Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Arts
business biographies  

September 8, 1504 - Michelangelo's 13-foot marble statue of David unveiled in Florence, Italy.

1640 - Tichelaar family established brick business in Netherlands; 1670 - domestic pottery replaced bricks as core business; 1890 - concentrated on ornamental earthenware; 2009 - Jan Tichelaar, 13th generation, head of Koninklijke (Royal) Tichelaar Makkum; Netherlands oldest company; last remaining factory to concentrate on handmade ceramics in traditional production process; in vanguard of ceramic design; supplies customized ceramics, in area of research, production in collaboration with renowned architects, designers.

May 24, 1683 - Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, Oxford, England, opened as integrated, three-part institution (collection itself, chemistry laboratory for experimentation and teaching, rooms for undergraduate lectures); based on major scientific resource collection presented to University of Oxford by British archaeologist Elias Ashmole; first public museum in England (in which private collection emerged into public domain); first curator, Dr Robert Plot.

March 11, 1744 - Samuel Baker, book dealer, founded Sotheby's auction house; 1778 - upon his death his estate divided between his nephew, John Sotheby, and his business partner, George Leigh; 1964 - acquired Parke-Bernet, largest fine auction house in U. S.; 1983 - acquired by Alfred Taubman.

June 7, 1753 - King George II gave royal assent to Act of Parliament to accept collection of Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based physician, following his death, to found British Museum; world's oldest public national museum; will offered the British nation the collection he built over his lifetime: 71,000 objects, mostly plant and animal specimens, for a sum of £20,000 for his heirs (today would be more than £2,000,000); January 15, 1759 - museum opened to the public at Bloomsbury.

December 5, 1766 - James Christie held first sale in London; turned auctioneering into sophisticated art; 1831 - William Manson joined firm after death of James Christie II, name changed to Christie & Manson; 1859 - Thomas Woods joined firm, created Christie, Manson & wOODS; May 1998 - Christie's acquired by Groupe Artemis (French billionaire Francois Pinault) for $1.2billion.

1793 - Thomas Dodd, renowned antique print dealer, and Walter Bonham, book specialist, founded Bonhams, Georgian London auction house; 1850s - expanded to handle all categories of antiques (jewelry, porcelain, furniture, arms & armor, fine wines); world’s oldest and largest auctioneer of fine art and antiques still in British ownership; active in over 70 categories (spectrum of fine art, antiques, collectibles); conducts over 700 sales a year, more than any of rivals worldwide.

1793 - French revolutionary government opened Musée Central des Arts in Grande Galerie of Louvre, former royal palace, as public museum in Paris; general public admitted on weekends only; works, mostly paintings from  collections of French royal family, aristocrats who had fled abroad, were displayed in Salon Carré and Grande Galerie; 1882 - demolition of Tuileries marked birth of modern Louvre.

1796 - Harry Phillips, formerly senior clerk to James Christie, founded Phillips, auction house, in London, UK; 1840 - William Augustus Phillips (son) inherited business; 1879 - changed name to Messrs Phillips & Son; 1882 - brought Frederick Neale (son-in-law) into business, changed name to Phillips, Son & Neale; 1970s - renamed Phillips; 1999 - acquired by Bernard Arnault, chairman Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessey (LVMH); merged it Simon de Pury and Daniela Luxembourg, esteemed private art dealers operating Impressionist and Modern art gallery, de Pury & Luxembourg in Zurich; 2002 - de Pury & Luxembourg acquired majority control.

November 12, 1805 - Zachariah Poulson's "American Daily Advertiser" reported that Tristram Bampfyide Freeman, by order of Thomas McKean, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, had been appointed to the office of auctioneer in Philadelphia and set up business at 177 Market Street; 1898 - Company is renamed Samuel T. Freeman & Co.

1846 - Michael Knoedler, acting on behalf of Goupil & Company, renowned French firm of engravers, established art gallery in lower Manhattan; dealings primarily in prints, artist's materials.

1852 - British government established Museum of Manufacturers in Marlborough House, St. James; 1899 - Queen Victoria laid foundation stone for new Aston Webb building; South Kensington Museum renamed Victoria and Albert Museum; June 26, 1909 - Victoria and Albert Museum opened in new building in London.

1857 - Samuel Graham, from Kirkandy, Scotland, established "Samuel Graham, 66 Third Avenue, Furniture" in New York City; before 1880 - turned business over to James (son), added to furniture line ("bronzes, turkey rugs, portiers, pictures and rare Curiosities"); thought to be oldest gallery in New York owned by original family (currently 5th generation); one of only five remaining New York galleries with roots in 19th century; one of oldest family-run galleries in United States.

