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1759 - Belgian Joseph Merlin invented earliest known type of roller skate, two large wheels on each skate.

January 9, 1768 - Englishman Philip Astley, former cavalry sergeant major, staged first modern circus in London; galloped in tight circle, centrifugal force allowed him to perform seemingly impossible feats on horse's back; invited public to see him wave sword in air while he rode with one foot on saddle, one on horse's head; very favorable response; hired other equestrians, clown, musicians; 1770 - built roof over ring, called structure Astley's Amphitheatre ("circus" = after Roman name for circular theaters where chariot races were held); eventually established 18 other circuses in cities across Europe; 1792 - English equestrian John Bill Ricketts opened first American circus in Philadelphia; opened others in New York City and Boston; 1859 - The Cirque Napoleon in Paris offered first "flying trapeze" act; 1871 - William Cameron Coup, showman P.T. Barnum opened enormous circus in Brooklyn; called it "The Greatest Show on Earth"; 1881 - Barnum went into business with James Anthony Bailey; "Barnum and Bailey" circuses were so large they required simultaneous performances in three rings; 1884 - five Ringling brothers staged their first circus; 1907 - bought Barnum and Bailey circus company = Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey.

1770 - First exhibition of waxworks of Dr. Philippe Curtius shown in Paris; 1776 -moved to Palais Royal in Paris; 1778 - Madame Tussaud (born Marie Groszholtz in Strasbourg, France), who learned wax modelling as housekeeper for Dr. Curtius, created her first wax figure of Jean-Jacques Rousseau; 1789 - forced by leading members of French Revolution to hunt through piles of heads cut off by guillotine to make copies (‘deathmasks’) of people who were former friends, employers; 1794 - Curtius collection inherited by Madame Tussaud; 1802 - brought collection England; toured Great Britain, Ireland for next 33 years; 1835 - established first permanent exhibition on Baker Street in London; 1970 - opened in Amsterdam (first to open outside London); 1978 - acquired by S. Pearson and Son (now Pearson plc); 1998 - acquired by Charterhouse Development Capital; July 1999 - Madame Tussaud`s Las Vegas opened; November 2000 - Madame Tussaud`s New York opened; 2005 - acquired by Dubai International Capital (government-backed private equity firm) for £800 million; March 5, 2007 - agreed to be acquired by Blackstone Group for £1 billion.

NPG 2031 Madame Tussaud - wax museum  (

April 3, 1793 - John Bill Rickets, an English equestrian rider, opened circus in Philadelphia at 12th and Market Streets; used a ring, added acrobats, a rope walker and a clown to his equestrian act; April 22, 1793 - President Washington attended opening of Rickett's, first circus in U.S..

December 13, 1816 - John Adamson, of Boston, MA, received first U.S. patent for a "Floating Dry Dock"; dry docking and repair of canal boats.

February 17, 1818 - Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun received a patent for the "draisine", the forerunner of the bicycle; first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled walking machine.

May 21, 1819 - First bicycle in U.S., velocipedes or "swift walkers", seen in New York City; August 19, 1819 - city's Common Council passed law to "prevent the use of velocipedes in the public places and on the sidewalks of the city of New York".

June 26, 1819 - William K. Clarkson Jr., of New York, received first US patent for a "Velocipede", predecessor of the bicycle (patent record destroyed in 1836 fire).

April 22, 1823 - Robert John Tyers, a fruiterer in Picadilly, London, received a patent for Volitos, an "apparatus to be attached to boots ... for the purpose of travelling or pleasure"; roller skates; used 5 small cast iron or copper wheels aligned (Joseph Merlin, of Belgium, believed to have first used roller skates in 1760).

June 14, 1834 - Leonard Norcross, of Dixfield, ME, received a patent for "Diving Armor"; underwater diving suit; airtight leather outfit with brass helmet connected via rubber hose to air bellows pump on a boat.

June 3, 1835 - PT Barnum's circus started first tour of United States.

1838 - Daguerre produced photographs using silver salts.

January 9, 1839 - The daguerrotype photo process was announced at the French Academy of Science; August 19, 1839 - Louis Daguerre announced the invention of the daguerreotype photographic process, the first process to allow an image to be chemically fixed as a permanent picture.

March 14, 1839 - Sir John Herschel referred to "photography" in a lecture to the Royal Society's possibly the first use of the word; Herschel used the name Chrysotype (from the Greek word for gold) for his process: 1) used paper washed in a solution of ammonio-citrate of iron, 2) solution of soda or chloride of gold, or with nitrate of silver brought out the image, 3) fixed it in the first case by washing it with iodide of potassium and in the second, with hyposulphite of soda; had technical difficulties in controlling the contrast, color and fogging of the image; September 9, 1839 - John Herschel made the first glass plate photograph.

August 19, 1839 - Louis Daguerre announced invention of the daguerreotype photographic process, first process to allow an image to be chemically fixed as a permanent picture.

September 9, 1839 - John Herschel took first glass plate photograph of 40-foot, 48" aperture telescope, used by his father, in Slough, England.

December 18, 1839 - John William Draper, professor of chemistry at New York University, took daguerreotype of moon, first celestial photograph made in U.S.; exposed plate for 20 minutes using a 5-inch telescope, produced an image one inch in diameter.

May 8, 1840 - Alexander S. Wolcott, of New York City, received a patent for a "Method of Taking Likenesses by Means of a Conclave Reflector and Plates So Prepared as That Luminous or Other Rays Will Act Thereon"; produced photographs 1.75 x 2.5 inches in size, not reversed as were daguerrotype which used refracting lenses.

November 19, 1850 - Frederick Langenheim, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Photographic Pictures on Glass"; slides made of glass plate.

May 21, 1853 - Aquatic Vivarium, world's first public aquarium, opened in Regent's Park, London; inspiration of Philip Henry Gosse. English self-taught naturalist, wrote popular illustrated books on nature, especially marine biology; invented institutional aquarium.

February 19, 1856 - Hamilton L. Smith, of Gambier, OH, received a patent for "Photographic Pictures on Japanned Surfaces"; tintype (thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielded a positive image) photographic picture process; described preparation of the black varnish, its application and baking as the japanned surface.

October 13, 1860 - James Wallace Black, in balloon held by a cable 1,200 feet above city, took first successful aerial photograph in U.S.; one good photograph resulted - Boston as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It (French author and artist Felix Tournachon, French author and artist, took first aerial photograph in 1858 from balloon tethered over Bievre Valley [his work is lost]).

January 6, 1863 - James L. Plimpton, of New York, received a patent for a "Parlor Skate"; four-wheeled roller skates, pivoting action dampened by a rubber cushion which permitted the roller skate wheels to curve. This allowed skaters to turn simply by leaning their weight in the direction they wanted to travel; 1866 - opened first public roller skating rink at Atlantic House resort hotel in Newport, RI.

October 10, 1865 - John Wesley Hyatt, of Albany, NY, received a patent for a "Billiard Ball"; celluloid billiard ball (of a composition material resembling ivory); won $10,000 prize offered by Phelan and Collender of New York City for the best substitute for an ivory ball.

January 16, 1866 - Everett Hosmer Barney, of Springfield, MA, received a patent for  a "Skate" ("certain improvements in the manner of constructing skates made wholly of steel and iron"); all-metal screw clamp skates; attached to normal shoes, tightened with a key; lost popularity with the advent of modern athletic shoes which lacked a hard edge where the roller skates could be clamped.

November 20, 1866 - Pierre Lallement, of Paris, France, received patent for a "Velocipede" ('fast foot'); rotary cranks and pedals applied directly to front wheel (vs. hobby horse bicycle that had to be pushed with the feet); soon came to be known as "the bone shaker" - made of stiff materials, straight angles, steel wheels (gave stiff ride over cobblestone roads).

April 6, 1869 - Isaac Hodgson, of Indianapolis, IN, received a patent for a "Parlor Skate" ("relates principally to mode of operation of the forward wheel-frame...attaching wheel-frame to the sole of the shoe"); roller skate.

October 5, 1869 - Fisher A. Spofford and Matthew G. Raffington, of Columbus, OH, received first U.S. patent for a "Paddle Wheel" ("Improvement in Water Velocipedes"); water bicycle.

July 25, 1871 - Wilhelm Schneider, of Davenport, Iowa received a patent for a "Carousel" (a "new and Improved Carousel"); described as two-story "'carrousel' or rotary pavillion used in public parks or other places of amusement."

May 17, 1872 - Bohemian Club incorporated.

1873 - Rokusaburo Sugiura, pharmacist, began selling photographic, lithographic materials at Konishiya Rokubeiten in Kojimachi, Tokyo; 1903 - marketed "Cherry Hand Camera," Japan's first brand name camera; 1943 - renamed Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd.; 1948 - introduced Konica I, first Konica-brand 35mm camera; March 16, 1954 - Rayelle Foreign Trade Service registered "Konica" trademark first used January 12, 1950 (cameras and camera cases, flash-guns, filters, and lens-hoods); 1956 - established Koniphoto Corporation, first American subsidiary, in Philadelphia; 1971 - launched Japan’s first plain paper photocopier, developed dominant position in high-speed, high quality document management systems, imaging products; 2000 - established Konica Minolta Supplies Manufacturing Co., Ltd., joint venture for production of polymerized toners; August 2003 - established holding company Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.; January 2006 - withdrew from camera, photo business.

