- Belgian Joseph Merlin invented earliest known type of roller
skate, two large wheels on each skate.
January 9, 1768 -
Englishman Philip Astley, former cavalry sergeant major, staged
first modern circus in London; galloped in tight circle,
centrifugal force allowed him to perform seemingly impossible
feats on horse's back; invited public to see him wave sword in
air while he rode with one foot on saddle, one on horse's head;
very favorable response; hired other equestrians, clown,
musicians; 1770 -
built roof over ring, called structure Astley's Amphitheatre
("circus" = after Roman name for circular theaters where chariot
races were held); eventually established 18 other circuses in
cities across Europe; 1792
- English equestrian John Bill Ricketts opened first American
circus in Philadelphia; opened others in New York City and
Boston; 1859 - The
Cirque Napoleon in Paris offered first "flying trapeze" act;
1871 - William
Cameron Coup, showman P.T. Barnum opened enormous circus in
Brooklyn; called it "The Greatest Show on Earth";
1881 - Barnum went
into business with James Anthony Bailey; "Barnum and Bailey"
circuses were so large they required simultaneous performances
in three rings; 1884
- five Ringling brothers staged their first circus;
1907 - bought
Barnum and Bailey circus company = Ringling Brothers and Barnum
1770 - First exhibition of waxworks of Dr.
Philippe Curtius shown in Paris; 1776 -moved to
Palais Royal in Paris; 1778 - Madame Tussaud (born
Marie Groszholtz in Strasbourg, France), who learned wax
modelling as housekeeper for Dr. Curtius, created her first wax
figure of Jean-Jacques Rousseau; 1789 - forced by
leading members of French Revolution to hunt through piles of
heads cut off by guillotine to make copies (‘deathmasks’) of
people who were former friends, employers; 1794 -
collection inherited by Madame Tussaud; 1802 -
brought collection England; toured Great Britain, Ireland for
next 33 years; 1835 - established first permanent
exhibition on Baker Street in London; 1970 -
opened in Amsterdam (first to open outside London); 1978
- acquired by S. Pearson and Son (now Pearson plc); 1998
- acquired by Charterhouse Development Capital; July 1999
- Madame Tussaud`s Las Vegas opened; November 2000
- Madame Tussaud`s New York opened; 2005 -
acquired by Dubai International Capital (government-backed
private equity firm) for £800 million; March 5, 2007
- agreed to be acquired by Blackstone Group for £1 billion.
Madame Tussaud - wax museum
April 3, 1793 - John Bill Rickets, an English
equestrian rider, opened circus in Philadelphia at 12th and
Market Streets; used a ring, added acrobats, a rope walker and a
clown to his equestrian act;
April 22, 1793 - President
Washington attended opening of Rickett's, first circus in U.S..
December 13, 1816 - John Adamson, of
Boston, MA, received first U.S. patent for a "Floating Dry
Dock"; dry docking and repair of canal boats.
February 17, 1818
- Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun received a patent for the
"draisine", the forerunner of the bicycle; first commercially
successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled walking
21, 1819 - First bicycle in U.S., velocipedes or
"swift walkers", seen in New York City;
August 19, 1819 - city's Common Council
passed law to "prevent the use of velocipedes in the public
places and on the sidewalks of the city of New York".
June 26, 1819 - William K. Clarkson Jr., of New
York, received first US patent for a "Velocipede", predecessor
of the bicycle (patent record destroyed in 1836 fire).
April 22, 1823 -
Robert John Tyers, a fruiterer in Picadilly, London, received a
patent for Volitos, an "apparatus to be attached to boots ...
for the purpose of travelling or pleasure"; roller skates; used
5 small cast iron or copper wheels aligned (Joseph Merlin, of
Belgium, believed to have first used roller skates in 1760).
June 14, 1834 - Leonard Norcross, of Dixfield,
ME, received a patent for "Diving Armor"; underwater diving
suit; airtight leather outfit with brass helmet connected via
rubber hose to air bellows pump on a boat.
June 3, 1835 - PT
Barnum's circus started first tour of United States.
1838 - Daguerre
produced photographs using silver salts.
January 9, 1839 - The daguerrotype photo process
was announced at the French Academy of Science;
August 19, 1839 -
Louis Daguerre announced the invention of the daguerreotype
photographic process, the first process to allow an image to be
chemically fixed as a permanent picture.
March 14, 1839 -
Sir John Herschel referred to "photography" in a lecture to the
Royal Society's possibly the first use of the word; Herschel
used the name Chrysotype (from the Greek word for gold) for his
process: 1) used paper washed in a solution of ammonio-citrate
of iron, 2) solution of soda or chloride of gold, or with
nitrate of silver brought out the image, 3) fixed it in the
first case by washing it with iodide of potassium and in the
second, with hyposulphite of soda; had technical difficulties in
controlling the contrast, color and fogging of the image;
September 9, 1839
- John Herschel made the first glass plate photograph.
August 19, 1839 -
Louis Daguerre announced invention of the daguerreotype
photographic process, first process to allow an image to be
chemically fixed as a permanent picture.
September 9, 1839
- John Herschel took first glass plate photograph of 40-foot,
48" aperture telescope, used by his father, in Slough, England.
December 18, 1839 - John William Draper,
professor of chemistry at New York University, took
daguerreotype of moon, first celestial photograph made in U.S.;
exposed plate for 20 minutes using a 5-inch telescope, produced
an image one inch in diameter.
May 8, 1840 -
Alexander S. Wolcott, of New York City, received a patent for a
"Method of Taking Likenesses by Means of a Conclave Reflector
and Plates So Prepared as That Luminous or Other Rays Will Act
Thereon"; produced photographs 1.75 x 2.5 inches in size, not
reversed as were daguerrotype which used refracting lenses.
November 19, 1850
- Frederick Langenheim, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent
for an "Improvement in Photographic Pictures on Glass"; slides
made of glass plate.
21, 1853 - Aquatic Vivarium, world's first
public aquarium, opened in Regent's Park, London; inspiration of
Philip Henry Gosse. English self-taught naturalist, wrote
popular illustrated books on nature, especially marine biology;
invented institutional aquarium.
February 19, 1856
- Hamilton L. Smith, of Gambier, OH, received a patent for
"Photographic Pictures on Japanned Surfaces"; tintype (thin
sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive
material, yielded a positive image) photographic picture
process; described preparation of the black varnish, its
application and baking as the japanned surface.
October 13, 1860 -
James Wallace Black, in balloon held by a cable 1,200 feet above
city, took first successful aerial photograph in U.S.; one good
photograph resulted - Boston as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See
It (French author and artist Felix Tournachon, French author and
artist, took first aerial photograph in 1858 from balloon
tethered over Bievre Valley [his work is lost]).
January 6, 1863 -
James L. Plimpton, of New York, received a patent for a "Parlor
Skate"; four-wheeled roller skates, pivoting action dampened by
a rubber cushion which permitted the roller skate wheels to
curve. This allowed skaters to turn simply by leaning their
weight in the direction they wanted to travel;
1866 - opened
first public roller skating rink at Atlantic House resort hotel
in Newport, RI.
October 10, 1865 - John Wesley Hyatt, of
Albany, NY, received a patent for a "Billiard Ball"; celluloid
billiard ball (of a composition material resembling ivory); won
$10,000 prize offered by Phelan and Collender of New York City
for the best substitute for an ivory ball.
January 16, 1866 - Everett Hosmer Barney, of
Springfield, MA, received a patent for a "Skate" ("certain
improvements in the manner of constructing skates made wholly of
steel and iron"); all-metal screw clamp skates; attached to
normal shoes, tightened with a key; lost popularity with the
advent of modern athletic shoes which lacked a hard edge where
the roller skates could be clamped.
November 20, 1866
- Pierre Lallement, of Paris, France, received patent for a
"Velocipede" ('fast foot'); rotary cranks and pedals applied
directly to front wheel (vs. hobby horse bicycle that had to be
pushed with the feet); soon came to be known as "the bone
shaker" - made of stiff materials, straight angles, steel wheels
(gave stiff ride over cobblestone roads).
April 6, 1869 -
Isaac Hodgson, of Indianapolis, IN, received a patent for a
"Parlor Skate" ("relates principally to mode of operation of the
forward wheel-frame...attaching wheel-frame to the sole of the
shoe"); roller skate.
October 5, 1869 - Fisher A. Spofford and Matthew
G. Raffington, of Columbus, OH, received first U.S. patent for a
"Paddle Wheel" ("Improvement in Water Velocipedes"); water
July 25, 1871 -
Wilhelm Schneider, of Davenport, Iowa received a patent for a
"Carousel" (a "new and Improved Carousel"); described as
two-story "'carrousel' or rotary pavillion used in public parks
or other places of amusement."
May 17, 1872 - Bohemian Club
1873 - Rokusaburo Sugiura, pharmacist, began
selling photographic, lithographic materials at Konishiya
Rokubeiten in Kojimachi, Tokyo; 1903 - marketed
"Cherry Hand Camera," Japan's first brand name camera;
1943 - renamed Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd.;
1948 - introduced Konica I, first Konica-brand 35mm
camera; March 16, 1954 - Rayelle Foreign Trade
Service registered "Konica" trademark first used January 12,
1950 (cameras and camera cases, flash-guns, filters, and
lens-hoods); 1956 - established Koniphoto
Corporation, first American subsidiary, in Philadelphia;
1971 - launched Japan’s first plain paper photocopier,
developed dominant position in high-speed, high quality document
management systems, imaging products; 2000 -
established Konica Minolta Supplies Manufacturing Co., Ltd.,
joint venture for production of polymerized toners; August
2003 - established holding company Konica Minolta
Holdings, Inc.; January 2006 - withdrew from
camera, photo business.
