists and financiers--South Africa--History--19th century; South Africa--Economic conditions--To 1918.

Robert Wilson (2006). The Explorer King: Adventure, Science, and the Great Diamond Hoax, Clarence King in the Old West. (New York, NY: Scribner, 320 p.). Editor (American Scholar). King, Clarence, 1842-1901; Geologists--United States--Biography; West (U.S.)--Intellectual life. Collision of science and business. First director of United States Geological Survey; groundbreaking land survey of American West.


Business History Links

Bibliography of North American Mining History                                      Http://Www.Ex.Ac.Uk/~Rburt/Minhistnet/Bibusa.Html 

Bisbee Mining and Historical Museum
Once known as The Queen of the Copper Camps. Mines closed in the 1970s, small town's legacy preserved in  architecture and mining landscape. Museum exhibits bring to life the history of Bisbee and in their telling of life in this city a century or more ago, visitors learn that Bisbee residents shaped a city and a nation.

Black Hills Mining Museum                                                            

Dedicated to the preservation of the rich mining heritage of the Black Hills of South Dakota.

The California Gold Country: Highway 49 Revisited                  

Coal Mining, Mine Fires, and the Molly Maguires                             

A fascinating directory of sites detailing the history of the secret society of immigrant Irish coal miners in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania. With links to books, articles, lyrics, photos, the trials, descendants, and the archives of the Pinkerton detective agency. Subjects: Coal mines and mining...

Country Mine                                                                                                    

Provides information on the world mining industry, organized by country. Country profiles feature news, links to maps and related Web sites, and information about the country's mining activities. Job listings are undated. Some documents accessible only to paid subscribers. From InfoMine, a mining industry information services company. Subjects: Mineral industries; Mines and mineral resources.

Gold Rush                                                                                                   

Compilation of stories and related material to honor the sesquicentennial of the discovery of gold in northern California in 1848. Includes information about how gold was discovered, maps about how miners traveled to California by land and sea, details about life in mining camps, some types of people during the Gold Rush era (such as Latinos, black miners, Chinese workers, and women), the legacy of the Gold Rush, and more. From The Sacramento Bee.

The Gold Rush                                                                                                

Companion to a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) American Experience program that "tracks the evolution of the [California] Gold Rush from the easy riches of the first few months to the fierce competition for a few good claims." Features a map with major "strikes," timeline, background about people (such as Mexicans and Chinese immigrants) and events, a special feature on Native Americans, and an online role playing game. Also includes a teacher's guide.

The Gold Rush of California: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles           

By Robert LeRoy Santos, California State University, Stanislaus Librarian, University Archivist. This bibliography consists primarily of articles from scholarly journals and local history periodicals. There are no magazine articles per se, except for those written last century and early this century which have been included to give a sense of the historical treatment of the topic. This compiler sifted through every issue of the listed periodicals looking for articles "surrounding" the California Gold Rush. Included are articles directly on the Gold Rush, and also on relevant California topics of the era, such as law, mail service, politics, law, race relations, transportation, water, and others. The articles cover events from January 1848 through December 1855 which is generally acknowledged as the "Gold Rush moment." After 1855, California gold mining changed and is outside the "rush" era.

The Goldrush and Mining Industry                                                          

Gold Rush Books. Mining in the West, Prospecting, Assaying, Booms and Busts.  

Gold Rush Chronicles                                                                         

History of the California Gold Rush, including a chronology beginning when Swiss-born John Sutter arrived in the California territory and covering the 1848 discovery of gold by James Marshall and California's admission to the United States in 1850. Features information about towns, mines and mining camps, people, the Pony Express, and more. From a company in the gold country that created a website for El Dorado County, California.

The Gold Rush Trail                                                              arcdex_0731.shtml                                                     

Collection of articles about a "month-long trek [in 1998] across the West retracing the steps of the emigrants along the Gold Rush Trail." Features maps, photos, and stories about the overland trail to California and the trails used by miners following the January 1848 discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California. From the website for the San Francisco Chronicle.

Gympie Gold Mining & Historical Museum
1867 - James Nash discovered 72 ounces of Gold in just 6 days. This started the Gold Rush in Gympie and it became known as "The Town that saved Queensland from Bankruptcy". Museum houses memorabilia from the early gold mining era , as well as displays showcasing military, rural, transport, communications and steam development in Australia.

Iron Ore Statistics and Information                                                                    Statistical publications on iron ore, "a mineral substance which, when heated in the presence of a reductant, will yield metallic iron (Fe). ... Iron ore is the source of primary iron for the world's iron and steel industries." Includes links to statistics about iron and steel scrap (recycled into new steel and cast-iron products) and slag (nonmetallic byproducts of iron and steel manufacturing). From the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).


Largest museum complex in the region. We're dedicated to collecting, preserving and interpreting the history of Minnesota's Iron Ranges; permanent and traveling exhibits about Iron Range history, including interactive displays that help explain and explore taconite mining and the people who worked in the region's mines.