1865 - William Butterfield turned in his sheriff's badge and six-shooter for an auctioneer gavel; opened Marble Head Auctioneers, on what is now the site of an icon in the San Francisco skyline, the Transamerica Pyramid; catered to thriving Gold-Rush Californians; first offerings consisted mainly of surplus goods consigned by sailing ships entering the San Francisco harbor; demand for fine art, furnishings grew; 1914 - Fred R. Butterfield (son) joined firm; 1935 - Reeder Butterfield (grandson) joined firm; developed European, Asian markets - acquired consigned goods, attracted collectors; August 2002 - acquired by Bonhams, privately-owned British fine art auction house; renamed Bonhams & Butterfields; third largest auction house in world.

April 6, 1869 - Governor of New York, John Thompson Hoffman, signed bill officially creating the American Museum of Natural History; April 27, 1871 - The American Museum of Natural History opened to the public in New York City. Museum began from the efforts of Albert Smith Bickmore, one-time student of Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz, who was successful in his proposal to create a natural history museum in New York City, with the support of William E. Dodge, Jr., Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., Joseph Choate, and J. Pierpont Morgan.

April 13, 1870 - New York Legislature agreed to founders' request (George Fiske Comfort, William Cullen Bryant, Frederic E. Church, John Quincy Adams Ward, and others) to  incorporate The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, mandated that it serve an educational mission to the public; February 20, 1872 - opened at 681 Fifth Avenue; first president, railroad tycoon John Taylor Johnston; George Palmer Putnam, founding Superintendent; initial holdings consisted of Roman stone sarcophagus, 174 mostly European paintings; 1873 - moved to the Douglas Mansion (128 West 14th Street); 1879 - General Luigi Palma di Cesnola, former American Counsul to Cyprus, hired as museum's first paid director; 1880 - moved to current location in Central Park; 1904 - J.P. Morgan named president of corporation (upon Cesnola's death); 1905 - Metropolitan Museum Bulletin first published; 1920s - $10 million bequest from publisher Frank A. Munsey's secured Met's position as wealthiest autonomous museum; 1926 - present facade, entrance completed; 1939 - Francis Henry Taylor named museum's new director; 1967 - Thomas Hoving transformed Met into a business; 1977 - Philippe de Montebello assumed directorship.

1876 - Women’s Art Museum Association organized in Cincinnati to bring an institution as Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia to the region for the benefit of all citizens; 1880 -  Charles W. West donated $150,000 to create the Cincinnati Museum Association; 1881 - Cincinnati Museum Association incorporated; May 1886 - permanent art museum building completed, heralded worldwide as "The Art Palace of the West."

October 25, 1881 - Leslie L. Curtis, of Cape Elizabeth, ME, received patent for an "Atomizer for Coloring Pictures"; air brush painting device for "easy, accurate, and rapid distribution of coloring and shading upon drawings and paintings."

March 1881 - Major Henry Lee Higginson revealed plan for  Boston orchestra that would perform "concerts of lighter kind of music"; October 1881 - conductor Georg Henschel directed first Boston Symphony Orchestra concert; April 30, 1885 - Boston Pops Orchestra formed as subsidiary;  October 1892 - Higginson purchased parcel of land to build "New Boston Music Hall"; October 15, 1900 - Boston's Symphony Hall inaugurated with gala led by music director Wilhelm Gericke (first concert hall designed with acoustical principles in mind; completed in less than 17 months for a cost of $771,000); 1930 - Pops adopted own official conductor, Arthur Fiedler (35), violist from the BSO (fifty-year tenure).

July 21, 1897 - Original Tate Gallery, built on site of Millbank Penitentiary (demolished in 1892) in London, opened; official name was National Gallery of British Art, became popularly known as Tate Gallery, after its founder Sir Henry Tate; designed to house Tate's collection of nineteenth-century British painting and sculpture, given to the nation, and British paintings transferred from National Gallery in Trafalgar Square; responsibilities were specifically for modern British art, defined as artists born after 1790; 1917  - gallery made responsible for  national collection of international modern art and British art dating to about 1500; 1955 - became wholly independent from National Gallery; ne of the nineteen national museums funded by the Government through the Department of Culture, Media and Sport, established under the Museums and Galleries Act 1992.

1898 - Henry C. Mercer founded Moravian Pottery and Tile Works in Doylestown, PA to manufacture hand-worked relief-decorated ceramic tiles; February 27, 1900 - received a patent for "Tile and Process of Producing Same" ("relates to pottery, and more particularly to those mural tiles which have raised portions or portions in rilievo, and also to the making thereof"); July 24, 1900 - received a patent for a "Pottery Article" ("pottery article, such as a mural tile, composed of a clay base provided with a design having raised and ground portions, an inner layer of slip arranged over the design, and an outer layer of slip of a different color from the inner slip arranged over said inner layer, the outer or second layer of slip being removed from the raised portions of the design, so as to expose the inner or first layer of said raised portions"); July 14, 1903 - received a patent for "Tile or Other Decorative Device" ("novel process of making mosaic tiles or decorative devices, and an article, the product of the process"); June 21, 1904 - received a patent  for a "process of Making Mosaic Tiles" ("for pavement, mural, and other decoration").