Christopher (Columbus Smith) and Henry Smith built their first
wooden boat; 1884
- Smith Brothers Boat Builders opened mass-productions facility
in Algonac, MI; 1901
- name changed to Chris Smith & Company Boat Builders and Boat
Livery; 1910 -
formed The Smith-Ryan Boat Company; focused on building fast,
economically priced runabout boats for mass market distribution;
products debuted at New York, Chicago Boat Shows;
1922- formed Chris
Smith & Sons Boat Company in Algonac, MI;
1924 - Chris-Craft became standardized
brand name; 1927 -
world's largest builder of mahogany constructed power boats; Jay
Smith (Chris's son) appointed President and General Manager;
January 14, 1947 -
Chris-Craft Corporation registered "Chris-Craft" trademark first
used June 1, 1922 (marine motors and outboard motors);
1950 - offered 139
different recreational power boat models;
1955 - manufactured its first fiberglass
boat; 1960 - acquired by Shields & Company and National
Automotive Fibers, Inc.; 1962 - renamed Chris-Craft Industries,
Inc.; 1981 - boat
manufacturing operations acquired by George Dale Murray;
1989 - Chris-Craft
Boats acquired by Outboard Marine Corporation.
Christopher (Columbus Smith) and Henry Smith -
July 1, 1874 - First zoo in United States opened,
in Philadelphia, PA, on grounds of Solitude, last estate in area
to be owned by Penn family; 1859 - originally
chartered by Pennsylvania state legislature as Zoological
Society of Philadelphia whose core purpose was to oversee "the
purchase and collection of living wild and other animals" and
"for the instruction and recreation of the people".
November 18, 1876
- James Starley, former foreman of Coventry Sewing Machine
Company, introduced Coventry Lever Tricycle, side-driven
two-track, lever-driven machine; first successfully
mass-produced tricycle; first sold for £15.
1877 - Colonel
Albert A. Pope organized Pope Manufacturing Company as
importers, makers of patented bicycles (had acquired Pierre
Lallement velocipede patent) in one-room third floor walkup in
Boston, MA (first saw strange English high front-wheeler bicycle
(enormous front wheel, solid rubber tire) at Philadelphia
Centennial Exposition in 1876);
1878 - contracted with Weed Sewing machine
Company (Hartford, CT) to produce 50 high-wheeler bicycles to be
sold under 'Columbia' name; first American manufacturer of
bicycles; first regular trade catalogue (20 pages), first
bicycles were 60" Hi Wheelers, sold for $95.00 (sewing machines
sold for $13.00); first commercial self-propelled vehicle in
America; Columbia became generic name for bicycle; 1881 -
acquired minority control of Weed;
1891 - acquired full control; became
first American bicycle manufacturer; peak - 18 acres of factory
space, nearly 4,000 employees, 50,000 bicycles a year;
1896 - bicycle fad
peaked; 1899 -
formed Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company (with backing of
William Whitney, Wall Street financier, former Secretary of the
Navy); acquired George Selden patent for internal combustion
(gasoline) engine that controlled all "gasoline powered land
vehicles" in expectation that it would give them stranglehold on
internal combustion engine; 1900
- sold out to Whitney, merged into Whitney's Electric Vehicle
Company; Pope Manufacturing collapsed;
1903 - repurchased remains of Pope
Manufacturing Company from receivers;
August 1907 - unable to refinance debts,
forced into receivership (Whitney's Electric Vehicle Company
went into receivership); 1908
- company failed; December 1908
- new Pope manufacturing Company incorporated to take over
property of failed company.
1879 - George
Eastman invented emulsion-coating machine, enabled him to
mass-produce photographic dry plates;
April 1880 - leased third floor of
building on State Street in Rochester, NY, began to manufacture,
sell dry plates; April 3, 1880
- received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for Coating
Plates for Use in Photography"; plate-coating machine; January
1, 1881 - George
Eastman and Henry A. Strong (family friend, buggy-whip
manufacturer) formed a partnership known as the Eastman Dry
Plate Company; 1883
- introduced film in rolls (roll holder adaptable to nearly
every plate camera on market);
1884 - name changed to Eastman Dry Plate and
Film Company; business changed from partnership to $200,000
corporation with 14 shareowners;
1888 - name Kodak created, birth of snapshot
- Eastman Company formed; 1892
- company became Eastman Kodak Company of New York;
manufactured 100,000th KODAK camera;
1900 - introduced BROWNIE camera (sold
for $1, used film that sold for 15 cents/roll;
1942 - Eastman Kodak Company registered
"Brownie" trademark first used January 1, 1901 (photographic
cameras, photographic film, photographic developing boxes,
photographic printing frames, etc.).
1880 - P. T.
Barnum bought out London Circus and
International Allied Shows, prime rival owned by James E. Cooper, James
Anthony Bailey (changed his name from McGinnis at age 14), James L. Hutchinson (owned first elephant born in captivity in
United States); 1881
- P. T. Barnum, James A. Bailey, James L. Hutchinson combined
circuses, formed Barnum and London ("P.T. Barnum's
Greatest Show on Earth And The Great London Circus, Sanger's
Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows
United"); presented three-ring format in New York City;
1887 - Hutchinson,
age 41, retired from circus, bought out by Barnum and Bailey
for $650,000; 1888
- known as Barnum and Bailey's "Greatest Show on Earth".
Phineas Taylor (P. T.) Barnum
April 8, 1891 Obituary: http://www.nytimes.com/
learning/ general/onthisday/ bday/0705.html
James A. Bailey
October 11, 1881
- David H. Houston, of Cambria, WI, received a patent for a
"Photographic Apparatus" ("to facilitate taking a number of
photographic views successively and in a short time"); roll film
for cameras; 1879 - designed portable camera
suited to everyday person vs. professionals (received royalties
for it of about $5000 monthly for life); 1881 -
George Eastman bought the patent, sold Houston-designed camera
for $25 (loaded with a 100-exposure film which Houston would
process and reload for $10); Eastman bought 21 patents on
cameras from him.
1883 - Francis E. (F. E.) and Freelan O. (F. O.)
Stanley (of Stanley Steamer fame) invented photographic
dry-plate process, formed Stanley Dry Plate Company to
manufacture plates; July 13, 1886 - Stanleys, of
Lewiston, ME and Auburn, ME, received a patent for a "Machine
for Manufacturing Photographic Dry-Plates" ("called a
Coating-Machine"); 1903 - sold company to Eastman
Kodak; focused on automobile production.
- "Father of the Gravity Ride" opened a 600-ft roller-coaster at
Coney Island at 6-mph maximum (recouped $1,600 investment in
only three weeks); December 22, 1885 - La Marcus
Adna Thompson, of Philadelphia, PA, received patent for a
"Gravity Switch Back Railway"; switch automatically allowed car
to return on second trak.
1884 - Karl (24)
and Victoria Elsener founded factory to make cutlery in small
village of Ibach near Swiss Alps (had organized Swiss Cutlery
Guild of 37 craftsmen in 1891 to make Swiss-made knives for
Swiss army; had obtained Swiss Army contract, in October 1891,
to supply "Soldier's Knife" (blade, screwdriver, can opener,
hole punch); added small, sharp "erasing" blade for scraping off
mistakes in paperwork handwritten by pen and corkscrew for
officers' dining and socializing; two springs, six blades;
officially named "Offiziersmesser" [Officer Knife]);
June 12, 1897 -
legally registered design for trademark protection;
January 31, 1903 -
received a German patent for a "Klingentaschenwerkzeug" ('blade
pockets tool"); 1909
- Swiss cross added to red knife handles; company named New
company name "Victoria" (Karl Elsener's mother's name);
1921 - name
changed to "Victorinox" AG (Stainless steel, "inox");
2002 - sole
shareholder of Swiss Army Brands Inc., USA;
April 26, 2005 -
took over Wenger SA, knife producer since 1893, also supplier of
Swiss Army knife (to strengthen product "Swiss Army Knife", to
guarantee that production continues solely in Switzerland).
- Swiss Army Knife
May 19, 1884 - The Ringling Brothers Circus first
1884 - La Marcus Thompson, of South Chicago, IL,
inventor of Thompson Switchback Railway, first gravity-powered
American roller coaster that was commercially successful, put it
in operation at Coney Island, NY; passengers rode a train on
undulating tracks over a wooden structure 600-ft long; admission
was 5 cents; grossed an average of $600 / day; January
20, 1885 - received a patent for a "Roller
Coasting Structure" ("an improved coasting structure to be used
as a means of pleasure and amusement");
1888 - built about 50 more across the
U.S. and in Europe.
14, 1884 - George Eastman, of Rochester NY,
received a patent for "Photographic Film" ("having for their
object the production for the market of sensitized films, which
are capable of being used in making positives and negatives in
place of the sheets of glass coated with emulsion, now known in
the trade as dry-plates"); EASTMAN American Film - first
transparent paper-strip photographic film;
May 5, 1885 - George Eastman and William
Walker, of Rochester, NY, received patent for a "Photographic
Film Holder" ("improvements in holders or means of supporting
photographic films during exposure in the camera"); device
advanced film for cameras to which it was attached; assigned to
Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.
December 9, 1884 - Levant M. Richardson, of
Richardson Skate Company, Chicago, IL, received first U.S.
patent for "Roller-Skate" ("to improve the bearings for the
rollers with which such skates are provided"); ball-bearing
1885 - John Kemp
Starley constructed the Rover Safety Bicycle; an immediate
success.; rear-wheel drive, chain driven cycle, both
wheels were the same size with the rider positioned between them
with the pedals directly below; front forks and steering column
were sloped back from the front hub so the rider could reach the
- company became J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd.; late
1890's - became the the Rover Cycle Company Ltd.
