Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Entertainment
business biographies  

1574 - James Burbage became first Englishman to obtain theatrical license (first Elizabethan theatrical entrepreneur); 1576 - borrowed 1000 marks (£666. 13s. 4d.) from John Braynewith (father-in-law), built 'The 'Theatre' with John Brayne (brother-in-law) on land leased from Giles Allen; first theater in London (similar to small Roman amphitheatre); created blueprint for Globe theater; 1597 - Cuthbert and Richard Burbage (sons) took over; lease of 'The Theatre' expired; dismantled building, used timber in construction of Globe playhouse on Bankside, Southwark.

James Burbage - 'The Theatre', 1576 ( )

1581 - Catherine De Medici commissioned first ballet, "Ballet Comique de la Reine," in Paris, to celebrate marriage of her sister.

November 1, 1604 - William Shakespeare's tragedy Othello presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

October 12, 1609 - Thomas Ravenscroft, London teenage songwriter, published "Three Blind Mice".

November 1, 1611 - William Shakespeare's romantic comedy The Tempest presented, for first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

1618 - Avedis I discovered secret process for treating alloys (fusing of copper, tin and silver), applied it to art of making cymbals of extraordinary clarity; used in Turkey for daily calls to prayer, religious feasts, royal weddings, Ottoman army; Sultan Osman II called Zildjian founder of craft of Turkish cymbal making, bestowed name 'Zildjian' (cymbal smith in Armenian); 1623 - Sultan Murad IV allowed Avedis to leave Ottoman palace to start cymbal foundry outside Constantinople; 1929 - Avedis Zildjian III left candy business, incorporated, opened cymbal factory in Quincy, MA; 1930 - developed close relationship with Gene Krupa, made thinner marching cymbals to adapt to emerging drum set; invented, named many of cymbals used in modern drumming (splash, ride, crash, hi-hat, sizzle cymbals).

March 23, 1743 - George Frideric Handel's oratorio ''Messiah'' had London premiere.

March 5, 1750 - First Shakespearean play in America presented at Nassau Street Theatre in New York City, "King Richard III".

May 31, 1759 - Lawmakers in Pennsylvania adopted law forbidding performance of plays (response to pressure from religious groups, particularly Baptists, who found theatrical performances immoral); fined 500 pounds if found guilty.

September 18, 1769 - Boston Gazette described first piano-like instrument, known in U.S. as a spinet (built by John Harris).

August 3, 1778 - La Scala (Teatro alla Scala), opera house, opened in Milan, Italy, with performance of Antonio Salieri's ''Europa riconosciuta.''

May 1, 1786 - Mozart's opera ''The Marriage of Figaro'' premiered in Vienna.

October 29, 1787 - Mozart's opera Don Giovanni received its first performance in Prague.

May 27, 1796 - James Sylvanus McLean, of New Jersey, received first U.S. patent for "Piano Forte".

March 11, 1818 - Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (21) published "Frankenstein", or The Modern Prometheus; frequently called world's first science fiction novel (scientist animated a creature constructed from dismembered corpses; gentle, intellectually gifted creature is enormous and physically hideous; rejected cruelly rejected by its creator, it wanders, seeking companionship and becoming increasingly brutal as it fails to find a mate; explores philosophical themes and challenges Romantic ideals about the beauty and goodness of nature).

February 7, 1827 - Mme. Francisquy Hutin, French danseuse, introduced ballet to U.S. at Bowery Theater, with performance of "The Deserter".

February 27, 1827 - First Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans.

April 5, 1827 - James H. Hackett became first American actor to appear abroad; performed at Covent Garden in London, England.

1833 - Christian F. Martin Sr. set up luthier shop in New York City; first guitar maker to craft Stauffer style headstock in America; 1840s - created, perfected X-bracing to give strength to guitar top to handle pressure of taut strings, heavy playing while still maintaining very high quality Martin tone (still considered best bracing pattern, imitated by luthiers around world); 1873 - C. F. Martin Jr. took command; 1888 - Frank Henry Martin (22, grandson) assumed control; 1890s - began production of mandolins; 1917 - built first steel-string Hawaiian guitars played with steel bar; 1918 - discontinued use of elephant ivory, used celluloid ("ivoroid"); 1922 - first line of guitars for steel strings; 1845 - C. F. Martin III (great grandson) took over; 1969 - discontinued hard-to-obtain Brazilian rosewood for most stock models, replaced with rosewood from East India; 1986 - C. F. "Chris" Martin IV (great great grandson) took over; 1990 - completed 500,00th guitar; 1999 - completed 700,00th guitar; 2004 - completed 1,000,000th guitar.

Christian F. Martin Sr. - C F. Martin & Co. (

November 17, 1839 - Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, "Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio", debuted in Milan at La Scala, Italy's most prestigious theater.

December 7, 1842 - New York Philharmonic gave first concert.

March 21, 1846 - Antoine-Joseph (Adolphe) Sax, of Paris, FR, received a French patent for a new System of wind instruments called Saxophones ("instrument, which by the character of its voice can be reconciled with the stringed instruments, but which possesses more force and intensity than the to change the volume of its sounds better than any other instrument").

November 22, 1847 - Astor Place Opera House opened; New York City's first operatic theater.

June 19, 1849 - Charles Austin, of Concord, NH, received a patent for a "Melodeon Reed"; melodeon, small reed organ, with treadle-operated bellows to draw air through the reeds.

1853 - Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg, German immigrant, master cabinetmaker, founded Steinway & Sons in Manhattan loft; first piano sold for $500; 1864 - name anglicized, Steinway; William Steinway (son) builtnew showrooms housing over 100 pianos; 1866 - opened Steinway Hall in back of showrooms, became New York City's artistic, cultural center; 1972 - acquired by CBS; 1985 - acquired by Steinway Musical Properties Inc.; 1988 - made 500,000th piano; 1995 - Steinway Musical Properties merged with Selmer Company, formed Steinway Musical Instruments; 1996 - renamed Steinway Musical Instruments, went public.

January 19, 1853 - Verdi's opera ''Il Trovatore'' premiered in Rome.

December 5, 1854 - Aaron H. Allen, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Opera Chair" (a "Seat for Public Buildings", a "new and Improved Self-Adjusting Opera Seat"); folding chair for theatres or other public buildings; pivoted seat constructed with weights or springs to assume, retain vertical position when pressure upon it is relieved as occupant rises from it.

October 9, 1855 - Joshua C. Stoddard of Worcester, MA, received a patent for a "Musical Instrument" ("Apparatus for Producing Music by Steam or Compressed Air"); a calliope; consisted of 15 whistles, of graduated sizes, attached in a row to the top of a small steam boiler, a long cylinder with pins of different shapes driven into it so that when the cylinder revolved, the pins pressed the valves and blew the whistles in proper sequence; later, Stoddard replaced the cylinder with a keyboard; wires running from the keys to the valves enabled the operator to play the instrument like a piano.

1856 - Rudolph Wurlitzer founded The Wurlitzer Company; imported musical instruments and opened sales outlets in all big American cities; 1880 - started production of pianos in America; 1896 - introduced 'Tonophone', first coin-operated piano; 1933 - built first jukebox.

Rudolph Wurlitzer, Sr. (

August 12, 1856 - Anthony Faas, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an "Accordion".

February 5, 1861 - Coleman Sellers, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for "Exhibiting Stereoscopic Pictures of Moving Objects"; kinematoscope - a photographic attempt to show motion (box in which rolled film moves past a light); inventor wished to show pictures such as human motion or the revolving wheels of machinery.

February 5, 1861 - Samuel D. Goodale, of Cincinnati, OH, received a patent for a "Stereoscope"; first peep show machine; Mutoscope was operated by hand and gave a stereoscopic image; pictures were fastened by one edge to an axis in such a way that they stood out like spokes; different images appeared to present an image in motion as the shaft rotated.

April 23, 1867 - William E. Lincoln, of Providence, RI, received a patent for a "Toy"; Zoetrope; machine showed animated pictures by mounting a strip of drawings in a wheel; appeared to move when viewed through a slit; became standard fixtures in entertainment arcades of late 19th, early 20th centuries.

May 1, 1869 - Folies Bergere opened in Paris.

August 10, 1869 - O. B. Brown, of Malden, MA, received a patent for an "Optical Instrument" ("by means of which figures represented in different relative attitudes are seen successively, so as to produce the appearance of objects in motion"); moving picture projector.

February 5, 1870 - Henry R. Heyl, using his Phasmatrope, presented animated photographic picture projection before theatre audience in Philadelphia for first time; disc with 16 openings near the edge, each carrying a photographic plate rotated in front of converted projecting lantern; series of plates showed dancers who appeared to move as rotating disc showed successive positions; pictures in continuous loop that did not change.

November 21, 1877 - Thomas A. Edison unveiled phonograph (to record, play back sound); experimented with stylus on tinfoil cylinder; December 6, 1877 - demonstrated first sound recording at his Menlo Park Laboratory; recited "Mary Had a Little Lamb" into large horn which transmitted vibrations to needle which scribed recording on cylinder rotated by hand; first surviving recording of human voice.

February 19, 1878 - Edison received patent for a "Phonograph of Speaking Machine"; phonograph; used spirally grooved, tinfoil-coated cylinder with mouthpiece for recording sound by scratching "hill-and-dale" impressions in the foil with an attached needle; crank rotated the cylinder; funnel horn replaced mouthpiece for listening; established Edison Speaking Phonograph Co. (5 stockholders including Gardiner G. Hubbard, Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law.

February 17, 1880 - Emile Berliner, of Boston, MA, received a patent for a "Microphone".

December 20, 1880 - Charles F. Brush successfully demonstrated arc lamps along Broadway in New York City; first lighting of Broadway by electricity;  became known as "Great White Way" (preceded Edison's incandescent light bulb in commercial use).

June 14, 1881 - John McTammany, Jr., of Cambridge, MA, received a patent for a "Mechanical Musical Instrument"; player piano; mechanism for automatic playing of organs using narrow sheets of perforated flexible paper which governed the notes to be played; February 27, 1879 - Edward H. Leveaux received English patent for Angelus, first completely automatic piano player; February 1897 - first to be manufactured in U.S.; October 4, 1881 -received U.S. patent for an "apparatus for storing and transmitting motive power."

September 30, 1881 - Clement Adler received a German patent for first stereo system, telephonic broadcasting service.

October 4, 1881 - Edward H. Leveaux, of Sussex, UK, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Storing and Transmitting Motive Power"; first completely automatic piano player manufactured in U.S.

1883 - Friedrich Gretsch, immigrant from Mannheim Germany, founded small shop in Brooklyn; started making banjos, tambourines, other instruments; 1895 - Fred Gretsch (son) took over; 1942 -Fred, Jr. and William "Bill" Gretsch (sons) assumed leadership; 1948 - Fred Gretsch, Jr. took over; 1967 - acquired by Baldwin Music Company, music industry giant; 1985 - reacquired by Fred W. Gretsch (great-grandson); one of world's most well-known drum, guitar manufacturers; 2002 - struck deal with Fender Musical Instruments Corp. to handle Gretsch manufacturing distribution.

Friedrich Gretsch - The Gretsch Company (

May 1, 1883 - Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody) staged his first Wild West Show; July 4, 1883 - staged outdoor event, called "Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition" in North Platte, NE; May 9, 1887 - opened in London at Earls Court show ground, gave Queen Victoria, her subjects first look at real cowboys and Indians; 1913 - show collapsed from financial pressures.

October 22, 1883 - Original Metropolitan Opera House in New York held grand opening with performance of Gounod's ''Faust.''

March 26, 1885 - Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company of Rochester, NY manufactured commercial motion-picture film negatives; first film produced in continuous strips on reels.

February 3, 1886 - Alexander Graham Bell, associates incorporated Volta Graphophone Co. in Virginia to demonstrate, promote the graphophone; 1886 - Bell & Charles Sumner Tainter established American Graphophone Co. to manufacture, sell graphophones in United States, Canada under license from Volta Graphophone Co.; Jesse H. Lippincott, Pittsburgh businessman who had made a lot of money in glass business, acquired exclusive right to rent or sell the Graphophone under Bell and Tainter patents.

May 4, 1886 - Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter, of Washington, DC, received a patent for "Reproducing Sounds from Phonograph Records"; received second patent for "Transmitting and Recording Sounds by Radiant Energy" ("new method of and means for throwing a beam of light or other radian energy into vibrations corresponding to sound-waves, and also to a new method of and apparatus for producing a photographic record of such vibrations"); Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter received a patent for "Recording and Reproducing Speech and Other Sounds"; cardboard cylinder coated with ozocerite, type of wax, incised by a needle (wax cylinder as an improved sound recording medium); Sumner Tainter received a patent for an "Apparatus for Recording and Reproducing Sounds" ("to increase the general efficiency of apparatus for recording and reproducing speech and other sounds, commonly known as 'phonographs'"); manufactured first practical phonograph from these designs.

November 30, 1886 - "Folies Bergere" debuted in Paris.; featured women in sensational costumes.

February 1, 1887 - Harvey H. Wilcox, prohibitionist from Kansas, filed a map of his 160-acre ranch in Southern California (Rancho La Brea, seven miles west of Los Angeles) with the county recorder for subdivision purposes for a town called Hollywood (named after a Dutch settlement); 1903 - community incorporated;  1910 - lack of water forced annexation by city of Los Angeles.

Harvey Henderson Wilcox - 'founded' Hollywood (

May 9, 1887 - Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opened in London, first international performance at the Earls Court show ground; gave Queen Victoria and her subjects their first look at real cowboys and Indians; July 4, 1883 - staged an outdoor extravaganza called the "Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition" in North Platte, Nebraska; 1913 - show collapsed from financial pressures.

October 10, 1887 - Thomas Edison reorganized Edison Speaking Phonograph Co. as Edison Phonograph Company; October 28, 1887 - transferred his phonograph patents to Edison Phonograph Company in exchange for 11,960 shares of company stock; July 14, 1888 - Lippincott organized North American Phonograph Company as sales network of local companies licensed to lease phonographs, graphophones as dictation machines (bought control of Edison patents for $500 000, exclusive sales rights of phonograph in United States for $250 000).

November 8, 1887 - Emile Berliner, German immigrant working in Washington DC, received a patent for a "Gramophone" ("a novel method of and apparatus for recording and reproducing all kinds of sounds, including spoken words, and is designed to overcome the defects inherent in that art as now practiced"); successful system of sound recording; first inventor to stop recording on cylinders, start recording on flat disks or records. 

December 27, 1887 - Charles Sumner Tainter, of Washington, DC, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Recording and Reproducing Speech and Other Sounds" ("speech and other sounds known as 'graphophones'"); April 3, 1888 - received a patent for a "Graphophone"; July 10, 1888 - received a patent for a "Graphophonic Tablet" ("for use in 'graphophones', or instruments used in recording and reproducing vocal and other sounds, the tablet being the medium in or upon which the sound-record is cut by the recording-style. Such tablets are composed generally of a base or foundation of a material more or less rigid and a surface coating of wax or waxy composition suitable for recording the vibrations of the style"); November 20, 1888 - received a patent for a "Tablet for Use in Graphophones" ("preparation of a recording surface or medium for graphphones"); February 18, 1890 - received a patent for a "Graphophone-Tablet" ("the sound-record is cut or graven by a cutting style in a surface, such as wax or waxy composition"); May 27, 1890 - received a patent for a "Machine for the Manufacture of Wax-Coated Tablets for Graphophones"; first to introduce method of cutting a zig-zag spiral groove in wax surface of record to improve sound quality.

  Charles Sumner Tainter - Recording Patents (

( archives/images/d8124-2.jpg)

January 10, 1888 - Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Method of and Apparatus for Producing Animated Pictures of Natural Scenery and Life" ("on Glass, Canvas or other Prepared Surfaces"); moving pictures. 

May 15, 1888 - Emile Berliner, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Process of Producing Records of Sound" ("production of a record of sound-waves in solid resisting material, principally metal, by the process of direct etching, whereby a solid unchangeable sound-record is obtained more cheaply and more readily, either upon a flat or upon a curved surface, without the delicate and intricate manipulations incidental to the process of photo-engraving"); May 16, 1888 - gave first demonstration of flat disc recording and reproduction at Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.

January 15, 1889 - Edward D. Easton and Roland F. Cromelin, Stenographers to Supreme Court, organized Columbia Phonograph Company as regional distributor (selling agency) under license from North American Phonograph Company with exclusive rights for District of Columbia, Maryland, Delaware (original objective to sell product to congressmen, others for dictaphone use); 1890 - North American Phonograph Company bankrupt, 1894 - phonograph rights reverted to Edison; 1896 - reorganized as National Phonograph Co. to manufacture and distribute phonographs for home use; Columbia Phonograph Co. (distribution and sales) acquired control of American Graphophone Co. (development and manufacturing); Edison forced by court decision to sign an agreement with Easton to share patents; allowed Easton to make, sell music cylinders of Edison type under graphophone name; rose to become one of Big 3 phonograph companies, produced Edison-type cylinders that played on low cost spring-motor machines.

February 12, 1889 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph" ("to permit of the use upon the tapering phonogram-cylinder of the phonograph of slightly-tapering or true cylindrical phonograms, such as paper cylinders covered with indenting material").

April 2, 1889 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer"; assigned to Edison Phonograph Company; received a patent for "Phonograph"; received a patent for a "Phonogram-Blank"; received two patents  for a "Method of Making Phonogram Blanks".

October 6, 1889 - Thomas Edison showed his first motion picture.

November 23, 1889 - Entrepreneur Louis Glass, business associate, William S. Arnold, introduced jukebox; placed coin-operated Edison cylinder playback phonograph with no amplification (Edison Class M Electric Phonograph with oak cabinet) in Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco (303 Sutter St.); for a nickel patron could listen via one of four listening tubes; known as "Nickel-in-the-Slot", machine an instant success, earned over $1000 in nickels by May 1890; May 27, 1890 - Glass and Arnold, of San Francisco, CA, received two patents for a "Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonographs" ("a suitable device by which the phonograph may be exhibited and heard by any one upon the deposit of a suitable coin").

May 13, 1890 - Mrs. Andrew Carnegie laid cornerstone for Carnegie Hall; May 5, 1891 - Carnegie Hall (then named Music Hall) opened in New York City; took year to build, cost $1 million for land and construction; Peter Tchaikovsky participated in five-day inaugural music festival.

September 30, 1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph" ("means for providing a double record of matter to be recorded by the phonograph, so that one record can be preserved while the other is sent to the person for whom the matter is intended"); received a second patent for a "Phonograph" ("use of flexible phonogram-blanks which may be sheets of flexible material capable of being indented by the recording point of the phonograph"); received a patent for a "Phonograph-Recorder" ("recorder of my improved phonograph is provided with a cutting-tool recording-point presenting a cutting-edge in advance of the stock of the tool"); received a third patent for a "Phonograph" ("to increase the effectiveness and convenience in use of the provide means for indicating upon the record a point at which a pause is made in dictating to the instrument...and to provide means for removing from the phonogram-surface the fine chips or shavings which are produced by the cutting action of the recording-point"); received a patent for a "Method of Making Phonogram-Blanks ("to simplify the construction of phonogram-blanks. to make them more durable, and especially to so construct them that they shall not crack by reason of expansion or contraction due to large changes in temperature to which they are often subjected"); received a second patent for a "Phonogram Blank".

June 9, 1891 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph" ("adjusting a phonograph reproducing-point into exact alignment with the phonogram-record").

September 29, 1891 - Thomas A. Edison, of Menlo Park, NJ, received a patent for a ""Phonogram-Blank Carrier" ("devices for supporting and protecting phonogram-blanks or recording-surfaces on which a phonographic recording has been or is to be recorded").

1893 - Emile Berliner established United States Gramophone Company in Washington, DC; caretaker of rights to 1887 patent.

February 1, 1893 - Thomas Edison opened America's first film-production studio, "Black Maria" (aka Kinetographic Theater after Kinetograph, forerunner of movie camera), in West Orange, NJ on grounds of Edison's laboratories; dark room covered in tar paper with retractable roof built at cost of $637.67; 1903 - demolished.

March 14, 1893 - Thomas Edison received a patent for an "Apparatus for Exhibiting Photographs of Moving Objects"; motion picture projector, the Kinetograph (optical lantern projector), and a separate viewing machine, the Kinetoscope; May 9, 1893 - gave first motion picture exhibition in Brooklyn, New York, to an audience of 400 people at the Dept. of Physics, Brooklyn Institute (using Kinetograph); showed moving images of a blacksmith and his two helpers passing a bottle and forging a piece of iron; each filmstrip had 700 images, each image shown for 1/92 seconds; event was reported in May 20, 1893 issue of Scientific American.

June 20, 1893 - Thomas A. Edison received patent for a "Phonograph"; June 27, 1893 - received three more patents for a "Phonograph". 

1894 - Orville Gibson, restaurant clerk in Kalamazoo, MI, began making mandolins, guitars in his home workshop; 1902 - group of Kalamazoo businessmen organized The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Co., Ltd. (Orville Gibson not a partner); initially focused on mandolins; maintained industry leadership role as musical tastes changed to banjo (1920s), guitar (1930s); 1923 -name changed to Gibson, Inc.; 1935 - introduced its first electric guitar; 1952 - introduced Les Paul Model, company's first solidbody electric guitar; 1994 - acquired Slingerland Company.

January 9, 1894 - William Kennedy Laurie Dickson copyrighted first motion picture; featured 47 images of a man sneezing.

April 14, 1894 - Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope viewer, using celluloid film, first appeared in New York City arcade; peep-show film machines accommodated one viewer at a time, showed short films of entertainers like Annie Oakley and Buffalo Bill; camera based on photographic principles discovered by still-photograph pioneers Joseph Nicephone Niepce, Louis Daguerre of France.

February 13, 1895 - French inventors Louis and August Lumiere received patent for the Cinematographe,  combination movie camera, projector; March 22, 1895 - showed their first movie to invited audience in Paris; generally regarded as first public display of movie projected onto  screen; audience viewed "La Sortie des Ouvriers de L'usine Lumière", showed workers leaving Lumière's factory in Lyon which made photographic products; workers streamed out, most on foot, some with bicycles, followed by those with cars.

February 19, 1895 - Emile Berliner, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Gramophone", an improvement on his May 15, 1888 patent; assigned to The United States Gramophone Company.

March 26, 1895 - Charles Francis Jenkins, of Richmond, IN, received a patent for a "Phantoscope" ("for exhibiting a series of pictures of an object by means of which an impression of real action and movement of the object is conveyed to the eye of the observer"); continuously moving film and a number of lenses on a rotating disk - early motion picture projector; Thomas Armat supplied capital; September 1895 - Showed Phantoscope at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, GA.

April 21, 1895 - Woodville Latham demonstrated motion picture projection in New York; improved George Eastman's invention of motion picture film, made it project upon screen.

July 2, 1895 - Thomas A. Edison received two patents for a "Phonograph" ("to enable such devices to work satisfactorily not withstanding irregularities in the surface of the phonogram blank or recording surface").

October 5, 1895 - Emile Berliner (minority stock holder) established Berliner Gramophone Company of Philadelphia, PA (owned copyright for 1887, 1888, 1895 patents), with help of group of businessmen in Philadelphia who invested $25,000.00; produced records and record playing machines; October 29, 1895 - Berliner received a patent for a "Sound Record and Method of Making Same" ("production of copies or duplicates of the flat sound-records as made by gramophone"); 1896 - signed contract with Eldridge Johnson to manufacture improved spring motor for an improved gramophone (developed by machinist Levi Montross).

December 28, 1895 - Birth of film industry: French film pioneers Auguste and Louis Lumiere publicly unveiled their camera/projector, the Cinematographe (first real cinema) at the Grand Cafe on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris; about 30 people paid to see short films showing scenes from ordinary French life (feeding of a baby, game of cards, street activity, working blacksmith, soldiers marching); brothers made 2,000 short films during next five years.

1896 - William Selig established Selig Polyscope motion picture company in Chicago, IL; shot first film, 'Tramp and the Dog'; August 1909 - established second studio, first permanent studio in Los Angeles (had moved from temporary studio on Olive St. in downtown LA), with director Francis Boggs, in rented bungalow in Edendale district (two studios arrived in LA with six months: Bison unit of The New York Picture Co. made westerns, American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (Biograph) with D.W. Griffith - first company to shoot movie in Hollywood, CA in 1910, 'In Old California'); 1910 - produced new filmed version of 'The Wonderful Wizard of Oz'; produced first commercial two-reel film, 'Damon and Pythias', successfully distributed pictures in Great Britain (maintained office in London for several years); 1911 - Boggs was murdered by Japanese gardener, Selig wounded; 1913 - produced 'The Adventures of Kathlyn', in collaborative partnership with Chicago Tribune; introduced dramatic serial plot device (known as the cliffhanger); opened large public zoo in in Lincoln Heights (northeast of downtown Los Angeles); 1917 - Edendale facility acquired by producer William Fox; Selig moved movie studio to zoo in east Los Angeles; 1918 - Selig Polyscope ceased operations; best known for wild animal shorts, historical subjects, early westerns.

1896 - Charles Jenkins lost Phantoscope patent dispute to Thomas Armat (declared joint vs. sole patent); sold his interest; Armat altered improved Phantoscope, renamed it Vitascope; sold rights to Edison, who marketed the invention; became basis of Thomas Edison's Vitascope projector; George Eastman's invention of roll film, followed by transparency film, enabled the same camera to make multiple photographs in a series.

April 23, 1896 - Projected movie shown as commercial attraction for first time as  commercial attraction at Koster and Bial's Music Hall,  vaudeville theater in New York; showed short moving images, used projector called the Vitascope, invented by Thomas Armat and Francis Jenkins; projector inspired name of one of first motion picture companies, Edison Vitagraph Film Company, later called Vitagraph. 

January 12, 1897 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph" (two-point recorder or reproducer adapted to make or travel in a double track or on a phonogram-blank or recording-surface").

March 2, 1897 - Thomas Armat, of Washington, DC,  received a patent for a "Vitascope" (had sold rights to Edison).

May 16, 1897 - Stuart Blackton, Albert E. Smith, of newly formed Vitagraph film company, shot their first fictional film, The Burglar. on the Roof, on roof of New York City building; company flourished in silent film era, introduced future stars like Rudolph Valentino, Norma Talmadge; 1925 - acquired by Warner Bros.

August 31, 1897 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Kinetographic Camera" ("to produce pictures representing objects in motion throughout an extended period of time which may be utilized to exhibit the scene including such moving objects in a perfect and natural manner by means of suitable exhibiting apparatus such as that described in patent received March 14, 1893"); motion picture camera, based on photographic principles discovered by still-photograph pioneers Joseph Nicephone Niepce and Louis Daguerre of France; Edison's Kinetoscope and Kinetograph  used celluloid film (invented by George Eastman in 1889); 1917 - Edison Company left film industry.

February 8, 1898 - Levi H. Montross, of Camden, NJ, received a patent  for a "Spring Motor" ("which may be easily and quickly wound up and which will impart power evenly and uniformly and may be rewound whenever desired without in any way affecting the speed of the operation"); spring-motor gramophone for the Berliner company.

March 8, 1898 - Joseph W. Jones, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Sound Recording and Reproducing Instrument" ("especially that class of instruments known as 'gramophones'"); June 14, 1898 - received a patent for a "Sound-Reproducing Machine"; December 5, 1899 - received a design patent for "Design for a Frame for Graphophones"; December 10, 1901 - received a patent for "Production of Sound-Records" ("stylus vibrating laterally and engraving a groove of approximately uniform depth"); lateral disc recording in wax; December 2, 1902 - received a patent for a "Duplicating Apparatus" ("relates to production of sound-records of the type characterized by spiral grooves of uniform depth having lateral undulations corresponding to sound-waves and produced upon a flat tablet or disk, the type being known as "zigzag" disk sound-records or "zigzag" records"); May 12, 1903 - received patent for a "Sound-Recording Tablet" ("making the original record-groove of full size in or upon a surface suitable for recording and which at the same time is itself an electrical conductor, then electroplating the record-surface, and finally using the matrix so obtained as a die or stamp"); assigned to American Graphophone Company; June 28, 1904 - received a patent  for "Production of Sound-Records"; received a patent for a "Sound-Recording Apparatus" ("novel form of cutting-tool employed...consisting or lateral undulations"); assigned to American Graphophone Company.