1874 - Christopher (Columbus Smith) and Henry Smith built their first wooden boat; 1884 - Smith Brothers Boat Builders opened mass-productions facility in Algonac, MI; 1901 - name changed to Chris Smith & Company Boat Builders and Boat Livery; 1910 - formed The Smith-Ryan Boat Company; focused on building fast, economically priced runabout boats for mass market distribution; products debuted at New York, Chicago Boat Shows; 1922- formed Chris Smith & Sons Boat Company in Algonac, MI; 1924 - Chris-Craft became standardized brand name; 1927 - world's largest builder of mahogany constructed power boats; Jay Smith (Chris's son) appointed President and General Manager; January 14, 1947 - Chris-Craft Corporation registered "Chris-Craft" trademark first used June 1, 1922 (marine motors and outboard motors); 1950 - offered 139 different recreational power boat models; 1955 - manufactured its first fiberglass boat; 1960 - acquired by Shields & Company and National Automotive Fibers, Inc.; 1962 - renamed Chris-Craft Industries, Inc.; 1981 - boat manufacturing operations acquired by George Dale Murray; 1989 - Chris-Craft Boats acquired by Outboard Marine Corporation.

Christopher (Columbus Smith) and Henry Smith - Christ-Craft (

July 1, 1874 - First zoo in United States opened, in Philadelphia, PA, on grounds of Solitude, last estate in area to be owned by Penn family; 1859 - originally chartered by Pennsylvania state legislature as Zoological Society of Philadelphia whose core purpose was to oversee "the purchase and collection of living wild and other animals" and "for the instruction and recreation of the people".

November 18, 1876 - James Starley, former foreman of Coventry Sewing Machine Company, introduced Coventry Lever Tricycle, side-driven two-track, lever-driven machine; first successfully mass-produced tricycle; first sold for £15.

1877 - Colonel Albert A. Pope organized Pope Manufacturing Company as importers, makers of patented bicycles (had acquired Pierre Lallement velocipede patent) in one-room third floor walkup in Boston, MA (first saw strange English high front-wheeler bicycle (enormous front wheel, solid rubber tire) at Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876); 1878 - contracted with Weed Sewing machine Company (Hartford, CT) to produce 50 high-wheeler bicycles to be sold under 'Columbia' name; first American manufacturer of bicycles; first regular trade catalogue (20 pages), first bicycles were 60" Hi Wheelers, sold for $95.00 (sewing machines sold for $13.00); first commercial self-propelled vehicle in America; Columbia became generic name for bicycle; 1881 - acquired minority control of Weed; 1891 - acquired full control; became first American bicycle manufacturer; peak - 18 acres of factory space, nearly 4,000 employees, 50,000 bicycles a year; 1896 - bicycle fad peaked; 1899 - formed Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company (with backing of William Whitney, Wall Street financier, former Secretary of the Navy); acquired George Selden patent for internal combustion (gasoline) engine that controlled all "gasoline powered land vehicles" in expectation that it would give them stranglehold on internal combustion engine; 1900 - sold out to Whitney, merged into Whitney's Electric Vehicle Company; Pope Manufacturing collapsed; 1903 - repurchased remains of Pope Manufacturing Company from receivers; August 1907 - unable to refinance debts, forced into receivership (Whitney's Electric Vehicle Company went into receivership); 1908 - company failed; December 1908 - new Pope manufacturing Company incorporated to take over property of failed company.

1879 - George Eastman invented emulsion-coating machine, enabled him to mass-produce photographic dry plates; April 1880 - leased third floor of building on State Street in Rochester, NY, began to manufacture, sell dry plates; April 3, 1880 - received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for Coating Plates for Use in Photography"; plate-coating machine; January 1, 1881 - George Eastman and Henry A. Strong (family friend, buggy-whip manufacturer) formed a partnership known as the Eastman Dry Plate Company; 1883 - introduced film in rolls (roll holder adaptable to nearly every plate camera on market); 1884 - name changed to Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company; business changed from partnership to $200,000 corporation with 14 shareowners; 1888 - name Kodak created, birth of snapshot photography; 1889 - Eastman Company formed; 1892 - company became Eastman Kodak Company of New York; 1896 - manufactured 100,000th KODAK camera; 1900 - introduced BROWNIE camera (sold for $1, used film that sold for 15 cents/roll; October 13, 1942 - Eastman Kodak Company registered "Brownie" trademark first used January 1, 1901 (photographic cameras, photographic film, photographic developing boxes, photographic printing frames, etc.).

1880 - P. T. Barnum bought out London Circus and International Allied Shows, prime rival owned by James E. Cooper, James Anthony Bailey (changed his name from McGinnis at age 14), James L. Hutchinson (owned first elephant born in captivity in United States); 1881 - P. T. Barnum, James A. Bailey, James L. Hutchinson combined circuses, formed Barnum and London ("P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show on Earth And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United"); presented three-ring format in New York City; 1887 - Hutchinson, age 41, retired from circus, bought out by Barnum and Bailey for $650,000; 1888 - known as Barnum and Bailey's "Greatest Show on Earth".

Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) Phineas Taylor (P. T.) Barnum  ( April 8, 1891 Obituary: learning/ general/onthisday/ bday/0705.html

James A. Bailey (bottom) ( James_Anthony_Bailey_ca1890s.png)

October 11, 1881 - David H. Houston, of Cambria, WI, received a patent for a "Photographic Apparatus" ("to facilitate taking a number of photographic views successively and in a short time"); roll film for cameras; 1879 - designed portable camera suited to everyday person vs. professionals (received royalties for it of about $5000 monthly for life); 1881 - George Eastman bought the patent, sold Houston-designed camera for $25 (loaded with a 100-exposure film which Houston would process and reload for $10); Eastman bought 21 patents on cameras from him.

1883 - Francis E. (F. E.) and Freelan O. (F. O.) Stanley (of Stanley Steamer fame) invented photographic dry-plate process, formed Stanley Dry Plate Company to manufacture plates; July 13, 1886 - Stanleys, of Lewiston, ME and Auburn, ME, received a patent for a "Machine for Manufacturing Photographic Dry-Plates" ("called a Coating-Machine"); 1903 - sold company to Eastman Kodak; focused on automobile production.

1884 - "Father of the Gravity Ride" opened a 600-ft roller-coaster at Coney Island at 6-mph maximum (recouped $1,600 investment in only three weeks); December 22, 1885 - La Marcus Adna Thompson, of Philadelphia, PA, received patent for a "Gravity Switch Back Railway"; switch automatically allowed car to return on second trak.

1884 - Karl (24) and Victoria Elsener founded factory to make cutlery in small village of Ibach near Swiss Alps (had organized Swiss Cutlery Guild of 37 craftsmen in 1891 to make Swiss-made knives for Swiss army; had obtained Swiss Army contract, in October 1891, to supply "Soldier's Knife" (blade, screwdriver, can opener, hole punch); added small, sharp "erasing" blade for scraping off mistakes in paperwork handwritten by pen and corkscrew for officers' dining and socializing; two springs, six blades; officially named "Offiziersmesser" [Officer Knife]); June 12, 1897 - legally registered design for trademark protection; January 31, 1903 - received a German patent for a "Klingentaschenwerkzeug" ('blade pockets tool"); 1909 - Swiss cross added to red knife handles; company named New company name "Victoria" (Karl Elsener's mother's name); 1921 - name changed to "Victorinox" AG (Stainless steel, "inox"); 2002 - sole shareholder of Swiss Army Brands Inc., USA; April 26, 2005 - took over Wenger SA, knife producer since 1893, also supplier of Swiss Army knife (to strengthen product "Swiss Army Knife", to guarantee that production continues solely in Switzerland).

Karl Elsener - Swiss Army Knife  (

May 19, 1884 - The Ringling Brothers Circus first performed.

June 16, 1884 - La Marcus Thompson, of South Chicago, IL, inventor of Thompson Switchback Railway, first gravity-powered American roller coaster that was commercially successful, put it in operation at Coney Island, NY; passengers rode a train on undulating tracks over a wooden structure 600-ft long; admission was 5 cents; grossed an average of $600 / day; January 20, 1885 - received a patent for a "Roller Coasting Structure" ("an improved coasting structure to be used as a means of pleasure and amusement"); 1888 - built about 50 more across the U.S. and in Europe.

October 14, 1884 - George Eastman, of Rochester NY, received a patent for "Photographic Film" ("having for their object the production for the market of sensitized films, which are capable of being used in making positives and negatives in place of the sheets of glass coated with emulsion, now known in the trade as dry-plates"); EASTMAN American Film - first transparent paper-strip photographic film; May 5, 1885 - George Eastman and William Walker, of Rochester, NY, received patent for a "Photographic Film Holder" ("improvements in holders or means of supporting photographic films during exposure in the camera"); device advanced film for cameras to which it was attached; assigned to Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.

December 9, 1884 - Levant M. Richardson, of Richardson Skate Company, Chicago, IL, received first U.S. patent for "Roller-Skate" ("to improve the bearings for the rollers with which such skates are provided"); ball-bearing roller skates.

1885 - John Kemp Starley constructed the Rover Safety Bicycle; an immediate success.; rear-wheel drive, chain driven cycle, both  wheels were the same size with the rider positioned between them with the pedals directly below; front forks and steering column were sloped back from the front hub so the rider could reach the handlebars easily; 1889 -  company became J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd.; late 1890's - became the the Rover Cycle Company Ltd.

March 26, 1885 - Eastman Dry Plate and Film Co., of Rochester, NY, manufactured first commercial motion picture film (produced in continuous strips on reels).