1900 - Florian Papp, Hungarian immigrant and cabinetmaker by training, opened antiques dealership in New York; managed by third generation.

1905 - Frank L. Fenton, John W. Fenton (brother) founded Fenton Art Glass Company with $284.86 in old glass factory building in Martins Ferry, OH; painted decorations on glass blanks made by other glass manufacturers; January 2, 1907 - produced glass from own factory in Williamstown, WV (above); 1930s-1940s - produced mixing bowls and tableware; 1952 - milk glass Hobnail became flagship pattern; 1986 - third generation took over; largest manufacturer of handmade colored glass in the United States.

August 21, 1911 - Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, Mona Lisa (portrait of the wife of wealthy Florentine citizen Francesco del Gioconda, completed in 1504), stolen from Louvre Museum; December 12, 1913 - Mona Lisa recovered in a hotel room of Italian waiter Vincenzo Peruggia in Florence; had previously worked at the Louvre and had participated in the heist with a group of accomplices dressed as Louvre janitors; convicted in Italy of the robbery and spent just 14 months in jail.

April 18, 1926- Martha Graham gave the first performance with her fledgling dance company; oldest and most celebrated contemporary dance company in America; 1932 - founded first-ever bachelor of arts degree in dance at Bennington College; 1951 - founding member of the dance division of the Juilliard School.

June 14, 1927 - George Washington Carver received a patent for a process of producing paints and stains.

November 7, 1929 - The Museum of Modern Art in New York City opened.

1931 - Dame Ninette de Valois founded Royal Ballet; with support of Lilian Baylis of the Old Vic, installed six permanent dancers and herself in the newly opened Sadler’s Wells Theatre; 1946 - Sadler’s Wells Ballet transferred to Covent Garden and recognized as the national ballet.

January 14, 1935 - Frick Art Reference Library' opened to public in new building; December 1935 - The Frick Collection opened to the public (construction began on New York mansion of Henry Frick, Pittsburgh coke and steel industrialist, at Seventieth Street and Fifth Avenue, in 1913; house, all of works of art in it ,together with furnishings bequeathed in 1919as gallery called The Frick Collection (endowment of $15,000,000; transformation of Fifth Avenue residence into museum began in 1931); art of The Frick Collection includes superb examples of Old Masters, English eighteenth-century portraits, Dutch seventeenth-century works of art, Italian Renaissance paintings, Renaissance bronzes, Limoge enamels, Chinese porcelains, French eighteenth-century furniture.

March 24, 1937 - Joint resolution of Congress created the National Gallery of Art for the people of the United States of America; March 17, 1941 - National Gallery of Art opened in Washington DC; President Franklin D. Roosevelt accepted the completed building and the collections on behalf of the people of the United States of America.

October 21, 1959 - Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opened in New York City; designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

1960 - Arnold (Arne) Glimcher opened Pace Gallery (father's first name) at 125 Newbury Street in Boston; 1963 - moved gallery to New York City, opened with Fred Mueller; produced nearly 700 exhibitions, published nearly 350 exhibition catalogues with contributions by some of most renowned historians, critics of 20th, 21st centuries.

October 20, 1973 - Sydney Opera House opened.

1982 - Anne d'Harnoncourt named director of Philadelphia Museum of Art; only woman to head museum with annual budget greater than $25 million.

February 28, 1982 - The J. Paul Getty Museum became most richly endowed museum on earth when it received $1.2 billion bequest left to it by late J. Paul Getty; modeled after Villa dei Papiri, Roman villa uncovered in town of Herculaneum, which was buried by eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. (completed in 1974); his only stipulation was that fortune be used "for the diffusion of artistic and general knowledge"; laws governing trusts, however, indicate that the museum must spend 4.25 percent of its endowment three out of every four years in order to retain its tax-exempt status. In the first year after its endowment, that figure equaled $54 million; today the amount the museum must spend three out of four years is more than $200 million.

October 5, 1990 - A jury in Cincinnati acquitted an art gallery and its director of obscenity charges stemming from an exhibit of sexually graphic photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe.

April 23, 1996 - Sotheby began 4 day auction of Jackie Onassis possessions; netted $34.5 million.

February 23, 2009 - 733-piece art collection assembled over 50 years by late fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé, his lover, business partner offered in 3-day auction managed by Christie's auction house (estimated could earn as much as $480-million); included pieces from Renaissance to Impressionists, African wood carvings, French enamels, Roman sculpture, two rare bronze Qing dynasty sculptures (Chinese government has asked for their return), largest of Picasso's cubist paintings (only one still in private hands, valued at $48-million), Henri Matisse's Les coucous, tapis bleu et rose (expected to bring about $28-million), three canvasses by Piet Mondrian (Dutch painter whose geometric works inspired Saint Laurent's Mondrian dress in 1965, together valued at $43-million); biggest single-owner art collection ever put on sale and according to French press.