March 22, 1898 - Eldridge R. Johnson, of Camden, NJ, received a patent for a "Gramophone and Actuating Device Thererfor" ("relates to certain improvements in gramophones and sound recording and reproducing machines of like nature in which a record disk or cylinder is propelled by power, and has for its principal object to provide an improved form of mechanism for effecting the rotation of the disk under the reproducing stylus") ; launched disc talking machine in America.

May 13, 1898 - Thomas Edison sued American Mutoscope and Biograph Pictures (company formed by W.L.K. Dickson, one of his former assistants designed the Kinetograph and the Kinetoscope); claimed that the studio has infringed on his patent for the Kinetograph movie camera; 1902 - U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Thomas Edison did not invent the movie camera, but allowed that he had invented the sprocket system that moved perforated film through the camera; 1909 - Edison, Biograph joined forces with other filmmakers, created Motion Pictures Patents Corp., organization devoted to protecting patents, keeping other players from entering film industry; 1917 - Supreme Court dissolved trust, Edison Company left film industry. 

June 14, 1898 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph" ("means for throwing a phonograph-recorder out of operative position and throwing the reproducer into operative position, or vice versa, in that class of phonographs which have a separate diaphragm for the recorder and for the reproducer").

October 25, 1898 - Edison Film Company filmed for first time at Lick Observatory.

February 5, 1899 - Thomas A. Edison received U.S. patent for a "Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer."

March 28, 1899 - William B. Fleming, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for "Electrical Action for Musical Instruments"; player piano using electricity.

July 18, 1899 - National Phonograph Company registered "Thomas A. Edison" trademark first used December 15, 1897 (phonographs, parts of phonographs, phonographblanks, and other phonographic supplies, such as the containing-cases).

October 4, 1899 - The Gramophone Company (founded 1897 by Emile Berliner) paid 50 pounds for Francis Barraud  painting of his dog, Nipper (titled "His Master's Voice"),, 50 pounds for copyright to painting; July 10, 1900 - Emile Berliner registered "His Master's Voice" trademark first used May 1900 (gramophones).

March 1900 - Sam, Lee Shubert, from Syracuse, NY, moved to New York City, rapidly acquired theatres, produced shows; leased Herald Square Theatre (first New York City venue); founded Shubert Brothers; 1905 - Sam died, Lee and Jacob J. Schubert managed business; 1913 - Sam S. Shubert Theatre opened; 1916 - nation's most important, powerful theatre owners and managers; 1924 - went public; 1927 - owned, operated 104 theatres, managed or booked over 1,000 houses across United States; 1931 - Schubert Theatre Corporation filed for bankruptcy; 1933 - re-formed as Select Theatres Corporation; 1950 - charged by U. S. government with violating Sherman Antitrust Act; 1956 - entered into consent degree with government after six years of litigation; 1973 - reorganized as The Shubert Organization (Gerald Schoenfeld, Chairman, Bernard B. Jacobs, President); 2008 - owned, operated 16 Broadway theatres in New York City.

J.J. and Lee Shubert - The Shubert Organization (

May 22, 1900 - Edwin S. Votey, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Pneumatic Piano Attachment" ("to provide self-playing piano attachment of practical and economical construction which can be quickly applied to and removed from any piano"); pianola, first truly musical piano-playing device in world; August 29, 1905 - The Aeolian Company registered 'Pianola" trademark (pneumatically-controlled players for keyboard instruments).

1894 - Eldridge R. Johnson opened Eldridge R. Johnson Manufacturing Company in Camden, NJ (above; had purchased his employer's interest in Standard Machine Shop and changed the name); March 22, 1898 - received a patent for "A Granophone and Actuating Device Therefor"; September 1900 - formed The Consolidated Talking Machine Co. to produced machines for playing disc records; October 3, 1901 - merged with US division of Emile Berliner's Berliner Gramophone Company (developed flat–disc records that could be mass-produced in hard rubber or shellac from a master record; lost legal battle over rights to manufacture flat-disc Gramophones), incorporated The Victor Talking Machine Company, leading American producer of phonographs, phonograph records, in Camden, NJ; March 24, 1914 - Victor Talking Machine Company registered "His Master's Voice" (HMV) trademark first used May 24, 1900 (sound recording or reproducing machines and parts thereof); 1924 - acquired controlling interest in Berliner Gram-o-phone Company; March 9, 1926 - Victor Talking Machine Company registered "Victor" trademark (radio apparatus, parts and appurtenances); March 15, 1929 - acquired by RCA. 

Eldridge R. Johnson - Victor Talking Machine Co. (

May 20, 1901 - Claude Grivolas, one of Pathe's main shareholders in Paris, France, invented projector that produced three-dimensional pictures.

June 11, 1901 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonographic Recording Apparatus" ("to relieve the diaphragm of all or substantially all stress now resulting from the pressure necessary to properly engage the cutting or recording tool with the record-surface to the requisite depth").

December 10, 1901 - Joseph W. Jones, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Production of Sound-Records" ("stylus vibrating laterally and engraving a groove of approximately uniform depth"); lateral disc recording in wax; acquired by Columbia.

1902 - Columbia Phonograph Co. acquired patents originally belonging to Joseph Jones, former Berliner employee; December 8, 1903 - cross-licensing agreement between the American Graphophone Company (Columbia) and Victor Talking Machine Co. (Berliner patents and Jones patents; ultimately not satisfactory for Victor); birth of phonographic industry; 1906 - American Graphophone company reorganized, name changed to Columbia Graphophone Company; leader in recording cylinders for coin-operated phonographs; first company to produce pre-recorded records (vs. blank cylinders); June 3, 1907 - new cross-licensing agreement;  1922 - sold British subsidiary, Columbia Phonograph Co., Ltd., to its London manager; Louis Sterling; 1923 - receivers appointed; 1925 - acquired by Columbia Gramophone Company of Great Britain (Sterling); reorganized it as as Columbia International in London, General Phonograph Co. Inc. in U. S.; 1931 - American Columbia operations sold, due to anti-trust concerns, to Grigsby Grunow Company (makers of  Majestic Radio); May 1931 - Columbia and HMV, UK's biggest record companies, merged under Sir Louis Sterling; formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI); biggest record company in world for nearly 50 years; 1934 - acquired by American Record Corporation for $75,000; 1938 - acquired by Columbia Broadcasting System for $700,000. 

Sir Louis Sterling - Columbia Records (

1902 - Amusement arcades began opening small storefront theaters called Nickelodeans (so called because admission cost 5 cents); showed short silent films (usually less than 15 minutes), accompanied by a live pianist; 1907 - some 2 million Americans had visited a Nickelodean.

March 10, 1902 - U.S. Court of Appeals ruled in Edison v. American Mutoscope Company that Thomas Edison did not invent movie camera; admitted that Edison invented sprocket system that moved perforated film through movie camera.

April 2, 1902 - Thomas L. Tally opened first permanent movie theater designed specifically for exhibition of films, 262 South Main Street in Los Angeles; dubbed "The Electric Theater"; earliest pictures included "New York in a Blizzard"; admission cost about 10 cents for one-hour show; Henry Miles of San Francisco began renting films to theaters, formed basis of today's film distribution system.

1903 - Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack L. Warner, sons of Benjamin Eichelbaum, immigrant Polish cobbler and peddler, began in film business as traveling exhibitors; moved throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania with portable projector; 1907 - operated Cascade Theatre, converted store in Newcastle, PA; 1908 - had acquired 200 film titles.

1904 - William Fox (born Wilhelm Fuchs) acquired 146-seat Brooklyn storefront Nickelodeon theatre for $1,660.67, started Greater New York Film Rental Company; 1912 - Supreme Court ruled against movie monopoly of Motion Picture Patents Company (Thomas Edison); 1913 - Theater "chain" pioneer William Fox (born Wilhelm Fuchs) established Greater New York Film Rental, distribution firm, Fox Office Attractions Company, production company.; 1915 - consolidated companies, formed Fox Film Corporation; concentrated on acquiring, building theaters; 1916 - moved company to 13 acres in Hollywood, CA; March 3, 1929 - acquired Loew's Corporation's 500 theatres (added to existing nationwide circuit of 1100 theatres), large equity position in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture Studios; July 1929 - Fox seriously injured in car accident; October 1929 - net worth valued over $400 million wiped out; 1930 - Fox forced out as CEO; May 31, 1935 - president Sidney Kent, new owners merged company with Twentieth Century Pictures, formed 20th Century Fox; 1936 - Fox forced into personal bankruptcy; 1942 - began jail time for felony conviction of bribing judge during bankruptcy proceedings; 1985 - Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation acquired by News Corporation; renamed Fox, Incorporated; 1989 - film production unit renamed the Fox Film Corporation; October 7, 1996 - Fox News Channel made its debut.

William Fox - 20th Century Fox (

October 18, 1904 - Thomas Edison received a patent for "Photographic Film for Moving Picture Machines"; motion picture film.

December 27, 1904 - Peter Pan, by James Barrie, opened at Duke of York's Theater in London.

May 23, 1905 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Process of Duplicating Phonographic Records" ("from a matrix or mold, and particularly to production of an improved master from which the matrices or molds are made").

June 19, 1905 - Pittsburgh showman Harry Davis opened world's first nickelodeon, showed silent film called The Great Train Robbery (storefront theater boasted 96 seats, charged 5 cents). Nickelodeons soon spread across the country, typically featured live vaudeville acts as well as short films;  1907 - some two million Americans had visited a nickelodeon, remained main outlet for films until replaced around 1910 by large modern theaters.

1906 - American Graphophone company reorganized, name changed to Columbia Graphophone Company; leader in recording cylinders for coin-operated phonographs; first company to produce pre-recorded records (vs. blank cylinders).

April 6, 1906 - First animated cartoon copyrighted.

May 12, 1906 - One month after San Francisco's earthquake, Sarah Bernhardt performed role in Racine's intense verse drama "Phèdre" in opening of Cal Performances, Berkeley, CA performing arts organization, in grand open-air Greek Theatre in the Berkeley hills; Putnam's Monthly called it "one of the great performances in world dramatic history"; donated "Phèdre" proceeds to earthquake victims.

June 12, 1906 - John Ballance, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Combined Phonograph and Stereopticon"; sound movies.

August 9, 1906 - The Victor Talking Machine Company of Camden, NJ introduced the Victrola, first internal horn phonograph, for $200; instant success, produced over 500 machines by year's end; speaker horn, turntable mechanism totally concealed in cabinet made by Pooley Furniture Company of Philadelphia; set pattern of wood cabinetry enclosures later imitated by radios and television sets well into the 1950s; March 24, 1914 - registered "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" trademark first used May 24, 1900 (sound recording or reproducing machines and parts thereof, talking-machine needles, talking-machine horns and amplifiers, and talking-machine reords).

December 26, 1906 - 'Story of the Kelly Gang' presented in Town Hall at Melbourne, Australia (filmed at cost of £450); subject was Ned Kelly, bandit who lived 1855 to 1880; World's first full-length feature film (70 minutes).

June 4, 1907 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Diaphragm for Talking-Machines" ("both for recording and provide an improved diaphragm that will be readily responsive to vibrations of comparatively great amplitude"); assigned to New Jersey Patent Company.

July 8, 1907 - Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. opened Ziegfeld Follies at the New York Theater's rundown roof garden; combination of creative visual spectacle, topical comedy and beautiful girls; $13,800 production netted over $130,000 at the box office; 1922 - 541 performances; 1924 - 520 performances; spent $170,000 on revue; 1931 - Follies ended.

November 28, 1907 - Eliezer Lazar Mayer (22, from Minsk, Russia), scrap-metal dealer, opened 600-seat movie theater in converted burlesque house in Haverhill, MA; owned largest theater chain in New England; distributed films within few years; 1917 - started production company, became part of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) through mergers, named general manager of MGM; 1918 - changed name to Louis B. Mayer; August 16, 1927 - Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corporation registered "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) trademark first used July 25, 1924 (motion-picture films); 1951 - Mayer ousted.

1908 - Selig Film Manufacturing Company became first major film company to move to Los Angeles; 1909 - built first permanent film studio.

January 28, 1908 - Author and activist Julia Ward Howe, composer of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," became first woman elected to American Academy of Arts and Letters.

July 14, 1908 - Biograph Pictures released D.W. Griffith's first film, The Adventures of Dollie; became most influential director of early cinema, played major role in growth of films as narrative medium.

September 9, 1908 - Leading movie studios (Biograph, Vitagraph, Edison Studio) created Motion Picture Patents Co. to consolidate control over fledgling movie industry:  refused to let other companies use their patented film equipment, distributed films only to theater owners who agreed to their terms; Kodak agreed to sell raw film stock only to members of the company; 1912 - U.S. government started cracking down on company for unfair trade practices;  1917 - company's power had dissolved.

1909 - Winsor McCay, newspaper cartoon artist, created Gertie the Dinosaur, first animated character to appear regularly on screen; 1918 - produced The Sinking of the Lusitania, first feature-length cartoon.

January 25, 1909 - Harry Reynolds granted cinerma licence to operate Theatr Colwyn (built in 1885 in Colwyn Bay, UK, called a Public Hall); oldest operating cinema in UK, one of first to receive cinema licence.

February 25, 1909 - Movie studios (Biograph, Vitagraph, Edison Studio, Pathe, others) began submitting films to New York-based Board of Censorship for review; self-policing body set up by movie studios to help avoid government censorship; made up of private citizens who screened movies and pointed out objectionable material;  1916 - changed  name to the National Board of Review.

March 31, 1909 - Gustav Mahler conducted New York Philharmonic for his first time.

April 12, 1909 - Carl Laemmle established Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP); defied Motion Picture Patent Company; fought more than 280 lawsuits from Patent Company; June 8, 1912 - Laemmle (Independent Motion Picture Company), Pat Powers (Powers Picture Company), Mark Dintenfass (Champion Films), Bill Swanson (American Éclair) merged studios, formed Universal Motion Picture Manufacturing Company; 1925 - name changed to Universal Pictures Company, Inc.

1910 - William and Theo Ludwig formed Ludwig & Ludwig in Chicago to manufacture foot pedals capable of playing faster tempos without loss of force or volume; 1929 - acquired by C. G. Conn Company (Elkhart, IN); 1937 - organized W. F. L. Drum Company; first product - Speed King Pedal; 1938 - Bill Ludwig, Jr. joined company; 1955 - acquired Ludwig-Leedy division of Conn Company, name changed to Ludwig Drum Company; 1966 - acquired Musser Marimba Company (manufacturers of vibes, marimbas, bells, chimes, xylophones); became total percussion company; 1981 - Ludwig Industries acquired by Selmer Company (synergy in school music markets).

August 22, 1910 - National Amusement Company opened Howard Theatre in primarily African-American area of Washington, near Howard University (sat 1,200); mid-1920s - acquired by Abe Lichtman, white owner of theaters that catered to African-Americans; billed as "largest colored theater in the World"; featured vaudeville, live theater, musicals, local talent shows; 1929 - closed during Depression; 1931 - reopened by Shep Allen, theater manager from Atlantic City, as movie house, live entertainment venue (Duke Ellington played on reopening night); 1941 - underwent massive remodeling, in Streamline style; 1970 - closed, shuttered; 1973 - Howard Theater Foundation formed, raised funds were to refurbish aging theater; April 1975 - reopened (Red Foxx, Melba Moore); 1970s-early 1980 - used sporadically as venue for live entertainment; 2007 - Ellis Development Group, Four Points, LLC. formed Howard Theatre Restoration, Inc. to raise $10-14 million (of $25 million project) to restore Theatre for 100th Anniversary (after $8 million D.C. grants, $6 million of tax credits).

October 8, 1910 - Several film exchanges established American Film Manufacturing to distribute films, compete against Motion Picture Patents Company (Carol Laemmle had established Independent Motion Picture Company in 1909 [had to buy film stock overseas]; Motion Picture Patents Company filed 280 lawsuits filed against him).

July 19, 1911 - Pennsylvania became first state to pass laws censoring movies; first specifically allowing censorship by a government body; 1915 - U.S. Supreme Court upheld laws, agreed that government bodies may censor pictures; studios feared increased government censorship, began to censor their own films, established a self-policing association, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA); 1930 - adopted the Production Code.

August 8, 1911 - The newsreel became standard feature at American movie screenings; French film company Pathy begins releasing weekly black-and-white newsreels to theaters.  late 1920s - early sound newsreels appeared, Fox began using Movietone system (most well known reels - only newsreel producer to capture 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 1937 explosion of Hindenburg); 1948 - color newsreels first appeared.

February 2, 1912 - Frederick Rodman Law, world's first movie stuntman, performed for newsreel; jumped off Statue of Liberty with parachute.

June 1, 1912 - Adolph Zukor created Famous Players Film Company; 1905 - partnered with Marcus Loew, developed Loew's cinema chain; July 12, 1912 - opened "Queen Elizabeth", 4-reel film (first full-length drama shown in US); June 28, 1916 - merged with Jesse L. Lasky Company; formed Famous Players-Lasky Corporation; began using Paramount Pictures name.

June 2, 1912 - Carl Laemmle merged his movie studio,  Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP, started in 1909), with several others; created Hollywood's first major studio, Universal; 1915 - studio bought a 230-acre lot and founded Universal City in San Fernando Valley; 1962 - acquired by MCA; 1991 - Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co. purchased MCA; 1995 - sold the company to The Seagram Co.; 1996 - company was renamed Universal Studios ; 2004 - GE, parent company of NBC, has owned 80 percent of the company; the remaining 20 percent is owned by Vivendi, which acquired Seagram's entertainment holdings in 2000.

July 12, 1912 - "Queen Elizabeth", starring Sarah Bernhardt, Lon Tellegen, prermiered; first foreign-made film to debut in U.S.

August 16, 1912 - U.S. government sued Motion Picture Patents Company; week later, court ruled that company could not claim exclusive rights to machines used in movie cameras; ended effective monopoly; within four years company's power had dissolved (had been formed in 1908 by nine leading film companies, refused to let other companies use their patented film equipment, distributed films only to theater owners who agreed to their terms [Kodak agreed to sell raw film stock only to members of company]).

August 20, 1912 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Phonographic Apparatus" ("to provide a diaphragm adapted to be used in a sound recorder or reproducer").

September 10, 1912 - Eugene T. Kieffer, of Philadelphia, PA, received a design patent for a "Design for a Cabinet for Talking-Machines".

October 22, 1912 - Thomas A. Edison received patent for a "Phonograph-Stylus" formed of crystallized boron (much harder than sapphire); could operate on sound records formed from hard materials without wearing away.

October 31, 1912 - 'The Musketeers of Pig Alley', directed by D.W. Griffith, debuted; followed career of gangster nicknamed the Snapper Kid; first gangster film.

March 25, 1913 - The Palace Theatre, home of vaudeville, opened in New York City.

May 26, 1913 - The Actors' Equity Association organized.

June 12, 1913 - John Randolph Bray released The Artist's Dream (also known as The Dachsund) in which a dog eats sausages until it explodes; first animated cartoon made in the U.S. by modern techniques; invented, patented process and many of his improvements on the animation process, including use of translucent paper to make it easier to position objects in successive drawings.

September 25, 1913 - Charlie Chaplin (24) signed with Keystone, production company known for silent comedies, for $175 bonus; 1915 - refined his signature character, Charlie the Tramp, signed on with Essanay Company for $1,250 a week, plus $10,000 bonus; 1916 - signed with Mutual for $10,000 a week, plus $150,000 bonus (contract required him to make 12 films annually,  granted him complete creative control over pictures); 1918 - signed contract with First National for $1 million for eight films; 1919 - founded United Artists Corporation with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, director D.W. Griffith.

November 26, 1913 - Jesse Lasky formed Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company in partnership with his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish (later Goldwyn) and his friend Cecil B. DeMille; first production, The Squaw Man, directed by DeMille, was an instant hit; first feature shot in Hollywood.

1914 - Hal Roach began producing comedies; 1919 - acquired 10 acres at $1,000 an acre from Harry Culver, built Hal Roach Studios in Culver City, CA; l955 - acquired by Hal Roach, Jr.; 1962 - taken over by creditors; 1963 - acquired, become part of Landmark Industrial Tract.

February 7, 1914 - Charlie Chaplin (24) made first appearance in popular "Little Tramp" role, in Kid Auto Races at Venice.

February 13, 1914 - Group of prominent music creators founded The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers at the Hotel Claridge in New York City; 2004 - 2006 - has distributed nearly $1.7 billion dollars in royalties.

February 19, 1914 - Pittsburgh movie theaters required to establish seating section for unaccompanied women, some of whom, attending movies alone, had complained of harassment.

April 12, 1914 - Strand movie theater opened in New York City; first movie "palace," seating for 3,000 people and a second-floor balcony.

May 8, 1914 - W.W. (William Wadsworth) Hodkinson organized Paramount Pictures, Inc. as film financing,  distribution company; 1907 - opened first film exchange in Ogden, UT;  became Special Representative to General Film Company representing Motion Picture Patents Company in Salt Lake City, Los Angeles; April 1911 - reorganized San Francisco area for General Film; May 1913 - dismissed; formed Progressive Company, west coast-based distributor of  films of independent production companies; May 15, 1914 - Famous Players Film Co., The Lasky Corporation and Bosworth, Inc., contracted with Paramount Co. for distribution all pictures produced for period of five years from August 31, 1914; March 1, 1915 - Zukor renegotiated new 25 year distribution deal with Paramount; May 2, 1915 - Paramount Pictures Corporation acquired 51% of nine franchise holder corporations (from Zukor and Lasky); remaining 49% acquired December 4, 1916; May 20, 1916 - Zukor, Lasky acquired 50% of Paramount Co. (balance acquired December 1916); June 13, 1916 - Hodkinson forced to resign; July 1, 1916- Famous Players , Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company combined, renamed Famous Players-Lasky Corporation; July 19, 1916 - Famous Players-Lasky Corporation organized under laws of New York state primarily as holding company to acquire, hold capital stock of Famous Players Film Co., Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Co, other domestic, foreign corporations; began buying movie theaters. 1927 - name changed to Paramount Famous Lasky Corp.; 1930 - changed name to Paramount Publix Corp.; 1933 - declared bankruptcy; 1935 - reorganized, re-established under name Paramount Pictures Corp.; 1966 - studio acquired by Gulf and Western; 1989 -  name changed to Paramount Communications; 1994 - control acquired by Viacom.

June 9, 1914 - Thomas A. Edison received three patents for a "Phonograph Reproducer" ("an improved mounting for the stylus lever in order that the same may have great freedom of movement in tracking the grooves of the sound record"; "the stylus may have great freedom of movement tracking the grooves of the record"; "an improved quality of sound and reproduction may be obtained with the use of a floating weight...that the fulcrum of the stylus lever may be placed nearer to the stylus than would otherwise be possible").

August 11, 1914 - John R. Bray, of New York, NY, received a patent for the "Process of and Articles for Producing Moving Pictures" ("a kind of moving picture which may be designated as animated cartoons to distinguish them from the ordinary moving pictures"; animation cels; revolutionized animation, made mass production of animation possible; November 9, 1915 - received second patent on the process; April 11, 1916 - received a third patent on the process.

September 29, 1914 - Thomas A. Edison, of West Orange, NJ, received a patent for a "Phonograph Record" ("having a surface of wear resisting material, such as celluloid").

1915 - Dr. Herbert T. Kalmus founded Technicolor Motion Picture Corp.; produced motion pictures using two-color process; December 3, 1922 - first successful Technicolor motion picture film released ("The Toll of the Sea", adaptation of Madam Butterfly); used early two-color System 2; 1932 - "Flowers and Trees" first full-color production from The Walt Disney Company, first Disney feature to win an Academy Award.

February 8, 1915 - Director D.W. Griffith's film "Birth of a Nation" premiered at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles; Civil War epic cost $100,000, ran nearly three hours, used revolutionary filmmaking techniques (multiple camera angles); a financial success, drew long lines to pay the unprecedented price of $2 a ticket; one of the songs in the movie's score, "The Perfect Song," became the first musical hit generated by a movie; 1919 - co-founded United Artists with Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Charles Chaplin.

April 11, 1915 - The Tramp, Charlie Chaplin's third film, first comic masterpiece, released; refined the character and added his signature waddle. The endearing figure, with his bowler hat, baggy suit, and expression of hapless innocence, came to be Chaplin's trademark; 1919 - co-founded United Artists Corporation with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and director D.W. Griffith.

June 8, 1915 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Sound-Recording Apparatus"; flexible circular diaphragm bearing against a stylus at its centre that is held on a spring lever secured to a rigid support; designed to provide sensitivity for recording sounds, whether weak or strong, and to record them more truly; suggested materials included acetyl cellulose or paper.

June 15, 1915 - Earl Hurd received a patent for a "Process of and Apparatus for Producing Moving Pictures" ("method of producing moving picture films from a series of films or drawings photographed in sequence, and which give the effect of moving objects when projected in the usual manner upon a screen"); animation "cel" (transparent cellulose acetate sheets); allowed animators to draw the motion of their characters without having to draw the background for every frame.

October 1, 1915 - Federal court ruled that Motion Pictures Patents Co. (established in 1909 by Edison and Biograph film studios and other filmmakers to protecting patents, keep competitors from entering film industry) violated antitrust rules, stifled fair competition in fledgling film industry; 1917 - Supreme Court dissolved trust.

January 21, 1916 - National Board of Review, founded in 1909 as National Board of Censorship, agreed not to accept nudity in films; volunteer group of film fans representing movie studios, served as industry watchdog to help studios avoid government censorship; 1921 - New York State passed film-licensing law (deprived board of much of its power).

February 5, 1916 - Enrico Caruso recorded "O Solo Mio" for Victor Talking Machine Company.

April 1, 1916 - Lewis Selznick founded Lewis Selznick Pictures; 1923 - went bankrupt; 1928 - Myron, oldest son, became talent agent, eventually made him one of most powerful personalities in Hollywood; David, younger son, got job at MGM, eventually married boss's daughter, Irene, left to work at Paramount, RKO; 1936 - founded Selznick International; 1938 - 20th Century Fox banned Myron from lot, claimed he undermined film industry by inflating actors' salaries; 1939 - David produced 'Gone with the Wind', used 15 screenwriters to adapt Margaret Mitchell's novel; became one of biggest box office hits in history; 1940 - brought Alfred Hitchcock from England to direct Rebecca, Hitchcock's first U.S. film.

David O. Selznick (

May 23, 1916 - Thomas Edison received three patents for "Phonograph of Talking Machine" ("particularly of the type on which disk or flat records are operated upon, and preferably in which the sound conveying and amplifying horn is inclose within a suitable cabinet").

November 19, 1916 - Samuel Goldfish (born Schmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Poland, changed to Goldwyn in 1918) and Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Company as  independent filmmaker; 1914 - entered  film business with his brother-in-law and Cecil B. De Mille; 1916 - merged with Adolph Zukor's Famous Players, Goldfish named chairman of the board, partners bought him out soon afterward; 1922 - Goldwyn edged out of corporation; 1923 - formed Samuel Goldwyn Productions; later merged with Metro Pictures and Louis B. Mayer productions to form MGM.

March 7, 1917 - RCA Victor released the first gramophone record of a jazz band, "Dixie Jazz Band One Step" recorded by Nick LaRocca Original Dixieland Jazz Band.

January 27, 1918 - First Tarzan film, Tarzan of the Apes,  released (silent movie based on Edgar Rice Burroughs's novel); Olympic champion swimmer Johnny Weissmuller starred in 11 Tarzan movies from 1932 to 1948, contributed Tarzan's signature yodel to the TV show, which ran from 1966 to 1969.

March 10, 1918 - Warner Bros. (begun 1903) released first full-scale film, "Four Years in Germany" (based on book by U. S. Ambassador to Germany); April 4, 1923 - studio incorporated; October 6, 1927 - released "The Jazz Singer",  first feature with sound; became major studio.