1887 - Sir Frank Bowden purchase interest in small bicycle company on Raleigh Street, Nottingham; 1890 - formed Raleigh Bicycle Company; 1896 - built largest cycle factory in world; 1933 - introduced to U.S. market.

September 4, 1888 - George Eastman received a patent for a "Camera" ("that class of photographic apparatus known as 'detective cameras'...invention consists in the novel and improved form, construction and arrangement of parts constituting the case or body, the lens-support and shutter, and the film-holder"); roll film camera; December 2, 1890 - Eastman received a patent for "Photographic Film". 

April 6, 1889 - George Eastman placed Kodak Camera on sale.

December 10, 1889 - H. M. Reichenbach, of Rochester, NY, received a patent for the "Manufacture of Flexible Photographic Films"; assigned to Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.

December 24, 1889 - Daniel C. Stover and William A. Hance, of Freeport, IL, received a patent for a "Bicycle"; with back-pedal brake; assigned to Stover Bicycle Manufacturing Company.

March 15, 1892 - Jesse W. Reno, of New York,  received a patent on an "Endless Conveyor or Elevator", "to provide a mechanical incline or slide-conveyor to be used in place of elevators or stairways where large numbers of persons are to be transferred from one floor or level to another, either upward or downward"; first escalator; September 1895 - introduced as new novelty ride at Coney Island, moved passengers on conveyor belt at angle of 25 degrees.

1893 - Daniel B. and Margaret Trimper owned boardwalk property in Ocean City, MD between South Division and South First Streets, including two hotels (The Eastern Shore, Sea Bright); 1900 - remodeled Sea Bright as Great Britain's Windsor Castle; two hotels together with theater, amusement park became known as Windsor Resort; 1902 - purchased massive carousel (50 feet in diameter, forty-five animals, three chariots, one rocking chair driven by steam engine; rides originally cost a nickel) from Herschell-Spillman Company (North Tonawanda, NY); only other carousel made by firm sent to Coney Island (later destroyed by fire); one of oldest still operating carousels in nation; 1950s - added outdoor rides; 1983 - added retail shopping village

1893 - A.S. Gregg Clarke founded Camp Keewaydin in Maine; 1902 - group led by Clarke pushed north into Canada in search of more pristine wilderness experience; founded Lake Temagami, set up temporary camp; 1903 - settled permanently on Devil's Island in North Arm of Lake Temagami; called camp Keewaydin (after northwest wind, invisible hand that sways giant northern pines; Ojibway Indians invoked soft wind as harbinger of good weather, fair tripping; omen of good fortune); one of oldest continuously operating summer camps in North America; oldest canoe-trip camp in world.

June 21, 1893 - George Washington Ferris, Pittsburgh bridge builder, invented Ferris wheel; premiered at Chicago's Columbian Exposition, America's third world's fair; each of the 36 cars carried 60 passengers, made full passenger load of 150 tons; used a web of taut cables, like bicycle wheel, supported by two 140 foot steel towers; 45 foot axle was largest single piece of forged steel at time in world; highest point of wheel was 264 feet; wheel and cars weighed 2100 tons, another 2200 tons of associated levers and machinery; cost of $300,00; 20 minute round-trip ride.

George W. Ferris - Ferris Wheel (

December 12, 1893 - Cornele B. Adams of Augusta, GA, received first U.S. patent for a "Method of Photogrammetry"; aerial photographs taken automatically at a predetermined height from an unmanned stationary balloon on a tether rope at each end of a measured base line on the land (could produce a topographic map by means of photos of the same tract taken from different points). 

1895 - Paul Rozzi, fireworks maker from Pietramelara, Italy, established Rozzi's Famous Fireworks in New Castle, PA; Arthur Rozzi (son) learned his father’s skills, refined production and factory techniques; 1931 - set up workshop in Loveland, OH; awarded contract to shoot shows at Coney Island; awarded contract to shoot for Cincinnati Reds at Crosley Field (first baseball night game in 1935); introduced commercial consumer fireworks in Oklahoma, California, Louisiana, Tennessee, all "open" states; focused on display fireworks, became largest producer of display fireworks in United States; manufactured about 1,000 different types of fireworks; December 18, 1984 - Tri-State Manufacturing Co., Inc. registered "Rozzi Again" trademark first used in 1930 (fireworks); Joe Rozzi, John Rozzi (fourth generation) took over.

April 16, 1895 - Black American inventor, Clatonia J. Dorticus, of Newton, NJ, received patent for a "Machine for Embossing Photographs"; April 23, 1895 - received a patent for a "Photographic Print Washer" ("in which photographic bromid and platinotype or gelatin negatives can be successfully washed, to effect the elimination of sodium hyposulfite and other chemicals from the prints or negatives in a short time").

May 27, 1895 - British inventor Birt Acres received patent for a Kineopticon,  film camera/projector; kinetic camera with appliance for loop folding; first British 35 mm moving picture camera.

October 22, 1895 - Ignaz Schwinn, Adolph Arnold incorporated "Arnold, Schwinn & Company" in Chicago; 1908 - Schwinn bought out Arnold, became sole owner; January 1, 1967 - renamed  Schwinn Bicycle Company; 1993 - filed for bankruptcy; September 11, 2001 - Pacific Cycle, Inc, (Madison, WI) acquired  Schwinn, GT brands in Denver bankruptcy court; 2004 - Pacific Cycle, acquired by Dorel Industries Inc.

November 26, 1895 - Russell S. Peniman, of Dover, NJ, received a patent for "Transparent Photographic Film".

August 16, 1898 - Edwin Prescott, of Arlington, MA, received a patent for a "Roller Coaster" ("presents parallel tracks laid with steep gradients and containing a circularly-arranged vertical loop or loops"); loop-de-loop Roller Coaster; 1901 - built at West 10th Avenue, Coney Island.

September 13, 1898 - Hannibal Goodwin, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a "Photographic Pellicle and Process of Producing Same"; celluloid photographic film; September 2, 1889 - sold one roll at $2.50 to Thomas Alva Edison.

May 30, 1899 - George Cook, of Louisville, KY, received a patent for an "Automatic Fishing Device"; trip lever, activated by tension on fishing line, released spring-loaded carriage containing spring-driven reel which took up line.

June 13, 1899 - Thomas W. Griffin, of Milford, CT, received a patent for a "Pool-Table Attachment" ("to provide a raceway that may be readily applied to tables...for the purpose of directing balls from any of the table-pockets into a receiver at one end of the table, thus making it unnecessary for a person to walk around the table to take balls from the several arrange the ball-receiver that it may be raised from its receiving positions, nearly to the top of the plane of the table, so that a person need not stoop or bend over in order to remove the balls for the purpose of placing them in a rack or upon the table").

June 20, 1899 - Black American inventor Wesley Johnson received a patent for a "Velocipede"; innovation claimed was to use two wheels separated by four to six inches in the front fork, and two wheels in similar fashion at the back to give better stability and safety, especially for those first learning to balance and ride a bicycle, the timid, elderly or the invalid; corners could be turned on slippery ground with better stability.

October 10, 1899 - Black inventor Isaac R. Johnson, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Bicycle Frame" ("can be made separable or dismountable so that it can be compactly stored").

December 19, 1899 - Black American inventor, Granville T. Woods, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Amusement Apparatus"; small scale or large scale electrically-driven cars on a closed track, such as a figure-8 layout.

January 8, 1900 - William Coffin (W. C.) Coleman established Hydro-Carbon Light Company; one-man light utility; 1902 - 300 lamps in service; 1903 - changed product name to Coleman® Arc Lamp; 1905 - began manufacturing lamps at small factory in Wichita, KS; 1909 - introduced portable table lamp (became staple in rural homes); produced 120; 1912 - changed company name to Coleman Lamp Company; 1913 - began manufacturing lanterns; 1914 - introduced 300 candlepower lantern, could light far corners of barn, provided good light in every direction for 100 yards; 1920 - produced 50,000 lamps; sales of $1 million; 1930s - largest number of working lathes west of Mississippi; June 28, 1932 - Coleman Lamp and Stove Company registered "Coleman" trademark first used May 20, 1930 (gasoline burning lamps, lanterns, heaters, mantles, fuel supply tanks, burners, and parts therefor); 1951 - Sheldon Coleman (son) named President; 1960s - biggest name in camping business; 1981 - Sheldon Coleman Jr. (grandson) became third generation to be part of business, produced 15 million products a year; 1986 - manufactured 40-millionth lantern; annual sales exceeded $500 million; 1998 - acquired by Sunbeam Corporation (changed name to American Household, Inc. in 2002); 2005 - acquired by Jarden Corporation.

William Coffin (W. C.) Coleman - Coleman lanterns  (

February 5, 1901 - Edwin Prescott, of Arlington, MA, received a patent for a "Centrifugal Railway"; loop-the-loop centrifugal railway (improved upon an August 16, 1898 patent with purely circular loop which resulted in  uncomfortable shock to passengers as car entered loop; had been installed at Coney Island in 1900 where it was known as Boynton's Centrifugal Railway; had 75-ft incline, 20-ft-wide loop).

August 19, 1902 - Peter J. Scharbach, of Pe Ell, WA, received a patent for a "Changeable Gear For Bicycles" ("in which the clutches controlling the gearing may be readily operated from near the handle-bar and in which the mechanism is simple and durable and easily replaced when worn").

August 26, 1902 - Arthur W. McCurdy, of Washington, DC, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Developing Photographic Films"; assigned to Eastman Kodak Company; daylight developing tank for roll film.