(Arthur Ackermann & Son), John Ford (1983). Ackermann, 1783-1983: The Business of Art. (London, UK: Ackerman, 256 p.). Arthur Ackermann & Son; Art dealers--Great Britain--Biography; Art publishing--Great Britain--History; Publishers and publishing--Great Britain--History.

(Barnes Collection), John Anderson (2003). Art Held Hostage: The Story of the Barnes Collection. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Barnes, Albert C. (Albert Coombs), 1872-1951; Glanton, Richard; Barnes Foundation--Management; Art--Private collections--Pennsylvania--Merion. 

(J. A. Bauer Pottery Company), Mitch Tuchman (1995). Bauer, Classic American Pottery. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 103 p.). J.A. Bauer Pottery Company -- History; Pottery -- 20th century -- California -- Los Angeles.

(Boehm Porcelain), Helen F. Boehm with Nancy Dunnan; foreword by Letitia Baldridge (1985). With a Little Luck-- An American Odyssey. (New York, NY: Rawson, 219 p.). Boehm, Helen F.; Entrepreneurship--Biography; Porcelain industry--United States.

(Bonnin and Morris), Graham Hood (1972). Bonnin and Morris of Philadelphia; The First American Porcelain Factory, 1770-1772. (Chapel Hill, NC, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University of North Carolina Press, 78 p.). Bonnin and Morris. British-born Gousse Bonnin, Philadelphian George Anthony Morris.

(British Museum), David M. Wilson (2002). The British Museum: A History. (London, UK: British Museum Press, 416 p.). British Museum -- History. Oldest publicly funded museum in world (1753). 

(Leo Castelli Gallery), Annie Cohen-Solal (2010). Leo and His Circle: The Life of Leo Castelli. (New York, NY: Knopf, 576 p.). Visiting Arts Professor at Tisch School of the Arts (New York University). Castelli, Leo; Castelli, Leo --Friends and associates; Art dealers --United States --Biography. One man’s power, influence at center of postwar American art; visionary precedence in every major new movement from Pop to Conceptual, American contemporary; put young talents on stipend, sought placement in ideal collection rather than with top bidder; transformed way business was done, multiplied capital (cultural and financial) of those he represented; expanded network of satellite galleries; became unrivaled commercial institution in American art.

(Christie's International Group), H.C. Marillier (1926). "Christie's" 1766 to 1925. (Boston , MA: Houghton Mifflin, 311 p.). Christie, Manson & Woods; Painting--Prices; Art--Prices.

James Christie ( pages_company/james_christie.jpg)

(Christie's International Group), Percy Colson (1950). A Story of Christie's. (London, UK: S. Low192 P. Christie, Manson & Woods.

(Christie's International Group), John Herbert (1990). Inside Christie's. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 407 p.). Christie, Manson & Woods.

(Christie's International Group), Arthur Grimwade (1994). Silver for Sale: Christie's in the Thirties. (Norwich, UK: Michael Russell, 354 p.). Grimwade, Arthur--Diaries; Grimwade, Arthur--Knowledge--Silverwork; Christie's International Group--History--20th century; Silverwork--Valuation.

(Coalport China Company  - founded 1790's by John Rose), Compton Mackenzie (1951). The House of Coalport, 1750-1950. (London, UK: Collins, 127 p.). Rose, John, 1772-1841; Coalport China Company (John Rose and Company) ltd.

(Coalport China Company), Michael Messenger (1995). Coalport, 1795-1926: An Introduction to the History and Porcelains of John Rose and Company. (Woodbridge, UK: Antique Collectors' Club, 444 p.). Coalport China Company -- History; Porcelain, English -- England -- Shropshire -- History; Coalport porcelain -- History; Pottery Production History Shropshire (England).

(Downtown Gallery), Lindsay Pollock (2006). The Girl with the Gallery: Edith Gregor Halpert and the Making of the Modern Art Market. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 368 p.). Bloomberg News. Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970; Downtown Gallery (New York, NY); Art dealers--New York (State)--New York--Biography. 1926 - one of the first art galleries in Greenwich Village, laid groundwork for art market's modern era, its aggressive promotion, sales tactics.

(Duveen Brothers), Meryle Secrest (2004). Duveen: A Life in Art. (New York, NY: Knopf, 517 p.). Duveen, Joseph Duveen, Baron, 1869-1939; Art dealers--England--Biography. 