January 21, 1919 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Swaging-Machine" ("...for fastening of the diamond split or other stylus within its holder..." [for reproducing phonograph records].

April 17, 1919 - Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, David W. (D. W.) Griffith launched United Artists Corporation to give founders greater control of marketing of their films, to distribute films made by independent producers; first studio controlled by artists, not businessmen; agreed to share full financial and artistic control; sought complete creative freedom in their work; mid-1950s - original partners had sold their shares of company; 1951 - acquired by  lawyers, Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin; 1957 - went public; 1967 - acquired by TransAmerica Corporation; 1981 - acquired by MGM; 1983 - renamed MGM/UA Entertainment; 1992 - acquired by French bank Credit Lyonnais, name changed back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. (United Artists name abandoned).

November 25, 1919 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Method and Means for Improving the Rendition of Musical Compositions" ("to provide a method and means for enabling a plurality of players of the stringed instruments in an orchestra, to maintain substantially uniform pitch and temp while rendering any musical composition or work").

1920 - Harry Cohn, Joe Brandt, Jack Cohn founded C.B.C. Sales Film Corporation; one of so-called "Poverty Row" studios of Hollywood's Gower Street; made low-budget westerns, B-movies, serials; 1924 - renamed Columbia Pictures; 1934 - formed Screen Gems as cartoon division; 1946 - closed; 1948 - reopened as television division; 1973 - David Begelman took over floundering Columbia Studios; among first Hollywood agents to cross over, rise to top of studio system; February 1977 - discovered to have embezzled; indicted for forgery, grand theft (committed suicide in 1995); 1982 - acquired by Coca-Cola; 1984 - first release from Nova, joint production company (Columbia, HBO CBS); renamed Tri-Star Pictures (Coca-Cola eventually bought remaining two thirds of company); 1989 - Coca-Cola entertainment holdings acquired by Sony (Sony Pictures Entertainment).

June 1, 1920 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for the "Composition of Matter for Sound-Records or the Like and Process of Making Same" ("hard composition which does not adhere to a sound record matrix or other mold, which has a high melting point, and which is insoluble in the usual solvents...such a composition can be formed by treating shellac with a condensing agent [para=phenylene-diamin] so as to cause a molecular alteration or condensation in the shellac").

May 23, 1922 - Walt Disney formed his first film company with commercial artist Ub Iwerks, Kansas City-based Laugh-O-Gram Films; July 1923 - went bankrupt; October 1923 - signed contract with M.J. Winkler Productions, a New York film distributor, to produce six short films of Alice's Wonderland; moved to Hollywood to rear of a small office occupied by Holly-Vermont Realty in Los Angeles.

October 18, 1922 - Robin Hood, starring Douglas Fairbanks, opened at Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood. Searchlights crossed the sky for first time at Hollywood premiere.

November 26, 1922 - 'Toll of the Sea' debuted; general release film used two-tone Technicolor for first time (used on one other film, 'The Gulf Between', but picture not widely distributed); process used two negatives, one with red tones, another with green, to create color image; too expensive for most studios; most films remained black and white until late 1930s.

December 3, 1922 - First successful Technicolor motion picture film released; used early two-color System 2 developed by Dr. Herbert T. Kalmus, founder of Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. in 1915.

1923 - Hollywood Realty Company constructed advertisement sign for "Hollywoodland" real estate development in foothills just below sign; 1949 - County of Los Angeles repaired sign's first nine letters, removed last four; sign read HOLLYWOOD.

March 12, 1923 - Lee de Forest, inventor, demonstrated Phonofilm, first movie with sound recorded on film (music recorded on narrow strip at edge of film); demonstration showed man and woman dancing, four musicians playing instruments, Egyptian dancer, all accompanied by music but no dialogue; acquired by Fox; 1926 - Warner Bros. acquired the Vitaphone system for use in its early sound movies (revived company's fortunes); 1927 - introduced as Movietone sound process.

March 31, 1923 - First U.S. dance marathon held in New York City; Alma Cummings set record of 27 hours.

May 29, 1923 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Stylus Mounting" ("mountings for phonograph styli formed of a jewel, such as diamond or sapphire, and in which the sylus is partially enclosed in a metal holder and projects from a reduced end portion thereof"). provided for stylus to be firmly, rigidly held to prevent it from loosening in use.

April 17, 1924 - Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Productions merged, formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM); owned by Loew's Inc., chain of theaters run by Marcus Loew; "Leo the lion" logo (designed by Howard Dietz, publicist for Goldwyn Picture Corporation, based on mascot of his alma mater, Columbia University, incorporated slogan Ars Gratia Artis [Art for Art's Sake] accepted as MGM logo; August 16, 1927 - Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corporation registered Ars Gratia Artis trademark first used July 25, 1924 (motion-picture films); 1930s - most prestigious, glamorous, financially successful studio in Hollywood; 1952 - Supreme Court ruling forced Loew's theater chain to sell ownership stake in MGM (power of studio system began to fade); 1973 - company stopped distributing films, purchased by series of owners.

May 27, 1924 - Jules Stein founded Music Corporation of American in Chicago; booked bands into clubs, dance halls; grew into leading talent agency, later became entertainment conglomerate (owned Universal International, Decca Records); 1962 - antitrust suit forced MCA to spin off  talent component separately; 1991 - MCA acquired by Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co.; 1995 - acquired by The Seagram Co.; 1996 - renamed Universal Studios. 

December 22, 1924 - Thomas A. Edison received U.S. design patent for a "Design for a Phonograph Cabinet."

February 24, 1925 - Victor Talking Machine Company registered "His Master's Voice" trademark.

November 28, 1925 - The Grand Ole Opry made its radio debut on Saturday nights as a country music hour on station WSM in Nashville, TN; originally named "The WSM Barn Dance" (after a Chicago radio program called the National Barn Dance that had begun broadcasting the previous year); 1959 - name changed to "The Grand Ole Opry"; live 4 1/2 hour program, hosted by George Dewey Hay,  featured folk music, fiddling, and the relatively new genre of country-western music; all live performers were required to dress in hillbilly costumes and adopt old-time names; 1974 - show moved to a new 4,400-seat theater "Opryland".

January 25, 1926 - Central Casting Corporation opened (joint venture between most major Hollywood studios until sold to private company in 1976); provided pools of extras for film production; 1929 - more than 17,000 extras registered with bureau. 

August 5, 1926 - Warner Brothers debut of first 'Vitaphone'' sound-on-disc film, "Don Juan" at Warner Theatre, New York; first mainstream film that replaced traditional use of live orchestra or organ for soundtrack (no dialogue in film).

1927 - Koichi Kawai, seven colleagues formed Kawai Musical Instrument Research Laboratory in Hamamatsu, Japan; faced shortage of qualified craftsmen, continual scarcity of quality materials, underdeveloped network of dealers for reaching potential customers; early 1950s -over 500 employees, produced over 1500 pianos per year; 1955 - Shigeru Kawai (son) succeeded; constructed two factories (wood processing plant, piano assembly plant - company's first modern production line); built network of Kawai Music Schools; initiated door-to-door sales program to encourage music education through piano study; 1960s - nearly 2,000 door-to-door salesmen in field, over 300,000 people participating in Kawai music schools across Japan; 1963 - launched Kawai America; 1989 - Hirotaka Kawai (grandson) took over presidency; 2008 - multi-national corporation with nearly $1 billion annually in worldwide sales, over 4000 employees across four continents.

January 24, 1927 - Alfred Hitchcock's first film, "The Pleasure Garden", released in England.

February 24, 1927 - Fox demonstrated new Movietone sound process to media, filmed group of reporters in  morning, showed film, with sound, at night; no single audio standard for industry, cost to wire a movie house for Warner Brothers' Vitaphone sound system = about $20,000 (only about 200 theaters nationwide equipped). 1928 - Fox began making feature films with Movietone system.

March 11, 1927 - New York's Roxy Theater installed world's first rear-projection screen (projector's lens was flawed, screen could only be used to show silhouettes at first); 1931 - first theater specially designed for the rear-projection screen opened.

March 26, 1927 - Gaumont-British Film Corporation formed.

April 15, 1927 - Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Norma and Constance Talmadge became first celebrities to leave their footprints in cement at Grauman's Chinese Theater.

May 4, 1927 - 36 members, including production executives and film luminaries, organized The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as a nonprofit corporation to advance the arts and sciences of motion pictures; foster cooperation among creative leaders for cultural, educational and technological progress; recognize outstanding achievements; cooperate on technical research and improvement of methods and equipment; provide a common forum and meeting ground for various film-related crafts; represent the viewpoint of actual creators of the motion picture; and foster educational activities between the professional community and the public; Douglas Fairbanks Sr. first president.

May 11, 1927 - Louis B. Mayer, 36 members (production executives and film luminaries) formed Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences s nonprofit corporation to advance the arts and sciences of motion pictures; foster cooperation among creative leaders for cultural, educational and technological progress; recognize outstanding achievements; cooperate on technical research and improvement of methods and equipment; provide a common forum and meeting ground for various film-related crafts; represent the viewpoint of actual creators of the motion picture; and foster educational activities between the professional community and the public; Douglas Fairbanks Sr. first president.

May 18, 1927 - Sidney Patrick Grauman (opened first theater in Yukon in late 1890s) opened Grauman's Chinese Theater on Hollywood Blvd. (named for Asian-influenced decor); showed Cecil B. De Mille's "The King of Kings" (film version of the life of Christ) as some 100,000 fans swamped the theater, clamored to see Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford; soon became famous for its sidewalk, where more than 180 film stars placed their hand, foot, or paw prints in the cement during the next seven decades; 1970 - acquired by Mann Theater chain, renamed Mann's Chinese Theater.

October 6, 1927 - Warner Brothers' premiered "The Jazz Singer" (Al Jolson) in New York City; first picture with sound (though most theaters not equipped with sound technology; Warner had invested $ half million in 1926, with Western Electric, in Vitaphone [sound-on-disk] sound system); landmark 'talkie' generated $3.5 million of profits at box-office.

October 27, 1927 - Fox Movietone News released first newsreel with sound.

1928 - Laurens Hammond incorporated Hammond Clock Company; April 24, 1934 - received a patent for an "Electrical Musical Instrument"; organ; 1935 - Hammond Organ first introduced; construction made possible for musicians to create a dynamic, "billowing" organ sound; 1937 - became the Hammond Instrument Company; 1953 - renamed Hammond Organ Company; 1954 - semi-portable (400 pounds!) model B-3 introduced; brought organ to forefront of jazz, R&B and rock'n'roll; 1977 - acquired by The Marmon Group, Inc. (owned by Pritzker family of Chicago); 1986 - acquired by Hammond Organ Australia, PTY Ltd. (then owned by Noel Crabbe); 1991 - acquired by Suzuki Corporation, manufacturer of wide range of high-quality musical instruments.

wpe1D.jpg (3859 bytes) Laurens Hammond - Organ (

1928 - Amos 'n Andy, radio series about two southern African Americans, debuted; starred two white actors: Freeman Gosden, Charles Correll; ran until 1955, more than 40 million listeners during its run, most highly rated comedy in radio history; NAACP protested both the radio and the TV series for promoting racial stereotypes.

July 6, 1928 - First all-talking movie feature, ''The Lights of New York,'' previewed in New York.

July 30, 1928 - MGM lion roared for first time.

September 1928 - William S. Paley (27) acquired United Independent Broadcasters Inc., network of 16 independent radio stations; changed name to Columbia Broadcast System, became President of Company.

September 18, 1928 - Disney Enterprises, Inc. registered "Mickey Mouse" trademark first used on May 1, 1928 (motion pictures reproduced in copies for sale); November 18, 1928 - First successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon, Walt Disney's ''Steamboat Willie'', premiered in New York; starred black-and-white, talking Mickey Mouse.

January 20, 1929 - First full-length motion picture in U.S. taken outdoors released, titled "In Old Arizona"; first all-talking sound-on-film feature; charming, happy-to-lucky bandit in old Arizona plays cat-and-mouse with the sheriff trying to catch him while he romances a local beauty; starred Warner Baxter as The Cisco Kid, Edmund Lowe as Sergeant Mickey Dunn, Dorothy Burgess as Tonia Maria.

February 1, 1929 - The Broadway Melody, Hollywood's first original film musical, opened at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Los Angeles; became first sound film to win Academy Award for Best Picture.

February 27, 1929 - Hearts in Dixie, first film created by  major studio specifically for an African-American audience, premiered in New York; musical comedy, produced by Fox Movietone, featured Stephen "Stepin" Fetchit and an almost entirely black cast. 

May 16, 1929 - Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (founded in 1927), announced winners of the first Academy Awards (for films made between August 1, 1927 and July 31, 1928) during a banquet at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; Best Picture award to Wings (starring Clara Bow and Gary Cooper), Best Actor to Emil Jannings for The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh; 1931 - awards nicknamed "Oscars" when a secretary at the academy noted the statue's resemblance to her Uncle Oscar, and a journalist printed her remark; 1953 - first televised Academy Awards.

May 28, 1929 - Warner Brothers debuted the first all-color talking picture, "On With the Show."

1930 - Modern dance pioneer Ted Shawn (first recognized Martha Graham's potential) and his wife, Ruth St. Denis, leaders of Denishawn Company (dissolved in 1931), bought rundown farm in the Berkshires known as Jacob's Pillow, 1933 - founded Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival as showcase for his company of Men Dancers, as home for dance in the U.S.; March 1933 - gave first, historic, all-male performance in Boston;  July 9, 1942 - Ted Shawn Theatre opened, first theatre in United States designed specifically for dance; 2000 - included on Dance Heritage Coalition's list of America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures, listed on National Register of Historic Places; 2003 - federal government named Jacob's Pillow a National Historic Landmark for its importance in America's culture and history (country's first and only Landmark).

January 21, 1930 - Thomas A, Edison received a patent for a "Mounting for Diaphragms of Sound Boxes" "to obtain the best acoustic results"); received second patent for "Production of Molded Articles" ("such as phonograph record blanks").

March 31, 1930 - Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) formally adopted "Hays Code" (Production Code) in attempt to avoid government censorship, satisfy public demand for morally acceptable movies; named for William H. Hays, former U.S. postmaster general under President Harding, past chairman of Republican National Committee, hired by MPPDA to create  movie production code.

1931 - Adolph Rickenbacker (operator of tool and die shop), George D. Beauchamp (steel guitar player) founded Electro String Instrument Corporation in Los Angeles to develop, sell amplifiers, produce "Rickenbacker Electro Instruments", first modern electric guitars; August 10, 1937 - George D. Bauchamp, of Los Angeles, CA, received a patent for an "Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument"; electric guitar; assigned to Electro String Instrument Corporation; 1953 - acquired by Francis C. Hall, founder of Radio and Television Equipment Company (Radio-Tel), formerly Fender's exclusive distributor; modernized Rickenbacker guitar line; 1960s - Beatles used several Rickenbacker models in early years (John Lennon owned four; September 1984 - John Hall, wife Cindalee, became sole owners; name changed to Rickenbacker International Corporation (RIC).

March 14, 1931 - Trans-Lux Theater opened in Manhattan; first theater specifically designed, built for rear projection of movies.

May 1931 - Columbia and HMV, UK's biggest record companies, merged under Sir Louis Sterling; formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI); biggest record company in world for nearly 50 years (Columbia its flagship pop laabel).

September 17, 1931 - RCA (Radio Corporation of America) demonstrated very early versions of 33 rpm long-playing records at the Savoy Plaza Hotel in New York; product flopped - too expensive; RCA rival, Columbia, began mass production of the plastic LP records in 1948.

1932 - Joseph Schenck, former president of United Artists, Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Brothers, William Goetz from Fox Films, Raymond Griffith formed Twentieth Century Pictures as independent Hollywood motion picture production company; Nicholas Schenck (brother), Louis B. Mayer (Goetz's father-in-law), head of MGM Studios, provided financing; distributed by United Artists; Zanuck chief executive, Schenck head of production; May 31, 1935 - merged with Fox Film Corporation; formed Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation (hyphen dropped in 1985); June 1981 - acquired by TCF Holdings, Inc. (Marvin Davis, Marc Rich) for $722 million; October 1984 - Davis bought other 50% from Marc Rich for $116 million; April 1985 - News Corporation acquired 50% interest in Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation for $132 million, lent $88 million to Fox; December 1985 - acquired remaining 50% interest for $325 million; renamed Fox, Incorporated.

March 25, 1932 - 'Tarzan the Ape Man' opened (Olympic gold medal swimmer Johnny Weismuller in title role).

July 30, 1932 - Walt Disney released "Flowers and Trees"; first cartoon in color (made in three-color Technicolor).

December 27, 1932 - Radio City Music Hall opened in New York City; brainchild of billionaire John D. Rockefeller, Jr.; held $91 million, 24-year lease on Manhattan property known as "the speakeasy belt"; decided to make theater cornerstone of Rockefeller Complex in that neighborhood; formed partnership with Radio Corporation of America (NBC radio, RKO films); largest indoor theatre in world (seats 6,200 people); 1933 - Radio City Music Hall Christmas Spectacular debuted.

1933 - San Francisco Opera Ballet founded to train dancers to appear in lavish, full-length opera productions; oldest professional ballet company in America; 1939 - William Christensen choreographed Company's first full-length production, Coppelia; 1940 - staged first American full-length production of Swan Lake; 1942 - became totally separate entity from the opera, renamed San Francisco Ballet; Harold Christensen (brother) appointed director of San Francisco Ballet School; 1944 - launched national holiday tradition with premiere of Nutcracker, first complete version of ballet ever staged in United States; 1956 - East Coast debut at Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival; 1957 - toured 11 Asian nations, first performances of an American ballet company in Far East; 1972 - settled permanently in War Memorial Opera House for annual residency; 1974 - faced bankruptcy; Dr. Richard E. LeBlond, Jr. appointed president and general manager of San Francisco Ballet Association; July 1985 - Helgi Tomasson named artistic director.

Former Artistic Director Willam Christensen teaching class at San Francisco Ballet William Christensen - San Francisco Ballet (

March 2, 1933 - "King Kong" premiered.

May 7, 1933 - Walt Disney released 'Three Little Pigs' cartoon; featured song "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?"; became most popular animated film up to that time.

May 16, 1933 - Richard M. Hollingshead Jr. (sales manager for Whiz Auto Products in Camden, NJ) received patent for a "Drive-in Theater"; wanted to create a theater where parents could bring children in their pajamas, avoid baby-sitters, and relax in comfort of their own car while watching a Friday night film; June 6, 1933 - first drive-in movie theater opened on Crescent Boulevard in Camden, NJ; admission 25cents/car, 25¢ per person; no car paid more than $1.00; 1950 - May 16, 1933 patent declared invalid; 1958 - Drive-ins reached high of 4,063.

Richard Hollingshead - first drive-in theater ( 

1934 - School of American Ballet founded on Madison Avenue, New York City; Lincoln Kirstein as president, George Balanchine as choreographer; 1935-1938 - American Ballet Company toured eastern United States, resident ballet troupe for Metropolitan Opera; 1936 - Ballet Caravan founded; succeeded by American Ballet Caravan; 1946 - Ballet Society founded to present performances for subscription audience; 1948 - Morton Baum, Chairman of Executive Committee of New York City Center, extended invitation to establish resident ballet company, to be known as New York City Ballet, as part of City Center of Music and Drama; October 11, 1948 - New York City Ballet opened first season with three Ballanchine ballets: Concerto Barocco, Orpheus, and Symphony in C.

Kirstein-Balanchine Lincoln Kirstein, George Balanchine - New York City ballet (

1934 - J Arthur Rank (Lord Rank), son of Joseph Rank, scion of flour milling family, entered motion picture industry; 1935 - with Charles Boot and British & Dominions Film Corporation established Pinewood Studios; 1941 - acquires control of Odeon Theatre Group, Gaumont British Picture Corporation; 1955 - Odeon Theatre Group changed name to The Rank Organisation; 1956 - joined forces with Haloid Corporation of America (later re-named Xerox Corporation) to manufacture copying equipment; 1969 - Rank Xerox established as joint-venture company; December 22, 1995 - Rank Group Plc established as public limited company; 1997 - sold part of remaining interest in Rank Xerox (total proceeds from 1995, 1997 sale of about £1.5bn); 2000 - sold Odeon Cinemas for £280m; sold Pinewood Studios for £62m; 2001 - launched to exploit opportunities in on-line gaming; 2006 - agreed to sell Hard Rock Cafes to Seminole Tribe of Florida for $965 million.

January 26, 1934 - Samuel Goldwyn bought film rights to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum; 1939 - 101 minute film released; 1956 - an estimated 45 million people tuned in to watch the movie debut on television; 1998 - ranked sixth in American Film Institute's poll of America's 100 Greatest Movies.

January 26, 1934 - Apollo Theater in Harlem, NY opened as black-oriented variety show theatre; "Jazz a la Carte" featured Ralph Cooper Sr.'s  live version of popular radio show, Amateur Nite Hour at the Apollo Theater,  Benny Carter and his orchestra, Aida Ward, Three Rhythm Kings, Norton and Margot, Troy Brown, Mabel Scott, Three Palmer Brothers and "Sixteen Gorgeous Hot Steppers" (built in 1913, leased for 30 years in 1914 by Jules Hurtig, Harry Seamon, burlesque theatre operators, opened as Hurtig and Seamon’s New Burlesque Theater (no African-Americans allowed); acquired in 1928 by Bill Minsky, renamed 125th Street Apollo Theatre; acquired in 1932 by Sidney S. Cohen, managed by Morris Sussman); all performance proceeds donated to Harlem Children’s Fresh Air Fund; May 13, 1935 - taken over by Frank Schiffman, Leo Brecher (owned Harlem Opera House since 1922, welcomed black patrons in 1925) after death of Cohen; only New York City Theatre to hire black entertainers for many years; November 21, 1934 - Ella Fitzgerald (17) made her singing debut at Apollo's "Amateur Night", won $25 prize; 1936 - Lena Horne made Apollo debut; March 19, 1937 - Count Basie played Apollo for first time; 1942 - Sarah Vaughan won Amateur Night; 1956 - James Brown won Amateur Night; February 1964 - Jimi Hendrix won Amateur Night; 1969 - Jackson (Michael Jackson, 9) won  Amateur Night; January 1976 - Bobby Schiffman (son) closed theater; 1981 - acquired by Percy Sutton (Inner City Broadcasting Corp.), group of private investors; 1987 - Showtime at the Apollo debuted on national television; 1991 - Apollo Theater Foundation, Inc. established to manage, fund, program the theater; most famous performance venue associated with African American entertainers.

April 24, 1934 - Laurens Hammond, of Chicago, IL, received patent for an "Electrical Musical Instrument";  first pipeless organ (manufactured by the Hammond Clock Company); two manuals and pedals, weighed 275 pounds, cost less than one cent an hour to operate; April 15, 1935 -exhibited at the Industrial Arts Exhibition, New York City.

May 18, 1934 - Sidney Skolsky, syndicated gossip columnist, entertainment reporter, first called Academy Award "Oscar" in print.

May 28, 1934 - First curtain rose on Le Nozze di Figaro at Glyndebourne opera house (UK, capacity 300), on estate of John Christie and Audrey Mildmay (inherited in 1920) on first performance of Opera Festival; first season ended with Glyndebourne's becoming international institution; 1939 - Glyndebourne tradition, style, standard firmly established; 1947 - Glyndebourne founded Edinburgh Festival (subsidised by City of Edinburgh); 1950 - Christie helped by outside contribution for first time (British industrial concerns ultimately relieved him entirely of personal financial burden of maintaining Opera Festival); 1951 - Glyndebourne Festival Society formed to secure annual financial support by subscription for each Festival; 1954 - Glyndebourne Arts Trust formed to ensure future of company by establishment of endowment to maintain, improve amenities; 1958 - George Christie (son) succeeded as Chairman of Glyndebourne Productions Ltd (held position for 41 years); spring of 1968 - Glyndebourne Touring Opera made inaugural tour, visited Newcastle, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Oxford; May 28, 1994 - new building opened (same calender date, same opera precisely 60 years earlier); first opera house constructed in UK since 1934; 1999 - Gus Christie (second son of George) named Executive Chairman; 2001 - The Jerwood Studio at Glyndebourne (rehearsal space) built; same size as main stage, allowed singers to experience like-for-like performance conditions; 2003 - Glyndebourne Touring Opera renamed Glyndebourne on Tour.

June 9, 1934 - Donald Duck made first film appearance in The Wise Little Hen, short by Walt Disney.

July 6, 1934 - Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) appointed Joseph Breen head of  Production Code Administration ("Hays Office," after William H. Hays, head of the MPPDA); tightened studio compliance with Production Code (adopted in 1930 to impose strict guidelines on the cinematic treatment of sex, crime, religion, violence, and other controversial subjects).

November 1934 - Enrique Carreras, Spanish immigrant, theater entrepreneur (started Blue Halls circuit of theaters in UK with 1913) joined forces with William Hinds, owner of chain of jewelers shops (stage name Will Hammer); registered Hammer Productions Ltd.; 1935 - formed Exclusive Films to distribute Hammer films, acquired productions; James Carreras (son) joined company; January 1949 - registered Hammer Film Productions Limited for business as independent film studio; associated with quality, low budget filmmaking; 1955 - released The Quatermass Xperiment (bought rights to TV sci-fi/horror hit The Quatermass Experiment); 1957 - "The Curse of Frankenstein" created 'Hammer House of Horror' brand; first color horror film, massive box office success; only British company with guarantee of US distribution; 295 title film library; May 10, 2007 - acquired by private European consortium, headed by Dutch based Cyrte Investments BV.

1935 - Philip Smith built first drive-in theater outside Detroit; 1949 - more than 20; 1951 - operated first shopping-center theatre, Framingham Cinema, in Framingham, MA; 1960 - went public; 1961 - Richard Smith (36) took control; renamed General Cinema Corporation; 1964 - name changed to General Cinema Corporation; 1967 - owned about 100 shopping-center theaters; 150 theaters in 26 states; 1968 - entered soft-drink business; became largest independent Pepsi bottler in U. S.; June 2, 1987 - 60% owner of The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc., (spun off by Carter Hawley Hale in response to second hostile takeover attempt by The Limited); 1989 - sold Pepsi bottling operations; November 1991 - acquired Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1993 - renamed Harcourt General, Inc.; 1999 - spun off remaining stake in Neiman Marcus Group to shareholders; October 2000 - GC Cos. Inc., parent of General Cinema, filed for bankruptcy protection (overbuilding of of multi-screen "megaplex" cinemas, weak movie releases).

March 2, 1935 - Porky Pig, designed by animator Bob Clampett, debuted in short "I Haven't Got a Hat"; name came from two brothers who were childhood classmates of director Fritz Freleng (nicknamed "Porky" and "Piggy); originally played by Joe Dougherty (actually had stuttering problem); 1937 - Mel Blanc won audition for character.

September 27, 1935 - Singer and actress Judy Garland (13)  signed her first contract with MGM; 1939 - became major star after playing Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz;  1950 - MGM fired her after she began showing up erratically for shoots; 1969 - she died from an overdose of sleeping pills.

January 4, 1936 - Billboard magazine published first pop-music chart based on national sales figures. A song called "Stop! Look! Listen!" by jazz violinist Joe Venuti topped first chart.

July 30, 1936 - David O. Selznick (Selznick International Pictures) agreed to pay $50,000 for film rights to Martha Mitchell's "Gone With the Wind"; more than any studio had ever paid for rights to first novel.

1937 - Mikhail Mordkin, former director of Bolshoi Ballet, formed new Mordkin Ballet (previously founded, dsibanded in 1926); student Lucia Chase helped finance company; she and Richard Pleasant (Hollywood agent) took over management after first season; 1939 - organized Ballet Theatre; 1935 - Oliver Smith became Co-director; 1957 - changed name to American Ballet Theatre; 1980 - Mikhail Baryshnikov became Artistic Director.

April 17, 1937 - Daffy Duck made his debut in Warner Bros. short, Porky's Duck Hunt.

December 21, 1937 - Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Walt Disney's first full-length (83 minutes), animated talking film opened; two years and $1.5 million to create; first commercially successful film of its kind.