June 22, 1907 - Santa Cruz Beach Co. opened attractions on Santa Cruz beach boardwalk; more than 1,200 people attended opening ball, thousands watched outside as Neptune Casino and Boardwalk were illuminated by thousands of white lights; tourism had begun in 1865 when John Leibrandt opened public bathhouse near mouth of San Lorenzo River (highly-touted natural medicine of bathing in salt water); Fred W. Swanton, considered one of greatest promoters, entrepreneurs of his time, laid plans for a casino, boardwalk ("Coney Island of the West"); transformed 19th-century Miller and Liebbrandt bathhouse into foundations of current Boardwalk; after a fire, foundation laid in October 1906 for the Casino complete with ballroom, Plunge indoor swimming pool, pleasure pier, boardwalk; August 1911 - European woodcarver Charles I.D. Looff delivered new merry-go-round to Santa Cruz Boardwalk (hand-carved horses and two chariots, original 342-pipe, 1894 Ruth Und Sohn band organ still in operation); 1924 - Giant Dipper coaster opened; became most popular ride (2007 - ridership will reach 55 million); 2007 - 35 rides, three arcades (vintage machines, hundreds of modern video games, game deck, 27 games of skill, 36 food vendors, electronic shooting gallery, indoor miniature golf, over 15 gift shops with everything from beachwear to sunglasses and jewelry; Cocoanut Grove complex; Boardwalk Bowl; mile-long sandy beach (cleaned, sifted throughout the year); only remaining major seaside amusement park on West Coast.

Fred W. Swanton - Santa Cruz Beach Co. -  Boardwalk (

October 22, 1907 - Ringling Brothers circus bought Barnum & Bailey Circus.

March 2, 1908 - Gabriel Lippman introduced new three-dimensional color photography at the Academy of Sciences.

January 10, 1911 - Major H.A. "Jimmie" Erickson took first photograph in the U.S. from an airplane while flying in a Curtiss biplane piloted by Charles Hamilton over San Diego, California.

August 22, 1911 - Ole Evinrude, of Milwaukee, WI, received patent for a "Marine Propulsion Mechanism"; outboard motor for boats; outboard motor for boats; formed business partnership with a tugboat magnate Chris Meyer; sold about 2,000 boat motors a year; 1914 - sold out to Meyer; 1919 - founded Elto Outboard Motor Company (Evinrude Light Twin Outboard"); 1929 - Evinrude and Stephen Briggs (Briggs & Stratton) merged three companies, formed Outboard Motors Corp; 1935 - acquired assets of bankrupt Johnson Bros. Motor Co., Indiana company that had built a new marine plant in Waukegan, IL just before the Great Depression; 1936 - name changed to Outboard Marine & Manufacturing Corporation; 1956 - name changed to Outbaord Marine Corporation (OMC);1960s - annual sales $130 million; 1990s - nation's second leading manufacturer of boats (behind Brunswick); 2000 - declared bankruptcy; Bombardier (Montreal, QU) acquired Evinrude & Johnson motors division.

Ole Evinrude - Evinrude Outboard Motors (

February 20, 1912 - Eastman Kodak Co. registered "Kodak" trademark first used December 1887 (photographic cameras, photographic lenses, photographic portrait attachments, photographic color-screens, etc.).

October 28, 1914 - George Eastman introduced color photographic process.

July 25, 1917 - Three leading Japanese optical manufacturers merged, formed comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. (Japan Oprical Co.); 200 employees, eight German technicians (1921); 1918 - launched optical glass production, research; 1932 - adopted Nikkor as brand name for camera lenses; 1945 - production shifted to cameras, microscopes, binoculars, surveying instruments, measuring instruments, ophthalmic lenses; 1946 - adopted Nikon brand name for small-sized cameras; March 1948 - introduced first Nikon camera (combination of features from Leica, Contax cameras); February 3, 1953 - Overseas Finance & trading Company, Inc. registered "Nikon" trademark first used May 8, 1949 (cameras); 1953 - established Nikon Optical Co., first U. S. subsidiary; 1981 - established Nikon Inc. in United States; 1988 - name changed to Nikon Corporation.

1920 - Walter and Cordelia Knott farmed 20 acres of rented land on Route 39 in Buena Park, CA; Walter began selling berries, pies alongside highway; sold directly to grocers; 1927 - bought ten acres of land; 1930s - created boysenberries (cross between loganberry, red raspberry, blackberry, named for Rudolph Boysen, Anaheim Parks Superintendent); June 1934 - Cordelia started what became Chicken Dinner Restaurant, world's largest chicken dinner restaurant (1. 5 million guests each year, largest full-service restaurant that serves chicken as main course); 1940 - served as many as 4,000 dinners on Sunday evenings; Walter developed Ghost Town, first of Knott's Berry Farm's six themed areas; February 28, 1956 - Knott's Berry Farm Partnership registered "Knott's Berry Farm" trademark first used November 1, 1928 (bread; table syrups; jellies; jams; fruit and berry preserves; etc.); 1960s - built second themed area: Fiesta Village, tribute to California's early Spanish heritage; 1975 - opened Roaring 20s, third themed area (renamed The Boardwalk in 1996); 1983 - launched six-acre Camp Snoopy, world's first theme park "land" designed specifically for kids; December 1997 - Knott's Berry Farm acquired by Cedar Fair, L. P. Walter Knott - Knott's Berry Farm (

1921 - Shozaburo Shimano founded Shimano Iron Works ; now Shimano Inc., multinational corporation with over 7,700 employees, offices in 21 countries; producer of bicycle components, sport fishing equipment, recreational tools.

March 1, 1921 - Harry Houdini, of Brooklyn, NY, received a patent for a "Diver's Suit" ("arranged to permit the diver in case of danger for any cause whatever, to quickly divest himself of the suit while being submerged and to safely escape and reach the surface of the water").

1926 - Kodak produced 16mm movie film.

November 22, 1927 - Carl J. E. Eliason, of Sayner, WI, received first patent for a "Vehicle for Snow Travel" ("to provide a supporting structure mounted on runners carrying a driving mechanism"); snowmobile;  1930s - founded Eliason Motor Toboggan; U.S. Army ordered 150, all-white, for use in the defense of Alaska during World War II.

1928 - Kazuo Tajima established Nichi-Doku Shashinki Sho-ten (Japanese-German photo company) in Osaka, Japan; 1929 - introduced Nifcalette, Japan's first camera; 1962 - name changed to Minolta Camera Co., Ltd.; January 2, 1968 - Minolta Corporation registered "Minolta" trademark first used April 1, 1954 (photographic goods-namely, cameras and lenses); 1994 - name changed to Minolta Co., Ltd. (no longer primarily a camera company); 2004 - merged with Konica, renamed Konica-Minolta Holdings, Inc.; 2006 - discontinued film, digital camera production, ended 78-year history as camera manufacturer.

 January 17, 1928 - Inventor Anatol M. Josepho, of New York, NY, received first U.S. patent for a "Developing Apparatus for Photographic Film Strips"; fully automatic film-developing machine, the Photomaton (to develop film strips); September 1926 - first Photomaton studio opened to the public at 1659 Broadway, New York City.

June 4, 1929 - George Eastman demonstrated first technicolor movie (Rochester, New York).

February 25, 1930 - George Lewis McCarthy, of Rye, NY, and Abraham Novick, of Flushing, NY, received patent for a "Photographing Apparatus" (for the "making of photographic records of discrete business documents"); first bank check photographing device ('Checkograph'); designed to make permanent film copies of all bank records; machine photographed checks onto 16mm motion picture film using a conveyor belt before they were returned to customers; 1928 - Eastman Kodak bought McCarthy's invention and began to market it under Kodak's Recordak Division; 1935 - expanded to 35mm film, began filming and publishing the New York Times of the WW I period in microfilm (solved difficulties in archive storage and rapid deterioration of the newsprint original) and made microfilm records for the New York Public Library.

September 23, 1930 - Johann Ostermeyer of Athegnenber, Germany, received a British patent for "Improvements in flash lights used for photographic purposes", precursor to photographic safety flash bulb (evolved from this design, which used aluminium wire or foil in oxygen). 1930 -General Electric introduced flashbulb to American market. 1966- Flash cubes; 1970 - "Magicube".

May 26, 1931 - George L. McCarthy, of Rye, NY, received a patent for a "Photographing Apparatus"; microfilm camera.

October 7, 1931 - The first U.S. short-exposure infrared photograph (new photographic emulsion sensitive to infrared) was taken of 50 people in apparently total darkness in Rochester, NY at the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratories.

February 21, 1922 - William N. Goodwin, Jr. of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a "Thermal Ammeter" ("for measurement of alternating currents of any frequency"); camera exposure meter.

November 29, 1932 - Laurens Hammond, of Chicago, IL, received patent for first bridge (game) table to shuffle and deal the cards by electricity.

May 23, 1933 - Gertrude Ederle, of New York, NY, and Cadwallader W. Kelsey, of Short Hills, NJ, received a patent for an "Aquatic Device" ("hand controlled device for facilitating swimming"); paddle-driven swimming device.

July 18, 1933 - Edwin H. Land, of Norwich, CT and Joseph S. Friedman, of Brookline, MA, received a patent for "Polarizing Refracting Bodies"; type of synthetic plastc sheet used to polarise light.