(Empire Ballet Theatre), Ivor Guest (1962). The Empire Ballet. (London, UK: Society for Theatre Research, 111 p.). Empire Ballet Theatre--History.

(Fenton Art Glass Company), William Heacock; photography by Richardson Printing Corp (1978). Fenton Glass: The First Twenty-Five Years, 1907-1932. (Marietta, OH: Published and distributed by O-Val Advertising Corp, 144 p.). Fenton Art Glass Company; Glassware --United States --Catalogs; Glass --United States --History --20th century.

(Fenton Art Glass Company), William Heacock ; historical data by Eugene C. Murdock (1989). Fenton Glass: The Third Twenty-Five Years, 1956-1980. (Marietta, OH: O-Val Advertising Corp, 158 p.). Fenton Art Glass Company; Glassware --West Virginia --Williamstown --History --20th century.

William Heacock ; historical data by Eugene C. Murdock (Fenton Art Glass Company) (1989). Fenton Glass: The Third Twenty-Five Years, 1956-1980. (Marietta, OH: O-Val Advertising Corp, 158 p.). Fenton Art Glass Company; Glassware --West Virginia --Williamstown --History --20th century.

(Samuel T. Freeman & Co.), Roland Arkell, Catherine Saunders-Watson (2005). The Vendue Masters: Tales from Within the Walls of America's Oldest Auction House. (Suffolk, UK: Antique Collectors' Club, 192 p.). Editor (Antiques Trade Gazette), Editor (Antique Week). Samuel T. Freeman & Sons (Firm); Auctions; Art auctions. America's oldest auction house.

Samuel T. Freeman

Samuel T. Freeman (

(Firma Friedrich Goldscheider), Filipp Goldscheider and Robert E. Dechant (2008). Goldscheider: History of the Company and Catalogue of Works. (Stuttgart, Germany: Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt GMBH, 640 p.). Firma Friedrich Goldscheider; ceramics industry. International development of Viennese Manufactory Friedrich Goldscheider (ceramics firm); 1920s - much sought-after worldwide; epitomised lifestyle accessories that awakened longings; one of most successful businesses in history of European ceramics.

(Lefevre Gallery), The Gallery (1976). Alex Reid & Lefevre, 1926-1976. (London, UK: Lefevre Gallery, 175 p.). Lefevre Gallery; Art dealers--England--Biography.

(Letraset), John A Chudley (1974). Letraset: A Lesson in Growth. (London, UK: Business Books, 155 p.). Letraset; commercial art; graphic design.

(Liberty and Company), Mervyn Levy (1986). Liberty Style: The Classic Years, 1898-1910. (London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 160 p.). Decoration and ornament -- Art nouveau; Decorative arts Designs for Liberty and Company 1898-1910.

(Limelight), Helen Gee (1997). Limelight: A Greenwich Village Photography Gallery and Coffeehouse in the Fifties: A Memoir. (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 303 p.). Founder of Limelight Photography Gallery. Gee, Helen; Limelight (Gallery : New York, N.Y.); Women photographers--United States--Biography; Photographic art galleries--New York (State)--New York--History. 

(J. & J. Lobmeyr), Peter Rath (1998). Lobmeyr 1823: Helles Glas und klares Licht. (Wien; Köln; Wiemar, Germany: Böhlau, 351 p.). J. & L. Lobmeyr; Glassware -- Austria.

(Metropolitan Museum of Art), Leo Lerman (1969). The Museum: One Hundred Years and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. (New York, NY: Viking Press, 400 p.).

(Metropolitan Museum of Art), Calvin Tomkins (1989). Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. (New York, NY: Holt, 415 p. [rev. updated]). Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.).

(Metropolitan Museum of Art), Howard Hibbard (1980). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (New York, NY: Harper and Row, 592 p.). Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.).

(Metropolitan Museum of Art), Thomas Hoving (1993). Making the Mummies Dance: Inside the Metropolitan Museum of Art. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 447 p.). Former Director of Met. Hoving, Thomas, 1931- ; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)--Management; Art museum directors--New York (State)--New York--Biography.

(Metropolitan Museum of Art), Michael Gross (2009). Rogues’ Gallery: The Secret History of the Moguls and the Money That Made the Metropolitan Museum. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 560 p.). Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.) --History; Art --Collectors and collecting --United States --Biography. 138-year saga of nation’s greatest museum ("...turning the worst of man’s attributes—extravagance, lust, gluttony, acquisitiveness, envy, avarice, greed, egotism, and pride—into the very best, transmuting deadly sins into priceless treasure"); most colorful characters; artists, forgers, and looters, financial geniuses and scoundrels, museum officers, trustees, curators, donors.

(Moravian Pottery and Tile Works), Cleota Reed (1987). Henry Chapman Mercer and the Moravian Pottery and Tile Works. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 255 p.). Mercer, Henry Chapman, 1856-1930; Moravian Pottery and Tile Works; Pottery, American--20th century; Tiles--United States--History--20th century; Potters--United States--Biography.