1938 - Leo Fender founded Fender's Radio Service in Fullerton, CA to repair radios, phonograph players, home audio amplifiers, public address systems, musical instrument amplifier (variations on vacuum tube circuits used for amplification); joined Clayton Orr Kauffman, formed K & F Manufacturing Corp. to design, manufacture, sell electric instruments, amplifiers; December 7, 1948 - Clarence Leo Fender and Clayton Orr Kauffman, of Fullerton, CA, received a patent for a "Pickup Unit for Instruments"; lap steel guitar; 1946 - renamed Fender Electric Instrument Company; 1965 - acquired by Columbia Broadcasting System for $13 million; 1985 - acquired by employees, renamed Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. 

January 17, 1938 - Benny Goodman and his orchestra performed first jazz concert at Carnegie Hall in New York; performers included Count Basie, members of Basie, Duke Ellington orchestras; jazz originated around 1900 but wasn't appreciated as a serious musical form for several decades.

February 3, 1938 - Vaudeville comedy team Bud Abbott and Lou Costello first appeared as regulars on Kate Smith Hour radio program.

July 14, 1938 - British director Alfred Hitchcock signed  contract with David O. Selznick to direct movies in Hollywood; already established reputation as England's foremost director with such films as The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1934 (which he remade in 1956) and The Lady Vanishes in 1938; 1940 - first American film, Rebecca, starring Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine, opened, won Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Cinematography.

1939 - German emigres Alfred Lion and Francis Wolff established Blue Note Records as artist-centered jazz record label; 1950s-1960s - heyday with clearly defined Blue Note sound, rooted in hardbop, Blue Note look with striking album design, photography; 1984 - re-launched after  brief hiatus; Bruce Lundvall, President; longest- running label in jazz; Norah Jones - best-seller in Blue Note history, one of biggest-selling albums ever (more than 20 million copies worldwide).

Alfred Lion, Francis Wolff - Blue Note Records (

July 13, 1939 - Frank Sinatra made recording debut with  Harry James band, sang "Melancholy Mood" , "From The Bottom of My Heart."

December 15, 1939 - Gone With the Wind debuted in Atlanta; instant hit, broke all box office records in course of its run.

January 19, 1940 - Three Stooges film You Natzy Spy  released (nine months in advance of Charlie Chaplin's "The Great Dictator"); 1923 - began as a vaudeville act billed as "Ted Healy and His Stooges"; stooges were brothers Moe (Moses) and Shemp Howard from Brooklyn; 1928 - Larry Fine joined; 1932 - Shemp left the act, replaced by brother Curly; Three Stooges made a total of 190 short subjects with Columbia, at least 20 feature-length films, hundreds of cartoons.

February 7, 1940 - Walt Disney's second feature-length movie, "Pinocchio," premiered (New York City).

May 21, 1940 - Walter E. Disney, of Los Angeles, CA, received patent for the "Art of Animation" ("improvements in the art of producing what are generally known as 'animated cartoons'"); assigned to Walt Disney Productions.

July 27, 1940 - Bugs Bunny made his debut in Warner Bros. animated cartoon "A Wild Hare"; featured Bugs as would-be dinner for frustrated hunter Elmer Fudd; animated by Chuck Jones, accent came from voice man Mel Blanc.

November 13, 1940 - Disney animated movie ''Fantasia'' had world premiere in New York; no plot, an ambitious, artistic attempt to marry music, animation; 1999 - film updated, re-released as Fantasia 2000,.

July 1941 - CBS, NBC switched from experimental broadcasts to fifteen hours per week of scheduled programming.

February 10, 1942 - First gold record (sprayed with gold by record company RCA Victor) presented to recording artist: Glenn Miller for 'Chattanooga Choo Choo' (performed in  movie Sun Valley Serenade; sales of 1,200,000).

June 4, 1942 - Glenn Wallichs, owner of Music City record store on Vine St. in Los Angeles, movie producer Buddy deSylva, songwriter Johnny Mercer started Capitol Records.

February 20, 1943 - Movie studio executives agreed to allow Office of War Information to censor movies informally to prevent disclosure of vital information in war-themed films.

March 31, 1943 - Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Oklahoma!" premiered in New York City; played on Broadway for 2,248 performances.

March 31, 1945 - ''The Glass Menagerie'' by Tennessee Williams opened on Broadway.

September 20, 1946 - First annual Cannes Film Festival opened at resort city of Cannes on French Riviera (originally scheduled for September 1939,  cancelled due outbreak of World War II); 18 nations represented; entries included "The Lost Weekend (Billy Wilder), "Open City" (Roberto Rossellini), "The Battle of the Rails" (Reny Clement), "Brief Encounter" (David Lean); 1952 - Palais des Festivals dedicated as permanent home for festival; 1955 - introduced Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) award for best film of festival.

1947 - Paul Pacini opened 'Whiskey a GoGo' in Paris; highlighted American preference for for cocktails, hard liquor over French wine; walls covered with lids from whiskey cases (Dewar's, Haig & Haig); jazz piped in.

Paul Pacini - Whiskey a Go-Go (

1947 - Ahmet Ertegun, Herb Abramson founded Atlantic Records in office in derelict hotel on West 56th Street in Manhattan; borrowed $10,000 from family dentist; 1954 - released "I Got a Woman (Ray Charles), "Shake, Rattle and Roll" (Joe Turner); 1967 - acquired by Warner Brothers-Seven Arts for $17 million; 1969 - acquired by Kinney National Service; one of only record labels of 1940s to survive into 1990s, with founder still in charge; 1971 - founded New York Cosmos soccer team.

April 6, 1947 - Frst Tony Awards (theater) handed out.

October 20, 1947 - House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) of U.S. Congress (chaired by Congressman Parnell Thomas) opened investigation into communist infiltration of American movie industry; hearings focused on identifying political subversives among Hollywood actors, actresses, writers, directors.

October 24, 1947 - Walt Disney testified to House Unamerican Activities Committee; named Disney employees he believed to be communists.

November 24, 1947 - House of Representatives voted 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt against 10 Hollywood writers, directors, and producers who had refused to cooperate at hearings held by House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) into influence of communism in movie industry (became known as  ''Hollywood 10''); men denounced questions as violations of their First Amendment rights, sentenced to one year in jail; Supreme Court later upheld contempt charges; 1951 - new HUAC hearings started, Hollywood quickly buckled to committee's demands; hundreds of performers, directors, writers, others placed on  "blacklist," effectively banned from employment.

November 25, 1947 - Movie studio executives meeting in New York agreed to blacklist ''Hollywood 10''; eventually, some 300 people were blacklisted on very slight evidence (collection of names of Hollywood personalities suspected of having communist ties; many careers ruined (those on the list rarely found work in the movies); blacklist not completely broken until the 1960s.

December 27, 1947 - Howdy Doody Show debuted.

January 1, 1948 - Warner Brothers-Pathe showed first U.S. motion picture newsreel in color (using the Cinecolor process) of photos taken at Tournament of Roses, Rose Bowl Game, Pasadena, California; January 5, 1948 - started showing newsreels to theatre audiences.

June 8, 1948 - The ''Texaco Star Theater'' made debut on NBC-TV (Milton Berle as guest host).

June 20, 1948 - Columbia Records introduced first successful long-playing microgroove phonograph records at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City; designed for the new speed of 33-1/3 r.p.m.; developed by Dr. Peter Goldmark, head of CBS Labs; made of non-breakable Vinilyte plastic; 12 inch record could play 23 minutes per side (compared to only 4 minutes per side on the earlier 78 rpm record); quieter surfaces, greatly increased fidelity; first LP featured violinist Yehudi Menuhin; Columbia originated, copyrighted term "LP".

January 10, 1949 - RCA, Columbia introduced vinyl records in U.S.: RCA's "single", 7-inch diameter 45 rpm, could play eight minutes of sound per side, replaced 78 rpm records; RCA manufactured special record-player with wide-diameter spindle to automatically play stack of records; Columbia offered 33.3 rpm records.

February 2, 1949 - First 45 RPM record released.

April 7, 1949 - Rodgers and Hammerstein musical ''South Pacific'' opened on Broadway.

June 1, 1949 - Lawrence Welk, band leader from North Dakota, known for light dance music, band began two-year stint as house orchestra for 'High Life Review' radio show; often lampooned for saccharine style, developed army of loyal fans, hosted one of longest running musical variety shows in history; 1951 - moved to TV, launched own show on local Los Angeles station; July 2, 1955 - 'The Lawrence Welk Show', musiccal variety, debuted on ABC on Saturday nights (straightforward dance music); gained strong following, stayed on air for 16 years; 1956-1959 - Saturday night show so popular that ABC gave him second hour-long show, aired during week; called 'Lawrence Welk's Top Tunes and New Talent'; 1961 - topped charts with "Calcutta"; 1971 - ABC cancelled show.

January 4, 1950 - RCA Victor announced would start manufacturing long-playing (LP) records (long-playing album debuted in 1948); one side of 12-inch LP played for 23 minutes (vs. four minutes for one side of a standard 78 rpm record); took several years for standard to become universally accepted.

July 11, 1951 - Alan Freed, disc jockey, started new job in Cleveland as disk jockey "The Moondog House", rhythm and blues show; called himself "Moondog" (based on chosen theme song, "The Moondog Symphony"); March 21, 1952 - threw 'Moondog Coronation Ball', rhythm and blues concert at leveland Arena (drew about 25,000 people); first rock & roll concert; 1953 - threw 'The Biggest Rhythm and Blues Show', R&B tour; featured Ruth Brown, Wynonie Harris; 1954 - Freed prohibited from using name when blind New York City street musician, who had recorded "Moondog Symphony", won court battle; renamed 'Alan Freed's Rock and Roll Party'; copyrighted phrase "rock and roll" in partnership with Morris Levy, black music legend, Lew Platt, veteran promoter, radio station WINS; tidal wave of rock and roll soon made his copyright virtually useless; January 14, 1955 - produced first rock and roll dance concert in New York at St. Nicholas Arena; featured Drifters, Fats Domino, Joe Turner, others; all musicians were black, least half audience was white.

October 16, 1951 - The New York Academy of Medicine Post Graduate Fortnightly showed first 9 1/2 minute color motion picture in U.S. of inside of living heart (of a dog) at Montefiore Hospital, New York City; showed opening, closing of mitral valve.

February 1952 - Sam Phillips launched Sun Records in Memphis, TN; named as sign of his perpetual optimism: new day and new beginning; March 27, 1952 - began releasing records.

November 25, 1952 - The Mousetrap," murder-mystery written by novelist, playwright Agatha Christie, opened at Ambassadors Theatre in London; became longest continuously running play in history, more than 10 million people attended more than 20,000 performances.

February 18, 1953 - ''Bwana Devil'' opened in New York; heralded 3-D fad of 1950s.

April 8, 1953 - 'Man in the Dark' opened at Globe Theater in New York; first 3D motion picture (audience used spectacles with one red, one green lens to produce illusion of depth); April 10, 1953 - 'The House of Wax' opened at Paramount Theater, next 3D feature movie, first color three-dimensional picture (had to be viewed through special glasses); 1922 - Perfect Pictures made 'The Power of Love', first 3D feature film; February 1947 - Russian production of Robinson Crusoe, first 3D talking picture in color, shown in Moscow.

January 4, 1954 - Elvis Presley, struggling young musician who worked in  machine shop, made recording for his mother's birthday; paid $4 at Sun Records to record two songs: "Casual Love Affair", "I'll Never Stand in Your Way"; impressd Marion Keisker, Sam Phillips's assistant, so much that she brought copy of recording to him; July 5, 1954 - Elvis, Scotty Moore and Bill Black had first recording session at Sun Records; recorded 'That's All Right' rhythm-and-blues debut single song; July 7, 1954 - Memphis, TN, station WHBQ aired first recording of song.

April 2, 1954 - Plans to build Disneyland announced.

April 12, 1954 - Bill Haley and the Comet, recorded "Rock Around the Clock"; May 1954 - song released, barely made pop charts, spent one week at No. 23; became hit after producer James Myers sent copies of song to dozens of Hollywood producers, suggested they use song in movie; 1955 - producers of Blackboard Jungle, controversial film about juvenile delinquency, selected song as theme for movie; sales of "Rock Around the Clock" skyrocketed, sold 6 million copies; July 1955 - climbed to top of charts; first rock and roll song to reach No. 1.

July 17, 1954 - George Wein founded "First American Jazz Festival" in Newport, RI; featured performances by Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Billie Holiday, Gerry Mulligan, Eddie Condon, Modern Jazz Quartet, Oscar Peterson, others; sponsored by Elaine and Louis L Lorillard (gave Wein $20,000 line of bank credit, never used); broke even first year; 1960, 1969, 1971 - riots caused performance cancellations; 1972 - festival moved to New York City; 1981 - resumed in Newport, became two-site festival associated U.S. and international tours; 1984 - sponsored by JVC; 1986 - name changed to JVC Jazz Festival.

Louis and Elaine Lorillard with George Wein - Newport Jazz Festival (

January 31, 1955 - RCA demonstrated first music synthesizer.

July 17, 1955 - Disneyland ($17 million theme park) opened in Anaheim, CA, on land once occupied by orange groves, as grand-scale "family park where parents, children could have fun--together"; 28,154 attended, 90 million watch on ABC.

Walt Disney - Opening Speech (Disneyland, July 17, 1955) (

September 18, 1955 - Ed Sullivan's popular talk show, originally called "Toast of the Town" in 1948, changed name to The Ed Sullivan Show.

November 22, 1955 - RCA announced it had purchased  recording contract for Elvis Presley from Sun Records for  record sum of $35,000; Presley also received $5,000 advance (bought pink Cadillac for his mother); 1956 - first record on RCA included songs "I Got a Woman," "Heartbreak Hotel," "I Was the One."

January 28, 1956 - Elvis Presley made first-ever television appearance, on Dorsey Bros Stage Show (TV musical-variety program); sang "Heartbreak Hotel"; June 5, 1956 - Elvis introduced new single, "Hound Dog," on The Milton Berle Show; scandalized audience with suggestive hip gyrations; other show hosts, including Ed Sullivan, denounced performance, swore he would never invite Presley on his own show; Fall 1956 - Sullivan booked Elvis for three shows.

February 22, 1956 - Elvis Presley entered music charts on Billboard magazine's Top 10  for first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel".

September 9, 1956 - Elvis Presley appeared on Ed Sullivan's "Toast of the Town"; sang "Don't Be Cruel", "Hound Dog"; scandalized audiences with suggestive hip gyrations; became household name.

October 2, 1956 - Inaugural performance of Joffrey Ballet at Frostberg State Teachers College in Maryland; founded by Robert Joffrey, Gerald Arpino; consisted of six dynamic, highly individual dancers; Joffrey stayed in New York to teach ballet classes, earn money to pay dancers' salaries; Arpino led troupe across America in station wagon that pulled a U-Haul trailer; 1957 -first performance in major city in Chicago at Eighth Street Theater; 1995 - made Chicago permanent home, currently resident ballet company of Auditorium Theatre of Roosevelt University.

Robert Joffrey - Joffrey Ballet (

November 15, 1956 - Love Me Tender, Elvis Presley's first movie, opened at Paramount Theater in New York; covered its production cost of $1 million in three days; Elvis appeared in 33 movies over next 13 years.

December 11, 1956 - Movie industry's tight restriction of language, subject matter ("Hays Code" or the Production Code), eased slightly for first time since adoption in 1930; actors could now mention abortion, drugs, kidnapping, prostitution; 1966 - new standards adopted, permitted more liberal portrayals of sexual content, imposed heavier restrictions on violence; 1968 - movie ratings system replaced  code, greatly expanded range of permissible subjects for film.

1957 - MGM shut down its animation studio; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna, Joseph Barbera changed name of H-B Enterprises to Hanna-Barbera Productions (1944 - H-B Enterprises founded as freelance television commercial production company); made cartoons directly for small screen, launched first production, Ruff and Reddy; 1960 - produced first-ever animated prime-time family sitcom show, with half-hour storyline, The Flintstones; also produced The Jetsons, The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Yogi Bear Show, Jonny Quest, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Smurfs; 1991 - acquired by Turner Broadcasting; 1992 - renamed H-B Production Company; 1993 - renamed Hanna-Barbera Cartoons; 1996 - Turner acquired by Time Warner; Hanna-Barbera absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation.

William Hanna Joseph Barbera, William Hanna - Hanna-Barbera (

1957 - Jim Stewart founded Satellite Records in wife's uncle's garage in north Memphis, TN; 1958 - sister, Estelle Axton, took out second mortgage, bought out Stewart's partners, financed purchase of Ampex recorde; 1961 - renamed Stax (STewart + AXton) to avoid competing with another company, in Califiornia, named Satellite Records; 1962 - created a subsidiary label, Volt Records, used for rhythm and blues music; 1965 - signed formal national distribution deal with Atlantic Records; March 1968 - label acquired by Gulf and Western; July 1970 - Stewart and Al Bell (Stax sales director) reacquired label; 1972 - distribution pact with Columbia Records (subsequently altered); January 1976 - ordered closed by bankruptcy judge; December 18, 2006 - Concord Music Group reactivated Stax label.

March 25, 1957 - Ricky Nelson cut his first records, "A Teenager's Romance" and "I'm Walkin'' few weeks later, sang the songs on the TV series and became an overnight pop star, despite his complete lack of musical experience; one of the best-selling male singers of the 1950s - 53 Hot 100 hits, 17 in the Top 10.

April 19, 1957 - Brattle Theater in Cambridge, MA, presented its first showing of Casablanca (1943); introduced new generation of film viewers to Humphrey Bogart (died in January 195); marked the beginning of a Bogart revival that would boost the star to cult-like status in the 1960s and later.

July 6, 1957 - Paul McCartney (15) attended church picnic in the village of Woolton, near Liverpool; met John Lennon (16). Lennon had formed a band called the Quarrymen, which was playing at the picnic. Between sets, McCartney played a few songs on guitar for the band, and a few days later Lennon invited him to join. McCartney didn't take the group seriously-in fact, missed his first performance with the band because he had a scouting trip. Group changed its name to Johnny and the Moondogs, recruited McCartney's friend George Harrison. Changed the name again, to Silver Beetles, after bassist Stu Sutcliffe joined; eventually modified name to the Beatles. Tommy Moore joined the band as drummer; 1960 - replaced by Pete Best. Label after label rejected them. 1962 - Best left band, Ringo Starr joined, and the Fab Four--McCartney, Lennon, Harrison, and Starr--recorded "Love Me Do," the group's first Top 20 hit in the United Kingdom. 1970 - band broke up.

1958 - Alvin Ailey, group of young black modern dancers performed for first time as members of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater at New York's 92nd Street YM-YWHA; 1968 -  performed at White House for President Johnson; 1974 - Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble created (professional dance company with full touring schedule to help most talented students from Alvin Ailey American Dance Center make leap from studio to stage); November 15, 1978 - special performance for President Jimmy Carter at White House; 1989 - Judith Jamison became Artistic Director; 2005 - seen by estimated 21,000,000 fans in 48 states, 68 countries on six continents.

1958 - Jimmy Lyons (saxophonist), Ralph Gleason (San Francisco Chronicle's music critic, founding editor of Rolling Stone magazine) co-founded Monterey Jazz Festival (every third full weekend in September) on Monterey Fairgrounds, Monterey, CA (Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, John Lewis, Shelly Manne, Gerry Mulligan, Art Farmer, Ernestine Anderson, Harry James, Max Roach, Billie Holiday); longest running jazz festival in world; proceeds donated to musical education.

Jimmy Lyons - Monterey Jazz Festival (

Ralph Gleason - Monterey Jazz Festival (

March 14, 1958 - Recording Industry Association of American created.

March 27, 1958 - CBS Labs announced new stereophonic records.

1959 - Chris Blackwell, music fan and entrepreneur, started Island label in Jamaica with budget of £1,000; July 1989 - acquired by Polygram (acquired in 1999 by Seagram, merged with MCA, became Universal Music Group) for reported £180 million; April 2009 - Music Weekly, trade magazine, formally declared Blackwell to be "the most influential UK-based industry executive of the past five decades".

Chris Blackwell - Island Records ( CMS_050107_14584896_14DOP/6D835E92-188B-3B72-2EDCBA5A7D0FE128.JPG)

January 12, 1959 - Berry Gordy, Jr. borrowed $800 from his family's loan fund, quit $85/week upholstery trimmer's job at Lincoln-Mercury assembly line, incorporated Tamla Records in Detroit, MI (had hit pop charts for first time in November 1957 as songwriter with Jackie Wilson's "Reet Petite; had written, produced songs for first signed act, The Matadors, changed their name to The Miracles, Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson became vice president of company); January 1960 - Motown moved headquarters into house in Detroit; "Hitsville U.S.A." sign hanged outside; basement made into studio; April 1963 - Mary Wells song "You Beat Me to the Punch" first Motown record to receive Grammy nomination; 1966 - produced 14 songs that reached Top 10; January 25, 1968 - Marvin Gaye's "Heard It Through the Grapevine" No. 1 on charts for seven weeks, longest run of any Motown single to that time; 10 singles in 1968 in Top 10; 1971 - 11 singles reach Top 10; August 1978 - The Commodores song "Three Times a Lady" first Motown recording to register No. 1 on pop, R & B, adult contemporary charts at same time; January 1987 - Lionel Ritchie first Motown artist to record country music hit with "Deep River Woman"; June 1988 - acquired by partnership between MCA, Boston Ventures for $61 million; now subsidiary of Universal Motown Records Group (subsidiary of Universal Music Group).

February 3, 1959 - Plane crash near Clear Lake, IA claimed lives of rock 'n' roll stars Buddy Holly (22), Ritchie Valens (Valenzuela, 17), J.P. ''The Big Bopper'' Richardson (28); on flight between tour dates during Winter Dance Party Tour; Holly had just scored No. 1 hit, "That'll Be the Day," with his band, the Crickets.

May 4, 1959 - National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences announced winners of first Grammy Awards: Henry Mancini won the Best Album for The Music from Peter Gunn; Perry Como voted Best Male Vocalist, Ella Fitzgerald Best Female Vocalist. "Volare," by Domenico Modugno, won Best Record.

May 18, 1959 - Wilbert Harrison's recording of blues hit "Kansas City" topped charts; first song in history of Top 100 charts to debut at No. 100, climb all way to top.

October 30, 1959 - Tenor saxophonist Ronnie Scott (born Ronald Schatt), tenor saxophonist Pete King opened Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club (capacity 90, no liquor license) in basement at 39 Gerrard Street, in London's Soho, with small loan from Scott's stepfather, to provide place where British jazz musicians could jam (had helped to open co-operative Club Eleven in Soho on December 11, 1948, country's first club devoted solely to modern jazz); opening night - Scott himself, Tubby Hayes Quartet, Jack Parnell, alto saxophonist Peter King; quickly developed reputation of bringing best of British modern jazz musicians to club; persuaded Musicians’ Union ban on American visiting jazz musicians to lift blanket ban on American performers in U.K. (dated from 1932, classical music and vocalists exempt; had isolated UK from New York’s post-war modern jazz revolution; embargo relaxed, at concert level, in 1958, provided British musicians played reciprocal gigs in America); 1961 - Zoot Sims, personal favourite of owner, first major American artist to play there (British saxophonist Tubby Hayes went to New York’s Half Note for month’s residency); first time American jazz musician had officially played in British jazz club for nearly 30 years; 1965 - moved to current location in Frith Street; June 2005 - acquired by theatre impresario Sally Greene (Old Vic management); London's foremost jazz venue (same level as New York’s legendary Village Vanguard).

May 3, 1960 - Musical comedy, The Fantasticks, opened in  off-Broadway playhouse in New York's Greenwich Village; became longest-running musical of all time; May 2000 - 15,562 performances, producers' initial $16,500 investment had earned $3 million.

August 1, 1960 - Chubby Checker released "The Twist".

November 4, 1960 - Filming wrapped on The Misfits, starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable, last film for both.

March 21, 1961 - The Beatles made their debut in  appearance at Liverpool's The Cavern; August 2, 1961 - Beatles first gig as house band of Liverpool's Cavern Club; August 3, 1963 - last gig.

November 9, 1961 - Record store manager Brian Epstein went to Liverpool nightclub (the Cavern) to hear Beatles; January 1962 - became Beatles's manager; helped them land their first record deal; September 1962 -  recorded "Love Me Do," group's first Top 20 hit in United Kingdom; debut album in United States, Meet the Beatles, became  fastest-selling album in U.S. history to that time; scored more No. 1 hits on Billboard charts (20) than any other group in history. October 26, 1965 - appointed Members of Order of the British Empire at Buckingham Palace; August 1967 - Epstein died ofaccidental overdose of sleeping pills; 1970 - each member pursued solo career or formed a new group.

December 1961 - Beach Boys' "Surfin' issued on X Records as promo and Candix; February 17, 1962 - hit #5 on national pop charts.

January 13, 1962 - Chubby Checker's hit "The Twist" became first song to reach the No. 1 spot twice in two years.

May 9, 1962 - Beatles signed first contract with EMI Pstlophone.

July 12, 1962 - The Rolling Stones gave their first public performance at Marquee Club in London - called Rolling Stones after Muddy Waters song.

September 11, 1962 - The Beatles recorded their first single, ''Love Me Do'', ''P.S. I Love You,'' at EMI studios in London; October 5, 1962 - first hit, ''Love Me Do,''  released in United Kingdom; February 7, 1963 - first record in U. S. with Beatles name released by Vee-Jay Records ("Please Please Me b/w Ask Me Why").

1964 - Dr. Amar G. Bose, professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded Bose Corporation; May 30, 1967 - Bose Corporation registered "Bose" trademark first used May 1966 (acoustical transducer systems for reproducing sound); 1968 - introduced 901® Direct/Reflecting® speaker system (blend of reflected and direct sound); introduced acoustic waveguide speaker technology (performance of large, multi-component stereo system from compact, all-in-one system).

January 11, 1964 - Elmer Valentine, Mario Maglieri opened Whiskey-A-Go-Go, Los Angeles's first disco (the French word discotheque, record library = recordings with no bands), at 8901 Sunset Boulevard; chief entertainment consisted of dancing to simplified form of rock; underground disco subculture turned into a national sensation when film Saturday Night Fever released in 1977.

January 13, 1964 - Capitol Records released Beatles' first single in USA; "I Wanna Hold Your Hand"; sold one million copies in first three weeks.

February 7, 1964 - The Beatles arrived in New York for first American tour, touched off rock 'n' roll's ''British invasion''; February 1, 1964 - first No. 1 U.S. hit with "I Want to Hold Your Hand"; February 9 - first appearance on Ed Sullivan Show, popular television variety show (estimated 73 million U.S. television viewers, about 40% of U.S. population); February 11 - first public concert appearance in United States at Coliseum in Washington, DC.

March 28, 1964 - Beatles broke Elvis Presley's 7-year record for most hits on Billboard's Hot 100 at same time (1956 - Presley had nine songs on Hot 100); Beatles scored 10th hit; April 11 - 14 positions on chart; August - first feature-film, A Hard Day's Night; 1970 - Beatles disbanded, left legacy of 18 albums, 30 Top 10 U.S. singles.

April 13, 1964 - Sidney Poitier became first black performer in leading role to winAcademy Award, for ''Lilies of the Field.''.

October 25, 1964 - British rock group Rolling Stones appeared on Ed Sullivan's TV variety show. 

January 4, 1965 - Leo Fender sold Fender Guitar Company (guitar, amplifier company) to CBS; 1985 - CBS shed non-broadcast holdings, sold company to small contingent of employees, investors led by William Schultz.

June 10, 1966 - Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? received  Production Code Seal of Approval; first film containing four-letter words to be approved; also contained adult content ordinarily banned from screen, but Warner Bros. promised to admit only viewers over 18. 

October 19, 1966 - Gulf and Western Industries Inc. acquired Paramount Pictures Corp.; responsible for Godfather and Indiana Jones trilogies; renamed Paramount Communications; March 11, 1994 - acquired by Viacom Inc.

October 22, 1966 - The Supremes became first all-female music group to attain No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A' Go-Go).