January 1934 - Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. established, based on government plan to establish domestic photographic film manufacturing industry; inherited split-off photographic film operations of Dainippon Celluloid Company Limited, began operations with ¥3million in capital; Shuichi Asano first president; February 1934 - Ashigara Factory (Kanagawa Factory Ashigara Site) began operating, produced photographic film, photographic print paper, dry plates, other photosensitive materials; February 1962 - established Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. as joint venture with U.K.-based Rank Xerox Limited (currently Xerox Limited); established as subsidiary in March 2001; July 1988 - established Fuji Photo Film, Inc. (FUJIFILM Manufacturing U.S.A., Inc.) in South Carolina as Fujifilm Group's principal manufacturing company in United States.

October 27, 1936 - Gustav Bucky, of New York, NY, and Albert Einstein, of Princeton, NJ, received a patent for a "Light Intensity Self-Adjusting Camera"' light-sensitive camera.

1937 - Edwin H. Land founded Polaroid Corp. to develop,  produce sheet polarizers; July 8, 1941 - Polaroid Corporation registered "Polaroid" trademark first used on November 19, 1935 (stereoscopic viewers and the like);  February 21, 1947 - Edwin H. Land gave first demonstration of instant photography (one-step instant camera) at meeting of Optical Society of America; could produce black-and-white photograph in 60 seconds; February 10, 1948 - received patent for "Developing Camera Utilizing a Film, Another Sheet Material and a Fluid Processing Agent"; received patent for "Photographic Process and Apparatus for Subjecting a Photographic Film to a Processing Fluid"; received patent for "Photographic Apparatus for Subjecting a Photographic Film to a Processing Fluid"; received patent for "Apparatus for Exposing and Processing Photograph Film"; November 26, 1948 - Polaroid Land Camera (40 series, model 95 roll film) first went on sale at Boston department store for $89.75 (sold through 1953); first commercially successful self- developing camera system; February 27, 1951 - received a patent  for a "Photographic Product Comprising a Rupturable Container Carrying a Photographic Processing Liquid"; Polaroid Land camera used diffusion transfer to reproduce image recorded by camera's lens directly onto photosensitive surface (functioned as both film and photo); March 27, 1951 - registered "Polaroid" trademark first used April 1, 1946 (photographic cameras, photographic camera, shutters, [photographic exposure meters], sensitized photographic film, [photographic film spools], sensitized photographic papers, [and television screen filters].

July 30, 1938 - George Eastman demonstrated color motion picture process.

April 1947 - Robert Capa (at large), Henri Cartier-Bresson (India, Far East), George Rodger (Africa), David "Chim" Seymour (Europe) founded Magnum Photo at informal meeting in restaurant of Museum of Modern Art in New York: 1) to reflect their independent natures as people, photographers (idiosyncratic mix of reporter and artist); 2) to allow them, and fine photographers who would follow, ability to work outside formulas of magazine journalism; founded as co-operative in which staff support, rather than direct photographers; copyright held by authors of imagery, not by magazines that published the work (photographer could decide what to cover, publish the pictures in "Life" magazine, agency could then sell photographs to magazines in other countries, give photographers means to work on projects that particularly inspired them even without assignment).

April 16, 1947 - Lens to provide zoom effects demonstrated in New York City; November 23, 1948 - Frank G. Back, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Varifocal Lens fort Cameras"; lens to provide zoom effects for television cameras; Zoomar lens was adjustable for close-ups or long-distance shots without requiring the camera be moved toward or away from the object televised.

April 7, 1959 - Sherman M. Fairchild, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Engraving Machine" ("improved photo-engraving").

August 1, 1961 - Six Flags Over Texas (six flags had flown over state at various times--France, Spain, Mexico, Confederacy, Texas, United States), first park in Six Flags chain, opened on 212 acres in Arlington, TX; developed around theme: history of Texas; rides, attractions grouped into six themed sections that represented cultures of governments representing six flags over Texas; brainchild of Texas real estate developer and oilman Angus Wynne Jr., viewed it as short-term way to make money from vacant land before turning it into industrial complex; pioneered concept of all-inclusive admission price; day at Six Flags cost $2.75 for an adult and $2.25 for a child; hamburger sold for 50 cents, soda cost a dime; 17.5 million visitors in first 10 years, became Texas 's top for-profit tourist attraction; 1969 - acquired by limited partnership headed by Jack Knox; 1993 - acquired by Time Warner; 1995 - sold 51% stake to Boston Ventures for$1billion; 1998 - acquired by Premier Parks.

 January 9, 1986 - Federal District Court in Boston ordered injunction barring Eastman Kodak Company from selling its instant cameras (Polaroid had charged Kodak with stealing patent for its trademark instant camera); 1988 - Chicago court settled class-action suit against Kodak; forced  company to establis elaborate program for notifying, issuing rebates to consumers.

October 11, 2001 - The Polaroid Corporation filed for federal bankruptcy protection; April 2005 - Petters Group Worldwide acquired Polaroid (valued at $426 million).

January 1, 2009 - Since 1999: 1) sales of bicycles in United States have held steady at about 18 million/year, including bicycles for children (source: Gluskin Townley); sales of related parts and accessories adds about $6 billion a year; 2) number of small specialty bicycle stores dropped to about 4.300 now from little more than 6,000 in 2000; account for only 17% of biicycles sold (rest sold by chain stores, mass merchants, on Internet), represent about 50% of revenue; 98% of bicycles manufactured overseas; early 1970s - last time bicycle sales were stronger than motor vehicle sales (recession triggered by Arab oil embargo);


(S. S. Adams Company), Kirk Demarais; Foreword by Chris Ware (20067). Life of the Party: A Visual History of the S.S. Adams Company Makers of Pranks & Magic for 100 Years. (S.S. Adams LLC, 198 p.). Adams, Samuel Sorenson; magic -- history. Commemorates 100th anniversary of Samuel Sorenson (S. S.) Adams company.

(S. S. Adams Company), William V. Rauscher (2002). S.S. Adams, High Priest of Pranks and Merchant of Magic. (Oxford, CT, 1878 Press Co., 154 p.). Adams, Samuel Sorenson, 1879-1959; Magicians --United States --Biography. Adams's entrepreneurship, ceaseless efforts, eventual financial rewards; lonely man who accumulated wealth, disowned his family, left legacy of nonsense products still sold today.

(Bachrach Photography), Doug Collins; introduction by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1992). Photographed by Bachrach: 125 Years of American Portraiture. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 192 p.). Celebrities--United States--Portraits; Portrait photography--United States--History.

(P. T. Barnum), Bluford Adams (1997). E Pluribus Barnum: The Great Showman and the Making of U.S. Popular Culture. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 249 p.). Department of English (University of Iowa). Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891; Ringling Brothers Barnum and Bailey Combined Shows--History; Circus owners--United States--Biography; Circus--Social aspects--United States; Popular culture--United States. 

(P. T. Barnum), Stuart Thayer and William L. Slout (1998). Grand Entree: The Birth of the Greatest Show on Earth, 1870-1875. (San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 182 p.). Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891; P.T. Barnum (Firm)--History; Circus owners--United States--Biography.

(Bertram Yacht Co.), David A. Patten and Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2000). The Legend of Bertram. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). Bertram Yacht Co.; Yachts--United States--History--20th century; Motorboats.

(Beverly Yacht Club), Judith Westlund Rosbe (2006). The Beverly Yacht Club. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Club Historian of the Beverly Yacht Club. Beverly Yacht Club (Beverly, Mass.)--History; Yacht clubs--Massachusetts--Beverly--History; Yachting--Massachusetts--Beverly--Pictorial works; Sailing--Massachusetts--Beverly--Pictorial works; Beverly (Mass.)--History. Founded in 1872,  no fixed home for first 23 years, held races, regattas at ports most convenient to members. 1895 - leased first clubhouse on Wing’s Neck ; 1913 - moved to Marion.

(Bohemian Club), G. William Domhoff (1974). The Bohemian Grove and Other Retreats; A Study in Ruling-Class Cohesiveness. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 250 p.). Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.); Upper class -- United States; Elite (Social sciences).

(Bohemian Club), John Van der Zee (1974). The Greatest Men's Party on Earth; Inside the Bohemian Grove. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 182 p.). Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.).

(Brunswick -since 1845, when Swiss immigrant John Brunswick built one of America's first billiards tables), Rick Kogan (1985). Brunswick: The Story of an American Company from 1845 to 1985. (Lake Forest, IL: Brunswick Corp, 139 p.). Brunswick Corporation.

John Brunswick - Brunswick Corporation  (

(Brunswick), Jeff Rodengen (1991). Iron Fist: The Lives of Carl Kiekhaefer. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 640 p.). Kiekhaefer, Elmer Carl, 1906-1983; Brunswick Corporation. Mercury Marine--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Boating industry--United States--History--20th century.

(Brunswick), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1998). The Legend of Mercury. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 207 p.). Brunswick Corporation. Mercury Marine--History; Outboard motorboats--United States--History; Outboard motors--History.

(Butlins), Sylvia Endacott, Shirley Lewis (2011). Butlin’s: 75 Years of Fun! (Stroud, UK: The History Press, 128 p.). Butlin, Billy; Amusement parks -- history - Britain. 1936 Billy Butlin created most recognised holiday company in UK; opened first Holiday Centre at Skegness (capacity of 1000); 1937 - capacity doubled, went public; 1972 - record one million bookings, merged with Rank Organisation; 1996 - Parkworld Holidays created to manage Butlins; October 20, 2000 - Rank Leisuer acquired by Bourne Leisure.