(National Endowment for the Arts), Donna M. Binkiewicz (2004). Federalizing the Muse: United States Arts Policy and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1965-1980. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 295 p.). Teaches History (California State University, Long Beach). National Endowment for the Arts--History; Federal aid to the arts--United States--History--20th century; Art and state--United States.

(National Gallery), Jonathan Conlin (2006). The Nation's Mantelpiece: A History of the National Gallery. (London, UK: Pallas Athene Publishers, 464 p.). National Gallery (Great Britain); Painting -- England -- London. First history of Gallery ever published; vehicle of public education; development of institution whose collections often set pace in art history, but  dependence on parliamentary funding regularly involved it in debates on education, social cohesion, national heritage.

(Portland Glass Company), Thelma Ladd & Laurence Ladd (1992). Portland Glass: Legacy of a Glass House Down East. (Paducah, KY: Collector Books, 191 p.). Portland Glass Company--History; Glassware--Maine--Portland--History--19th century.

(Rockwood Pottery), Nancy E. Owen (2001). Rookwood and the Industry of Art: Women, Culture, and Commerce, 1880-1913. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 335 p.). Rookwood Pottery Company--History; Rookwood pottery; Art pottery, American--Ohio--Cincinnati--Marketing; Women artists--United States--Social conditions--19th century; Women artists--United States--Social conditions--20th century. 

(Roland Browse and Delbanco), Lillian Browse (1999). Duchess of Cork Street: The Autobiography of an Art Dealer. (London, UK: Giles de la Mare, 190 p.). Founding Partner of Roland, Browse, and Delbanco in 1945. Browse, Lillian; Roland, Browse, and Delbanco; Art dealers--England--London--Biography; Women art dealers--England--London--Biography. 

(San Jose Symphony), Nancy Glaze Dr. Thomas Wolf (2005). And the Band Stopped Playing: The Rise and Fall of the San Jose Symphony. (Cambridge, MA: Wolf, Keens & Company, 96 p.). Director of Arts at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation; Chairman and CEO of Wolf, Keens & Company. San Jose Symphony; Culture -- Economic aspects. Did San Jose really need full-season orchestra?

(Sotheby's), Frank Herrmann (1980). Sotheby's, Portrait of an Auction House. (London, UK: Chatto & Windus, 468 p.). Sotheby Parke Bernet Group Ltd.

A Alfred Taubman A. Alfred Taubman - Sotheby's (

(Sotheby's), Nicholas Faith (1985). Sold: The Rise and Fall of the House of Sotheby. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 269 p.). Wilson, Peter (Peter Cecil), 1913-; Sotheby's (Firm); Auctions; Art auctions.

(Sotheby's), Jeffrey Hogrefe (1986). "Wholly Unacceptable": The Bitter Battle for Sotheby's. (New York, NY: Morrow, 238 p.). Sotheby's (Firm); Auctions; Art auctions.

(Sotheby's), Peter Watson (1997). Sotheby's: The Inside Story. (New York, NY: Random House, 324 p.). Sotheby's (Firm); Art dealers--Corrupt practices; Art thefts--Investigations.

(Sotheby's), Robert Lacey (1998). Sotheby's: Bidding for Class. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 354 p.). Sotheby's (Firm); Auctions; Art auctions.

(Sotheby's), Christopher Mason (2004). The Art of the Steal: Inside the Sotheby's-Christie's Auction House Scandal. (New York, NY: Putnam, 416 p.). Journalist. Sotheby's (Firm)--Corrupt practices; Christie's International Group--Corrupt practices; Price fixing; Art--Prices; Auctions--Corrupt practices; Art auctions--Corrupt practices. 

(Sotheby's), A. Alfred Taubman (2007). Threshold Resistance: The Extraordinary Career of a Luxury Retailing Pioneer. (New York, NY: Collins, 224 p.). Taubman, A. Alfred; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship--United States--Biography; Architects--United States--Biography. Dyslexic Jewish kid from Detroit grew up to be billionaire retailing pioneer, intimate of European aristocrats, Palm Beach socialites, respected philanthropist, federal prisoner (78).

(Spode), Leonard Whiter (1978). Spode: A History of the Family, Factory and Wares from 1733 to 1833. (London, UK: Barrie and Jenkins, 246 p. [2nd ed.]). Spode family; Staffordshire pottery.

(Tate Gallery), Frances Spalding (1998). The Tate: A History. (London, UK: Tate Gallery, 320 p.). Reader in 20th Century British Art (Newcastle University). Tate Gallery -- History.