June 1, 1967 - Album "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" by Beatles released; took four months, $75,000 to record, sold over 8 million copies, spent 15 weeks at No. 1.

1968 - Walter J. Trumbull, working toward doctorate at Manhattan School of Music, started boys' choir as after-school music program in the basement of Ephesus Seventh-Day Advent School in Harlem; 1975 - incorporated as Boys Choir of Harlem; eventually gave rise to Choir Academy of Harlem, 600-student school (full academic program for grades 4-12); 1988 - founded Girls' Choir of Harlem.

October 7, 1968 - Motion Picture Association of America adopted film-rating system: G (for general audiences), M (for mature audiences), R (no one under 16 admitted without an adult), and X (no one under 16 admitted); January 27, 1970 - New system of movie ratings  announced: MPG replaced by PG (parental guidance suggested), R movies restricted admission of people under age of 17 unless accompanied by parent or guardian; 1984 - PG-13 rating added at request of moviemaker Steven Spielberg (to address concerns raised by parents of preteens who thought some of Spielberg's films, including "Indiana Jones" series and Gremlins, were too scary for their children, even though they fit within other guidelines for a PG movie); September 26, 1990 - X rating phased out in favor of NC-17 (non-pornographic films with sexual content deemed inappropriate for viewers under age 17).

1969 - Manfred Eicher, classically trained musician, founded Edition of Contemporary Music (ECM) in Munich (he is recording producer, publisher, editor); aimed for high sound quality associated with classical recording; established early reputation with standard-setting jazz, improvised music albums; interests extend across the arts.

January 30, 1969 - The Beatles performed as group for last time in public in 45-minute gig on roof of their Apple Records headquarters in London during filming of ''Let it Be.'' April 9,  1970 - Paul McCartney formally announced group's breakup.

August 15-17, 1969 - 3-day Woodstock Music and Art Fair, "An Aquarian Exposition" (modeled after the Monterey Pop Festival) opened at Max Yasgur's dairy farm in Bethel, NY - nearly a half a million people converged on the concert site, many of the "counterculture" ("hippies") who rejected materialism and authority, experimented with illicit drugs,  actively protested against the Vietnam War. Jimi Hendrix closed the concert with a freeform solo guitar performance of "The Star Spangled Banner." Woodstock became a symbol of the 1960s American counterculture and a milestone in the history of rock music.

1970 - Richard Branson (20) established mail-order record company; 1971 - opened Virgin Record and Tapes, record shop on second floor of building at 24 Oxford Street, London, UK; 1972 - with Simon Draper (cousin), Nik Powell opened recording studio, near Oxford, UK; signed Mike Oldfield's 'Tubular Bells' (made the label); 1977 - signed Sex Pistols; June 1992 - acquired by Thorn EMI for reported $1 billion (used proceeds to fund Virgin Air); third largest music company in world; 2008 - merged with Capitol Records, created Capitol Music Group; went on to head of one of world’s most universally recognized, respected groups of companies.

February 21, 1970 - Jackson 5 made TV debut on American Bandstand.

March 21, 1971 - Andromeda Strain opened (scientists raced against time, alien virus); first movie to use computer animation.

August 1, 1971 - Concert For Bangladesh was event title for two benefit concerts; played to total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York; first fundraising event of its kind; first benefit concert that brought together an extraordinary assemblage of major artists collaborating for a common humanitarian cause; set precedent that music could be used to serve higher cause.

October 1, 1971 - Magic Kingdom park at Walt Disney World Resort opened in Orlando, FL; October 23, 1971 - dedicated by Roy Disney; 1,076-piece marching band played 76 Trombones; Arthur Fiedler conducted World Symphony Orchestra (musicians from 60 countries).

October 20, 1973 - Queen Elizabeth II dedicated Sydney Opera House; $80 million structure, designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon, funded by profits of the Opera House Lotteries, built on Bennelong Point, in Sydney, Australia; contains several large auditoriums, presents average of 3,000 events a year to an estimated two million people.

May 2, 1975 - Apple records closed.

March 2, 1976 - Walt Disney World logged 50 millionth guest.

May 25, 1977 - George Lucas's blockbuster Star Wars opened in American theaters on Memorial Day weekend.

August 16, 1977 - Elvis Presley died at Graceland Mansion in Memphis, TN, at age 42 (had been highest-paid performer in history of entertainment business in 1965); made 28 films, considered frivolous, second-rate, grossed millions.

1979 - George Atkinson opened first video rental store in Los Angeles; created the rental business model; bought 50 movies recently made available on video, advertised them  for rent ($10/movie) in one-inch ad in  LA Times, customers came in droves (to Video Station), went public in the early 1980's, ultimately opened 600 affiliated video rental stores (2004 - more than 24,000 video stores in U.S. rent 2.6 billion DVD and VHS cassettes = $8 billion in revenue).

July 3, 1979 - Radio City Music Hall Corporation registered "Radio City Music Hall" service mark.

December 8, 1980 - Rock musician John Lennon of Beatles was shot to death outside his New York City apartment building by deranged fan, Mark David Chapman, who shot him four times at close range with a .38-caliber revolver. Lennon was 40. Chapman had received an autograph from Lennon earlier in the day and voluntarily remained at the scene of the shooting until he was arrested by police.

October 1, 1982 - EPCOT Center (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow), combination of Future World and World Showcase, opened at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida; represented investment of over one billion dollars.

October 7, 1982 - Andrew Lloyd Webber, Tim Rice's musical, "Cats" (lyrics from T.S. Eliot's Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats), opened on Broadway; began record run of 7,485 performances (nearly 18 years), brought in more than $400 million and played to more than 10 million people; featuring music by Andrew Lloyd-Webber; September 10, 2000 - show closed.

April 15, 1983 - Tokyo Disneyland opened in Urayasu, Chiba, Japan, near Tokyo; first Disney park built outside of United States.

September 27, 1983 - "A Chorus Line" opened, became longest running show in Broadway history (opened October 19, 1975), passed "Grease" (3,389th performance); April 28, 1990 - 6,137th and final performance.

August 10, 1985 - Michael Jackson bought ATV Music (all Beatle songs) for $47 million.

September 20, 1985 - Walt Disney World received its 200-millionth guest.

April 28, 1987 - For first time, compact disc of an album released before vinyl counterpart: "The Art of Excellence" by Tony Bennett.

November 18, 1987 - Sony Corp. agreed to acquire CBS Records for $2 billion (included CBS's manufacturing plants,  subsidiary companies,10,000 employees, Columbia House, direct-mail music club); capped major corporate makeover for CBS under chairman Laurence A. Tisch (sold non-broadcast affiliates and divisions).

January 26, 1988 - Andrew Lloyd Webber musical ''Phantom of the Opera'' opened at Broadway's Majestic Theater (became longest-running show in Broadway history).

July 5, 1988 - Warner Bros. Inc. registered Bugs Bunny's "What's Up Doc?" (for use on T-shirts) trademark.

May 1, 1989  - Disney's MGM Studio theme park officially opened to public.

September 27, 1989 - Sony completed purchase of Columbia Pictures for $3.4 billion; under the direction of producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, studio released  series of costly flops, racked-up $3 billion in debt,  Sony officials considered selling Columbia.

November 19, 1990 - Pop duo Milli Vanilli stripped of  Grammy Award after revealed that neither performer sang on group's records.

March 20, 1991 - Michael Jackson signed $65M 6 album deal with Sony records.

January 23, 1992 - Smithsonian Institution awarded producer, director, screenwriter Hal Roach its highest honor, the James Smithson Medal; 1915 - formed his own production company with D. Whiting, called The Rolin Company, after he inherited $3,000 (later bought Whiting out and changed the studio's name to Hal Roach Studios).

April 12, 1992 - Euro Disneyland, $4 billion theme park, opened in Marne-La-Vallee, France.

July 31, 1995 - Walt Disney Company agreed to acquire Capital Cities/ABC for $18.47 billion.

November 21, 1995 - Disney released Toy Story (by Pixar);  first entirely computer-animated feature; grossed $300 million in one year.

December 19, 1997 - ''Titanic,'' highest-grossing movie of all-time, opened in American theaters; March 23, 1998 -  won 11 Academy Awards, including best picture, best director and best song; tied record set by 1959's ''Ben-Hur.''

February 20, 1998 - U.S. movie box office hit quickest $1 billion for year (51 days).

September 10, 2000 - Broadway's longest-running production, "Cats," closed after more than 7400 performances.

January 13, 2002 - Off-Broadway musical ''The Fantasticks'' performed for last time, ended run of nearly 42 years, 17,162 shows.

September 8, 2003 - Recording Industry Association of America, music industry's largest trade group, filed 261 copyright lawsuits across country against Internet users for trading songs online; accused them of unauthorized sharing of files containing copyrighted material.

2004 - Average cost of producing a film = $63.6 million; average cost of marketing = $34.4 million. Average total cost = $98 million. Domestic box office sales = $9.54 billion; foreign ticket sales + $15.7 billion (up 44% since 2003). Source: American Motion Picture Association.

March 13, 2005 - Robert Iger named to succeed Michael Eisner as chief executive of Walt Disney Co.

October 16, 2005 - Centennial issue of Variety listed 100 top-grossing films (not adjusted for inflation) of all time in $millions): 1) Titanic ($602 domestic, $1,250 international; 2) Rings: Return of the King 2003 ($377, $742); 3) Harry Potter: Sorcerer's Stone 2001 ($318, $656); 4) Rings: Two Towers ($342, $545); 5) Star Wars I: Phantom Menace 1999 ($431, $492); 6) Jurassic Park 1993 ($357, $563); 7) Shrek 2004 ($437, $479); 8) Harry Potter: Chamber of Secrets 2002 ($262, $615); 9) Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 2001 ($315, $557); 100 Finding Nemo 2003 ($340, $526).

January 9, 2006 - The "Phantom of the Opera" completed performance number 7,486 = longest running show in Broadway history; highest-grossing entertainment venture in history - worldwide box office receipts of more than $3.2 billion (vs. $1.8 billion earned by "Titanic").

January 24, 2006 - Walt Disney announced it would acquire Pixar Animation Studios in a $7.4 billion stock deal; Steve Jobs (purchased the graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd. in 1986 for $10 million, renamed it Pixar) became non-independent director of Disney and Disney's largest individual shareholder.

November 2006 - Rolling Stones's "Bigger Bang" tour = highest grossing (most commercially successful) rock tour of all time: since August 2005 - played to 3.5 million fans in 110 shows, grossed over $437 million (according to Billboard  magazine); U2's "Vertigo" tour econd highest grossing tour - grossed $333 million (expected to top out at $377 million);  2005 - Stones's tour recorded $162 million in 43 dates (record); 1994 - Rolling Stones's "Voodoo Lounge" tour recorded sales of $121.1 million; 2003 - Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band grossed $115.9 million; 2001 - U2's "Elevation" tour generated sales of $109.7 million.

March 2008 - list of 20 worst mistakes in recording industry history: 1) major labels squashed Napster;  2) Decca Records A&R exec, Dick Rowe, passed on Beatles,  brushed off their manager, Brian Epstein; 3) Motown sold for pittance; 4) post payola - labels paid to get airplay for huge artists stations would have spun anyway; 5) Recording Industry Association of America sued 30 year-old, single mother of two, earning $36,000 a year, for illegally sharing mp3 files of 24 songs; 6) 1978 - Casablanca label shipped million copies of four solo albums by each member of Kiss ("shipped platinum"); hundreds of thousands unsold, returned; 7) 1962 - Bob Dylan got out of 1961 publishing deal with Leeds/Duchess (returned $1,000 advance); new publisher, M. Witmark & Sons, received 237 songs (worth $ tens of millions in future) in first three years; 8) Warner Music dropped Ice-T ("Cop Killer"); sold Interscope to rival Universal which soon became biggest record company in world; 9) 2005 - Sony BMG sold millions of CDs with copy-protection software that automatically installed a "rootkit" on users’ PCs; accused of spying on customers’ listening habits, forced to pay several million dollars to settle class-action lawsuits; 10) Columbia Records signed Alicia Keys for reported $400,000, tried to change her style; she left, signed with J Records, sold more than 20 million albums; dumped 50 Cent after shot nine times; became an unstoppable one-man money factory at Interscope; 11) David Geffen signed Neil Young; filed a $3 million breach-of-contract suit for not making "Neil Young" types of records; Young countersued for $21 million; settled out of court; 12) 1998 - Geffen Records paid Axl Rose $1 million to complete Guns N’ Roses (32 platinum hits) fifth album + million more if delivered soon; album never completed, at cost to Geffen of $13 million; 13) 1996 - Warner Bros. signed R.E.M. to 5-album contract for reported $80 million; most costly record deal in history, allowed R.E.M. to keep masters of all Warner releases; generated one of lowest returns, forfeited future revenues generated by band’s ’80s and early-’90s popular songs; 14) 1960 - Jerry Wexler (Atlantic Records) signed contract with  Stax label president Jim Stewart to market, distribute all Stax releases; 1967 - Atlantic became owner of any Stax release it handled (indicated by 'fine print') as Stax had signed away its catalogue and future; 15) 1999 - MCA gave Irish teen Carly Hennessy $100,000 advance, $5,000 a month in living expenses, apartment in Marina Del Rey, CA, spent roughly $2.2 million in all on her 2001 record debut; sold 378 copies, = label's cost of $5,820 per copy sold; 16) June 2001 - Reprise label (AOL Time Warner subsidiary) paid about $300,000 for Wilco album; didn't like it, fired band, let band keep masters to album; Wilco signed with Nonesuch (AOL Time Warner subsidiary); AOL paid twice; Wilco’s best seller to date; 17) Thomas Edison's Edison Records made two fatal errors - records worked only on Edison’s players, personal taste governed releases (no jazz, waltzes and foxtrots); October 1929 - closed; 18) 2000 - BMG forced Clive Davis, founder of Arista label in 1975, to retire (company policy); artists complained loudly; BMG gave Davis own label, J Records, invested $150 million; 2002 - BMG paid $50 million to buy J Record; 2004 - ousted Davis's successor at Arista, hired Davis as CEO of BMG North America; 19) early 1980s - music industry phased out vinyl singles in favor of cassettes and later, CDs; abandoned singles completely; consumers stopped going to record shops, illegally downloaded singles; 20) 1989 - A&R department at MCA Records signed Pretty Boy Floyd for about $1 million; debut album peaked at No. 130 on Billboard charts; 1991 - label dropped band; missed chance to sign Nirvana.

(Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater), Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater; foreword by Wynton Marsalis; text by Robert Tracy (2004). Ailey Spirit: The Journey of an American Dance Company. (New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 155 p.). Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater; Modern dance--United States--History; Dancers--United States--Interviews. From small group of young dancers traveling country in station wagon to what is widely considered premier modern dance company in world, national cultural institution.

Alvin Ailey (

(American Film Manufacturing), Timothy J. Lyons (1974). The Silent Partner: The History of the American Film Manufacturing Company, 1910-1921. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 256 p.). American Film Manufacturing Company.

(American International), Mark Thomas McGee. (1984). Fast and Furious: The Story of American International Pictures. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 264 p.). American International Pictures (Firm).

(American International), Robert L. Ottoson (1985). American International Pictures: A Filmography. (New York, NY: Garland, 425 p.). American International Pictures (Firm); Motion pictures--United States--Catalogs.

(American International), Mark Thomas McGee (1996). Faster and Furiouser: The Revised and Fattened Fable of American International Pictures. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 350 p.). American International Pictures (Firm).

(Apollo Theater), Jack Schiffman (1971). Uptown; The Story of Harlem’s Apollo Theatre. (New York, NY: Cowles Book Co., 210 p.). Apollo Theater (New York, NY: 125th Street); African Americans --New York (State) --New York --Music --History and criticism; Popular music --New York (State) --New York --History and criticism.

(Apollo Theater), Ralph Cooper with Steve Dougherty (1990). Amateur Night at the Apollo: Ralph Cooper Presents Five Decades of Great Entertainment. (New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 260 p.). Apollo Theater (New York, NY: 125th Street); African Americans --New York (State) --New York --Music --History and criticism; Popular music --New York (State) --New York --History and criticism.

(Apollo Theater), Ted Fox (2003). Showtime at the Apollo. (Rhinebeck, NY: Mill Road Enterprises, 328 p. [rev. ed]). Apollo Theater (New York, N.Y. : 125th Street); African American theater --New York (State) --New York --History --20th century; African American entertainers --Interviews; Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.) --New York (State) --New York; New York (N.Y.) --Buildings, structures, etc.; Harlem (New York, N.Y.) --History; New York (N.Y.) --History.

(Apollo Theater), Eds. Richard Carlin, Kinshasha Holman Conwill; Foreword by Smokey Robinson (2010). Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing: How the Apollo Theater Shaped American Entertainment. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 255 p.). Music Writer and Editor; Deputy Director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture. Apollo Theater; Harlem -- history. 75 year history of the Apollo Theater, Harlem's landmark performing arts space, iconic showplace for best in jazz, blues, dance, comedy, gospel, R & B, hip-hop, more since it opened in 1934; 24 writers discuss theater's history, its intersection with larger social, political issues within Harlem and nation; setting for soaring achievement and creativity in face of enormous challenges; celebration of lasting contributions of African Americans to nation's cultural life.

(Atlantic Records), Charlie Gillett (1974). Making Tracks; Atlantic Records and the Growth of a Multi-Billion-Dollar Industry (New York, NY: Dutton, 305 p.). Atlantic Recording Corporation; Popular music--United States--History and criticism.

Ahmet M. Ertegun - Atlantic Records (

(Atlantic Records), Dorothy Wade and Justine Picardie (1990). Music Man: Ahmet Ertegun, Atlantic Records, and the Triumph of Rock'n'roll (New York, NY: Norton, 303 p.). Ertegun, Ahmet M.; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography.

(Atlantic Records), Dan Kennedy (2008). Rock On: How I Tried to Stop Caring About Music and Learn to Love Corporate Rock. ( Chapel Hill, N.C: Algonquin Books., 224 p.). Kennedy, Dan, 1967- ; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography. 2002 - wrote, produced ads for Atlantic Records; absurdity of corporate music industry; endless meetings with out of touch middle managers; 2004 - Warner Music (parent company) acquired by Edgar Bronfman; refocus - from selling music to selling "lifestyle", in form of merchandising; triumph of corporate culture over rock ’n’ roll.

(Berger Amusement Company), Robert K. Krishef (1982). Thank You, America: The Biography of Benjamin N. Berger. (Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, 224 p.). Berger, Benjamin N.; Philanthropists--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Blue Note Records), Richard Cook (2004). Blue Note Records: The Biography. (Boston, MA: Justin, Charles & Co., 288 p.). Blue Note Records; Jazz--History. History of label, from its 1939 start producing hot jazz; development, rise, fall, rebirth; life behind scenes.

(John Broadwood and Sons Limited), David Wainwright (1982). Broadwood by Appointment: A History. (London, UK: Quiller, 360 p.). John Broadwood and Sons Limited; Piano makers -- England -- London; Piano -- History.

(Buffalo Bill's Wild West Company), Sarah J. Blackstone (1986). Buckskins, Bullets, and Business: A History of Buffalo Bill's Wild West. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 157 p.). Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917; Buffalo Bill's Wild West Company -- History; Entertainers -- United States -- Biography.

(Capitol Records), Paul Grein (1992). Capitol Records Fiftieth Anniversary, 1942-1992 (Hollywood, CA: Capitol Records, 219 p.). Capitol Records, Inc.

(Capitol Records), Bruce Spizer; Foreword by Alan Livingston (2000). Beatles' Story on Capitol Records, Part Two: The Albums. (New Orleans, LA: 498 Productions, L.LC., 2 vols.). Beatles --Discography; Beatles --History --Chronology; Capitol Records, Inc. --History. Group's Capitol albums from "Meet The Beatles!" through "Magical Mystery Tour"; controversial butcher cover, "Sgt. Pepper"; unique albums released by Capitol in Canada, Mexico; where, how records and album covers manufactured; special mixes appearing on Capitol albums.

(Capitol Records), Ken Nelson (2007). My First 90 Years Plus 3. (Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Pub. Co., 352 p.). Former Head of country Music division of Capitol Records; Co-Founder Country Music Association. Nelson, Ken, 1911-2008; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography; Country music--History and criticism. Natural talent for spotting winners; produced many artists who are remembered as giants; served two terms as President of Country Music Association; retired as vice-president in charge of country and western at Capital Records; inducted into Country Music Hall of Fame.

(Capitol Records), Charles Tillinghast (2008). How Capitol Got the Beatles: and Then What Happened. (Parker, CO: Outskirts Press, 100 p.). Former Head of the Law Department of Capitol Records; point man for day-to-day relations with the Beatles. Capitol Records; Beatles; recoding contracts. How contract with The Beatles almost did not come to pass, who really discovered Fab Four, ow strains in personal relationships caused problems with the band's contract negotiations; many bumps in ride taken by Capitol and Beatles during years of their greatest productivity.

(Casablanca Records), Larry Harris, with Curt Gooch and Jeff Suhs (2009). And Party Every Day: The Inside Story of Casablanca Records. (New York, NY: Backbeat Books, 310 p.). Co-Founder, Former vice president and managing director of Casablanca Records. Scott, Neil, 1943-1982; Casablanca Records --History; Sound recording industry --United States --History; Popular music --United States --History and criticism. 1974-1980 - no person, company more emblematic of era of hedonism, self-indulgence than Casablanca Records, its founder, Neil Bogart; signed KISS, discovered Donna Summer, Village People, funk master George Clinton, Parliament Funkadelic, descended into manic world of disco; meteoric success, eventual collapse under weight of uncontrolled ego, hype; ambition, greed, excess, some of the era's biggest music acts.

(CBS Records/Sony Music), Walter Yetnikoff, with David Ritz (2004). Howling at the Moon: The Odyssey of a Monstrous Music Mogul in an Age of Excess. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 304 p.). Former President (15 years), CBS Records. Yetnikoff, Walter, 1933- ; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography. Journey up corporate mountain, dance on summit (sales rose from $485 million to over $2 billion), crashed and burned in corporate coup.

(Chess Records), John Collis; [foreword by Buddy Guy] (1998). The Story of Chess Records (New York, NY: Bloomsbury Pub., 192 p.). Chess Records (Firm); Sound recording industry -- United States -- History; Popular music -- United States -- History and criticism; African Americans -- Music -- History and criticism.

Leonard Chess (

(Chess Records), Nadine Cohodas (2000). Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 358 p.). Chess, Leonard, 1917- ; Chess, Phil, 1921- ; Chess Records (Firm); Sound recording executives and producers -- United States -- Biography. Polish immigrants founded famous label in Chicago after WW II.

(Chess Records), Rich Cohen (2004). Machers and Rockers: Chess Records and the Business of Rock & Roll. (New York, NY: Norton, 220 p.). Contributing Editor (Rolling Stone). Chess, Leonard, 1917- ; Chess, Phil, 1921- ; Chess Records (Firm); Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography. 

(Cinematograph Theatres Ltd.), Christopher Pyke; illustrated by Kathryn Saunby (2008). My Search for Montagu Pyke, Britain’s First Cinema King. (Nottingham, UK, Snoek Pub., 234 p.). Pyke, Montagu, 1874-1935; Pyke, Christopher, 1949-; Motion picture theaters --Great Britain --History --20th century; Motion picture industry --Great Britain --History --20th century. Formerly commercial traveler, gold  miner, bankrupted stock market gambler, opened London's first cinema in shop premises in Edgware Road; huge success, built chain of 16 cinemas (last opened on August 26, 1911 in London's West End; July 26, 1915 - fire closed cinema, employee fatality; Pyke held responsible for his death, found guilty of manslaughter; declared bankruptcy, sold all cinemas.

(Cineplex Odeon), Garth Drabinsky with Marq de Villiers (1995). Closer to the Sun: An Autobiography. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 520 p.). Drabinsky, Garth, 1949- ; Cineplex Odeon Corporation; Live Entertainment of Canada Inc.; Motion picture producers and directors--Canada--Biography; Theatrical producers and directors--Canada--Biography; Businesspeople--Canada--Biography.

(Cirque du Soleil), text by Tony Babinski; art direction by Kristian Manchester. (2004). Cirque du Soleil: 20 Years Under the Sun. (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 352 p.). Writer, Filmmaker, Musician based in Montreal; Art Director with Diesel Design. Cirque du Soleil--History; Circus--Québec (Province)--History.




Guy Laliberté - Cirque de Soleil ( images/laliberte/guy1.jpg)

(Claritone Sound), Garth Hopkins (1978). Clairtone: The Rise and Fall of a Business Empire. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 219 p.). Clairtone Sound Corporation -- History.

(Columbia Pictures), Bob Thomas (1967). King Cohn; The Life and Times of Harry Cohn. (New York, NY: Putnam, 381 p.). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958.

Harry Cohn - co-founder, Columbia Pictures (

(Columbia Pictures), David McClintick (1982). Indecent Exposure: A True Story of Hollywood and Wall Street. (New York, NY: Morrow, 546 p.). Begelman, David; Robertson, Cliff; Columbia Pictures Industries; Embezzlement--New York (State)--New York; Motion picture actors and actresses--California--Los Angeles; Extortion--New York (State)--New York; Industries--California--Los Angeles; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History. David Begelman, embezzler.

(Columbia Pictures), Andrew Yule (1989). Fast Fade: David Puttnam, Columbia Pictures, and the Battle for Hollywood. (New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 376 p.). Puttnam, David, 1941- ; Columbia Pictures; Motion picture industry -- United States; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) -- Biography; Motion picture producers and directors -- Great Britain -- Biography.

(Columbia Pictures), Clive Hirschhorn (1990). The Columbia Story (New York, NY: Crown, 400 p.). Columbia Pictures--History.

(Columbia Pictures), Bernard F. Dick, editor (1992). Columbia Pictures: Portrait of a Studio (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 293 p.). Columbia Pictures--History.

(Columbia Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (1993). The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 218 p.). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958; Columbia Pictures Corporation--History; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Columbia Pictures), Nancy Griffin and Kim Masters (1996). Hit and Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony for a Ride in Hollywood. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 479 p.). Peters, Jon; Guber, Peter; Guber-Peters Company; Columbia Pictures; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Columbia Pictures), Bob Thomas ; [foreword by Peter Bart] (2000). King Cohn: The Life and Times of Hollywood Mogul Harry Cohn. (Beverly Hills, CA: New Millenium Press, 376 p. [orig. pub. 1967]). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Columbia Records), Gary Marmorstein (2007). The Label: The Story of Columbia Records. (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth, 602 p.). Film and Music Critic. Columbia Records; Sound recording executives and producers--United States. Cultural history of influential media company.

(Creation Records), Paolo Hewitt (2000). Alan McGee and The Story of Creation Records: This Ecstasy Romance Cannot Last. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream, 208 p.). McGee, Alan; Creation Records (Firm); Sound recording executives and producers--Great Britain--Biography.

(Death Row Records), Ronin Ro (1998). Have Gun Will Travel: The Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall of Death Row Records. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 372 p.). Death Row Records--History; Rap (Music)--History and criticism; Popular culture--United States.

(Death Row Records), Jake Brown (2001). Suge Knight: The Rise, Fall, and Rise of Death Row Records: The Story of Marion "Suge" Knight, a Hard Hitting Study of One Man, One Company That Changed the Course of American Music Forever. (Los Angeles, CA: Colossus Books, 218 p.). Knight, Suge; Knight, Suge--Imprisonment; Death Row Records; Sound recording executives and producers--California--Los Angeles--Biography.

(Death Row Records), Ronin Ro (2007). Dr. Dre: The Biography, the Rise, Fall, and Rise of Andre Young. (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 336 p.). Dr. Dre; Young, Andre; Death Row Records--History; Rap (Music); Aftermath Entertainment; Sound recording executives and producers--California--Los Angeles--Biography. Rise, fall, resurrection of one of biggest names in rap music.  

(Def Jam Records), Kevin Liles; with Samantha Marshall (2005). Make It Happen: The Hip Hop Guide to Success. (New York, NY: Atria Books, 256 p.). Former President, Def Jam records. Success in business--Handbooks, manuals, etc.  