March 26, 1885
Eastman Dry Plate and Film Co., of Rochester, NY, manufactured
first commercial motion picture film (produced in continuous
strips on reels).
Sir Frank Bowden purchase interest in
small bicycle company on Raleigh Street, Nottingham;
1890 - formed Raleigh Bicycle Company; 1896
- built largest cycle factory in world;
1933 - introduced to U.S. market.
September 4, 1888
- George Eastman received a patent for a "Camera" ("that class
of photographic apparatus known as 'detective
cameras'...invention consists in the novel and improved form,
construction and arrangement of parts constituting the case or
body, the lens-support and shutter, and the film-holder"); roll
film camera; December 2, 1890
- Eastman received a patent for "Photographic Film".
1889 - George Eastman placed Kodak Camera on sale.
December 10, 1889
- H. M. Reichenbach, of Rochester, NY, received a patent for the
"Manufacture of Flexible Photographic Films"; assigned to
Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.
December 24, 1889 -
Daniel C. Stover
and William A. Hance, of Freeport, IL, received a patent for a
with back-pedal brake; assigned to Stover Bicycle Manufacturing
March 15, 1892 - Jesse W.
Reno, of New York, received a patent on an "Endless
Conveyor or Elevator", "to provide a mechanical incline or
slide-conveyor to be used in place of elevators or stairways
where large numbers of persons are to be transferred from one
floor or level to another, either upward or downward"; first
escalator; September 1895 - introduced as new
novelty ride at Coney Island, moved passengers on conveyor belt
at angle of 25 degrees.
- Daniel B. and Margaret Trimper owned boardwalk property
in Ocean City, MD between South Division and South First Streets, including two
hotels (The Eastern Shore, Sea Bright);
1900 - remodeled Sea Bright as Great
Britain's Windsor Castle; two hotels together with theater,
amusement park became known as Windsor Resort;
1902 - purchased
massive carousel (50 feet in diameter, forty-five animals, three
chariots, one rocking chair driven by steam engine; rides
originally cost a nickel) from Herschell-Spillman Company (North
Tonawanda, NY); only other carousel made by firm sent to Coney
Island (later destroyed by fire); one of oldest still operating
carousels in nation; 1950s
- added outdoor rides; 1983
- added retail shopping village
- A.S. Gregg Clarke founded Camp Keewaydin in Maine;
1902 - group led
by Clarke pushed north into Canada in search of more pristine
wilderness experience; founded Lake Temagami, set up temporary
camp; 1903 -
settled permanently on Devil's Island in North Arm of Lake
Temagami; called camp Keewaydin (after northwest wind, invisible
hand that sways giant northern pines; Ojibway Indians invoked
soft wind as harbinger of good weather, fair tripping; omen of
good fortune); one of oldest continuously operating summer camps
in North America; oldest canoe-trip camp in world.
June 21, 1893 - George Washington Ferris,
Pittsburgh bridge builder, invented Ferris wheel; premiered at
Chicago's Columbian Exposition, America's third world's fair;
each of the 36 cars carried 60 passengers, made full passenger
load of 150 tons; used a web of taut cables, like bicycle wheel,
supported by two 140 foot steel towers; 45 foot axle was largest
single piece of forged steel at time in world; highest point of
wheel was 264 feet; wheel and cars weighed 2100 tons, another
2200 tons of associated levers and machinery; cost of $300,00;
20 minute round-trip ride.
George W. Ferris
- Ferris Wheel
12, 1893 - Cornele B. Adams of Augusta, GA, received
first U.S. patent for a "Method of Photogrammetry"; aerial
photographs taken automatically at a predetermined height from
an unmanned stationary balloon on a tether rope at each end of a
measured base line on the land (could produce a topographic map
by means of photos of the same tract taken from different
- Paul Rozzi, fireworks maker from Pietramelara, Italy,
established Rozzi's Famous Fireworks in New Castle, PA; Arthur
Rozzi (son) learned his father’s skills, refined production and
factory techniques; 1931
- set up workshop in Loveland, OH; awarded contract to shoot
shows at Coney Island; awarded contract to shoot for Cincinnati
Reds at Crosley Field (first baseball night game in 1935);
introduced commercial consumer fireworks in Oklahoma,
California, Louisiana, Tennessee, all "open" states; focused on
display fireworks, became largest producer of display fireworks
in United States; manufactured about 1,000 different types of
fireworks; December 18, 1984
- Tri-State Manufacturing Co., Inc. registered "Rozzi Again"
trademark first used in 1930 (fireworks); Joe Rozzi, John Rozzi
(fourth generation) took over.
April 16, 1895
- Black American inventor, Clatonia J. Dorticus, of Newton, NJ,
received patent for a "Machine for Embossing Photographs";
April 23, 1895 -
received a patent for a "Photographic Print Washer" ("in which
photographic bromid and platinotype or gelatin negatives can be
successfully washed, to effect the elimination of sodium
hyposulfite and other chemicals from the prints or negatives in
a short time").
May 27, 1895
- British inventor Birt Acres received patent for a
Kineopticon, film camera/projector;
camera with appliance for loop folding; first British 35 mm
moving picture camera.
1895 - Ignaz Schwinn, Adolph
Arnold incorporated "Arnold, Schwinn & Company" in Chicago;
1908 - Schwinn bought out Arnold, became sole owner;
January 1, 1967 - renamed Schwinn Bicycle
1993 - filed for bankruptcy;
September 11, 2001 - Pacific Cycle, Inc, (Madison,
WI) acquired Schwinn, GT brands in Denver bankruptcy
court; 2004 - Pacific Cycle, acquired by Dorel
26, 1895 - Russell S. Peniman, of Dover, NJ,
received a patent for "Transparent Photographic Film".
August 16, 1898 -
Edwin Prescott, of Arlington, MA, received a patent for a
"Roller Coaster" ("presents parallel tracks laid with steep
gradients and containing a circularly-arranged vertical loop or
loops"); loop-de-loop Roller Coaster;
1901 - built at West 10th Avenue, Coney
September 13, 1898
- Hannibal Goodwin, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a
"Photographic Pellicle and Process of Producing Same"; celluloid
photographic film; September 2,
1889 - sold one roll at $2.50 to Thomas Alva
May 30, 1899 - George Cook, of Louisville, KY,
received a patent for an "Automatic Fishing Device"; trip lever,
activated by tension on fishing line, released spring-loaded
carriage containing spring-driven reel which took up line.
June 13, 1899 - Thomas W. Griffin, of Milford, CT,
received a patent for a "Pool-Table Attachment" ("to provide a
raceway that may be readily applied to tables...for the purpose
of directing balls from any of the table-pockets into a receiver
at one end of the table, thus making it unnecessary for a person
to walk around the table to take balls from the several
pockets...to arrange the ball-receiver that it may be raised
from its receiving positions, nearly to the top of the plane of
the table, so that a person need not stoop or bend over in order
to remove the balls for the purpose of placing them in a rack or
upon the table").
June 20, 1899 - Black American inventor Wesley
Johnson received a patent for a "Velocipede"; innovation claimed
was to use two wheels separated by four to six inches in the
front fork, and two wheels in similar fashion at the back to
give better stability and safety, especially for those first
learning to balance and ride a bicycle, the timid, elderly or
the invalid; corners could be turned on slippery ground with
October 10, 1899 - Black inventor Isaac R.
Johnson, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Bicycle
Frame" ("can be made separable or dismountable so that it can be
December 19, 1899
- Black American inventor, Granville T. Woods, of New York, NY,
received a patent for an "Amusement Apparatus"; small scale or
large scale electrically-driven cars on a closed track, such as
a figure-8 layout.
January 8, 1900 - William Coffin (W. C.) Coleman
established Hydro-Carbon Light Company; one-man light utility;
1902 - 300 lamps in service; 1903 -
changed product name to Coleman® Arc Lamp; 1905 -
began manufacturing lamps at small factory in Wichita, KS;
1909 - introduced portable table lamp (became staple
in rural homes); produced 120; 1912 - changed
company name to Coleman Lamp Company; 1913 - began
manufacturing lanterns; 1914 - introduced 300
candlepower lantern, could light far corners of barn, provided
good light in every direction for 100 yards; 1920
- produced 50,000 lamps; sales of $1 million; 1930s
- largest number of working lathes west of Mississippi;
June 28, 1932 - Coleman Lamp and Stove Company
registered "Coleman" trademark first used May 20, 1930 (gasoline
burning lamps, lanterns, heaters, mantles, fuel supply tanks,
burners, and parts therefor); 1951 - Sheldon
Coleman (son) named President; 1960s - biggest
name in camping business; 1981 - Sheldon Coleman
Jr. (grandson) became third generation to be part of business,
produced 15 million products a year; 1986 -
manufactured 40-millionth lantern; annual sales exceeded $500
million; 1998 - acquired by Sunbeam Corporation
(changed name to American Household, Inc. in 2002); 2005
- acquired by Jarden Corporation.
William Coffin (W. C.) Coleman
- Coleman lanterns
February 5, 1901
- Edwin Prescott, of Arlington, MA, received a patent for a
"Centrifugal Railway"; loop-the-loop centrifugal railway
(improved upon an August 16, 1898 patent with purely circular
loop which resulted in uncomfortable shock to passengers
as car entered loop; had been installed at Coney Island in 1900
where it was
known as Boynton's Centrifugal Railway;
had 75-ft incline, 20-ft-wide loop).
August 19, 1902 - Peter J. Scharbach, of Pe
Ell, WA, received a patent for a "Changeable Gear For Bicycles"
("in which the clutches controlling the gearing may be readily
operated from near the handle-bar and in which the mechanism is
simple and durable and easily replaced when worn").