Billy Butlin - Butlin's (

(Canon), NIKKEI; translated by Mark Schreiber and Aaron Martin Cohen (2004). How Canon Got Its Flash Back: The Innovative Turnaround Tactics of Fujio Mitarai. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 221 p.). Mitarai, Fujio, 1935- ; Kyanon Kabushiki Kaisha--Management; Camera industry--Japan--Management. 

(Chris-Craft Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1993). The Legend of Chris-Craft. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 272 p. [2nd ed.]). Murray Industries--History; Chris-Craft Industries--History; Boatbuilding--United States--History.

(Chris-Craft Industries), Joseph Gribbins (2001). Chris-Craft: A History, 1922-1942. (Marblehead, MA: Devereux Books, 122 p.). Chris-Craft Industries--History; Boatbuilding--United States--History--20th century; Motorboats--United States--History--20th century.

(Cirque du Soleil), text by Tony Babinski; art direction by Kristian Manchester. (2004). Cirque du Soleil: 20 Years Under the Sun. (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 352 p.). Writer, Filmmaker, Musician based in Montreal; Art Director with Diesel Design. Cirque du Soleil--History; Circus--Québec (Province)--History. 

(ClubCorp Inc.), Robert H. Dedman, with Debbie DeLoach (1999). King of Clubs: Grow Rich In More Than Money. (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub., 212 p.). Chairman of the ClubCorp. Dedman, Robert H.; Success; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Frank Codona American Amusements), Frank Bruce (2010). Showfolk: An Oral History of a Fairground Dynasty. (Hastings, East Sussex, UK: NMSE - Publishing Ltd., 288 p.). Codona Brothers; Amusements -- Scotland -- history. Frank, John, William Codona and his family, - traveling fairground dynasty for over 200 years in Scotland; turn of century - opened first permanent Amusement Park in Scotland; 'Codona Brothers' presented amusements at Ayr; operated portable theaters, played street fairs, parks of Scotland; switched to ride operators.

(Detroit Athletic Club), Kenneth H. Voyles, John A. Bluth (2001). Detroit Athletic Club: 1887-2001. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Current Editor, Publisher of the Club's Award-Winning Magazine, the DAC News. Detroit Athletic Club. Detroit. From original club on Woodward Avenue in 1887 to the present: formative years at first club, building and opening of new club, athletic traditions, membership, staff, social activities.

(Encinal Yacht Club), Woodruff Minor (1994). On the Bay: A Centennial History of the Encinal Yacht Club. (Alameda, CA: The Yacht Club, 279 p.). Encinal Yacht Club (Alameda, Calif.); Yacht clubs--California--Alameda--History.

(Ilford Limited), Robert J. Hercock and George A. Jones (1979). Silver by the Ton: The History of Ilford Limited, 1879-1979. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 170 p.). Ilford Limited--History.

(Inverness Club), Dave Hackenberg (2003). Inverness Club: Its Vibrant Voice Chimes Through a Century (1903-2003). (Toledo, OH: Inverness Club, 167 p.). Inverness Club (Toledo, Ohio)--History; Golf courses--Ohio--Toledo--History; Toledo (Ohio)--History.

(Knott’s Berry Farm), Christopher Merritt and J. Eric Lynxwiler; introduction by Tony Baxter (2010). Knott’s Preserved: From Boysenberry to Theme Park: The History of Knott’s Berry Farm. (Santa Monica, CA: Angel City Press, 160 p.). Former Disney Imagineer (design and development arm of The Walt Disney Company); Graphic Designer. Knott, Walter, 1889-1981; Amusement parks --California -- Park --History; Farms --California --Buena Park --History; Berries --California --Buena Park --History; Knott’s Berry Farm (Buena Park, Calif. : Amusement park) --History; Knott’s Berry Farm (Buena Park, Calif. : Amusement park) --Pictorial works. How Knott family turned  berry business into one of major theme parks in world; from Walter and Cordelia Knott, their kids, serving baskets of berries "as big as a man’s thumb", berry pies that weighed three pounds, to advent of themed rides; how a man and a woman remained true to their values, shared profits and credit.

Walter and Cordelia Knott - Knott's Berry Farm (

(Kodak), S. Prakash Sethi. With a foreword by James Farmer, and an introd. by Dow Votaw (1970). Business Corporations and the Black Man; An Analysis of Social Conflict: The Kodak-FIGHT Controversy. (Scranton, PA: Chandler Pub. Co., 184 p.). Eastman Kodak Company; Industries -- Social aspects -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Case studies; African Americans -- Employment -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Case studies.

George Eastman George Eastman  ( en/corp/researchDevelopment/georgeEastman. jpg)

(Kodak), Carl W. Ackerman. With an introd. by Edwin R. A. Seligman (1973). George Eastman: Founder of Kodak and the Photography Business. (Clifton, NJ: A. M. Kelley, 522 p. [orig. pub. 1930]). Eastman, George, 1854-1932.

(Kodak), Albert L. Sieg with Steven J. Bennett (1995). The Tokyo Chronicles: An American Gaijin Reveals the Hidden Truths of Japanese Life and Business. (New York, NY: Wiley, 182 p.). President of Kodak Japanese Subsidiary (1984) for Seven Years. Business etiquette--Japan; National characteristics, Japanese; Japan--Social life and customs--1945-. 

(Kodak), Douglas Collins (1990). The Story of Kodak. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 392 p.). Eastman Kodak Company--History; Photographic industry--United States--History; Photographic film industry--United States--History; Camera industry--United States--History.

(Kodak), Stephen J. Frangos with Steven J. Bennett. (1993). Team Zebra: How 1500 Partners Revitalized Eastman Kodak's Black & White Film-Making Flow. (Essex Junction, VT: O. Wright, 216 p.). Manager, Kodak's Black and White Film Division. Eastman Kodak Company. Black and White Film Division; Organizational change -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Case studies. 

(Kodak), Elizabeth Brayer (1996). George Eastman: A Biography. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 637 p.). Eastman, George, 1854-1932.

(Kodak), Alecia Swasy (1997). Changing Focus: Kodak and the Battle to Save a Great American Company. (New York, NY: Times Business, 276 p.). Eastman Kodak Company; Photographic industry--United States; Camera industry--United States; Photographic film industry--United States; Photographic chemicals industry--United States.

(Kodak), Nancy Martha West (2000). Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia. (Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 242 p.). Eastman Kodak Company; Advertising--Photographic equipment--Psychological aspects--History; Nostalgia.

(Kodak), Russell L. Olson (2005). The School of Hard Knocks: The Evolution of Pension Investing at Eastman Kodak. (Rochester, NY: RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 97 p.). Former Director of Pension Investments, Worldwide, for Eastman Kodak Company. Eastman Kodak Company; Pension trusts--Investments--United States.

(Kodak), Robert L. Shanebrook (2010). Making KODAK Film: The Illustrated story of State-of-the-Art Photographic Film Manufacturing. (Rochester, NY: R.L. Shanebrook, Robert Shanebrook Photography, 94 p.). Worked at Kodak for 35 Years. Photography -- Films; Photographic film industry; Eastman Kodak Company. How Eastman Kodak Company made film (machinery and production methods) during 2007-2010 when technology had reached its height.

(Los Angeles Athletic Club), Text by Betty Lou Young; designed by Thomas R. Young (1980). Our First Century: The Los Angeles Athletic Club, 1880-1980. (Los Angeles, CA: LAAC Press, 176 p.). Los Angeles Athletic Club--History.

(Magnum Photos), Ed. Brigitte Lardinois (2007). Magnum Magnum. (London, UK: Thames & Hudson, 564 p.). Magnum Photos; photographic film industry--United States--History. Co-operative, founded 1947; permanent record of iconic images, seen through critical eyes, minds of Magnum photographers, into what makes memorable photograph.

(Maidstone Club), Averill Dayton Geus (1991). The Second Fifty Years, 1941-1991. (West Kennebunk, ME: Published for the Centennial Committee of the Maidstone Club, East Hampton, Long Island, New York, by Phoenix Pub., 251 p.). Maidstone Club (East Hampton, N.Y. : Town)--History.

(Maryland State Fair), Paige Horine (2006). The Maryland State Fair: Celebrating 125 Years. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Fairs--Maryland; Agricultural exhibitions--Maryland; Baltimore County (Md.)--History; Timonium (Md.)--History. Billed as "the Eleven Best Days of Summer."

(Mid-South Fair), Robert W. Dye (2006). The Mid-South Fair: Celebrating 150 Years. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Chairman of the Mid-South Fair Historical Committee, Member of the Shelby County Historical Commission. Mid-South Fair (Memphis, Tenn.)--History--Pictorial works; Agricultural exhibitions--Tennessee--Memphis--History--Pictorial works. Established in 1856, offered farmers and general public a venue to learn of new products, compete with others from the region;  prevailed through Civil War, yellow fever epidemics, two world wars, one of largest in nation.

(Minolta), Sam Kusumoto with Edmund P. Murray (1989). My Bridge to America: Discovering the New World for Minolta. (New York, NY: Dutton, 340 p.). Kusumoto, Sam, 1928- ; Minolta Corporation--History; Businesspeople--Japan--Biography; Camera industry--Japan--History--20th century; Camera industry--United States--History--20th century; Minolta camera--Marketing.