(Disney), Bob Thomas (1976). Walt Disney: An American Original. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 379 p.). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966.

  Walt Disney  (

(Disney), Leonard Mosley (1985). Disney's World: A Biography. (New York, NY: Stein and Day, 330 p.). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography.

(Disney), Richard Schickel (1985). The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt Disney. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 449 p. [rev. and updated]). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966.

(Disney), John Taylor (1987). Storming the Magic Kingdom: Wall Street, the Raiders, and the Battle for Disney. (New York, NY: Knopf, 261 p.). Walt Disney Productions--Reorganization; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--Case studies; Tender offers (Securities)--United States--Case studies; Corporate reorganizations--United States--Case studies.

(Disney), Richard Holliss, Brian Sibley (1988). The Disney Studio Story. (New York, NY: Crown, 256 p.). Walt Disney Company--History.

(Disney), Joe Flower (1991). Prince of the Magic Kingdom: Michael Eisner and the Re-Making of Disney. (New York, NY: Wiley, 309 p.). Eisner, Michael, 1942- ; Walt Disney Company -- History; Walt Disney Productions -- Reorganization; Chief executive officers -- United States -- Biography.

(Disney), Ron Grover (1991). The Disney Touch: How a Daring Management Team Revived an Entertainment Empire. (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 315 p.). Eisner, Michael, 1942- ; Walt Disney Company -- History.

(Disney), Marc Eliot (1993). Walt Disney: Hollywood's Dark Prince: A Biography. (Secaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 305 p.). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--Biography.

(Disney), Michael D. Eisner with Tony Schwartz (1998). Work in Progress: Risking Failure, Surviving Success. (New York, NY: Random House, 450 p.). Eisner, Michael, 1942- ; Walt Disney Company -- History; Chief executive officers -- United States -- Biography.

(Disney), Peter Schweizer, Rochelle Schweizer (1998). Disney: The Mouse Betrayed: Greed, Corruption, and Children at Risk. (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 374 p.). Walt Disney Company--Corrupt practices.

(Disney), Bob Thomas (1998). Building a Company: Roy O. Disney and the Creation of an Entertainment Empire (New York, NY: Hyperion, 359 p.). Disney, Roy O. (Roy Oliver), 1893-1971; Walt Disney Productions; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.

(Disney), Henry A. Giroux (1999). The Mouse That Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 186 p.). Walt Disney Company--History; Popular culture--United States.

(Disney), Dave Smith, Steven Clark (1999). Disney: The First 100 Years. (New York, NY: Hyperion, 197 p.). Walt Disney Company--History.

(Disney), Sean Griffin (2000). Tinker Belles and Evil Queens: The Walt Disney Company from the Inside Out. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 292 p.). Walt Disney Company; Walt Disney Company--History; Homosexuality and motion pictures; Gays--History; Gays--Identity.

(Disney), Kim Masters (2000). The Keys to the Kingdom: How Michael Eisner Lost His Grip. (New York, NY: Morrow, 469 p.). Reporter Covering Hollywood for Time and Vanity Fair. Eisner, Michael, 1942-; Walt Disney Company--History; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography. 

(Disney), Richard E. Foglesong. (2001). Married to the Mouse: Walt Disney World and Orlando (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press). Professor of Politics (Rollins College). City planning--Florida--Orlando; Urban policy--Florida--Orlando; Walt Disney World (Fla.)--Planning.

(Disney), Douglas Brode (2004). From Walt to Woodstock: How Disney Created the Counterculture. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 252 p.). Teaches Cinema Studies at the Newhouse School of Public Communications (Syracuse University). Walt Disney Company; Counterculture--United States--History--20th century. 

(Disney), Harrison "Buzz" Price (2004). Walt’s Revolution!: By the Numbers. (Orlando, FL: Ripley Entertainment, 336 p.). "Dean of Recreation Economics". Disneyland (Calif.) --Planning; Walt Disney World (Fla.) --Planning; Disneyland (Calif.) --Economic aspects; Walt Disney World (Fla.) --Economic aspects.

(Disney), Douglas Brode (2005). Multiculturalism and the Mouse: Race and Sex in Disney Entertainment. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Teaches Cinema Studies at the Newhouse School of Public Communications (Syracuse University). Walt Disney Company; Minorities in motion pictures. Disney promoted diversity decades before concept became popular in 1990s.

(Disney), James B. Stewart (2005). DisneyWar: The Battle for the Magic Kingdom. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 572 p.). Pulitzer-Prize Winning Journalist. Eisner, Michael, 1942-; Walt Disney Company--History. 

(Disney), Neal Gabler (2006). Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. (New York, NY: Knopf, 880 p.). Senior Fellow at the Norman Lear Center for the Study of Entertainment and Society in the Annenberg School for Communications (University of Southern California). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography. Transformed animation from novelty based on movement to art form that presented an illusion of life; synergistic empire; combined film, television, theme parks, music, book publishing, merchandise in a way that was unprecedented,  later widely imitated.   

(Disney), Michael Barrier (2007). The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 411 p). Animation Historian. Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography. Midwestern farm boy to scrambling young businessman to pioneering artist to  entrepreneur on grand scale; flawed but imaginative leaps vaulted him ahead of competition.

(Disney), Lee Cockerell (2008). Creating Magic: 10 Common Sense Leadership Strategies from a Life at Disney. (New York, NY: Currency Doubleday, 270 p.). Executive Vice President of Operations for Walt Disney World. Walt Disney Company --Management; Leadership; Corporate culture; Organizational effectiveness; Walt Disney World (Fla.)--Planning. Leadership principles; ten practical, common sense strategies: everyone is important; make your people your brand; burn free fuel: appreciation, recognition, encouragement; give people a purpose, not just job.

(Disney), J.P. Telotte (2008). The Mouse Machine: Disney and Technology. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 221 p.). Professor of Film and Media Studies (Georgia Institute of Technology). Walt Disney Company; Motion picture industry --Technological innovations; Television --Technological innovations; Amusement parks --Technological innovations. Technological context for Disney creations: stereophonic surround sound, wide-screen technology, three-strip Technicolor film, depth in animated image; partnership with television, theme park, technology in science fiction; digital filmmaking, digital special effects; extraordinary growth.

(Disney), Chad Denver Emerson (2010). Project Future: The Inside Story Behind the Creation of Disney World. (Pike Road, AL: Ayefour Publishing, 204 p.). Professor of Law (Faulkner University). Walt Disney Company; Disney World; Florida -- history. How Walt Disney World Resort, code-named Project Future in the 1960s, rose from marshes of Central Florida to become one of world's most popular theme park resorts; how, why Disney ended up here; how, why Walt Disney selected Central Florida.

(Disney), Timothy S. Susanin (2011). Walt Before Mickey: Disney’s Early Years, 1919-1928. (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 384 p.). General Counsel of a Fortune 500 Company. Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators --United States --Biography. 10 critical, formative years started Disney's career, gave him skills to become name known worldwide (from age 17 to cusp of international renown); struggled with, failed at, eventually mastered art and business of animation for ten years before creating Mickey Mouse; served in Red Cross in France after World War I, worked for advertising and commercial art in Kansas City; created four studios (Kaycee Studios, Laugh-O-gram Films, Disney Brothers Studio, Walt Disney Studio); complicated, resourceful man.

(Disneyland),  Randy Bright; foreword by Michael Eisner. (1987). Disneyland: Inside Story. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 240 p.). Disneyland (Calif.)--History.

(Disneyland), David Koenig; foreword by Art Linkletter (1994). Mouse Tales: A Behind-the-Ears Look at Disneyland. (Irvine, CA: Bonaventure Press, 239 p.). Amusement parks--California--History; Disneyland (Calif.)--History.

(Disneyland), David Koenig; foreword by Van Arsdale France. (1999). More Mouse Tales: A Closer Peek Backstage at Disneyland. (Irvine, CA: Bonaventure Press, 237 p.). Amusement parks--California--History; Disneyland (Calif.)--History.

(Disneyland), Robert R. Reynolds. (1999). Roller Coasters, Flumes & Flying Saucers: The Story of Ed Morgan & Carl Bacon, Ride Inventors of the Modern Amusement Parks. (Jupiter, FL: Northern Lights Pub., 192 p.). Morgan, Ed; Bacon, Karl; Arrow Development (Firm)--History; Amusement rides--United States--History; Amusement ride equipment industry--United States--History; Inventors--United States--Biography; Disneyland (Calif.)--History.

(Walt Disney Records), Tim Hollis and Greg Ehrbar (2006). Mouse Tracks: The Story of Walt Disney Records. (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 221 p.). Walt Disney Records--History; Sound recording industry--United States; Popular music--United States--History and criticism. Fifty-year history of Disney recording companies launched by Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney in mid-1950s.

(Dreamworks), Nicole Laporte (2010). The Men Who Would Be King: An Almost Epic Tale of Moguls, Movies, and a Company Called Dreamworks. (Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 512 p.). Former Film Reporter for Variety, West Coast Reporter (The Daily Beast). Spielberg, Steven, 1946-; Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 1950-; Dreamworks Pictures --History; Geffen, David. Hollywood’s bizarre rules of business; clashes between Spielberg’s troops, Katzenberg’s warriors, debacles and disasters; Oscar-winning triumphs; studio burned through billions, rich owners got richer, everybody else suffered; Geffen seduced investors, showed steel against CAA’s Michael Ovitz, staged fireworks during negotiations with Paramount, Disney.

(ECM Records), Eds. Steve Lake and Paul Griffiths (2007). Horizons Touched: The Music of ECM. (London, UK: Granta, 448 p.). ECM Employee; Former Opera Critic (New York Times). ECM Records; Eicher, Manfred; jazz--History.  Portrait of label, its artists, their music; celebrates, reflects on ways in which ECM has grown, changed from origins in jazz to contemporary classical, from medieval chant to free jazz and traditional folk music from around world. 

Manfred Eicher - founder ECM Records (

(Edison Manufacturing Company), Charles Musser (1991). Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 591 p.). Porter, Edwin S. -- Criticism and interpretation; Thomas A. Edison, Inc.; Silent films -- United States -- History and criticism; Motion pictures -- United States -- History.

(Embassy Theatre), Dyne L. Pfeffenberger; with contributions by Marlyn E. Koons and Kathleen E. Skiba (2009). The Historic Fort Wayne Embassy Theatre. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 120 p.). Former Professor Emeritus of Accounting (Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne). Embassy Theatre (Fort Wayne, Ind.); Historic buildings --Conservation and restoration --Indiana --Fort Wayne; Motion picture theaters --Conservation and restoration --Indiana --Fort Wayne; Fort Wayne (Ind.) --Buildings, structures, etc. Rescue from demolition, subsequent restoration of Fort Wayne's largest movie palace, vaudeville house; famous for its Grande Page Pipe Organ; restored as performing arts center, venue for Broadway shows.

(Essanay Film Manufacturing Co.), David Kiehn (2003). Broncho Billy and the Essanay Film Company. (Berkeley, CA: Farwell Books 436 p.). Film Historian. Anderson, Gilbert M., 1882-1971; Essanay Film Manufacturing Co. --History; Western films --United States --History and criticism. Founded in 1907 in Chicago by George K. Spoor and Gilbert M. ("Bronchjo Billy") Anderson originally as Peerless Film Manufacturing Company; August 10, 1907 - name changed to Essanay ("S and A"); April 1912 - 52 members of Essanay Film Manufacturing Company arrived by train in Niles, CA (part of Frermont, CA, population 1400); June 11, 1913 - director Lloyd Ingraham inaugurated new studio with first production; December 1914 - signed Charlie Chaplin (yearly income, including bonus, of $75,000; each of his films brought in around $125,000); December 1915 - Spoor rejected Chaplin’s salary demands (went elsewhere); acquired Anderson's interest; February 16, 1916 - ordered to close.

(Euro Disneyland), Andrew Lainsbury (2000). Once Upon an American Dream: The Story of Euro Disneyland. (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 292 p.). Walt Disney Company -- Finance; Euro Disneyland (Marne-la-Vallée, France) -- History; Popular culture -- France -- American influences.

(Estey Organ Company), Dennis G. Waring (2002). Manufacturing the Muse: Estey Organs & Consumer Culture in Victorian America. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 356 p.). Estey Organ Company; Reed organ United States; Popular culture United States History 19th century. 

(Fender Musical Instruments), Forrest White (1994). Fender: The Inside Story. (San Francisco, CA: GPI Books, 258 p.). Fender, Leo, 1909-1991; Fender Musical Instruments--History; Fender guitar--Construction; Electric guitar--Construction.

Leo Fender - Fender Instruments (

(Fender Musical Instruments), John Teagle & John Sprung (1995). Fender Amps: The First Fifty Years. (Milwaukee, WI: H. Leonard, 256 p.). Fender Musical Instruments--History; Guitar--Electronic equipment; Audio amplifiers.

(Fender Musical Instruments), Richard R. Smith (1995). Fender: The Sound Heard 'Round the World. (Fullerton, CA: Garfish Pub. Co., 304 p.). Fender, Leo, 1909-1991; Fender Musical Instruments--History; Fender guitar--History; Fender guitar--Pictorial works.

(Fender Musical Instruments), Tony Bacon; chronology compiled by Paul Day (2000). 50 Years of Fender. (London, UK: Balafon, 128 p.). Fender Musical Instruments--History; Fender guitar--History; Electric guitar--History; Guitar--History.

(Geffen Records), Stephen Singular (1997). The Rise and Rise of David Geffen. (Secaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 250 p.). Geffen, David, 1943- ; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography.

(Geffen Records), Tom King (2000). The Operator: David Geffen Builds, Buys and Sells the New Hollywood. (New York, NY: Random House, 670 p.). Geffen, David, 1943-; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography.  

(Gibson Inc.), Walter Carter (1994). Gibson Guitars: 100 Years of an American Icon. (Los Angeles, CA: General Pub. Group, 314 p.). Gibson, inc.--History; Guitar--History; Mandolin--History; Banjo--History.

(Goldcrest Films), Jake Eberts and Terry Ilott (1990). My Indecision Is Final: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of Goldcrest Films, the Independent Studio that Challenged Hollywood. (New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 678 p.). Goldcrest Films and Television--History; Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History.

(Hammer Film Productions), Denis Meikle (1996). A History of Horrors: The Rise and Fall of the House of Hammer. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 420 p.). Hammer Film Productions; Horror films--Great Britain--History and criticism.

(Hammer Film Productions), Marcus Hearn & Alan Barnes (2007). The Hammer Story. (London, UK: Titan Books, 191 p. [rev. ed.]). Hammer Film Productions--History. One of the world's most famous horror film studios. Legendary British film studio changed face of horror cinema, inspired generation of Hollywood filmmakers.

(Hanna-Barbera), Joseph Barbera (1994). My Life in ’Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. (Atlanta, GA: Turner Pub., 250 p.). Co-Founder Hanna-Barbera Productions. Barbera, Joseph; Animators--United States--Biography.

(Harcourt General), Bettye H. Pruitt with assistance from George D. Smith (1994). The Making of Harcourt General: A History of Growth Through Diversification, 1922-1992. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 310 p.). Professor (Harvard Business School). Diversification, Harcourt Brace, General Cinema.

(HBO), George Mair (1988). Inside HBO: The Billion Dollar War Between HBO, Hollywood, and the Home Video Revolution. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 204 p.). Home Box Office (Firm); Cable television -- United States; Motion picture industry -- United States.

(Ibbs and Tillett), Christopher Fifield (2005). Ibbs and Tillett: The Rise and Fall of a Musical Empire. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 678 p.). Ibbs and Tillett; Concert agents--England--Biography. Benchmark in highly competitive world of artist management and concert promotion.

(Impulse Records), Ashley Kahn (2006). The House that Trane Built: The Story of Impulse Records. (New York, NY: Norton, 352 p.). Coltrane, John, 1926-1967; Impulse Records--History; Sound recording industry--United States; Jazz--History and criticism. Evolution of record industry through tumultuous 1960s.  

(Island Records), Chris Salewicz (2009). Keep on Running: The Story of Island Records. (London, UK: Universal-Island Records Limited, 226 p.). Blackwell, Chris; Island records--history; Recording label--history. Nine essays by some of UK's most renowned writers tell story of independent label, its art (visual style), its artists.

(Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival), Norton Owen; foreword by Sali Ann Kriegsman (1997). A Certain Place: The Jacob’s Pillow Story. (Becket, MA: Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival, 51 p.). Shawn, Ted, 1891-1972; Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival; Dance festivals--Massachusetts. This publication has been made possible by a grant from Philip Morris Companies Inc., celebrating 25 years of dance support.

(JBL), John M. Eargle (2007). The JBL Story: 60 Years of Audio Innovation. (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 326 p.). James B. Lansing Sound--History; Sound--Equipment and supplies--History; Sound--Recording and reproducing--United States--History; Audio equipment industry--United States--History. Amplified sound applied in almost every aspect of life - from home to concert hall; most recognized audio brand in world. 

(W. W. Kimball), Van Allen Bradley (1957). Music for the Millions; The Kimball Piano and Organ Story. (Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co., 334 p.). Kimball, William Wallace, 1828-1904; W.W. Kimball Company; Piano--Construction; Piano--History. Founded 1857 in Chicago.

(Lucasfilm, Ltd.), Charles Champlin (1997). George Lucas: The Creative Impulse: Lucasfilm's First Twenty-Five Years. (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 232 p. [rev. and updated]). Lucas, George, 1944- ; Lucasfilm, Ltd.

(Lucasfilm Ltd.), Michael Rubin (2005). Droidmaker: George Lucas and the Digital Revolution. (Gainesville, FL: Triad Publishing, 518 p.). Former Member of the Lucasfilm Computer Division. Lucas, George, 1944- ; Lucasfilm, Ltd. Genesis of modern media, era of technological innovation; inside story of George Lucas, his intensely private company, work to revolutionize filmmaking; birth of Pixar, digital video editing, videogame avitars, THX sound, other icons of media age; tale of friendships, love of movies, incessant forward movement of technology.

(Ludwig Drum Company), William F. Ludwig II (2002). The Making of a Drum Company: The Autobiography of William F. Ludwig II. (Indianapolis, IN: Rebeats Press, 128 p.). Ludwig, William F. II; Musical instruments industry; drums. 

(Mandalay Entertainment Group), Peter M. Gruber (2011). Tell to Win: Connect, Persuade, and Triumph with the Hidden Power of Story. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 272 p.). Chairman and CEO of Mandalay Entertainment Group. Storytelling; persuasion; selling. How powerful storytelling can be ultimate tool to get meeting, engage listener, close deal; power of well-crafted story or appeal; power of metaphor in crafting core narrative of pitch or advertising campaign.

(C. F. Martin & Co.), Philip F. Gura (2003). C.F. Martin & His Guitars, 1796-1873. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 250 p.). William S. Newman Distinguished Professor of American Literature and Culture (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). Martin, C. F. (Christian Frederick), 1796-1873; C.F. Martin & Co.; Guitar makers United States. Nineteenth-century American music trade; German immigrant became finest American guitar maker of his time; humble origins as importer, repairman of musical instruments in New York City in  1830s to Nazareth, PA; founded of C. F. Martin & Company in 1833, survived, prospered through rapid economic expansion, industrialization.

(C. F. Martin & Co.), Richard Johnston and & Dick Boak (2008). Martin Guitars: A History. (New York, NY: Hal Leonard Press, 220 p. [rev., updated; orig. publ. 1975]). C.F. Martin & Co.; Martin guitar --History. People, places, stories of American icon; early days in New York, circa 1833, to fifth-generation president Chris Martin IV; re-vitalization of 1990s, sustenance of its legacy; people, guitars that made company famous.

(Mascot Pictures), Jon Tuska (1982). The Vanishing Legion: aA History of Mascot Pictures, 1927-1935. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 215 p.). Mascot Pictures (Firm).

(MCA), William Knoedelseder (1993). Stiffed: A True Story of MCA, the Music Business, and the Mafia. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 480 p.). Former Reporter (Los Angeles Times). MCA Inc.; Sound recording industry--Corrupt practices--United States; Mafia--United States.

Jules Stein - founder MCA ( images/about_jules.jpg)

Lew Wasserman photo Lew Wasserman (

(MCA), Dennis McDougal (1998). The Last Mogul: Lew Wasserman, MCA, and the Hidden History of Hollywood. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 560 p.). Wasserman, Lew; MCA Inc.--History; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.

(MCA), Connie Bruck (2003). When Hollywood Had a King: The Reign of Lew Wasserman, Who Leveraged Talent into Power and Influence. (New York, NY: Random House, 514 p.). Wasserman, Lew; Music Corporation of America--History; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.

(MCA), Kathleen Sharp (2003). Mr. & Mrs. Hollywood: Edie and Lew Wasserman and Their Entertainment Empire. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 597 p.). Award-Winning Journalist. Wasserman, Lew; Wasserman, Edie; Music Corporation of America; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography. 

(Merchant Ivory Productions), John Pym; comments by James Ivory (1983). The Wandering Company: Twenty-One Years of Merchant Ivory Films. (London, UK: British Film Institute, 102 p.). Merchant Ivory Productions -- History; Motion pictures; India (Republic) Cinema industries.

(MGM), Bosley Crowther (1957). The Lion's Share; The Story of an Entertainment Empire. (New York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion pictures--History.

goldwyn_faceshot.jpg (9491 bytes) Samuel Goldwyn (

Louis B. Mayer - MGM (

(MGM), Bosley Crowther (1960). Hollywood Rajah; The Life and Times of Louis B. Mayer. (New York, NY: Holt, 339 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957.

(MGM), Dial Torgerson (1974). Kerkorian: An American Success Story. (New York, NY: Dial Press, 306 p.). Kerkorian, Kirk, 1917-.

(MGM), John Douglas Eames (1975). The MGM Story: The Complete History of Fifty Roaring Years. (New York, NY: Crown, 400 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

(MGM), Carol Easton (1976). The Search for Sam Goldwyn; A Biography. (New York, NY: Morrow, 304 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(MGM), Arthur Marx (1976). Goldwyn: A Biography of the Man Behind the Myth. (New York, NY: Norton, 376 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974.

(MGM), Gary Carey (1981). All the Stars in Heaven: Louis B. Mayer's M-G-M. (New York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-195; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion picture producers and directors -- United States -- Biography.

(MGM), Michael Freedland (1986). The Goldwyn Touch: A Biography of Sam Goldwyn. (London, UK: Harrap, 264 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(MGM), A. Scott Berg (1989). Goldwyn: A Biography. (New York, NY: Knopf, 579 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(MGM), Peter Bart (1990). Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM. (New York, NY: Morrow, 304 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

(MGM), Peter Hay with Woolsey Ackerman ... [et al.] (1991). MGM--When the Lion Roars. (Atlanta, GA: Turner Pub., 335 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer--History.

(MGM), Diana Altman (1992). Hollywood East: Louis B. Mayer and the Origins of the Studio System. (New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 302 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Motion picture industry--United States--History.

(MGM), Charles Higham (1993). Merchant of Dreams: Louis B. Mayer, M.G.M., and the Secret Hollywood. (New York, NY: D. I. Fine, 488 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(MGM), Roland Flamini (1994). Thalberg: The Last Tycoon and the World of M-G-M. (New York, NY: Crown 309 p.). Thalberg, Irving G., 1899-1936; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion picture producers and directors --United States --Biography. Head of Universal Studio at 20, MGM's production chief at 23; supervised more than 400 movies; complex relationship with MGM partner Louis B. Mayer, battles over censorship with Hays office, attempt to turn his wife, Norma Shearer, into first lady of screen.

(MGM), Scott Eyman (2005). Lion of Hollywood; The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 596 p.). Film Historian. Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(MGM), Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, Michael Troyan (2010). MGM: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot. (Santa Monica, CA Santa Monica Press, 312 p. ). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Founded 1924 - by 1934, MGM had more than 4,000 employees, including 61 stars and feature players, 17 directors and 51 writers, all under exclusive contracts; 1941 - 178 people worked in costume building, oversaw 250,000 designs from almost every historical period; "The Wizard of Oz" (1939) cost $2,796,230.30 ("over budget" by $1,048,07);  MGM's decline - bad management and the collapse of the Hollywood studio system; 1970 - final auction of what was once the most storied studio in Hollywood.

(C. F. Martin), Philip F. Gura (2003). C.F. Martin & His Guitars, 1796-1873. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 250 p.). William S. Newman Distinguished Professor of American Literature and Culture (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). Martin, C. F. (Christian Frederick), 1796-1873; C.F. Martin & Co.; Guitar makers United States. 

(Metropolitan Opera), Joseph Volpe with Charles Michener (2006). The Toughest Show on Earth: My Rise and Reign at the Metropolitan Opera. (New York, NY: Knopf, 320 p.). General Manager of Metropolitan Opera (16 years). Volpe, Joseph; Metropolitan Opera (New York, N.Y.); Opera producers and directors--United States--Biography. New York and business of culture; vast egos, complicated politics, glittering past.

(Microsoft), Dean Takahashi (2002). Opening the XBox: Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unleash an Entertainment Revolution. (Roseville, CA: Prima, 370 p.). Senior Writer (Red Herring magazine). Microsoft Corporation; Electronic games industry--United States; Video games--Equipment and supplies.

(Harry M. Miller Group), Harry M. Miller as told to Denis O'Brien (1983). My Story. (South Melbourne, AU: Macmillan, 322 p.). Miller, Harry M. (Harry Maurice), 1934- ; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography; Entrepreneurship--Biography. Brought Rolling Stones to Australia, rock operas, Judy Garland, etc.

(Miramax Films), Peter Biskind (2004). Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, Sundance, and the Rise of Independent Film. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 560 p.). Miramax Films--History; Sundance Film Festival--History; Independent filmmakers--United States. 

(Motion Picture Association of America), Jack Valenti (2007). This Time, This Place: My Life in War, the White House, and Hollywood. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 416 p.). President, Motion Picture Association of America. Valenti, Jack; Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973 --Friends and associates; Motion Picture Association of America--Biography; United States. Army. Air Corps--Biography; Political consultants--United States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography; Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--History; Air pilots, Military--United States--Biography; United States--Politics and government--1963-1969; Houston (Tex.)--Biography. Earned both Distinguished Flying Cross and his own star on  Hollywood Walk of Fame; helped to shape politics,  entertainment in second half of  twentieth century.

Jack Valenti - Motion Picture Association (

(Motown Record Corporation), Nelson George (1985). Where Did Our Love Go?: The Rise & Fall of the Motown Sound. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 250 p.). Motown Record Corporation; Soul music--History and criticism; Afro-American musicians.

Berry Gordy Jr. Berry Gordy, Jr. (

(Motown Record Corporation), Don Waller (1985). The Motown Story. (New York, NY: Scribner, 256 p.). Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording industry--United States.

(Motown Record Corporation), Sharon Davis (1988). Motown: The History. (Enfield, Middlesex, UK: Guiness Pub., 368 p.). Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording industry--United States.

(Motown Record Corporation), Berry Gordy (1994). To Be Loved: The Music, the Magic, the Memories of Motown: An Autobiography. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 432 p.). Gordy, Berry; Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography.

(Motown Record Corporation), Bill Dahl (2001). Motown: The Golden Years. (Iola, WI: Krause, 349 p.). Motown Record Corporation--History; Soul music--History and criticism; Soul musicians--United States.

(Motown Record Corporation), Gerald Posner (2003). Motown: Money, Power, Sex, and Music. (New York, NY: Random House, 350 p.). Former Wall Street Lawyer. Gordy, Berry; Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording industry--United States; Sound recording executives and producers--United States--Biography.

(Music Hall-Portsmouth), Zhana Morris and Trevor F. Bartlett (2003). The Music Hall, Portsmouth. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Music Hall (Portsmouth, NH); Performing arts--New Hampshire--Portsmouth--History--20th century. New Hampshire's oldest operating theater - Twain spoke from her stage, Sousa's brass echoed from her walls, Edison's films brought her silver screen to life.

(Napster), John Alderman; foreword by Evan I. Schwartz; preface by Herbie Hancock (2001). Sonic Boom: Napster, MP3, and the New Pioneers of Music. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 205 p.). Napster, Inc.; Sound recording industry--United States; MP3 (Audio coding standard).