August 26, 1902 - Arthur W. McCurdy, of
Washington, DC, received a patent for an "Apparatus for
Developing Photographic Films"; assigned to Eastman Kodak
Company; daylight developing tank for roll film.
June 22, 1907 - Santa Cruz Beach Co. opened
attractions on Santa Cruz beach boardwalk; more than 1,200
people attended opening ball, thousands watched outside as
Neptune Casino and Boardwalk were illuminated by thousands of
white lights; tourism had begun in 1865 when John Leibrandt
opened public bathhouse near mouth of San Lorenzo River
(highly-touted natural medicine of bathing in salt water); Fred
W. Swanton, considered one of greatest promoters, entrepreneurs
of his time, laid plans for a casino, boardwalk ("Coney Island
of the West"); transformed 19th-century Miller and Liebbrandt
bathhouse into foundations of current Boardwalk; after a fire,
foundation laid in October 1906 for the Casino complete with
ballroom, Plunge indoor swimming pool, pleasure pier, boardwalk;
August 1911 - European woodcarver Charles I.D.
Looff delivered new merry-go-round to Santa Cruz Boardwalk
(hand-carved horses and two chariots, original 342-pipe, 1894
Ruth Und Sohn band organ still in operation); 1924
- Giant Dipper coaster opened; became most popular ride (2007 -
ridership will reach 55 million); 2007 - 35 rides,
three arcades (vintage machines, hundreds of modern video games,
game deck, 27 games of skill, 36 food vendors, electronic
shooting gallery, indoor miniature golf, over 15 gift shops with
everything from beachwear to sunglasses and jewelry; Cocoanut
Grove complex; Boardwalk Bowl; mile-long sandy beach (cleaned,
sifted throughout the year); only remaining major seaside
amusement park on West Coast.
Fred W. Swanton
- Santa Cruz Beach Co. -
October 22, 1907
- Ringling Brothers circus bought Barnum & Bailey Circus.
March 2, 1908
- Gabriel Lippman introduced new three-dimensional color
photography at the Academy of Sciences.
January 10, 1911 -
Major H.A. "Jimmie" Erickson took first photograph in the U.S.
from an airplane while flying in a Curtiss biplane piloted by
Charles Hamilton over San Diego, California.
August 22, 1911 - Ole Evinrude, of Milwaukee, WI,
received patent for a "Marine Propulsion Mechanism"; outboard
motor for boats; outboard motor for boats; formed business
partnership with a tugboat magnate Chris Meyer; sold about 2,000
boat motors a year; 1914 - sold out to Meyer;
1919 - founded Elto Outboard Motor Company (Evinrude
Light Twin Outboard"); 1929 - Evinrude and Stephen
Briggs (Briggs & Stratton) merged three companies, formed
Outboard Motors Corp; 1935 - acquired assets of
bankrupt Johnson Bros. Motor Co., Indiana company that had built
a new marine plant in Waukegan, IL just before the Great
Depression; 1936 - name changed to Outboard Marine
& Manufacturing Corporation; 1956 - name changed
to Outbaord Marine Corporation (OMC);1960s -
annual sales $130 million; 1990s - nation's second
leading manufacturer of boats (behind Brunswick); 2000
- declared bankruptcy; Bombardier (Montreal, QU) acquired
Evinrude & Johnson motors division.
- Evinrude Outboard Motors
February 20, 1912
- Eastman Kodak Co. registered "Kodak" trademark first used
December 1887 (photographic cameras, photographic lenses,
photographic portrait attachments, photographic color-screens,
October 28, 1914
- George Eastman introduced color photographic process.
July 25, 1917 - Three leading Japanese optical
manufacturers merged, formed comprehensive, fully integrated
optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. (Japan Oprical Co.);
200 employees, eight German technicians (1921); 1918
- launched optical glass production, research; 1932
- adopted Nikkor as brand name for camera lenses; 1945
- production shifted to cameras, microscopes, binoculars,
surveying instruments, measuring instruments, ophthalmic lenses;
1946 - adopted Nikon brand name for small-sized
cameras; March 1948 - introduced first Nikon camera (combination
of features from Leica, Contax cameras); February 3, 1953
- Overseas Finance & trading Company, Inc. registered "Nikon"
trademark first used May 8, 1949 (cameras); 1953 -
established Nikon Optical Co., first U. S. subsidiary;
1981 - established Nikon Inc. in United States;
1988 - name changed to Nikon Corporation.
1920 - Walter
and Cordelia Knott farmed 20 acres of rented land on Route 39 in
Buena Park, CA; Walter began selling berries, pies alongside
highway; sold directly to grocers;
1927 - bought ten acres of land;
1930s - created
boysenberries (cross between loganberry, red raspberry,
blackberry, named for Rudolph Boysen, Anaheim Parks
Superintendent); June 1934
- Cordelia started what became Chicken Dinner Restaurant,
world's largest chicken dinner restaurant (1. 5 million guests
each year, largest full-service restaurant that serves chicken
as main course); 1940
- served as many as 4,000 dinners on Sunday evenings; Walter
developed Ghost Town, first of Knott's Berry Farm's six themed
areas; February 28, 1956
- Knott's Berry Farm Partnership registered "Knott's Berry Farm"
trademark first used November 1, 1928 (bread; table syrups;
jellies; jams; fruit and berry preserves; etc.);
1960s - built
second themed area: Fiesta Village, tribute to California's
early Spanish heritage; 1975
- opened Roaring 20s, third themed area (renamed The Boardwalk
in 1996); 1983 -
launched six-acre Camp Snoopy, world's first theme park "land"
designed specifically for kids;
December 1997 - Knott's Berry Farm acquired by
Cedar Fair, L. P.
- Knott's Berry
Shozaburo Shimano founded Shimano Iron Works ; now Shimano Inc.,
multinational corporation with over 7,700 employees, offices in
21 countries; producer of bicycle components, sport fishing
equipment, recreational tools.
March 1, 1921 - Harry Houdini, of
Brooklyn, NY, received a patent for a "Diver's Suit" ("arranged
to permit the diver in case of danger for any cause whatever, to
quickly divest himself of the suit while being submerged and to
safely escape and reach the surface of the water").
1926 - Kodak
produced 16mm movie film.
November 22, 1927 - Carl J. E. Eliason, of
Sayner, WI, received first patent for a "Vehicle for Snow
Travel" ("to provide a supporting structure mounted on runners
carrying a driving mechanism"); snowmobile; 1930s
- founded Eliason Motor Toboggan; U.S. Army ordered 150,
all-white, for use in the defense of Alaska during World War II.
1928 - Kazuo Tajima established Nichi-Doku
Shashinki Sho-ten (Japanese-German photo company) in Osaka,
Japan; 1929 - introduced Nifcalette, Japan's first
camera; 1962 - name changed to Minolta Camera Co.,
Ltd.; January 2, 1968 - Minolta Corporation
registered "Minolta" trademark first used April 1, 1954
(photographic goods-namely, cameras and lenses); 1994
- name changed to Minolta Co., Ltd. (no longer primarily a
camera company); 2004 - merged with Konica,
renamed Konica-Minolta Holdings, Inc.; 2006 -
discontinued film, digital camera production, ended 78-year
history as camera manufacturer.
January 17, 1928
- Inventor Anatol M. Josepho, of New York, NY, received first
U.S. patent for a "Developing Apparatus for Photographic Film
Strips"; fully automatic film-developing machine, the Photomaton
(to develop film strips); September 1926 - first Photomaton
studio opened to the public at 1659 Broadway, New York City.
June 4, 1929
- George Eastman demonstrated first technicolor movie
(Rochester, New York).
February 25, 1930 -
McCarthy, of Rye, NY, and Abraham Novick, of Flushing, NY,
received patent for a "Photographing Apparatus" (for the "making
of photographic records of discrete business documents"); first
bank check photographing device ('Checkograph'); designed to
make permanent film copies of all bank records; machine
photographed checks onto 16mm motion picture film using a
conveyor belt before they were returned to customers; 1928
- Eastman Kodak bought McCarthy's invention and began to market
it under Kodak's Recordak Division; 1935 -
expanded to 35mm film, began filming and publishing the New York
Times of the WW I period in microfilm (solved difficulties in
archive storage and rapid deterioration of the newsprint
original) and made microfilm records for the New York Public
September 23, 1930
- Johann Ostermeyer of Athegnenber, Germany, received a British
patent for "Improvements in flash lights used for photographic
purposes", precursor to photographic safety flash bulb (evolved
from this design, which used aluminium wire or foil in oxygen).
flashbulb to American market. 1966- Flash cubes;
1970 - "Magicube".
May 26, 1931
- George L. McCarthy, of Rye, NY, received a patent for a
"Photographing Apparatus"; microfilm camera.
October 7, 1931 - The first U.S. short-exposure
infrared photograph (new photographic emulsion sensitive to
infrared) was taken of 50 people in apparently total darkness in
Rochester, NY at the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratories.
February 21, 1922 -
Goodwin, Jr. of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a "Thermal
Ammeter" ("for measurement of alternating currents of any
November 29, 1932
of Chicago, IL, received patent for first
bridge (game) table to shuffle and deal the cards by
May 23, 1933
- Gertrude Ederle, of New York, NY, and Cadwallader W. Kelsey,
of Short Hills, NJ, received a patent for an "Aquatic Device"
("hand controlled device for facilitating swimming");
paddle-driven swimming device.