(Nikon), Michael Wescott Loder; foreword by Robert J. Rotoloni (2008). The Nikon Camera in America, 1946-1953. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 227 p.). Nihon Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha; Nikon camera--History; Camera industry--United States--History; Photography--United States--Equipment and supplies--History. 1946-1951 - roles that American businesses, photojournalists played in early overseas marketing of Nikon camera, Nikkor optics; particular attention to Overseas Finance and Trading Company, major U.S. importer of Nikon products between 1949 and 1953.

(Outboard Marine), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1992). Evinrude, Johnson, and the Legend of OMC. (Ft.Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 144 p.). Outboard Marine Corporation--History; Outboard motorboats--United States--History; Outboard motors--History.

(Palo Alto CC), Debra Ann Ristau (2008). Promises Fulfilled: Fifty Years of Playing the Hills: A Celebration of the Palo Alto Hills Golf and Country Club. (Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co., 128 p.). Palo Alto Hills Golf and Country Club (Palo Alto, Calif.) --History; Golf courses --California --Palo Alto --History; Country clubs --California --Palo Alto --History; Ohlone Indians --History.

(Polaris Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen & Richard F. Hubbard (2003). The Legend of Polaris. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 152 p.). Polaris Industries--History; Snowmobile industry--United States--History; All terrain vehicle industry--United States--History; Personal watercraft--United States--History; Victory motorcycle--History; Motorcycles--United States--History; Motor vehicles--Recreational use--United States--History; Industries--Minnesota--Roseau--History.

(Polaroid), Mark Olshaker (1978). The Instant Image: Edwin Land and the Polaroid Experience. (New York, NY: Stein & Day, 277 p.). Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid Corporation.

Edwin H. Land Edwin H. Land - Polaroid (

(Polaroid), Peter C. Wensberg (1987). Land's Polaroid: A Company and the Man Who Invented It (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 258 p.). Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid Corporation--History; Polaroid Land camera--History.

(Polaroid), Victor K. McElheny (1998). Insisting on the Impossible: The Life of Edwin Land (Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 510 p.). Reporter on Science and Technology. Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid Corporation--History; Scientists--United States--Biography; Inventors--United States--Biography.

(Polaroid), Alan R. Earls and Nasrin Rohani; foreward by Marie Cosindas (2005). Polaroid. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid Land Camera; Instant photography--History; Polaroid Corporation--History. 

(Pope Manufacturing Company), Stephen B. Goddard (2000). Colonel Albert Pope and His American Dream Machines: The Life and Times of a Bicycle Tycoon Turned Automotive Pioneer. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 253 p.). Pope, Albert A. (Albert Augustus), 1843-1909; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Bicycles--United States--Biography; Highway engineers--United States--Biography. Founder - Columbia bicycles.

Colonel Albert A. Pope - Columbia bicycles (

(Raleigh Cycle Co.), Roger Lloyd-Jones and M.J. Lewis (2000). Raleigh and the British Bicycle Industry: An Economic and Business History, 1870-1960. (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 303 p.). Professor of Economic History (Sheffield Hallam University, UK); Senior Lecturer in Business History (Sheffield Hallam University, UK). Raleigh Cycle Co. -- History; Bicycle industry -- Great Britain -- History.

Sir Frank Bowden - Raleigh Bicycle Company  (

(Ranier Club), Walt Crowley (1988). The Rainier Club, 1888-1988. (Seattle, WA: Crowley Associates, 79 p.). Ranier Club.

(Ringling Brothers), Henry Ringling North and Alden Hatch (1960). The Circus Kings Our Ringling Family Story. (Garden City, N: Doubleday, 383 p.). Ringling Brothers.

Ringling Brothers (Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, Otto; August [Gus], Henry joined later;

(Ringling Brothers), Jerry Apps ; foreword by Fred Dahlinger, Jr. (2005). Ringlingville USA: The Stupendous Story of Seven Siblings and Their Stunning Circus Success. (Madison, WI: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 256 p.). Wisconsin Historian. Ringling Brothers--History; Ringling Brothers Barnum and Bailey Combined Shows--History; Circus performers--United States--Biography; Circus--United States.

(Riverview Amusement Park), Derek Gee and Ralph Lopez (2000). Laugh Your Troubles Away: The Complete History of Riverview Park, Chicago, Illinois. (Livonia, MI: Sharpshooters Productions, 166 p.). Amusement parks--Illinois--Chicago--History; (Chicago, Ill.).

(Riverview Amusement Park), Dolores Haugh (2004). Riverview Amusement Park. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Founding Member, Past President, and Director Emeritus of the Mount Prospect Historical Society. Riverview Amusement Park (Chicago, Ill.)--History; Riverview Amusement Park (Chicago, Ill.)--History--Pictorial works. 1904 to 1967 - world’s largest amusement park opened to millions of people; grew from 22 acres, 3 rides to 140 acres, more than 100 attractions.

(Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk), Chandra Moira Beal and Richard A. Beal (2003). Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk: The Early Years-- Never a Dull Moment. (Austin, TX: Pacific Group, 261 p.). Beaches--California--Santa Cruz; Amusement parks--California--Santa Cruz; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--History; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--Pictorial works. 

(Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk), Santa Cruz Seaside Company (2007). Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk: A Century by the Sea. (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 176 p.). Amusement parks--California--Santa Cruz--History; Beaches--California--Santa Cruz--History; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--History; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--Pictorial works. History of premier California tourist destination. From beachfront bathhouses and ashes of Santa Cruz’s first Casino, "Coney Island of the West" is home to National Historic Landmarks, dozens of rides, games, shops, venues.

(Schwinn), Judith Crown & Glenn Coleman (1996). No Hands: The Rise and Fall of the Schwinn Bicycle Company: An American Institution. (New York, NY: Holt, 350 p.). Schwinn Bicycle Company--History; Bicycle industry--United States--History.

Schwinn - dávná historie i žhavá součsnost Ignaz Schwinn (

(Scores), Jay Bildstein, as told to Jerry Schmetterer (1996). The King of Clubs. (New York, NY: Barricade Books, 288 p.). Bildstein, Jay; Scores (Club : New York, N.Y.)--History; Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.)--New York (State)--New York--History; Striptease--New York (State)--New York; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Sea World), Susan G. Davis (1997). Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 313 p.). Associate Professor of Communication (University of California, San Diego). Sea World; Amusement parks--Social aspects--California--San Diego; Amusement parks--Economic aspects--California--San Diego; Corporate culture--California--San Diego. 

(Sea World), Tim O'Brien (2003). The Wave Maker: Story Of Theme Park Pioneer George Millay And The Creation Of Seaworld, Magic Mountain, And Wet 'n Wild. (Nashville, TN: Ripley's Entertainment, Inc., 352 p.). VP, Publishing and Communication (Ripley's Entertainment). Amusement Parks--United States--History; theme parks.

(Shimano Inc.), Yoshizo Shimano (2008). This Is My Road: The Story of Shimano. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 161 p.). Chairman of Shimano Inc. Shimano, Yoshizo, 1934-; Shimano, Kabushiki Kaisha; Bicycle industry --Japan --Biography. Leading bicycle components manufacturer, established brand in fishing tackle; journey from mischievous young boy to Chairman of Shimano Inc.; success owed to foresight, resolve, flair of Shimano family; Shimano brothers have led company through more than 80 years of successful existence; now run by third generation.

(Six Flags), Tim Hollis (2006). Six Flags Over Georgia. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Amusement parks--Georgia--Austell--History--Pictorial works; Amusement parks--Georgia--Pictorial works. Opened June 1967 - first theme park in Southeast, devoted to various periods of Georgia’s history;  changed, expanded over the decades.

(Topsfield Fair), David H. Fletcher (2003). Topsfield Fair: America’s Oldest. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Topsfield Fair (Topsfield, Mass.); Agricultural exhibitions--Massachusetts--Topsfield; Topsfield (Mass. : Town)--History. Oldest agricultural fair in America (1818) - rooted in agriculture, filled with thrills,  family entertainment.

(Union League Club of Chicago), James Dunlap Nowlan (2004). Glory, Darkness, Light: A History of the Union League Club of Chicago. (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 254 p.). Senior Fellow with the University of Illinois Institute of Government and Public Affairs. Union League Club of Chicago --History; Chicago (Ill.) --History. City history, revealing look behind brass plaque of prominent city club; roots in Civil War; how Club, its members built, boosted, squabbled with city for 125 years; 1893 - leaders saved, presented World's Columbian Exposition to 27 million awed visitors; 1950s - half of 2003 Board members (Jews, blacks, women) ineligible, unacceptable for membership - Club's resistance to these groups recounted.

(Villiers Engineering Co. Ltd.), Marjorie von Harten and Melissa Marston (1979). Man of Woverhampton: (the Life and Times of Sir Charles Marston. (Daglingworth, UK: Coombe Springs Press, 255 p.). Marston, Charles, Sir, 1867-1946; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography. Sunbeam bicycles.

(Walworth County Fair), Taylor Pipes (2005). Walworth County Fair. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Walworth County Fair (Elkhorn, Wis.)--History--Pictorial works. Founded in 1851, dubbed the "Great Fair" in 1918, tone of largest in United States.

(Westmoor Country Club), H. Russell Zimmermann (1987). Westmoor Country Club: Sixty Years of Family, Fellowship, and Sport. (Brookfield, WI: The Club, 304 p.). Westmoor Country Club (Brookfield, Wis.)--History; Country clubs--Wisconsin--Milwaukee Metropolitan Area--History.