(Oxford University Dramatic Society), Humphrey Carpenter; with a prologue by Robert Robinson (1985). OUDS: A Centenary History of the Oxford University Dramatic Society, 1885-1985. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 227 p.). Oxford University Dramatic Society.

(Palace Pictures), Angus Finney (1996). The Egos Have Landed: The Rise and Fall of Palace Pictures (London, UK: Heinemann, 321 p.). Palace Pictures--History; Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History.

(Paramount Pictures), Will Irwin (1928). The House that Shadows Built. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, inc., 293 p.). Zukor, Adolph, 1873- ; Motion pictures--History.  

W.W. Hodkinson - founder Paramount (

Adolph Zukor - Paramount ( simpp_archive/images/zukor-portrait1922.jpg) June 11, 1976 Obituary:

Jesse L. Lasky - Paramount (

(Paramount Pictures), Adolph Zukor, with Dale Kramer. (1953). The Public Is Never Wrong; The Autobiography of Adolph Zukor, with Dale Kramer. (New York, NY: Putnam, 309 p.). Zukor, Adolph, 1873-1976; Motion pictures--History.

(Paramount Pictures), I. G. Edmonds and Reiko Mimura (1980). Paramount Pictures and the People Who Made Them. (San Diego, CA: A. S. Barnes, 272 p.). Paramount Pictures Corporation.

(Paramount Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (2001). Engulfed: The Death of Paramount Pictures and the Birth of Corporate Hollywood (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 269 p.). Paramount Pictures Corporation--History.

(Paramount Pictures), John Douglas Eames and Robert Abele (2002). The Paramount Story. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, p. [orig. pub. 1985]). Paramount Pictures, inc.; Paramount Pictures Corporation.

(Philadelphia International Records), John A. Jackson (2004). A House on Fire: The Rise and Fall of Philadelphia Soul. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 338 p.). Gamble, Kenny; Huff, Leon; Bell, Thom; Philadelphia soul--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History and criticism. 

(Pixar), Karen Paik; based on interviews and research by Leslie Iwerks; foreword by John Lasseter, Steve Jobs, and Ed Catmull (2007). To Infinity and Beyond!: The Story of Pixar Animation Studios. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 320 p.). Pixar (Firm); Animated films--United States; Computer animation. 1986 - John Lasseter (animator), Ed Catmull (technology), Steve Jobs founded Pixar Animation Studios to create computer animated feature: from fledgling days under George Lucas to creating Toy Story to merger with Disney.

(Pixar), David A. Price (2008). The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Creative Company. (New York, NY: Knopf, 304 p.). Pixar (Firm); Animated films --United States; Computer animation. Origins, triumph of Pixar Animation Studios - changed film industry; technical innovation revolutionized animation, transformed hand-drawn cel animation to computer-generated 3-D graphics; 1986 - Lucasfilm Ltd. special-effects computer group acquired by Steve Jobs for $10 million; renamed Pixar Animation Studios; co-founder, technical genius, Ed Catmull; John Lasseter; feuds between Lasseter, Jeffrey Katzenberg, between Steve Jobs and Michael Eisner; from a Disney satellite into $7.4 billion jewel in Disney crown.

(Pixar), Bill Capodagli and Lynn Jackson (2009). Innovate the Pixar Way: Business Lessons from the World's Most Creative Corporate Playground. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 208 p.). Pixar (Firm) -- Management; Creative ability in business; Organizational change; Technological innovations -- Management. How Pixar reawakened innovative spirit of Walt Disney; what it takes to get people to achieve greatness.

(PolyGram Films), Michael Kuhn (2002). One Hundred Films and a Funeral: PolyGram Films: Birth, Betrothal, Betrayal, Burial. (London, UK: Thorogood, 258 p.). Former President of PolyGram Films, Creator of the Sundance Channel. PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (Firm)--History.

(Rank Organization plc), Quentin Falk; foreword by Michael Caine (1987). The Golden Gong: Fifty Years of the Rank Organisation, Its films and Its Stars. (London, UK: Columbus Books, 208 p.). Rank Organisation--History; Motion pictures--Great Britain--History.

J Arthur Rank (Lord Rank) - Rank Group Plc (

(Rank Organization plc), Geoffrey Macnab (1993). J. Arthur Rank and the British Film Industry. (New York, NY: Routledge, 270 p.). Rank, J. Arthur, 1888-1972; Rank Organisation--History; Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History. Established organization comparable in size to any of major Hollywood studios; eventual collapse of Rank experiment amidst economic, political maelstrom of post-war Britain.

(Rank Organization plc), Michael Wakelin (1996). J. Arthur Rank: The Man Behind the Gong. (Oxford, England: Lion Pub., 248 p.). Rank, J. Arthur, 1888-1972; Motion picture producers and directors--Great Britain--Biography; Businessmen--Great Britain--Biography.

(Republic Pictures Corporation), Richard Maurice Hurst (1979). Republic Studios: Between Poverty Row and the Majors. (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 262 p.). Republic Pictures Corporation.

(RKO - Founded in 1929 from the merger of Keith Orpheum theater circuit [1882], Joseph P. Kennedy’s Film Booking Office [1917] and Radio Corporation of America (RCA) [1909]), Richard B. Jewell with Vernon Harbin (1982). The RKO Story. (New York, NY: Arlington House, 320 p.). RKO Radio Pictures, inc.

(RKO), Betty Lasky (1989). RKO, The Biggest Little Major of Them All. (Santa Monica, CA: Roundtable Pub., 242 p. [2nd ed., orig. pub. 1984]). RKO Radio Pictures, inc.--History.

(Hal Roach Studios), Richard Lewis Ward (2005). A History of the Hal Roach Studios. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 246 p.). Associate Professor of Communications (University of South Alabama). Hal Roach Studios--History. 

Picture Hal Roach Hal Roach (

(San Francisco Ballet), Janice Ross, Preface by Brigitte Lefèvre; Foreword by Allan Ulrich (2007). San Francisco Ballet at Seventy-Five. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 188 p.). Associate Professor of Dance History (Stanford University); Director of Dance for the Paris Opera Ballet; Dance Critic and Advising Senior Editor for Dance Magazine. San Francisco Ballet; Ballet -- history; Dance -- California. America's oldest ballet company; how San Francisco Ballet has forged fresh identity for American dance, pioneered new model of internationalism.

(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), Compiled by Kitty Grime; Photography by Val Wilmer (1979). Jazz at Ronnie Scott's. (London, UK: Hale, 192 p). Ronnie Scott’s Club; Jazz --England --London --History and criticism.

(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), John Fordham (1996). Jazz Man: The Amazing Story of Ronnie Scott & His Club. (London, UK: Trafalgar Square, 208 p.). Scott, Ronnie; Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club; Jazz--History--London. Portrait of man, his music, his business from early days as sharp-dressing, wisecracking young dance-band musician in wartime London, through coming of rock 'n' roll, hipster fashions, jive talk, to setting up of now famous club.

(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), John Fordham, John, John Hopkins, Val Wilmer, David Redfern, Alan Titmuss, and David Sinclair (2004). Ronnie Scott's Forty Five. (London, UK: Famulus Editions Limited, 180 p.). Scott, Ronie; Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club; Jazz--History--London. Visually stunning collection of photographs chart venue's history.

Ronnie Scott (Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club) (2006). Some of My Best Friends Are Blues. (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Northway Publications, 125 p. [orig. pub. 1979]). Founder, Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club. Scott, Ronnie; Jazz musicians --England --Biography; Saxophonists --England --Biography; Jazz musicians --England --Correspondence; Saxophonists --England --Correspondence.

(Shubert Organization), Jerry Stagg (1968). The Brothers Shubert. (New York, NY: Random House, 431 p.). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953; Shubert, Sam S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J., 1878?-1963; Theater --United States --History.

(Shubert Organization), Brooks McNamara (1990). The Shuberts of Broadway: A History Drawn from the Collections of the Shubert Archive. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 230 p.). Professor of Performance Studies at Tisch School of the Arts ( New York University). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953; Shubert, Sam S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J., 1878?-1963; Schubert family; Theater --New York (State) --New York --History --20th century; Theater --United States --History --20th century; Theatrical producers and directors --United States --Biography; Theatrical paraphernalia --United States; Broadway (New York, N.Y.) --History. Lives of Sam, Lee, and J. J. Shubert from their early years, through building of their empire, Broadway boom of 1920s, to their last days.

(Shubert Organization), Foster Hirsch (1998). The Boys from Syracuse: The Shuberts' Theatrical Empire. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 342 p.). Professor of Film at Brooklyn College (City University of New York). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953; Shubert, Sam S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J., 1878?-1963; Schubert family; Shubert Organization --History; Theater --New York (State) --New York --History --20th century; Theater --United States --History --20th century; Theatrical producers and directors --United States --Biography. Since turn of century, Shuberts, heir heirs exercised unequaled power over Broadway and the road; their lives, evolution of their business; heyday from 1905 to crash of 1929.

(Stax Records), Rob Bowman (1997). Soulsville, U.S.A.: The Story of Stax Records (New York, NY: Schirmer Books, 402 p.). Stax Records--History; Rhythm and blues music--History and criticism; Memphis (Tenn.)--History.

staxjimarge.jpg (132441 bytes) Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton - Stax Records (

(Steinway), Theodore E. Steinway (1961). People and Pianos; a Century of Service to Music (New York, NY: Steinway, 125 p.). Steinway & Sons.

Steinway & Sons Henry Engelhard Steinway (born Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg ) - founder Stenway (

(Steinway), Aaron Singer (1986). Labor Management Relations at Steinway & Sons, 1853-1896 (New York, NY: Garland, 219 p.). Steinway & Sons--History--19th century; Musical instruments industry--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century; Industrial relations--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century. Series: American business history.

(Steinway), Ronald V. Ratcliffe (1989). Steinway & Sons. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 204 p.). Steinway & Sons--History; Steinway piano; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Steinway), D.W. Fostle (1994). The Steinway Saga: An American Dynasty (New York, NY: Scribner, 710 p.). Steinway family; Steinway & Sons--History; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Steinway), Richard K. Lieberman (1995). Steinway & Sons (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 374 p.). Steinway & Sons--History; Steinway piano; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Steinway), Susan Goldenberg (1996). Steinway from Glory to Controversy: The Family, the Business, the Piano (Buffalo, NY: Mosaic Press, 253 p.). Steinway family; Steinway & Sons--History; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History; Steinway piano--History.

(Steinway), James Barron (2006). Piano: The Making of a Steinway Concert Grand. (New York, NY: Times Books, 280 p.). Staff Reporter (The New York Times). Steinway & Sons; Steinway piano--Construction; Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History. Brand-new piano (number K0862) on eleven-month journey through Steinway factory from raw lumber to finished instrument.

(Stiff Records), Bert Muirhead (1983). Stiff, The Story of a Record Label, 1976-1982. (Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press, 112 p.). Stiff Records; Rock music--Great Britain--Discography.

(Sun Records), Colin Escott and Martin Hawkins (1975). Catalyst: The Sun Records Story. (London, UK: Aquarius Books, 173 p.). Sun Records.





Sam Phillips - Sun Records (

(Sun Records), Colin Escott and Martin Hawkins (1980). Sun Records: The Brief History of the Legendary Recording Label. (New York, NY: Quick Fox, 184 p. [orig. pub. 1975]). Sun Records.

(Sun Records), Colin Escott, Martin Hawkins & Hank Davis (1986). The Sun Country Years: Country Music in Memphis, 1950-1959. (Bremen, West Germany: Bear Family Records, 128 p.). Sun Records--History; Country music--Tennessee--Memphis--1951-1960--History and criticism; Country musicians--Tennessee--Memphis--Biography.

(Sun Records), Colin Escott with Martin Hawkins (1991). Good Rockin’ Tonight: Sun Records and the Birth of Rock ’n’ Roll. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 276 p.). Sun Records--History; Rock music--United States--To 1961--History and criticism; Rock music--United States--1961-1970--History and criticism.

(Sun Records), John Floyd (1998). Sun Records: An Oral History. (New York, NY: Avon Books, 191 p.). Sun Records--History; Rock music--To 1961--History and criticism; Rock music--1961-1970--History and criticism.

(Taylor Guitars), Bob Taylor (2011). Guitar Lessons: A Life's Journey Turning Passion into Business. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 230 p.). Founder. Taylor, Bob, 1955-; Taylor Guitars (Firm); Guitar makers -- United States -- Biography. Founding, growth of Taylor Guitars, world-famous acoustic and electric guitar manufacturer; From first guitar in junior high school, quality products with his own hands, successful, sustainable business; values he lives by, that have provided foundation for company's success.

(Thorn EMI Plc), S.A. Pandit (1996). From Making to Music: The History of Thorn EMI. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 270 p.). Corporations, British; Sound recording industry -- Great Britain.

(Thorn EMI Plc), Peter Martland (1997). Since Records Began: EMI, the First 100 Years. (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 359 p.). EMI Records Ltd.--History; Sound recording industry--History.

(Trans Continental Companies), Lou Pearlman with Wes Smith (2003). Bands, Brands and Billions: My Top 10 Rules for Making Any Business Go Platinum. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 261 p.). Marketer Behind Successful Boy Bands *NSync, the Backstreet Boys and O-Town. Success in business; Entrepreneurship. 

(Trumpet Records), Marc W. Ryan (2004). Trumpet Records: Diamonds on Farish Street. (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 225 p.). Trumpet Records (Firm); Sound recording industry -- United States; Blues (Music) -- Discography.

(Twentieth Century-Fox), Leonard Mosley (1984). Zanuck: The Rise and Fall of Hollywood's Last Tycoon. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 424 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- ; Motion picture producers and directors -- United States -- Biography.

Darryl F. Zanuck Darryl F. Zanuck - founder 20th Century Fox (

(Twentieth Century-Fox), Aubrey Solomon (1988). Twentieth Century-Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 285 p.). Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation--History; Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation--Finance.

(Twentieth Century-Fox), Stephen M. Silverman (1988). The Fox That Got Away: The Last Days of the Zanuck Dynasty at Twentieth Century-Fox. (Seacaucus, NJ: L. Stuart, 356 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- ; Zanuck family; Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation--History; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Twentieth Century-Fox), Marlys J. Harris (1989). The Zanucks of Hollywood: The Dark Legacy of an American Dynasty. (New York, NY: Crown, 346 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- ; Zanuck family; Motion picture producers and directors -- United States -- Biography.

(Twentieth Century-Fox), Selected, edited, and annotated by Rudy Behlmer; with a forward by Philip Dunne (1993). Memo from Darryl F. Zanuck: The Golden Years at Twentieth Century-Fox. (New York, NY: Grove Press, 276 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- --Correspondence; Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation--History; Motion picture industry--United States--History; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Correspondence.

(United Artists), Tino Balio (1976). United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 323 p.). United Artists Corporation.

Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, D . W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin (founders of UA) (

(United Artists), Ronald Bergan (1986). The United Artists Story. (New York, NY: Crown, 352 p.). United Artists Corporation--History; Motion pictures--United States.

(United Artists), Tino Balio (1987). United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. (Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 446 p.). United Artists Corporation; Motion picture industry--United States.

(United Artists), Steven Bach (1999). Final Cut: Art, Money, and Ego in the Making of Heaven's Gate, the Film That Sank United Artists. (New York, NY: Newmarket Press, p. [orig. pub. 1985]). Heaven's gate.

(Universal Pictures), Clive Hirschhorn (1983). The Universal Story (New York, NY: Crown, 399 p.; updated edition (2000), London, UK: Hamlyn, 496 p.). Universal Pictures (Firm); Motion pictures--United States--Plots, themes, etc.

Carl Laemmle -founder Universal ( history/laemmle.jpg)

(Universal Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (1997). City of Dreams: The Making and Remaking of Universal Pictures (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 249 p.). Laemmle, Carl, 1867-1939; Universal Pictures (Firm)--History.

(Universal Pictures), I. G. Edmonds (1977). Big U: Universal in the Silent Days. (South Brunswick, NJ: A. S. Barnes, 162 p.). Universal Pictures (Firm).

(Victor Talking Machine Company), Frederick O. Barnum III (1991). His Master’s Voice" in America: Ninety Years of Communications Pioneering and Progress: Victor Talking Machine Company, Radio Corporation of America, General Electric Company. (Camden, NJ: General Electric Co., 385 p.). Victor Talking Machine Company--History; Radio Corporation of America--History; General Electric Company--History; RCA Corporation--History; Electronic industries--United States--History; Mass media--United States--History; Communication and traffic--United States--History.

(Vitagraph Company of America), Anthony Slide with Alan Gevinson (1987). The Big V: A History of the Vitagraph Company. (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 332 p.). Vitagraph Company of America.

(Walnut Street Theatre), Andrew Davis (2010). America’s Longest Run: A History of the Walnut Street Theatre. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 412 p.). Teaches at Otis College of Art and Design Walnut Street Theatre (Philadelphia, Pa.) --History. America's oldest theatre; from founding on February 2, 1809 as stock company; has offered every conceivable form of entertainment (pageantry and spectacle, opera, melodrama, musical theatre, Shakespeare); productions, players, difficulties faced from economic crises, changing tastes, competition from new media; more than 350,000 attend performances each year.

(Warner Bros.), Charles Higham (1975). Warner Brothers. (New York, NY: Scribner, 232 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures.

Warner Brothers  - L-F from top: Jack, Albert, Sam, Harry (

(Warner Bros.), Jack Warner (1975). Jack of All Trades: An Autobiography. (London, UK: W. H. Allen, 226 p.). Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Warner Bros.), Clive Hirschhorn (1979). The Warner Bros. Story (New York, NY: Crown, 480 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures; Motion pictures--Plots, themes, etc.; Motion pictures--United States.

(Warner Bros.), Michael Freedland (1983). The Warner Brothers. (London, UK: Harrap, 240 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Warner Bros.), Nick Roddick (1983). A New Deal in Entertainment: Warner Brothers in the 1930s. (London, UK: British Film Institute, 332 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures--History.

(Warner Bros.), Selected, edited, and annotated by Rudy Behlmer (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935-1951). (New York, NY: Viking, 358 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures--History--Sources.

(Warner Bros.), Bob Thomas (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.

(Warner Bros.), Bob Thomas (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography. Warner Bros.

(Warner Bros.), Cass Warner Sperking and Cork Millner with Jack Warner, Jr. (1998). Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 365 p. [orig pub. 1994]). Warner, Harry Morris, 1881-1978; Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Warner Bros. Pictures--History.

(Warner Bros.), Michael E. Birdwell (1999). Celluloid Soldiers: The Warner Bros. Campaign Against Nazism. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 266 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures--History; National socialism and motion pictures.

(Warner Bros.), Richard Schickel and George Perry (2008). You Must Remember This: The Warner Brothers Story. (Philadelphia, PA: Running Press, 480 p.). Film Critic (Time magazine); Film Critic. Warner, Harry Morris, 1881-1978; Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Warner Bros. Pictures--History. Fully authorized history of studio in connection with its 85th anniversary of screen icons, legendary films, history-making achievements; companion to five part documentary in PBS American Masters series by author Richard Schickel.

(Warner Bros.), E. J. Stephens, Marc Wanamaker (2010). Early Warner Bros. Studios. (San Francisco, CA : Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Former WB Studios employee; Film Historian. Warner Bros. -- history; Hollywood -- history. Warner Bros. legacy from 1920s to 1950s; four brothers, scions of Polish Jewish immigrant family, rose from humblest of origins to become Hollywood moguls of enormous, lasting influence.

(Warner Music Group), Stan Cornyn with Paul Scanlon (2002). Exploding: The Highs, Hits, Hype, Heroes, and Hustlers of the Warner Music Group. (New York. NY: HarperEntertainment, 470 p.). Two-time Grammy Award Winner, 34-Year Creative Executive at Company. Warner Music Group--History. 

(Warner Music), Fred Goodman (2010). Fortune’s Fool: Edgar Bronfman, Jr., Warner Music, and an Industry in Crisis. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 336 p.). Former Editor with Rolling Stone. Bronfman, Edgar, 1955-; Warner Music Group; Sound recording executives and producers. --United States; Sound recording industry --United States. Bronfman vs. cyberspace (music business has become world of iTunes, MP3s, online marketing as CD sales for Apple, MCA, Vivendi plummeted); 2004 - acquired music group from AOL/Time-Warner (had dismantled family’s empire and fortune, made high-stakes gamble to remake both music industry, own reputation); built aggressive, streamlined team; instituted initiatives intended to give customers legitimate online music choices; took market share from competitors; diversified, forced young artists to give cut of income from touring, publishing, merchandising; no clear formula for success.

Edgar Bronfman, Jr. - Warner Music (

(Washburn International), John Teagle (1996). Washburn: Over One Hundred Years of Fine Stringed Instruments. (New York, NY: Music Sales Corp., 200 p.). Lyon & Healy; Washburn International; Stringed instruments--United States--History; Stringed instrument makers--United States.

(Woodstock Festival), Joel Rosenman, John Roberts, Robert Pilpel (1974). Young Men with Unlimited Capital. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 213 p.). Producers of Woodstock Music and Art Fair. Woodstock Festival (1969 : Bethel, N.Y.). 

(YES Network), Leo Hindery; with Leslie Cauley (2003). The Biggest Game of All: The Inside Strategies, Tactics, and Temperaments That Make Great Dealmakers Great. (New York,. NY: Free Press, 272 p.). CEO of the YES Network (Yankees network); former CEO, ATT&T Broadband. Negotiation in business; Executives--United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States. 

(Ziegfeld Follies), Ethan Mordden (2008). Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 335 p.). Ziegfeld, Florenz, 1869-1932; Theatrical producers and directors --United States --Biography. Helped create glamorous world of "show-biz" from what had been flea circus, operetta, sideshow all rolled into one; first real star attraction was bodybuilder Eugen Sandow; one of first impresarios to mix headliners of different ethnic backgrounds; earliest proponent of mixed-race casting; created Ziegfeld Girl; produced number of other musicals; one of most inventive, ruthless, street-smart, exacting men ever to fill a theatre.

Florenz Ziegfeld - Ziegfeld Folliies (

(Avedis Zildjian Company), Jon Cohan (1999). Zildjian: A History of the Legendary Cymbal Makers. (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 127 p.). Zildjian, Avedis, 1889-1979; Avedis Zildjian Company--History; Cymbals--History; Cymbals--Construction. 

Avedis Zildjian III - father of cymbals (

Melissa D. Aaron (2005). Global Economics: A History of the Theater Business, the Chamberlain’s/King’s Men, and Their Plays, 1599-1642. (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 250 p.). Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 --Stage history--To 1625; Chamberlain’s Men (Theater company); King’s Men (Theater company); Theatrical companies--England--London--History--17th century; Theater--England--London--History--17th century; Theater--Economic aspects--England--London; Great Britain--Economic conditions--17th century; London (England)--Economic conditions. 

Christopher Anderson (1994). HollywoodTV: The Studio System in the Fifties. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 343 p.). Television--United States--Production and direction; Motion picture studios--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion pictures and television--United States.

Gerben Bakker (2008). Entertainment Industrialised: The Emergence of the International Film Industry, 1890-1940. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 449 p.). Lecturer in Economic History and Management (London School of Economics. Motion picture industry --History. Industrialization of services; first form of industrialized mass entertainment (1910s); fourth largest export industry before First World War; tenth most profitable industry during U.S. Depression; fastest-growing industry in France in 1930s.

Ed. Tino Balio (1985). The American Film Industry. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 664 p. [rev. ed.]). Motion picture industry--United States--History.

Tino Balio (1995). Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930-1939. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 483 p. [orig. pub. 1993]). Motion picture industry--United States--History; Motion pictures--United States--History.

Louis Barfe (2004). Where Have All the Good Times Gone?: The Rise and Fall of the Record Industry. (London, UK: Atlantic Books, 395 p.). Sound recording industry; Popular music--History and criticism. 

Peter Bart (1999). The Gross: The Hits, the Flops-- The Summer That Ate Hollywood. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 311 p.). Motion pictures--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--Finance.

Hank Bordowitz (2007). Dirty Little Secrets of the Record Business: Why So Much Music You Hear Sucks. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 352 p.). Veteran Music Journalist. Sound recording industry--History; Music trade--History; Music and technology.  How record business fouled its own livelihood; insights into how this multi-billion-dollar industry is run and why it’s losing so much money.

Mihir Bose (2006). Bollywood: A History. (Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 352 p.). Motion pictures--India--Bombay--History.; Motion picture industry--India--Bombay--History. Traces industry to its roots at turn of 19th century; 1896 - Lumière Brothers' world premiere of cinema unveiled in British Bombay, to resounding effect; sets cinema's evolution against backdrop of radical political change.

Leo Braudy (2011). The Hollywood Sign: Fantasy and Reality of an American Icon. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 224 p.). University Professor and Leo S. Bing Chair in English and American Literature (University of Southern California). Motion picture industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion pictures --United States --History; Hollywood Sign (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History; Los Angeles (Calif.) --History. How temporary structure became permanent icon of American culture; how advertisement erected in 1923, touting real estate development Hollywoodland, took on life of its own; history of this distinctly American landmark, saved over years by disparate group of fans and supporters (Alice Cooper, Hugh Hefner); rise of movie business from its earliest, silent days through development of studio system that helped define modern Hollywood.

Tim Brooks (2004). Lost sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 634 p.). Executive Vice President of Research (Lifetime Television). African Americans -- Music -- History and criticism; Sound recording industry -- History; Music -- United States -- History and criticism. 

Ronald Brownstein (1990). The Power and the Glitter: The Hollywood-Washington Connection. (New York, NY: Pantheon, 437 p.). Politics and culture--United States--History--20th century; Motion picture actors and actresses--United States--Political activity--History--20th century; Motion picture industry--Political aspects--United States--History--20th century; United States--Politics and government--20th century.

Dean Budnick and Josh Baron (2011). Ticket Masters: The Rise of the Concert Industry and How the Public Got Scalped. (Toronto, ON: Ecw Press, 372 p.). Executive Editor of Relix magazine; Editor-in-Chief of Relix magazine. Ticket brokerage; Ticket brokerage--History; Performing arts--Ticket subscription; Performing arts--Ticket prices; Ticket scalping. Modern concert industry; origins, development, ongoing strategies of companies (Ticketmaster, Live Nation, StubHub), efforts of numerous independent competitors; actions, impact of company iconoclasts, tales of scalping syndicates, old-school music promoters, would-be Internet tycoons, bawdy business decisions; complex relationships between artists, promoters, ticketing agents, public; pivotal developments that shaped industry; 1) how, why do concerts sell out so fast? 2) why do service fees vary on tickets to same event? 3) why isn't Ticketmaster considered illegal monopoly? 4) is it worth joining band's fan club to qualify for pre-sale?, 5) how do ticket broker websites (StubHub) get all their tickets?, 6) how did ticket prices get so high?

Robert Burnett (1996). The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry. (New York, NY: Routledge, 171 p.). Music trade; Popular music--History and criticism; Music--Social aspects.

Gary Calamar & Phil Gallo (2010). Record Store Days: From Vinyl to Digital and Back Again. (New York, NY, Sterling, 256 p.). President of Go Music; Music Journalist and Entertainment Editor. Record stores -- history; records -- retail. Record stores served as community centers, information exchanges, clubs, art galleries, launching pads for numerous bands and record labels; retail refuges that enthralled at least three generations of music lovers; special alchemy that makes great record store.

Dan Charnas (2010). The Big Payback: The History of the Business of Hip-Hop. (New York, NY: New American Library, 672 p.). Vice President of A&R for Def American Recordings. Rap (Music) --Social aspects; Hip-hop; Hip-hop --Social aspects; Sound recording industry; Music trade. Victories, defeats, corporate clashes, street battles along 40-year road to hip-hop's dominance; from studios, where first rap records were made, to boardrooms; from first $15 made by "rapping DJ" in 1970s New York to multi-million-dollar sales of Phat Farm and Roc-a-Wear clothing companies in 2004 and 2007; who lost, who won.