July 18, 1933 - Edwin H. Land, of Norwich, CT and
Joseph S. Friedman, of Brookline, MA, received a patent for
"Polarizing Refracting Bodies";
type of synthetic plastc sheet used to
- Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. established, based on government
plan to establish domestic photographic film manufacturing
industry; inherited split-off photographic film operations of
Dainippon Celluloid Company Limited, began operations with
¥3million in capital; Shuichi Asano first president;
February 1934 -
Ashigara Factory (Kanagawa Factory Ashigara Site) began
operating, produced photographic film, photographic print paper,
dry plates, other photosensitive materials;
February 1962 -
established Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. as joint venture with
U.K.-based Rank Xerox Limited (currently Xerox Limited);
established as subsidiary in March 2001;
July 1988 - established Fuji Photo Film,
Inc. (FUJIFILM Manufacturing U.S.A., Inc.) in South Carolina as
Fujifilm Group's principal manufacturing company in United
October 27, 1936
- Gustav Bucky, of New York, NY, and Albert Einstein, of
Princeton, NJ, received a patent for a "Light Intensity
Self-Adjusting Camera"' light-sensitive camera.
1937 - Edwin H. Land founded Polaroid Corp. to
develop, produce sheet polarizers; July 8, 1941
- Polaroid Corporation registered "Polaroid" trademark first
used on November 19, 1935 (stereoscopic viewers and the like);
1947 - Edwin H. Land gave first demonstration of instant
photography (one-step instant camera) at meeting of Optical
Society of America; could produce black-and-white photograph in
60 seconds; February 10, 1948 - received patent
for "Developing Camera Utilizing a Film, Another Sheet Material
and a Fluid Processing Agent"; received patent for "Photographic
Process and Apparatus for Subjecting a Photographic Film to a
Processing Fluid"; received patent for "Photographic Apparatus
for Subjecting a Photographic Film to a Processing Fluid";
patent for "Apparatus for Exposing and Processing Photograph
November 26, 1948
- Polaroid Land Camera (40 series, model 95 roll film) first
went on sale at Boston department store for $89.75 (sold through
1953); first commercially successful self- developing camera
system; February 27, 1951 - received a patent
for a "Photographic Product Comprising a Rupturable Container
Carrying a Photographic Processing Liquid"; Polaroid Land camera
used diffusion transfer to reproduce image recorded by camera's
lens directly onto photosensitive surface (functioned as both
film and photo); March 27, 1951 - registered
"Polaroid" trademark first used April 1, 1946 (photographic
cameras, photographic camera, shutters, [photographic exposure
meters], sensitized photographic film, [photographic film
spools], sensitized photographic papers, [and television screen
July 30, 1938 -
George Eastman demonstrated color motion picture process.
April 1947 - Robert Capa (at large), Henri
Cartier-Bresson (India, Far East), George Rodger (Africa), David
"Chim" Seymour (Europe) founded Magnum Photo at informal meeting
in restaurant of Museum of Modern Art in New York: 1) to reflect
their independent natures as people, photographers
(idiosyncratic mix of reporter and artist); 2) to allow them,
and fine photographers who would follow, ability to work outside
formulas of magazine journalism; founded as co-operative in
which staff support, rather than direct photographers; copyright
held by authors of imagery, not by magazines that published the
work (photographer could decide what to cover, publish the
pictures in "Life" magazine, agency could then sell photographs
to magazines in other countries, give photographers means to
work on projects that particularly inspired them even without
April 16, 1947
- Lens to provide zoom effects demonstrated in New York City;
November 23, 1948
- Frank G. Back, of New York, NY, received a patent for a
"Varifocal Lens fort Cameras"; lens to provide zoom effects for
television cameras; Zoomar lens was adjustable for close-ups or
long-distance shots without requiring the camera be moved toward
or away from the object televised.
April 7, 1959 - Sherman M. Fairchild, of
New York, NY, received a patent for an "Engraving Machine"
August 1, 1961 - Six Flags Over Texas (six flags
had flown over state at various times--France, Spain, Mexico,
Confederacy, Texas, United States), first park in Six Flags
chain, opened on 212 acres in Arlington, TX; developed around
theme: history of Texas; rides, attractions grouped into six
themed sections that represented cultures of governments
representing six flags over Texas; brainchild of Texas real
estate developer and oilman Angus Wynne Jr., viewed it as
short-term way to make money from vacant land before turning it
into industrial complex; pioneered concept of all-inclusive
admission price; day at Six Flags cost $2.75 for an adult and
$2.25 for a child; hamburger sold for 50 cents, soda cost a
dime; 17.5 million visitors in first 10 years, became Texas 's
top for-profit tourist attraction; 1969 - acquired
by limited partnership headed by Jack Knox; 1993 -
acquired by Time Warner; 1995 - sold 51% stake to
Boston Ventures for$1billion; 1998 - acquired by
January 9, 1986
- Federal District Court in Boston ordered injunction barring
Eastman Kodak Company from selling its instant cameras (Polaroid
had charged Kodak with stealing patent for its trademark instant
camera); 1988 -
Chicago court settled class-action suit against Kodak; forced
company to establis elaborate program for notifying, issuing
rebates to consumers.
October 11, 2001
- The Polaroid Corporation filed for federal bankruptcy
- Petters Group Worldwide acquired Polaroid (valued at $426
January 1, 2009
- Since 1999: 1) sales of bicycles in United
States have held steady at about 18 million/year, including
bicycles for children (source:
Gluskin Townley); sales of related parts
and accessories adds about $6 billion a year; 2) number of small
specialty bicycle stores dropped to about 4.300 now from little
more than 6,000 in 2000; account for only 17% of biicycles sold
(rest sold by chain stores, mass merchants, on Internet),
represent about 50% of revenue; 98% of bicycles manufactured
overseas; early 1970s
- last time bicycle sales were stronger than motor vehicle sales
(recession triggered by Arab oil embargo);
(S. S. Adams Company), Kirk Demarais; Foreword by Chris Ware
Life of the Party: A Visual History of the S.S. Adams Company
Makers of Pranks & Magic for 100 Years. (S.S. Adams
LLC, 198 p.). Adams, Samuel Sorenson; magic -- history.
Commemorates 100th anniversary of Samuel Sorenson (S. S.) Adams
(S. S. Adams Company), William V. Rauscher
S.S. Adams, High Priest of Pranks and Merchant of Magic.
(Oxford, CT, 1878 Press Co., 154 p.). Adams, Samuel Sorenson,
1879-1959; Magicians --United States --Biography.
entrepreneurship, ceaseless efforts, eventual financial rewards;
lonely man who accumulated wealth, disowned his family, left
legacy of nonsense products still sold today.
(Bachrach Photography), Doug Collins; introduction by Arthur
M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1992).
Photographed by Bachrach: 125 Years of American Portraiture.
(New York, NY: Rizzoli, 192 p.). Celebrities--United
States--Portraits; Portrait photography--United States--History.
(P. T. Barnum), Bluford Adams (1997).
E Pluribus Barnum: The Great Showman and the Making of U.S.
Popular Culture. (Minneapolis, MN: University of
Minnesota Press, 249 p.). Department of English (University of
Iowa). Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891; Ringling
Brothers Barnum and Bailey Combined Shows--History; Circus
owners--United States--Biography; Circus--Social aspects--United
States; Popular culture--United States.
(P. T. Barnum), Stuart Thayer and William L. Slout (1998).
Grand Entree: The Birth of the Greatest Show on Earth, 1870-1875.
(San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 182 p.). Barnum, P. T. (Phineas
Taylor), 1810-1891; P.T. Barnum (Firm)--History; Circus
(Bertram Yacht Co.), David A. Patten and Jeffrey L. Rodengen
(2000). The Legend of Bertram. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write
Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). Bertram Yacht Co.; Yachts--United
States--History--20th century; Motorboats.
(Beverly Yacht Club), Judith Westlund Rosbe (2006).
The Beverly Yacht Club. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub.,
128 p.). Club Historian of the Beverly Yacht Club. Beverly Yacht
Club (Beverly, Mass.)--History; Yacht
Sailing--Massachusetts--Beverly--Pictorial works; Beverly
(Mass.)--History. Founded in 1872,
no fixed home for first 23 years, held races, regattas at ports
most convenient to members. 1895 - leased first clubhouse on
Wing’s Neck ; 1913 - moved to Marion.
(Bohemian Club), G. William Domhoff (1974).
The Bohemian Grove and Other Retreats; A Study in Ruling-Class
Cohesiveness. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 250 p.).
Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.); Upper class -- United
States; Elite (Social sciences).
(Bohemian Club), John Van der Zee (1974).
The Greatest Men's Party on Earth; Inside the Bohemian Grove.
(New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 182 p.). Bohemian Club
(San Francisco, Calif.).
(Brunswick -since 1845, when Swiss immigrant John Brunswick
built one of America's first billiards tables), Rick Kogan
Brunswick: The Story of an American Company from 1845 to 1985.
(Lake Forest, IL: Brunswick Corp, 139 p.). Brunswick
John Brunswick -
Brunswick Corporation (http://www.poolroom.com/articles/images/john-brunswick.jpg)
(Brunswick), Jeff Rodengen (1991).
Iron Fist: The Lives of Carl Kiekhaefer. (Fort
Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 640 p.). Kiekhaefer,
Elmer Carl, 1906-1983; Brunswick Corporation. Mercury
Marine--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography;
Boating industry--United States--History--20th century.
(Brunswick), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1998).
The Legend of Mercury.
(Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 207 p.).
Brunswick Corporation. Mercury Marine--History; Outboard
motorboats--United States--History; Outboard motors--History.
(Butlins), Sylvia Endacott, Shirley Lewis
Butlin’s: 75 Years of Fun! (Stroud, UK: The History
Press, 128 p.). Butlin, Billy; Amusement parks -- history -
Britain. 1936 Billy Butlin created most recognised holiday
company in UK; opened first Holiday Centre at Skegness (capacity
of 1000); 1937 - capacity doubled, went public; 1972 - record
one million bookings, merged with Rank Organisation; 1996 -
Parkworld Holidays created to manage Butlins; October 20, 2000 -
Rank Leisuer acquired by Bourne Leisure.