Klondike Gold Rush Historical Database                                                                      

"This database contains photographs, newspaper clippings, documents, contemporary Seattle business names and locations, vessel sailing dates and passenger lists related to the 1897-1898 Klondike Gold Rush, which Seattle served as a major gateway for supplies and prospectors." Also includes materials about individuals from this period. Prepared and maintained by the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Seattle and hosted by

Klondike Gold Rush [National Historical Park] -- Seattle Unit                                             

Website for this national park that commemorates the impact of the "tens of thousands of people from across the United States and around the world [who] descended upon Seattle's commercial district" in 1897 and 1898 on their way to the Canadian Klondike. Includes details about activities, a curriculum guide (for grades 3-6), and news, such as the opening of the new visitor center in June 2006. From the National Park Service (NPS).

Museum of the Coal Industry                                                                     

Unique look into Warwick County's (IN) past: 1850 - Phelps Coal Bank established; coal mines and company towns flourished, made it one of the top coal producers in the state; 1958 - Alcoa's Warrick Operations began, made Warrick County "Coal and Aluminum Capital of Indiana"; 1990s - industry declined; museum demonstrates how coal helped shape the present-day County.

National Coal Mining Museum for England                                                                          

Funded by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport through the National Museum of Science & Industry to advance the education of the public in the history of mining in England by the provision and maintenance of a museum both underground and on the surface at the former Caphouse Colliery for the demonstration of past and contemporary mining methods and the exhibition of machinery and other items connected with mining and industrial archaeology. Located at Caphouse Colliery, on the western edge of the Yorkshire coalfield, where mining has been carried out for centuries. 1988 - the Yorkshire Mining Museum opened at Caphouse (with funding from West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire Metropolitan County Councils, Wakefield and Kirklees Metropolitan District Councils and technical support and assistance from British Coal). 1995 - granted national status.

The National Mining Hall of Fame & Museum                                                        

Incorporated in Colorado in 1977, the only national mining museum with a federal charter, which was passed in a joint resolution (S.J.Res.192) of the second session of the 100th Congress of the United States of America and approved by President Ronald Reagan on November 14, 1988. Helps the visitor begin to understand and appreciate the rich heritage and excitement of the American mining industry.

Sixty Centuries of Copper                                           Http://60centuries.Copper.Org/                                           

The full text of a book covering "the general history of copper mining, the development of metal-working processes and the uses of copper through the past six thousand years." Published in 1965 by the Copper Development Association, United Kingdom.

Staff House Mining & Smelting Museum
Historic collection from the Bunker Hill Mining and Smelting Company (one of the oldest and largest mining companies in the Coeur d' Alene area of North Idaho) and the surrounding Silver Valley. Rock and mineral displays, mining history and equipment displays, and local history exhibits.

United Mine Workers of America (UMWA): A Brief History of the UMWA                        

Historical account of labor union for coal miners founded in 1890. Includes discussion of specific events in UMWA history (such as the Ludlow and Lattimer massacres), profiles of UMWA presidents, and a gallery of portraits of John L. Lewis (UMWA president from 1920-1960). From the national website for the UMWA.

Wallace District Mining Museum                                          
Impact of mining history; artifacts and exhibits depict the hardships, toil and home life of the period. Mining gradually made the transition from oil lamps, candles and hand steel to modern techniques. In the Coeur d'Alene District, veins run deep and are often narrow, requiring labor intensive methods right up to recent times.

Western Mining in the Twentieth Century - Oral History Series                          

Series documents contemporary events in the most historically important industry of the American West. The series comprises interviews with leaders in mining exploration, production and metallurgical treatment of ores, financing and development of mines, mineral engineering education, state and federal government organizations, and journals of the mineral industries. Special industry challenges are discussed: mechanization and automation, mining at great depths, protecting the environment, radiation hazards, concern for health and safety. There are eyewitness accounts of the flooding of the Treadwell Mine, the Argonaut Mine fire, El Teniente Mine fire, and Japanese occupation of the Philippines. There are personal recollections of mines in Australia, India, Israel, Poland, Siberia, many regions of Africa, and nearly all of North and South America. 

Western Museum of Mining & Industry                                                                                             

1970 - The Museum of the West was incorporated as a private non-profit with a mission to preserve and interpret the rich mining history of Colorado and the American West. The nucleus of the collection was a group of mining artifacts contributed to the museum by Mr. Frederick McMenemy Farrar and Mrs. Katherine Thatcher Farrar; 1972 - name was changed to the Western Museum of Mining & Industry. Over 4,000 artifacts are on display at the 27-acre indoor/outdoor exhibit site, which includes a ten-stamp ore mill; and multi-purpose center with exhibits, theater and a 5,000-volume research library. The entire exhibit complex is an exciting and exceptional tool for learning about Colorado history, mining and industrial technology, geology, and the environment.


return to top

      © 2008. Business History