Mark Coleman (2003). Playback: From the Victrola to MP3, 100 Years of Music, Machines, and Money. (New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 237 p.). Sound recording industry -- History; Music and technology. 

John W. Cones (2006). Hollywood Wars: How Insiders Gained and Maintain Illegitimate Control over the Film Industry. (Spokane, WA: Marquette Books, 400 p.). Securities and Entertainment Attorney. Motion picture industry--Corrupt practices--United States; Motion picture industry--United States--Finance. Small group of insiders controlled Hollywood film industry, engaged in unethical, illegal business practices that hurt independent filmmakers, screenwriters, public.

Elizabeth Currid-Halkett (2010). Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity. (New York, NY: Faber and Faber, 320 p.). Assistant Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development (University of Southern California). Fame. Economics, geography (real and virtual), networking strategies - from art world to table-top gaming conventions to film industry; celebrity is an important social phenomenon, driving force in worldwide economy.

Bill Daniels, David Leedy, and Steven D. Sills (1998). Movie Money: Understanding Hollywood's (Creative) Accounting Practices. (Los Angeles, CA: Silman-James Press, 299 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--Finance; Motion pictures--United States--Marketing.

Frederic Dannen (1990). Hit Men: Power Brokers and Fast Money Inside the Music Business. (New York, NY: Times Books, 387 p.). Sound recording industry--United States; Rock music--United States--History and criticism.

Ronald L. Davis (1993). The Glamour Factory: Inside Hollywood’s Big Studio System Southern Methodist University Press, 444 p.). Founder, Southern Methodist Oral History Program. Motion pictures--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion picture studios--California--Los Angeles--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.

Tracy C. Davis (2000). The Economics of the British Stage, 1800-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 506 p.). Professor of Theater, English and Performance Studies (Northwestern University). Theater --Economic aspects --Great Britain; Theater --Great Britain --History --19th century; Theater --Great Britain --History --20th century. Theatre's growth from an economic perspective - how British theaters paid their way before age of government subsidy; three key areas (competition, profit, labor): 1) state's role in protecting theatre; 2) factors affecting success or failure of theatre companies; 3) how theatre came to be regarded as one of 'service industries'; history of cultural policy for arts in Britain.

R. Serge Denisoff (1975). Solid Gold: The Popular Record Industry. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 504 p.). Sound recording industry; Popular music--United States--History and criticism.

--- (1986). Tarnished Gold: The Record Industry Revisited. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 487 p.). Sound recording industry; Popular music--United States--History and criticism.

Marc Eliot (1993). Rockonomics: The Money Behind the Music. (New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 322 p.). Rock music--History and criticism; Rock music--Economic aspects; Music trade.

Ralph Emery with Patsi Bale Cox (1998). The View from Nashville. (New York, NY: Morrow, 321 p.). Country music -- History and criticism; Country musicians -- Biography. 

Edward Jay Epstein (2005). The Big Picture: The New Logic of Money and Power in Hollywood. (New York, NY: Random House, 416 p.). Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--Finance; Motion picture industry--United States--Finance; Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--California--Los Angeles; Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--United States.

--- (2010). The Hollywood Economist: The Hidden Financial Reality Behind the Movies. (Brooklyn, NY Melville House 240 p.). Hollywood -- economics; movie making -- history. Hollywood’s “invisible money machine,” probing the dazzlingly complicated finances behind the hits and the flops, while he answers the surprisingly puzzling question: How do the studios make their money?

Philip French (1969). The Movie Moguls: An Informal History of the Hollywood Tycoons. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 170 p.). Motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography; Motion picture industry--United States--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--Biography; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.

Neal Gabler (1988). An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 502 p.). Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--History; Jews in the motion picture industry--United States; Jewish motion picture producers and directors--United States--Biography; Jews--United States--Biography; United States--Civilization--Jewish influences; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.

Phil Hall (2009). The History of Independent Cinema. (Albany, GA: BearManor Media, 320 p.). Filmmaking--history; Filmmakers--independent. Innovative men, women who stood up to status quo, brought revolutionary new ideas, technologies to motion picture world; pioneers who introduced color, sound, widescreen projection, videography to filmmaking process, tore down racial, gender barriers behind camera, challenged censorship taboos imposed on film production, formulated new strategies for film distribution, created many of greatest movies ever made.

Benjamin Hampton; With a new introd. by Richard Griffith (1970). History of the American Film Industry from Its Beginnings to 1931. (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 456 p. [orig. pub. 1931]). Motion picture industry--United States.

Michael J. Haupert (2006). The Entertainment Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 271 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Wisconsin - LaCrosse). Performing arts--United States--History--20th century. Development, economic history of entertainment (vaudeville, recorded sound, radio, movies, television, spectator sports) in U. S.

Martin Hawkins (2006). A Shot in the Dark: Making Records in Nashville 1945-1955. (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 318 p.). Sound recording industry--Tennessee--Nashville--History; Popular music--History and criticism. Focus on recording companies, studios, DJs, other music promoters; sights, sounds, and stories of this vibrant and influential decade in Nashville music making. 

Dade Hayes and Jonathan Bing (2004). Open Wide: The Anxious Early Hours of a Hollywood Blockbuster. (New York, NY: Miramax Books, 448 p.). Managing Editor of Special (Variety), Deputy Managing Editor (Variety). Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) -- films; Filmmaking; Marketing -- films. 

Clinton Heylin (1995). Bootleg: The Secret History of the Other Recording Industry. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 441 p.). Sound recording industry; Sound recordings--Pirated editions; Popular music--History and criticism.

Michele Hilmes (1999). Hollywood and Broadcasting: From Radio to Cable. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 221 p.). Professor Media and Cultural Studies (University of Wisconsin). Broadcasting --United States --History; Motion picture industry --California --Los Angeles --Influence; Motion picture studios --California --Los Angeles --Influence; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History.

Joseph Horowitz (1990). The Ivory Trade: Music and the Business of Music at the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition. (New York, NY: Summit Books, 289 p.). Van Cliburn International Piano Competition; Music--Competitions--Texas--Fort Worth; Pianists.

Aida A. Hozic (2001). Hollyworld: Space, Power, and Fantasy in the American Economy. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 233 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--History.

Alan D. Kattelle (2000). Home Movies: A History of the American Industry, 1897-1979. (Nashua, NH: Transition Publishing, 411 p.). Retired Engineer and Business Executive. Cinematography --United States --History; Amateur films --United States --History and criticism; Motion picture cameras --History.

Rick Kennedy and Randy McNutt (1999). Little Labels--Big Sound: Small Record Companies and the Rise of American Music. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 198 p.). Media Relations Manager; Reporter (Cincinnati Enquirer). Sound recording industry --United States; Popular music --United States --History and criticism. History of independent record label in America, 1920-1970; how 10 independent record labels shaped course of American popular music (from early jazz giant Paramount to legendary Sun Records).

Eds. Frank Kessler and Nanna Verhoeff (2007). Networks of Entertainment: Early Film Distribution 1895-1915. (Eastleigh, UK, J. Libbey Pub., 344 p.). Authors. Motion pictures --Distribution. How films came to meet audiences; film distribution from invention of cinema into 1910s: regional distribution networks to international marketing strategies, analysis of distribution catalogues to case studies on individual distributors; major force structuring field in which cinema emerges in late 19th, early 20th century, impact on production and exhibition, on offer and demand, on film form and film viewing.

Ed. Gorham Kindem (1982). The American Movie Industry: The Business of Motion Pictures. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 448 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--Case studies.

--- (2000). The International Movie Industry. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 417 p.). Motion picture industry--History; Motion picture industry--Economic aspects; Motion picture industry--Social aspects.

Scott Kirsner (2008). Inventing the Movies: Hollywood's Epic Battle Between Innovation and the Status Quo, from Thomas Edison to Steve Jobs. (Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace, 218 p.). Weekly "Innovation Economy" Columnist (Boston Globe). Motion picture industry -- United States -- History; Motion pictures -- Technological innovations; Cinematography -- Technological innovations; Digital cinematography; Digital video. Technological history of Hollywood; innovators who shaped Hollywood, prevailed over skeptics who preferred to preserve status quo.

Steve Knopper (2009). Appetite for Self-Destruction: The Spectacular Crash of the Record Industry in the Digital Age. (New York, NY: Free Press, 301 p.). Contributing Editor (Rolling Stone). Music trade --History; Sound recording industry --History; Compact disc industry --History. Precipitous rise, fall of recording industry over past three decades - from birth of compact disc, through explosion of CD sales in 1980s and 1990s, emergence of Napster, secret talks that led to iTunes, current collapse of industry as CD sales plummet; Sony, Warner, other big players brought about their own downfall through years of denial, bad decisions in face of dramatic advances in file-sharing technology.

Michael Kosser (2006). How Nashville Became Music City, U.S.A.: 50 Years of Music Row. (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 368 p.). Country music--History and criticism; Music trade--Tennessee--Nashville. Evolution of this center of music from single studio in tiny duplex which became Music Row.

William M. Kunz (2007). Culture Conglomerates: Consolidation in the Motion Picture and Television Industries. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 262 p.). Motion picture industry--Ownership--United States; Television broadcasting--Ownership--United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States. How structure of these industries has evolved, how structure impacts production, distribution of cultural products.

Eds. Joseph Lampel, Jamal Shamsie, Theresa K. Lant (2005). The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 328 p.). Culture--Economic aspects--Congresses; Cultural industries--Congresses; Popular culture--Economic aspects--Congresses; Industries--Social aspects--Congresses. Business of designing, producing, distributing, marketing cultural products; examined from strategic management perspective.

James Lardner (1987). Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the Onslaught of the VCR. (New York, NY: Norton, 344 p.). Video tape recorder industry.

Norman Lebrecht (2007). The Life and Death of Classical Music: Featuring the 100 Best and 20 Worst Recordings Ever Made. (New York, NY: Anchor Books, 324 p.). Assistant Editor of the Evening Standard in London, Presenter of BBC’s Sound recording industry; Sound recordings--Reviews; Music--20th century--History and criticism. Rise of classical recording industry from Caruso’s first notes to heyday of Bernstein, Glenn Gould, Callas, von Karajan; cultural revolution wrought by Schnabel, Toscanini, Callas, Rattle, Three Tenors, Charlotte Church; how stars were made, broken by record business; how advancing technology, boardroom wars, public credulity, unscrupulous exploitation shaped musical backdrop to modern life.

Mark Litwak (1986). Reel Power: The Struggle for Influence and Success in the New Hollywood. (New York, NY: Morrow, 336 p.). Motion picture industry--United States.

Alison Macor (2010). Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids: Thirty Years of Filmmaking in Austin, Texas. (Austin, TX, University of Texas Press, 391 p.). Former Film Critic (Austin Chronicle, Austin American-Statesman). Motion picture industry --Texas --Austin --History. Evolution of struggle to balance growth, expansion of Austin's film community with ongoing commitment to nurture next generation of independent filmmakers; how Austin became  proving ground for contemporary independent cinema; behind-the-scenes story of specific movies against backdrop of Austin's ever-expanding film community.

Denise Mann (2008). Hollywood Independents: The Postwar Talent Takeover. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 344 p.). Associate Professor of Film, TV and Digital media (UCLA). Motion picture industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion pictures --United States --History. 1948 to 1962 - independent film producers became key components of modern corporate entertainment industry;  impact of radically changed filmmaking climate, decline of studios, rise of television, rise of potent talent agencies (MCA) on group of prominent talent-turned-producers; evolution of film production from studio-governed system to entrepreneurship.

Eugene Marlow and Eugene Secunda (1991). Shifting Time and Space: The Story of Videotape. (New York, NY: Praeger, 174 p.). Assistant Professor at Baruch College (City University of New York) and Founder and President of Media Enterprises; Assistant Professor at Baruch College (CUNY). Video tape industry--History; Video tapes--History. How videotape revolutionized  content and style of $12 billion broadcast, satellite-delivered television industries; brought about $17 billion home video market.

Philip E. Meza (2007). Coming Attractions?: Hollywood, High Tech, and the Future of Entertainment. (Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books, 171 p.). Research Associate at Stanford Graduate School of Business. Mass media and technology--United States--History; Mass media--Economic aspects--United States--History. Key forces driving  relationship between entertainment, technology; content creation, distribution, consumption combining in new ways to create changes that will shake foundations of entertainment and technology industries.

Andre Millard (1995). America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 413 p.). Phonograph; Sound recordings--United States; Music--United States--History and criticism.

David L. Morton, Jr. (2004). Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 215 p.). Sound--Recording and reproducing--History; Sound recording industry--History. Comprehensive history of electronic devices; stories of how scientists, engineers created, commercialized such devices as transistor,  Magnetron tube used to power microwave ovens, CRT (cathode ray tube), laser, first integrated circuit,  microprocessor, memory chips.

Keith Negus (1999). Music Genres and Corporate Cultures. (New York, NY: Routledge, 209 p.). Sound recording industry; Popular music--History and criticism. 

James Robert Parish (2006). Fiasco: A History of Hollywood’s Iconic Flops. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 368 p.). Motion pictures--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion pictures--United States--Plots, themes, etc. Most sensational failures in modern Hollywood history.

David J. Park (2007). Conglomerate Rock: The Music Industry’s Quest To Divide Music and Conquer Wallets. (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 160 p.). Music trade; Music and the Internet--Economic aspects. Music is becoming more dispersed, expensive, difficult to acquire; new distribution infrastructure, access to exclusive releases divided through different subscription services, hardware, new media to maximize profits.

Debra Ann Pawlak (2011). Bringing Up Oscar: The Story of the Men and Women Who Founded the Academy. (New York, NY: Pegasus, 336 p.). Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History; Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences -- history. January 11, 1927 - Louis B. Mayer, MGM CEO,  gathered 36 leading persons in fledgling film industry, proposed founding of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to ensure that business would prosper in coming decades.

Alan Peacock & Ronald Weir with a preface by Asa Briggs (1975). The Composer in the Market place. (London, UK: Faber Music, 171 p.). Music--Economic aspects; Copyright--Music--Great Britain; Musicians--Great Britain--Legal status, laws, etc.

Diane Pecknold (2007). The Selling Sound: The Rise of the Country Music Industry. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 294 p.). Assistant Professor in Women's and Gender Studies and Program Coordinator for the College of Arts and Sciences Office of International Programs (University of Louisville). Country music -- History and criticism; Music trade -- United States; Country music -- Social aspects. Commercialism, cultural value of country music.

L. A. D. Perera (1992). The Rise, Decline, and Fall of Hollywood's Mighty Empires. (New York, NY: Vantage Press, 111 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.

Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco (2002). Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 352 p.). Cornell University; Lesley University (UK). Moog synthesizer. 

David Puttnam with Neil Watson (1998). Movies and Money. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 337 p.). Lord Puttnam, Oscar-winning Producer, Former Chairman of Columbia Pictures, 1986-88. Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--United States; Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--Europe. Story of American dominance of the film industry. 

Christopher Rawlence (1990). The Missing Reel: The Untold Story of the Lost Inventor of Moving Pictures. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 306 p.). Le Prince, Louis Aimé Augustin, 1842-1890; Inventors--Great Britain--Biography; Cinematography--History.

Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince: "I am smoking a fag"




Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (

Julie Salamon (1991). The Devil's Candy: The Bonfire of the Vanities Goes to Hollywood. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 434 p.). Reporter (Wall Street Journal). Wolfe, Tom--Film and video adaptations; Bonfire of the vanities (Motion picture).

Russell Sanjek (1988). American Popular Music and Its Business: The First Four Hundred Years. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.). Popular music--United States--History and criticism; Music--United States--History and criticism; Music trade--United States--History and criticism. Contents: v. 1. The beginning to 1790 -- v. 2. From 1790 to 1909 -- v. 3. From 1900 to 1984.

Russell Sanjek, David Sanjek (1991). American Popular Music Business in the 20th Century. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 334 p.). Popular music--United States--History and criticism; Music--United States--20th century--History and criticism; Music trade--United States.

F. M. Scherer (2004). Quarter Notes and Bank Notes: The Economics of Music Composition in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 256 p.). Aetna Professor Emeritus (Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. Composers--Economic conditions--18th century; Composers--Economic conditions--19th century. 

Allen J. Scott (2005). On Hollywood: The Place, the Industry. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 264 p.). Professor of Policy Studies and Geography (UCLA). Motion picture industry--California--Los Angeles--History. Economic geography of motion-picture production from early twentieth century to present.

Michael Sedgwick & Michael Pokorny (2004). An Economic History of Film. (New York, NY: Routledge, 352 p.). Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--United States. Economic framework for understanding developments in film history.

Kerry Segrave (2004). Product Placement in Hollywood Films: A History. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 244 p.). Product placement in mass media--United States--History; Motion pictures in advertising--United States--History. 

Hugh Richard Slotten (2009). Radio’s Hidden Voice: The Origins of Public Broadcasting in the United States. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 325 p.). Senior Lecturer (University of Otago, New Zealand). Broadcasting --United States --History --20th century. Historical importance of alternative means of radio broadcasting, based especially on commitment to providing noncommercial service for public; operated largely by universities and colleges to entertain, educate, inform, enlighten, uplift local citizens; role of faculty members in physics, electrical engineering, other technical fields;  noncommercial alternative to emerging commercial broadcast system.

Robert H. Stanley (1978). The Celluloid Empire: A History of the American Movie Industry. (New York, NY: Hastings House, 328 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--History.

David Suisman (2009). Selling Sounds: The Commercial Revolution in American Music. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 368 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Delaware). Music trade --United States; Music --United States --History and criticism. Commercial architecture of America’s musical life; rise of music as big business, creation of radically new musical culture; origins of culture industry in music, how music ignited auditory explosion that penetrated all aspects of society; growth of music business across social landscape; roots of modern culture lie in business of popular song, player-pianos, phonographs of century ago.

Ruth Towse (1993). Singers in the Marketplace: The Economics of the Singing Profession. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 252 p.). Reader in Cultural Industries (Erasmus University, Rotterdam). Singers --Great Britain --Economic conditions; Voice teachers --Great Britain --Economic conditions. Economics of singing profession in Britain, particularly in relation to training of "classical" singers, performers, teachers.

John Trumpbour (2002). Selling Hollywood to the World: U.S. and European Struggles for Mastery of the Global Film Industry, 1920-1950. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 378 p.). Motion pictures, American Marketing; Motion picture industry United States History; Motion picture industry Europe History. 

Harold L. Vogel (2004). Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 611 p. [6th ed.]). Nine-Time Selection as Top Leisure Industry Analyst by Institutional Investor Magazine. Performing arts--Finance.

Alexander Walker (1974). Hollywood UK: The British Film Industry in the Sixties. (New York, NY: Stein and Day, 493 p.). Late Film Critic for Evening Standard (1959-2003). Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History.

Alexander Walker; introduced by Joseph Connolly (2004). Icons in the Fire: The Rise and Fall of Practically Everyone in the British Film Industry, 1984-2000. (London, UK: Orion, 328 p.). Late Film Critic for Evening Standard (1959-2003). Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History; Motion pictures--Great Britain--History.

Janet Wasko (1982). Movies and Money: Financing the American Film Industry. (Norwood, NJ: ABLEX Pub. Corp., 247 p.). Motion picture industry--United States--Finance.

David Waterman (2005). Hollywood's Road to Riches. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 416 p.). Professor, Department of Telecommunications (Indiana University, Bloomington). Motion picture industry--United States; Motion pictures--Economic aspects--United States.

Arthur Frank Wertheim (2005). Vaudeville Wars: How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big-Time and Its Performers. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 360 p.). Former American History Professor (University of Southern California). Vaudeville--United States--History--19th century; Vaudeville--United States--History--20th century. How the tycoons of two most powerful circuits conspired to control the big time (1890 to 1920).

Craig Whitney (2003). All the Stops: The Glorious Pipe Organ and Its American Masters. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 323 p.). Assistant Managing Editor (New York Times). Organ (Musical instrument)--United States--History; Organ builders--United States.

Steve J. Wurtzler (2006). Electric Sounds: Technological Change and the Rise of Corporate Mass Media. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 393 p.). Mass media--Technological innovations--United States--History--20th century; Mass media--Ownership--United States--History--20th century; Sound--Recording and reproducing--History--20th century. Form technology takes is shaped by conflicting visions of technological possibility in economic, cultural, political realms; process through which technologies become media, ways in which media are integrated into American life.

Paul Zollo (2002). Hollywood Remembered: An Oral History of Its Golden Age. (New York, NY: Cooper Square Press, 376 p.). Motion picture industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion pictures --California --Los Angeles --Biography; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History.


Business History Links

50th Annual Monterey Jazz Festival                            14571634     

"The world's longest-running jazz festival [held in Monterey, CA] celebrates its golden anniversary [in 2007] with specially commissioned piece by Gerald Wilson, performances by many jazz luminaries. Hear NPR's coverage, selection of concerts recorded by WBGO." Coverage includes performances by Dave Brubeck, Otis Taylor, high school musicians. From National Public Radio (NPR).

Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry                           

Emile Berliner, an innovative entrepreneur of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, invented the microphone, flat recording disc, and gramophone player. This online exhibit of Mr. Berliner draws from the Emile Berliner papers and sound recordings of the Library of Congress's Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division Industry. The collection consists of over 400 items from the manuscript collection and more than 100 sound recordings from the disc collection. Items in the collection range from correspondence, articles, lectures, and speeches to scrapbooks, photographs, clippings, and recordings. Most of the items date from the 1870s to the early 1930s, with a few items dating as late as 1956. Viewers may search the collection by keyword, or browse by recordings, subject, title, series, or name index.

Birth of the Movies                                                         

Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University of San Diego.

The Center for Cartoon Studies                                                                             

Based in White River Junction, Vermont, offers courses and degree programs centered "on the creation and dissemination of comics, graphic novels and other manifestations of the visual narrative." Visitors to their website can learn about: formal academic programs; recent work from students, alumni, and faculty members; "Events" calendar; the "Visiting Artist"; their Flickr photos which document the Center's activities; the "Schulz Library" provides information about this resource, offers a link to a separate blog; set of links to books published by the Center.

Cinema Treasures                                                                                                 

Launched in December 2000, Cinema Treasures is a devoted to movie theater preservation and awareness; unites movie theater owners and enthusiasts in a common cause—to save the last remaining movie palaces across the country.

Disney-Related Books and Periodicals                                            

Over the years, many authors have written about different aspects of the Disney vision. The following list, which covers subjects from films to personalities and art to imagineering, forms the backbone of the Disney archives featured here in Disney A-Z.

Thomas Alva Edison Patent Collection                                                            

Patent Numbers 1 (06/01/1869) - 1084 (05/16/1933).

Films Ranked by Production Costs and Gross Income       

Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University of San Diego.

Kenneth G. Fiske Museum of Musical Instruments                     

An eclectic museum of over 1,200 musical instruments made in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, the South Pacific, and Australia dating from the 17th through the 20th centuries. Instrument types include keyboards, brass, woodwind, stringed, percussion, mechanical, and electronic.

The History of Props: A Timeline of Props and Product Usage                        

Curated directory of theatre resources by Richard Finkelstein, Professor of Theatre Design at James Madison University; run as a service to all the arts and to artists, and the public.

IFPI (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry)                                    

Represents the recording industry worldwide, with a membership comprising some 1400 record companies in 73 countries and affiliated industry associations in 48 countries. IFPI's mission is to promote the value of recorded music, safeguard the rights of record producers and expand the commercial uses of recorded music in all markets where its members operate; affiliated with the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the organisation responsible for the world's largest music market.

Inventions of Note: Sheet Music Collection                                                                

"This sheet music collection consists of popular songs and piano compositions that portray technologies (old and new alike) as revealed through song texts and/or cover art." Technologies include automobile, airplane, radio, and telephone, and most items date from 1890-1920. A small number of entries include sound files (such as "Kissing Papa through the Telephone"). Browsable by title. From the Lewis Music Library, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

London Music Trades, 1750-1800                                                                             

Eighteenth century London bustled with musicians of all stripes, including those in related professions, such as music publishers, composers, and instrument makers. This database, created by the Royal College of Music's Centre for Performance History, provides basic biographical information about individuals, much of which is derived by a range of archival material that includes insurance records, wills, and apprenticeship records. On the left-hand side of the main page, users will note six primary sections, including "Insurance Records", "Poll Books", and "Wills". Within each section, visitors can read a brief summary about each type of historical document, then begin their search of the records.

Bob Moog Biography                                                                                 

Biographical information about Robert Moog, who developed an electronic music synthesizer in the early 1960s, and who died in August 2005. Also includes links to information about the theremin (an early electronic instrument invented by Leon Theremin), current Moog synthesizer instruments, and a photo gallery. From the company that manufactures Moog synthesizers. Subjects: Moog, Robert A.; Inventors; Moog Synthesizer; Electronic musical instruments; People.

Motown Historical Museum                                                                                 

The museum was founded in 1985 by Esther Gordy Edwards. Its mission is to preserve the legacy of Motown Record Corporation and to educate and motivate people, especially youth, through exhibitions and programs that promote the values of vision, creativity and entrepreneurship. The museum exhibits trace the roots of Motown’s remarkable story and chronicle its impact on 20th century popular culture and musical styles. The story began in 1959 with Berry Gordy, Jr. and a small house in Detroit that he christened  Hitsville USA (now home to Motown Historical Museum). Motown grew from a small startup business into the largest independent record company in the world by the mid-1970s.

Movie Machine Society                                                                                           

Founded in 1988 by collectors and historians of cinema machinery. The Society is devoted to collecting, displaying and preservation of movie machinery, and the sharing of information with all persons and entities interested in the technological history of the devises designed to create moving images.

Niles Essanay Silent Film Museum                                         

Organ History                                                                            

Developed and maintained by Professor James H. Cook at Birmingham - Southern College, this site is an online tutorial that offers an interesting and interactive perspective of that king of all instruments, the organ. The site is divided into three main sections: The Organ and How it Works, Organ History, and Geographical Tour. In the first section, visitors are taken through a basic description of an organ, which then continues into a discussion of the various parts of an organ, such as the keyboards, consoles, pipes, chests, cases, and chambers. The history section begins with the invention of what is commonly understood to be the first organ, the ktseibios, built by a Greek engineer working in the third century BCE. The final section takes visitors on a chronological tour of the organ and its development throughout a number of countries, including England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.

Recording Technology History                                                   

Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University of San Diego.

San Francisco Ballet at 75                                                                                            

75th anniversary season of San Francisco Ballet in 2008. Features history of ballet company ("the oldest professional ballet company in America"), which founded as San Francisco Opera Ballet in 1933, details about events occurring throughout year. Includes link to NBC11 interactive website with more history of ballet company. From the official website for the San Francisco Ballet.

Adolph Sax                                                                index.htm?lg=3&m1=28&m2=88&m3=293        Biographical material about Adolph Sax, the Belgian-born inventor of the saxophone. Describes his "agitated childhood" (which included many serious accidents), how his father manufactured musical instruments, his move to Paris, his invention of the saxophone, and the importance of the saxophone to jazz music. In English and French. From the city of Dinant, Belgium, birthplace of Sax.

Virtual Instrument Museum (Wesleyan University)                              

World Musical Instrument Collection of the Music Department of Wesleyan University (established 2003). It contains three classes of holdings: daily-use instructional instruments and sets of instruments (e.g. gamelan, Ghanian drums, steelband); instruments brought to Wesleyan by students, alumni and faculty; and donated instruments. Search or browse alphabetically or by instrument type, geographical region, or materials of their construction. Entries include: where available, images, audio, video, and QTVR, country of origin, classification into which the instrument fits.

The Walt Disney Family Museum                                                                                    Produced and maintained by the Walt Disney Family Foundation, a nonprofit organization. Founded in 1995, the Foundation strives to promote education, writing, and scholarship about Walt Disney. The Foundation is not affiliated with The Walt Disney Company, although the site is hosted by Disney Online.

Women in Entertainment Power 100                                                   film/features/ e3ida66693918b8204ddbf03e894cb76792                                                 Results from this annual survey by the Hollywood Reporter of "the [entertainment] industry's top female executives." Profiles are included for the top five women. Provides the ranking criteria for the list. Does not include a link to archived lists from past years. From the Hollywood Reporter.


return to top

      © 2008. Business History