Billy Butlin - Butlin's
(Canon), NIKKEI; translated by Mark Schreiber
and Aaron Martin Cohen (2004).
How Canon Got Its Flash Back: The Innovative Turnaround Tactics
of Fujio Mitarai. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 221 p.). Mitarai,
Fujio, 1935- ; Kyanon Kabushiki Kaisha--Management; Camera
(Chris-Craft Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Chris-Craft. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write
Stuff Syndicate, 272 p. [2nd ed.]). Murray Industries--History;
Chris-Craft Industries--History; Boatbuilding--United
(Chris-Craft Industries), Joseph Gribbins
(2001). Chris-Craft: A History, 1922-1942. (Marblehead,
MA: Devereux Books, 122 p.). Chris-Craft Industries--History;
Boatbuilding--United States--History--20th century;
Motorboats--United States--History--20th century.
(Cirque du Soleil), text by Tony Babinski; art
direction by Kristian Manchester. (2004).
Cirque du Soleil: 20 Years Under the Sun. (New York, NY:
Harry N. Abrams, 352 p.). Writer, Filmmaker, Musician based in
Montreal; Art Director with Diesel Design. Cirque du
Soleil--History; Circus--Québec (Province)--History.
(ClubCorp Inc.), Robert H. Dedman, with Debbie
King of Clubs: Grow Rich In More Than Money. (Dallas,
TX: Taylor Pub., 212 p.). Chairman of the ClubCorp. Dedman,
Robert H.; Success; Businessmen--United States--Biography.
(Frank Codona American Amusements),
Frank Bruce (2010).
Showfolk: An Oral History of a Fairground Dynasty.
(Hastings, East Sussex, UK: NMSE - Publishing Ltd., 288 p.).
Codona Brothers; Amusements -- Scotland -- history. Frank, John,
William Codona and his family, - traveling fairground dynasty
for over 200 years in Scotland; turn of century - opened first
permanent Amusement Park in Scotland; 'Codona Brothers' presented amusements
at Ayr; operated portable theaters, played street fairs, parks
of Scotland; switched to ride operators.
(Detroit Athletic Club), Kenneth H. Voyles,
John A. Bluth (2001).
Detroit Athletic Club: 1887-2001. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia
Publishing, 128 p.). Current Editor, Publisher of the Club's
Award-Winning Magazine, the DAC News. Detroit Athletic Club.
Detroit. From original club on Woodward
Avenue in 1887 to the present: formative years at first club,
building and opening of new club, athletic traditions,
membership, staff, social activities.
(Encinal Yacht Club), Woodruff Minor (1994).
On the Bay: A Centennial History of the Encinal Yacht Club.
(Alameda, CA: The Yacht Club, 279 p.). Encinal Yacht Club
(Alameda, Calif.); Yacht clubs--California--Alameda--History.
(Ilford Limited), Robert J. Hercock and George
A. Jones (1979).
Silver by the Ton: The History of Ilford Limited, 1879-1979.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 170 p.). Ilford Limited--History.
(Inverness Club), Dave Hackenberg (2003).
Inverness Club: Its Vibrant Voice Chimes Through a Century
(1903-2003). (Toledo, OH: Inverness Club, 167 p.). Inverness
Club (Toledo, Ohio)--History; Golf
courses--Ohio--Toledo--History; Toledo (Ohio)--History.
(Knott’s Berry Farm), Christopher
Merritt and J. Eric Lynxwiler; introduction by Tony Baxter
Knott’s Preserved: From Boysenberry to Theme Park: The History
of Knott’s Berry Farm. (Santa Monica, CA: Angel City
Press, 160 p.). Former Disney Imagineer (design and development
arm of The Walt Disney Company); Graphic Designer. Knott, Walter,
1889-1981; Amusement parks --California -- Park --History; Farms
--California --Buena Park --History; Berries --California
--Buena Park --History; Knott’s Berry Farm (Buena Park, Calif. :
Amusement park) --History; Knott’s Berry Farm (Buena Park,
Calif. : Amusement park) --Pictorial works.
How Knott family turned berry
business into one of major theme parks in world; from Walter and
Cordelia Knott, their kids, serving baskets of berries "as big
as a man’s thumb", berry pies that weighed three pounds, to
advent of themed rides; how a man and a woman remained true to
their values, shared profits and credit.
Walter and Cordelia Knott
- Knott's Berry Farm
(Kodak), S. Prakash Sethi. With a foreword by
James Farmer, and an introd. by Dow Votaw (1970).
Business Corporations and the Black Man; An Analysis of Social
Conflict: The Kodak-FIGHT Controversy. (Scranton, PA:
Chandler Pub. Co., 184 p.). Eastman Kodak Company; Industries --
Social aspects -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Case studies;
African Americans -- Employment -- New York (State) -- Rochester
-- Case studies.
(Kodak), Carl W. Ackerman. With an introd. by
Edwin R. A. Seligman (1973).
George Eastman: Founder of Kodak and the Photography Business.
(Clifton, NJ: A. M. Kelley, 522 p. [orig. pub. 1930]). Eastman,
(Kodak), Albert L. Sieg with Steven J. Bennett
The Tokyo Chronicles: An American Gaijin Reveals the Hidden
Truths of Japanese Life and Business. (New York, NY:
Wiley, 182 p.). President of Kodak Japanese Subsidiary (1984)
for Seven Years. Business etiquette--Japan; National
characteristics, Japanese; Japan--Social life and
(Kodak), Douglas Collins (1990).
The Story of Kodak. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 392
p.). Eastman Kodak Company--History; Photographic
industry--United States--History; Photographic film
industry--United States--History; Camera industry--United
(Kodak), Stephen J. Frangos with Steven J.
Team Zebra: How 1500 Partners Revitalized Eastman Kodak's Black
& White Film-Making Flow.
(Essex Junction, VT: O. Wright, 216 p.). Manager, Kodak's Black
and White Film Division. Eastman Kodak Company. Black and White
Film Division; Organizational change -- New York (State) --
Rochester -- Case studies.
(Kodak), Elizabeth Brayer (1996).
George Eastman: A Biography. (Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 637 p.). Eastman, George, 1854-1932.
(Kodak), Alecia Swasy (1997).
Changing Focus: Kodak and the Battle to Save a Great American
Company. (New York, NY: Times Business, 276 p.). Eastman
Kodak Company; Photographic industry--United States; Camera
industry--United States; Photographic film industry--United
States; Photographic chemicals industry--United States.
(Kodak), Nancy Martha West (2000).
Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia. (Charlottesville, VA:
University of Virginia Press, 242 p.). Eastman Kodak Company;
(Kodak), Russell L. Olson (2005).
The School of Hard Knocks: The Evolution of Pension Investing at
Eastman Kodak. (Rochester, NY: RIT Cary Graphic Arts
Press, 97 p.). Former Director of Pension Investments,
Worldwide, for Eastman Kodak Company. Eastman Kodak Company;
Pension trusts--Investments--United States.
(Kodak), Robert L. Shanebrook (2010).
Making KODAK Film: The Illustrated story
of State-of-the-Art Photographic Film Manufacturing.
(Rochester, NY: R.L. Shanebrook, Robert Shanebrook Photography,
94 p.). Worked at Kodak for 35 Years. Photography -- Films;
Photographic film industry; Eastman Kodak Company. How Eastman
Kodak Company made film (machinery and production methods)
during 2007-2010 when technology had reached its height.
(Los Angeles Athletic Club), Text by Betty Lou
Young; designed by Thomas R. Young (1980).
Our First Century: The Los Angeles Athletic Club, 1880-1980.
(Los Angeles, CA: LAAC Press, 176 p.). Los Angeles Athletic
(Magnum Photos), Ed. Brigitte Lardinois
Magnum Magnum. (London, UK: Thames & Hudson, 564 p.).
Magnum Photos; photographic film industry--United
States--History. Co-operative, founded
1947; permanent record of iconic images, seen through critical
eyes, minds of Magnum photographers, into what makes memorable
(Maidstone Club), Averill Dayton Geus (1991).
The Second Fifty Years, 1941-1991. (West Kennebunk, ME:
Published for the Centennial Committee of the Maidstone Club,
East Hampton, Long Island, New York, by Phoenix Pub., 251 p.).
Maidstone Club (East Hampton, N.Y. : Town)--History.
(Maryland State Fair), Paige Horine (2006).
The Maryland State Fair: Celebrating 125 Years.
(Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Fairs--Maryland; Agricultural
exhibitions--Maryland; Baltimore County (Md.)--History; Timonium
(Md.)--History. Billed as "the Eleven Best
Days of Summer."
(Mid-South Fair), Robert W. Dye (2006).
The Mid-South Fair: Celebrating 150 Years. (Charleston,
SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Chairman of the Mid-South Fair
Historical Committee, Member of the Shelby County Historical
Commission. Mid-South Fair (Memphis, Tenn.)--History--Pictorial
Established in 1856, offered farmers and
general public a venue to learn of new products, compete with
others from the region; prevailed through Civil War,
yellow fever epidemics, two world wars, one of largest in
(Minolta), Sam Kusumoto with Edmund P. Murray
My Bridge to America: Discovering the New World for Minolta.
(New York, NY: Dutton, 340 p.). Kusumoto, Sam, 1928- ; Minolta
Corporation--History; Businesspeople--Japan--Biography; Camera
industry--Japan--History--20th century; Camera industry--United
States--History--20th century; Minolta camera--Marketing.
(Nikon), Michael Wescott Loder; foreword by
Robert J. Rotoloni (2008).