Jack Amariglio (2008). Sublime Economy. (New York, NY: Routledge, 316 p.). Department of Economics (Merrimack College). Economics --Philosophy; Art and society --Economic aspects; Value. Ways in which diverse concepts of economy, economic value have been culturally constituted, disseminated through modern art, cultural practice.

Ian Betts, Roy Stephenson, Kieron Tyler (2008). London's Delftware Industry: The Tin-glazed Pottery Industries of Southwark and Lambeth. (London, UK: Museum of London Archaeology Service, 140 p.). Delftware; manufacturies--tin-glazed; Pottery industries --history -- Great Britain. About 1750 - tin-glazed ('delftware') manufacture began in London at Aldgate pothouse; 1846 - ceased at Glasshouse Street in Lambeth; tin-glazed pottery industries of Southwark and Lambeth in wider context.

Richard E. Caves (2000). Creative Industries: Contracts Between Art and Commerce. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 454 p.). Professor of Political Economy (Harvard University). Arts--Economic aspects--United States--History--20th century.

Ed. Lee Chapin (1989). The Business of Art. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 347 p. [2nd ed.]). Art -- Economic aspects; Art -- Marketing.

Tyler Cowen (1998). In Praise of Commercial Culture. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 278 p.). Professor of Economics (George Mason University). Arts--Marketing; Arts--Economic aspects; Arts and society. Philosophy of cultural optimism. 

--- (2006). Good and Plenty: The Creative Successes of American Arts Funding. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 206 p.). Professor of Economics (George Mason University). Art and state--United States; Federal aid to the arts--United States; Aesthetics--Economic aspects; Culture--Economic aspects; United States--Cultural policy. U.S. way of funding arts results not in terrible and small but in Good and Plenty--could result in more, better.

Hunter Davies (2010). Behind the Scenes at the Museum of Baked Beans: My Search for Britain's Maddest Museums. (London, UK: Virgin Books, 304 p.). Museums --Philosophy; Museums --collecting. Everywhere, celebrate just about everything: lawnmowers in Southport to pencils in Keswick; fascinating collections, people who have put them together (man who loves Heinz so much, changed name to Captain Beany; kleptomaniac Vintage Radio buff); Britain's finest, could live in no other country in world.

Tracy C. Davis (2000). The Economics of the British Stage, 1800-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 506 p.). Professor of Theater, English and Performance Studies (Northwestern). Theater--Economic aspects--Great Britain; Theater--Great Britain--History--19th century; Theater--Great Britain--History--20th century. Theatre's growth from economic perspective - how British theaters paid their way before age of government subsidy; three key areas (competition, profit, labor): 1) state's role in protecting theatre; 2) factors affecting success or failure of theatre companies; 3) how theatre came to be regarded as one of 'service industries'; history of cultural policy for arts in Britain.

Laura de Coppet and Alan Jones (2002). The Art Dealers: The Powers Behind the Scene Tell How the Art World Really Works. (New York, NY: Cooper Square Press, 438 p. [rev. and exp. ed.]). Art dealers--United States--Interviews.

Ed. Neil De Marchi and Craufurd D.W. Goodwin (1999). Economic Engagements with Art. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 506 p.). Art -- Economic aspects.

Selected Writings; Edited and with an Interpretation by Craufurd D. Goodwin (1999). Art and the Market: Roger Fry on Commerce in Art. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 222 p.). Fry, Roger Eliot, 1866-1934; Art -- Marketing.

Daniel Grant (2000). The Business of Being an Artist. (New York, NY: Allworth Press, 339 p. [3rd ed.]). Art -- United States -- Marketing.

Julie Hochstrasser (2007). Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 320 p.). Associate Professor of the History of Art (Early Modern Northern European Art), The University of Iowa. Still-life painting, Dutch--17th century--Themes, motives.; Netherlands--Commerce--History--17th century. Depict tables richly laid with products that attest to vast scope of Dutch trade network; significance of various foods, commodities rendered on canvas during Dutch Republic's rise to prosperity (domestic cheese to wines of Europe to exotic commodities); fruits of global commerce in paintings.

Noah Horowitz (2011). Art of the Deal: Contemporary Art in a Global Financial Market. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 384 p.). Art Historian, Member of the Faculty of the Sotheby's Institute of Art. Art --Marketing --History --20th century; Art --Marketing --History --21st century; Art --Economic aspects --History --20th century; Art --Economic aspects --History --21st century; Art as an investment. Collecting and investing - how contemporary art market came to be, how it works, where it's headed; globalization of art world, how investors speculate in market, how emerging art forms (video, installation) have been drawn into commercial sphere.

Bill Ivey (2008). Arts, Inc.: How Greed and Neglect Have Destroyed Our Cultural Rights. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 368 p.). Former Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. Art and state--United States; Art and society--United States; Cultural property--United States; Arts--Economic aspects--United States; Arts--Political aspects--United States. Expanding footprint of copyright, unconstrained arts industry marketplace, government unwilling to engage culture as serious arena for public policy have come together to undermine art, artistry, cultural heritage.