(Zambelli Internationale), Gianni DeVincent Hayes (2003). Zambelli, The First Family of Fireworks: A Story of Global Success. (Forest Dale, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 171 p.). Zambelli family; Zambelli Internationale; Fireworks--United States.

Judith A. Adams (1991). The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology and Thrills. (Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 225 p.). Amusement parks--United States--History; Amusement parks--Economic aspects--United States; Amusement ride equipment industry--United States--History.

Norman D. Anderson (1992). Ferris Wheels: An Illustrated History. (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 407 p.). Ferris wheels--History. Story of one of the engineering marvels of both the nineteenth and the twentieth century.

Elspeth H. Brown (2005). The Corporate Eye: Photography and the Rationalization of American Commercial Culture, 1884-1929. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 320 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Toronto). Photography--United States--Business methods; Commercial photography--United States--History. 

Bryan Burkhart and David Hunt (2000). Airstream: The History of the Land Yacht. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 143 P.). Airstream trailers--History.

Brian J. Cudahy (1998). Twilight on the Bay: The Excursion Boat Empire of B.B. Wills (Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 242 p.). Wills, B. B. (Benjamin Bowling), 1897-1986; Excursion boats -- United States -- History; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

David Lewis Hammarstrom (2008). Fall of the Big Top: The Vanishing American Circus. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 239 p.). Circus--United States--History. Circus history from 1793 to present; cultural forces pushing big top shows toward "circus ballet."

Lisa Holton (2008). For Members Only A History And Guide to Chicago's Oldest Private Clubs. (Chicago, IL: Lake Claremont Press, 350 p.). Former business editor (Chicago Sun-Times). Clubs--private; social clubs--Chicago--history. Hidden world of Chicagos private social clubs - united, divided Chicago's city's leaders since first days; how business, nonprofit, political leaders of Chicago shaped city for more than 140 years behind closed doors; how clubs once restricted by race, sex, birthright, flourished in days of Marshall Field, Louis Sullivan, have adapted to modern society.

Reese Jenkins (1975). Images and Enterprise: Technology and the American Photographic Industry, 1839 to 1925. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 371 p.). Photographic industry--United States--History. 

Roger Lacasse (1988). Joseph-Armand Bombardier: Le Reve d’Un Inventeur. (Quebec: Libre expression, 233 p.). Bombardier, Joseph-Armand, 1907-1964; Industrialists--Que´bec (Province)--Biography; Snowmobile industry--Que´bec (Province)--History; All terrain vehicles--Que´bec (Province)--History.

Rachel P. Maines (2009). Hedonizing Technologies: Paths to Pleasure in Hobbies and Leisure. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 211 p.). Visiting Scientist in the Cornell University School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Hobbies --History; Amusements --History; Technology --Economic aspects --History --Popular works. Growth, economic significance of hobbies in terms of broad consumer demand for technologies associated with them; growth in world markets for hobby craft tools, books, periodicals, materials from late 18th century to today; history of labor, industry; how technology and people interact.

James M. Mayo (1998). The American Country Club: Its Origins and Development. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 243 p.). Country clubs--United States--History.

David Nasaw (1993). Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements. (New York, NY: BasicBooks, 312 p.). Professor of History and American Studies (Graduate Center of the City University of New York). Leisure--United States--History; Amusements--United States--History.

Woody Register (2001). The Kid of Coney Island: Fred Thompson and the Rise of American Amusements (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 400 p.). Professor of American Studies (Sewanee, University of the South). Thompson, Fred, 1873-1919; Amusement park owners--New York (State)--New York--Biography.

Fukui Yuko (2005). Kanransha Monogatari: 110-nen no Rekishi o Meguru = Ferris Wheel History. (Tokyo, Japan: Heibonsha, 343 p.). Ferris wheel history. History of Ferris wheels in western countries.


Business History Links

Amusement Park History                                                                              

Site is designed to help facilitate the understanding of amusement parks, specifically the traditions and history that surround the industry.

Amusing America                                                                                       

Online exhibit from the San Francisco Public Library pays tribute to the closing decades of the 19th century, when Americans began to frequent amusement parks, dance halls, and other such places. From a virtual Ferris wheel, visitors can enter the exhibit by clicking on a number of images, including a smiling clown’s face and a trio of bathing beauties. Visitors can learn about San Francisco’s famed Sutro Baths, tour the grounds of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, and the hustle and bustle of the Playland. If visitors make some popcorn and pink lemonade while wandering around the site, it might just make the experience complete.

Branding of Polaroid, 1957-1977                                                  

Blog, by Paul Giambarba, initiated Polaroid's corporate image development and product identity in 1958, gives a fascinating overview of Polaroid and its history. The site contains subtopics such as; Polaroid Package Design, Polaroid Dealer Ads, Polaroid Sunglasses, and more. Giambarba created " ... the ubiquitous Polaroid colour stripes, one of the most widely imitated design devices of the last several decades, he designed and produced hundreds of Polaroid packages and collateral material including consumer literature."

Circus Historical Society                                                                                   

Founded in 1939, the Circus Historical Society, Inc. (CHS) is a tax-exempt, not-for-profit educational organization dedicated to recording the history of the American circus from the first one in Philadelphia during 1793 to today.

The Circus in America: 1793-1940                                                              

For over a century and a half, the circus was at the forefront of Americans’ minds when they thought of large-scale entertainment. Wwith their movement through towns both large and small, the circus seemed to captivate both cosmopolites and more rural folk. Designed by the staff members at The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia, this multimedia site brings together a range of primary materials (including video clips) that tell the stories of six major American circuses from 1793 to 1940. Visitors can elect to learn about the acts in each circus, the animals that delighted both young and old, and the transportation methods used to move these enormous productions from Nyack to New Bedford. There is also a circus timeline of events, and some "Special Attractions", which include essays on various aspects of circus history and a selection of sounds of the circus. The site is rounded out by some video clips of restored circus wagons on parade and itineraries for the six featured circuses which give users a sense of the exhausting schedules they often had.

George Eastman House                                                                             

Since it was opened in 1949, the George Eastman House has helped tell "the story of photography and motion pictures -- media that have changed and continue to change our perception of the world." The museum's homepage offers a number of interesting resources about current exhibitions and longstanding collections. One of the more substantial sections of the Web site is titled Education & Research; it contains a couple of video clips of photographic processes, as well as insights into the work conducted at the L. Jeffrey Selznick School of Film Preservation. The site also contains a Timeline of Photography, which describes many remarkable events over the past three centuries. Several sample images of photographs from the George Eastman House collections are available for viewing.

Heliography: A Chronology of New England Inventions and Innovations in Photography the 19th Century                                                        Heliography.htm+moving+picture+projector+%22O.+B.+ Brown%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=3.                                                             
New England played an important role in the evolution of photography. Published in the Spring 2003 issue of The New England Journal of Photographic History.

Kodak History                                                                                

On the pages that follow, you'll learn more about George Eastman's remarkable accomplishments and about the company that today is bringing new dimensions to his legacy.

Made in Chicago: The Ferris Wheel                                    

Brief description of the Ferris wheel, which "debuted at Chicago's 1893 Columbian Exposition. ... 'The World's Greatest Ride' was reused at the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904, then dynamited and sold for scrap metal." Includes links to related articles about the Columbian Exposition and the Coney Island entrepreneur who saw the Ferris wheel and ordered a smaller version. From an American Experience documentary about Chicago.

Metz Bicycle Museum                                                                           

One of world's finest collection of antique bicycles, dating from the 1850's to the 1950's; hundreds of different bicycles of all kinds on display - boneshakers, high wheelers, quadracycles, tricycles. a "Zimmy", a lamp lighter bicycle, children's bikes, trick bikes, and many more other unusual and one-of-a kind cycles.

National Roller Coaster Museum and Archive                                                         

Opened in 2001- to discover, preserve, interpret and share the historical heritage of the roller coaster for present and future generations. At the same time, it is the goal of the NRCMA board to become part of an established universal effort to make the public and industry aware of the importance of preserving its heritage, from the ongoing maintenance of older rides and attractions, to the safeguarding of crumbling remnants found in garages, park maintenance buildings, basements and attics. The ultimate goal is to protect these artifacts and make them accessible to those who love roller coasters and amusement parks! The opportunity to preserve an important part of American history, establish a permanent home for memorabilia and to save our amusement park legacy for future generations to enjoy, is too important to overlook.

New England Carousel Museum                                                                                       

One of the largest collections of antique carousel pieces in the country; dedicated to the acquisition, restoration and preservation of operating carousels and carousel memorabilia and the creation of new carousel material, for the education and pleasure of the general public.

Pedaling History Bicycle Museum                                                                      

One of the world's largest collections of antique and classic American bicycles, including thousands of items of cycling-related memorabilia. From the antiques through the classics to modern bikes: social, design, manufacturing, marketing, and sports aspects are all reflected in our displays.  1970s - Carl and Clarice [Clary] Burgwardt attended a country auction in Western New York State and brought home the parts of an old, original highwheel bicycle. 1980s - assembled a sizeable and fair representation of the bicycle's history in their growing collection and then decided to more seriously focus their collecting a bit differently than other collections they had seen; began putting together what today has become the world's largest collection of American bicycle history (95% American),  has become a heritage treasure of American bicycling history, unsurpassed in both size and comprehensive historical content anywhere in the world.

Photographic Historical Society of New England                                                                                     

Nonprofit, tax-exempt society founded in 1973 to promote the knowledge of photographic history in a variety of exciting educational programs and activities. Largest of the forty regional photographic historical societies in the world.


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