The Nikon Camera in America, 1946-1953. (Jefferson, NC:
McFarland & Company, 227 p.). Nihon Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki
Kaisha; Nikon camera--History; Camera industry--United
States--History; Photography--United States--Equipment and
supplies--History. 1946-1951 - roles that
American businesses, photojournalists played in early overseas
marketing of Nikon camera, Nikkor optics; particular attention
to Overseas Finance and Trading Company, major U.S. importer of
Nikon products between 1949 and 1953.
(Outboard Marine), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1992).
Evinrude, Johnson, and the Legend of OMC.
(Ft.Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 144 p.). Outboard
Marine Corporation--History; Outboard motorboats--United
States--History; Outboard motors--History.
(Palo Alto CC), Debra Ann Ristau (2008).
Promises Fulfilled: Fifty Years of Playing the Hills: A
Celebration of the Palo Alto Hills Golf and Country Club.
(Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co., 128 p.). Palo Alto Hills Golf
and Country Club (Palo Alto, Calif.) --History; Golf courses
--California --Palo Alto --History; Country clubs --California
--Palo Alto --History; Ohlone Indians --History.
(Polaris Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen &
Richard F. Hubbard (2003).
The Legend of Polaris. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff
Enterprises, 152 p.). Polaris Industries--History; Snowmobile
industry--United States--History; All terrain vehicle
industry--United States--History; Personal watercraft--United
States--History; Victory motorcycle--History;
Motorcycles--United States--History; Motor
vehicles--Recreational use--United States--History;
(Polaroid), Mark Olshaker (1978).
The Instant Image: Edwin Land and the Polaroid Experience.
(New York, NY: Stein & Day, 277 p.). Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909-
; Polaroid Corporation.
Edwin H. Land
(Polaroid), Peter C. Wensberg (1987).
Land's Polaroid: A Company and the Man Who Invented It
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 258 p.). Land, Edwin Herbert,
1909- ; Polaroid Corporation--History; Polaroid Land
(Polaroid), Victor K. McElheny (1998).
Insisting on the Impossible: The Life of Edwin Land
(Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 510 p.). Reporter on Science and
Technology. Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid
Corporation--History; Scientists--United States--Biography;
(Polaroid), Alan R. Earls and Nasrin Rohani;
foreward by Marie Cosindas (2005).
Polaroid. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Land, Edwin
Herbert, 1909- ; Polaroid Land Camera; Instant
photography--History; Polaroid Corporation--History.
(Pope Manufacturing Company), Stephen B.
Colonel Albert Pope and His American Dream Machines: The Life
and Times of a Bicycle Tycoon Turned Automotive Pioneer.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 253 p.). Pope, Albert A. (Albert
Augustus), 1843-1909; Automobile industry and trade--United
States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography;
Bicycles--United States--Biography; Highway engineers--United
States--Biography. Founder - Columbia bicycles.
Colonel Albert A. Pope - Columbia
(Raleigh Cycle Co.), Roger Lloyd-Jones and
M.J. Lewis (2000).
Raleigh and the British Bicycle Industry: An Economic and
Business History, 1870-1960. (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate,
303 p.). Professor of Economic History (Sheffield Hallam
University, UK); Senior Lecturer in Business History (Sheffield
Hallam University, UK). Raleigh Cycle Co. -- History; Bicycle
industry -- Great Britain -- History.
Sir Frank Bowden -
Raleigh Bicycle Company (http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3187/2324470218_71c66d73d9.jpg?v=0)
(Ranier Club), Walt Crowley (1988).
The Rainier Club, 1888-1988. (Seattle, WA: Crowley
Associates, 79 p.). Ranier Club.
(Ringling Brothers), Henry Ringling North and
Alden Hatch (1960).
The Circus Kings Our Ringling Family Story. (Garden
City, N: Doubleday, 383 p.). Ringling Brothers.
(Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, Otto; August [Gus],
Henry joined later;
(Ringling Brothers), Jerry Apps ; foreword by
Fred Dahlinger, Jr. (2005).
Ringlingville USA: The Stupendous Story of Seven Siblings and
Their Stunning Circus Success. (Madison, WI: Wisconsin
Historical Society Press, 256 p.). Wisconsin Historian. Ringling
Brothers--History; Ringling Brothers Barnum and Bailey Combined
Shows--History; Circus performers--United States--Biography;
(Riverview Amusement Park), Derek Gee and
Ralph Lopez (2000). Laugh Your Troubles Away: The Complete
History of Riverview Park, Chicago, Illinois. (Livonia, MI:
Sharpshooters Productions, 166 p.). Amusement
parks--Illinois--Chicago--History; (Chicago, Ill.).
(Riverview Amusement Park), Dolores Haugh
Riverview Amusement Park. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub.,
128 p.). Founding Member, Past President, and Director Emeritus
of the Mount Prospect Historical Society. Riverview Amusement
Park (Chicago, Ill.)--History; Riverview Amusement Park
(Chicago, Ill.)--History--Pictorial works. 1904 to 1967 - world’s largest amusement park opened to millions
of people; grew from 22 acres, 3 rides to 140 acres, more than
(Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk), Chandra Moira
Beal and Richard A. Beal (2003).
Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk: The Early Years-- Never a Dull
Moment. (Austin, TX: Pacific Group, 261 p.).
Beaches--California--Santa Cruz; Amusement
parks--California--Santa Cruz; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--History;
Santa Cruz (Calif.)--Pictorial works.
(Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk), Santa Cruz
Seaside Company (2007).
Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk: A Century by the Sea.
(Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 176 p.). Amusement
Beaches--California--Santa Cruz--History; Santa Cruz
(Calif.)--History; Santa Cruz (Calif.)--Pictorial works. History
of premier California tourist destination. From beachfront bathhouses and ashes of Santa Cruz’s first
Casino, "Coney Island of the West" is home to National Historic
Landmarks, dozens of rides, games, shops, venues.
(Schwinn), Judith Crown & Glenn Coleman
No Hands: The Rise and Fall of the Schwinn Bicycle Company: An
American Institution. (New York, NY: Holt, 350 p.).
Schwinn Bicycle Company--History; Bicycle industry--United
(Scores), Jay Bildstein, as told to Jerry
The King of Clubs. (New York, NY: Barricade Books, 288
p.). Bildstein, Jay; Scores (Club : New York, N.Y.)--History;
Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.)--New York
(State)--New York--History; Striptease--New York (State)--New
York; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.
(Sea World), Susan G. Davis (1997).
Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World
Experience. (Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press, 313 p.). Associate Professor of Communication (University
of California, San Diego). Sea World; Amusement parks--Social
aspects--California--San Diego; Amusement parks--Economic
aspects--California--San Diego; Corporate
(Sea World), Tim O'Brien (2003).
The Wave Maker: Story Of Theme Park Pioneer George Millay And
The Creation Of Seaworld, Magic Mountain, And Wet 'n Wild.
(Nashville, TN: Ripley's Entertainment, Inc., 352 p.). VP,
Publishing and Communication (Ripley's Entertainment). Amusement
Parks--United States--History; theme parks.
(Shimano Inc.), Yoshizo Shimano (2008).
This Is My Road: The Story of Shimano. (Hoboken, NJ:
Wiley, 161 p.). Chairman of Shimano Inc. Shimano, Yoshizo,
1934-; Shimano, Kabushiki Kaisha; Bicycle industry --Japan
--Biography. Leading bicycle components
manufacturer, established brand in fishing tackle; journey from
mischievous young boy to Chairman of Shimano Inc.; success owed
to foresight, resolve, flair of Shimano family; Shimano brothers
have led company through more than 80 years of successful
existence; now run by third generation.
(Six Flags), Tim Hollis (2006).
Six Flags Over Georgia. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub.,
128 p.). Amusement parks--Georgia--Austell--History--Pictorial
works; Amusement parks--Georgia--Pictorial works.
Opened June 1967 - first theme park in
Southeast, devoted to various periods of Georgia’s history;
changed, expanded over the decades.
(Topsfield Fair), David H. Fletcher (2003).
Topsfield Fair: America’s Oldest. (Charleston, SC:
Arcadia, 128 p.). Topsfield Fair (Topsfield, Mass.);
Agricultural exhibitions--Massachusetts--Topsfield; Topsfield
(Mass. : Town)--History. Oldest
agricultural fair in America (1818) - rooted in agriculture,
filled with thrills, family entertainment.
(Union League Club of Chicago), James
Dunlap Nowlan (2004).
Glory, Darkness, Light: A History of the Union League
Club of Chicago. (Evanston, IL: Northwestern
University Press, 254 p.). Senior Fellow with the
University of Illinois Institute of Government and
Public Affairs. Union League Club of Chicago --History;
Chicago (Ill.) --History. City history, revealing look
behind brass plaque of prominent city club; roots in
Civil War; how Club, its members built, boosted,
squabbled with city for 125 years; 1893 - leaders saved,
presented World's Columbian Exposition to
27 million awed visitors; 1950s - half of 2003 Board
members (Jews, blacks, women) ineligible, unacceptable
for membership - Club's resistance to these groups
(Villiers Engineering Co. Ltd.), Marjorie von
Harten and Melissa Marston (1979).
Man of Woverhampton: (the Life and Times of Sir Charles Marston.
(Daglingworth, UK: Coombe Springs Press, 255 p.). Marston,
Charles, Sir, 1867-1946; Businesspeople--Great
Britain--Biography. Sunbeam bicycles.
(Walworth County Fair), Taylor Pipes (2005).
Walworth County Fair. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.).
Walworth County Fair (Elkhorn, Wis.)--History--Pictorial works.
Founded in 1851, dubbed the "Great Fair"
in 1918, tone of largest in United States.
(Westmoor Country Club), H. Russell Zimmermann
(1987). Westmoor Country Club: Sixty Years of Family,
Fellowship, and Sport. (Brookfield, WI: The Club, 304 p.).
Westmoor Country Club (Brookfield, Wis.)--History; Country
clubs--Wisconsin--Milwaukee Metropolitan Area--History.
(Zambelli Internationale), Gianni DeVincent
Zambelli, The First Family of Fireworks: A Story of Global
Success. (Forest Dale, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 171 p.).
Zambelli family; Zambelli Internationale; Fireworks--United
Judith A. Adams (1991).
The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology
and Thrills. (Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 225 p.).
Amusement parks--United States--History; Amusement
parks--Economic aspects--United States; Amusement ride equipment
Norman D. Anderson (1992).
Ferris Wheels: An Illustrated History. (Bowling Green,
OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 407 p.).
Ferris wheels--History. Story of one of the engineering marvels
of both the nineteenth and the twentieth century.
Elspeth H. Brown (2005).
The Corporate Eye: Photography and the Rationalization of
American Commercial Culture, 1884-1929. (Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 320 p.). Assistant Professor of
History (University of Toronto). Photography--United
States--Business methods; Commercial photography--United
Bryan Burkhart and David Hunt (2000).
Airstream: The History of the Land Yacht. (San
Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 143 P.). Airstream
Brian J. Cudahy (1998).
Twilight on the Bay: The Excursion Boat Empire of B.B. Wills
(Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 242 p.). Wills, B. B.
(Benjamin Bowling), 1897-1986; Excursion boats -- United States
-- History; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.
David Lewis Hammarstrom (2008).
Fall of the Big Top: The Vanishing American Circus.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 239 p.).
Circus--United States--History. Circus
history from 1793 to present; cultural forces pushing big top
shows toward "circus ballet."
Lisa Holton (2008).
For Members Only A History And Guide to Chicago's Oldest Private
Clubs. (Chicago, IL: Lake Claremont Press, 350 p.).
Former business editor (Chicago Sun-Times). Clubs--private;
social clubs--Chicago--history. Hidden
world of Chicagos private social clubs - united, divided Chicago's
city's leaders since first days; how business,
nonprofit, political leaders of Chicago shaped city for more
than 140 years behind closed doors; how clubs once restricted by
race, sex, birthright, flourished in days of Marshall Field,
Louis Sullivan, have adapted to modern society.
Reese Jenkins (1975).
Images and Enterprise: Technology and the American
Photographic Industry, 1839 to 1925. (Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 371 p.). Photographic
Roger Lacasse (1988).
Joseph-Armand Bombardier: Le Reve d’Un Inventeur.
(Quebec: Libre expression, 233 p.). Bombardier, Joseph-Armand,
1907-1964; Industrialists--Que´bec (Province)--Biography;
Snowmobile industry--Que´bec (Province)--History; All terrain
Rachel P. Maines (2009).
Hedonizing Technologies: Paths to Pleasure in Hobbies and
Leisure. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 211 p.). Visiting Scientist in the Cornell University
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Hobbies
--History; Amusements --History; Technology --Economic aspects
--History --Popular works.
Growth, economic significance of hobbies in terms of broad
consumer demand for technologies associated with them; growth in
world markets for hobby craft tools, books, periodicals,
materials from late 18th century to today; history of labor,
industry; how technology and people interact.
James M. Mayo (1998).
The American Country Club: Its Origins and Development.
(New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 243 p.). Country
David Nasaw (1993).
Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements. (New
York, NY: BasicBooks, 312 p.). Professor of History and American
Studies (Graduate Center of the City University of New York).
Leisure--United States--History; Amusements--United
Woody Register (2001).
The Kid of Coney Island: Fred Thompson and the Rise of American
Amusements (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 400
p.). Professor of American Studies (Sewanee, University of the
South). Thompson, Fred, 1873-1919; Amusement park owners--New
York (State)--New York--Biography.
Fukui Yuko (2005). Kanransha Monogatari:
110-nen no Rekishi o Meguru = Ferris Wheel History. (Tokyo,
Japan: Heibonsha, 343 p.). Ferris wheel history.
History of Ferris wheels in western
Business History Links
Amusement Park History
Site is designed to help facilitate the understanding of
amusement parks, specifically the traditions and history that
surround the industry.
Online exhibit from the San Francisco Public Library pays
tribute to the closing decades of the 19th century, when
Americans began to frequent amusement parks, dance halls, and
other such places. From a virtual Ferris wheel, visitors can
enter the exhibit by clicking on a number of images, including a
smiling clown’s face and a trio of bathing beauties. Visitors
can learn about San Francisco’s famed Sutro Baths, tour the
grounds of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, and the
hustle and bustle of the Playland. If visitors make some popcorn
and pink lemonade while wandering around the site, it might just
make the experience complete.
Blog, by Paul Giambarba, initiated Polaroid's corporate image
development and product identity in 1958, gives a fascinating
overview of Polaroid and its history. The site contains
subtopics such as; Polaroid Package Design, Polaroid Dealer Ads,
Polaroid Sunglasses, and more. Giambarba created " ... the
ubiquitous Polaroid colour stripes, one of the most widely
imitated design devices of the last several decades, he designed
and produced hundreds of Polaroid packages and collateral
material including consumer literature."
Circus Historical Society
Founded in 1939, the Circus Historical Society, Inc. (CHS) is a
tax-exempt, not-for-profit educational organization dedicated to
recording the history of the American circus from the first one
in Philadelphia during 1793 to today.
The Circus in America: 1793-1940
For over a century and a half, the circus was at the forefront
of Americans’ minds when they thought of large-scale
entertainment. Wwith their movement through towns both large and
small, the circus seemed to captivate both cosmopolites and more
rural folk. Designed by the staff members at The Institute for
Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of
Virginia, this multimedia site brings together a range of
primary materials (including video clips) that tell the stories
of six major American circuses from 1793 to 1940. Visitors can
elect to learn about the acts in each circus, the animals that
delighted both young and old, and the transportation methods
used to move these enormous productions from Nyack to New
Bedford. There is also a circus timeline of events, and some
"Special Attractions", which include essays on various aspects
of circus history and a selection of sounds of the circus. The
site is rounded out by some video clips of restored circus
wagons on parade and itineraries for the six featured circuses
which give users a sense of the exhausting schedules they often
George Eastman House
Since it was opened in 1949, the George Eastman House has helped
tell "the story of photography and motion pictures -- media that
have changed and continue to change our perception of the
world." The museum's homepage offers a number of interesting
resources about current exhibitions and longstanding
collections. One of the more substantial sections of the Web
site is titled Education & Research; it contains a couple of
video clips of photographic processes, as well as insights into
the work conducted at the L. Jeffrey Selznick School of Film
Preservation. The site also contains a Timeline of Photography,
which describes many remarkable events over the past three
centuries. Several sample images of photographs from the George
Eastman House collections are available for viewing.
Heliography: A Chronology of New England
Inventions and Innovations in Photography the 19th Century
New England played an important role in the evolution of
photography. Published in the Spring 2003 issue of The New
England Journal of Photographic History.
On the pages that follow, you'll learn more about George
Eastman's remarkable accomplishments and about the company that
today is bringing new dimensions to his legacy.
Made in Chicago: The Ferris Wheel
Brief description of the Ferris wheel, which "debuted at
Chicago's 1893 Columbian Exposition. ... 'The World's Greatest
Ride' was reused at the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904, then
dynamited and sold for scrap metal." Includes links to related
articles about the Columbian Exposition and the Coney Island
entrepreneur who saw the Ferris wheel and ordered a smaller
version. From an American Experience documentary about Chicago.
Metz Bicycle Museum
One of world's finest collection of antique bicycles, dating
from the 1850's to the 1950's; hundreds of different bicycles of
all kinds on display - boneshakers, high wheelers, quadracycles,
tricycles. a "Zimmy", a lamp lighter bicycle, children's bikes,
trick bikes, and many more other unusual and one-of-a kind
National Roller Coaster Museum
Opened in 2001- to discover, preserve, interpret and share the
historical heritage of the roller coaster for present and future
generations. At the same time, it is the goal of the NRCMA board
to become part of an established universal effort to make the
public and industry aware of the importance of preserving its
heritage, from the ongoing maintenance of older rides and
attractions, to the safeguarding of crumbling remnants found in
garages, park maintenance buildings, basements and attics. The
ultimate goal is to protect these artifacts and make them
accessible to those who love roller coasters and amusement
parks! The opportunity to preserve an important part of American
history, establish a permanent home for memorabilia and to save
our amusement park legacy for future generations to enjoy, is
too important to overlook.
New England Carousel Museum
One of the largest
collections of antique carousel pieces in the country;
dedicated to the acquisition, restoration and preservation
of operating carousels and carousel memorabilia and the
creation of new carousel material, for the education and
pleasure of the general public.
Pedaling History Bicycle Museum
One of the world's largest
collections of antique and classic American bicycles,
including thousands of items of cycling-related memorabilia.
From the antiques through the classics to modern bikes:
social, design, manufacturing, marketing, and sports aspects
are all reflected in our displays. 1970s - Carl and Clarice
[Clary] Burgwardt attended a country auction in Western New
York State and brought home the parts of an old, original
highwheel bicycle. 1980s - assembled a sizeable and fair
representation of the bicycle's history in their growing
collection and then decided to more seriously focus their
collecting a bit differently than other collections they had
seen; began putting together what today has become the
world's largest collection of American bicycle history (95%
American), has become a heritage treasure of American
bicycling history, unsurpassed in both size and
comprehensive historical content anywhere in the world.
Historical Society of New England
Nonprofit, tax-exempt society founded in 1973 to promote the
knowledge of photographic history in a variety of exciting
educational programs and activities. Largest of the forty
regional photographic historical societies in the world.