Michael M. Kaiser (2008). The Art of the Turnaround: Creating and Maintaining Healthy Arts Organizations. (Hanover, NH:, University Press of New England, 183 p.).President of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (since 2001). .Kaiser, Michael M.; Performing arts --Management. Revived four major arts organizations: Kansas City Ballet, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, American Ballet Theatre, London's Royal Opera House; costs rise but size of theaters and price resistance of patrons limit margins on ticket sales; performing arts industry faces severe gap between earnings and expenses; ten rules for turning around financially distressed arts organizations, keeping them strong.

Kathy Kilmurry (1980). The Pottery Industry of Stamford, Lincolnshire, c. A.D. 850-1250 : Its Manufacture, Trade, and Relationship with Continental Wares, with a Classification and Chronology. (Oxford, UK: B. A. R., 348 p.). Pottery, Medieval--England--Stamford; Pottery industry--England--Stamford--History.

Ed. Arjo Klamer (1996). The Value of Culture: On the Relationship between Economics and Arts. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press, 234 p.). Art -- Economic aspects; Culture -- Economic aspects.

Ulrike Klein (1994). The Business of Art Unveiled: New York Art Dealers Speak Up. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 247 p.). Art--Economic aspects--New York (State)--New York; Art galleries, Commercial--New York (State)--New York.

Peter Lawson-Johnston; foreword by Josiah Bunting III (2005). Growing up Guggenheim: A Personal History of a Family Enterprise. (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 152 p.). Member of Guggenheim Family, President of the Board of Trustees of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Guggenheim family; Lawson-Johnston, Peter Orman, 1927- ; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; Art patrons--United States--Biography. Memoir that includes intimate portraits of five people principally responsible for entire Guggenheim art legacy. 

Lawrence Lessig (2008). Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 327 p.). Professor of Law (Stanford Law School). Copyright --Economic aspects --United States; Copyright --Neighboring rights --Economic aspects --United States; Copyright and electronic data processing --Economic aspects --United States; Cultural industries --Law and legislation --Economic aspects --United States. America’s copyright laws have ceased to perform original, beneficial role: protecting artists’ creations, allowing them to build on previous creative works; system now criminalizes those actions - exactly what our society should not do; new hybrid economy combines profit motives with "sharing economy" to benefit those who make, consume culture.

Faye Levine (1976). The Culture Barons, An Analysis of Power and Money in the Arts. (New York, NY: Crowell, 312 p.). Art patronage--United States; Arts--United States--Management.

Alice Goldfarb Marquis (1991). The Art Biz: The Covert World of Collectors, Dealers, Auction Houses, Museums, and Critics (Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 405 p.). Art--Marketing.

Ed. Clare McAndrew (2010). Fine Art and High Finance: Expert Advice on the Economics of Ownership. (New York, NY, Bloomberg Press, 288 p.). Economist, Investment Analyst, Author. Art as an investment; most difficult financial matters facing art investors: appraisal and valuation, art as loan collateral, securitization and taxation, investing in art funds, insurance, black-market art trade, and more.

Kathy M. McKimmie (2009). Clay Times Three: The Tale of Three Nashville, Indiana, Potteries: Brown County Pottery, Martz Potteries, Brown County Hills Pottery. (Bloomington, IN: Quarry Books, 100 p.). Freelance, Editor, Columnist for Antique Week. Pottery, American -- Indiana -- Nashville -- 20th century; Brown County Pottery (Nashville, Ind.) -- History; Martz Potteries (Nashville, Ind.) -- History; Brown County Hills Pottery (Nashville, Ind.) -- History. Local artists, their work from Great Depression to 1980s.

Jonathan K. Nelson and Richard J. Zeckhauser (2008). The Patron’s Payoff: Conspicuous Commissions in Italian Renaissance Art. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 234 p.). Professor of Renaissance Art History (Syracuse University in Florence); Frank Plumpton Ramsey Professor of Political Economy at John F. Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). Art -- Economic aspects; Art --Patronage--history; Art -- Economic aspects -- Renaissance. Patronage patterns of Renaissance patronage system linked motivations of patron and artist or architect in conspicuous commissions; how arts functioned in Renaissance Italy; art history applied to game theory.

Michael North; translated by Catherine Hill (1997). Art and Commerce in the Dutch Golden Age. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 164 p.). Painting, Dutch--17th century; Art and society--Netherlands--History--17th century; Netherlands--Social conditions. 

Michelle O'Malley (2005). The Business of Art: Contracts and the Commissioning Process in Renaissance Italy. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 360 p.). Head of the Centre for Research Support, School of Humanities (University of Sussex). Artists' contracts--Italy--History; Art, Renaissance--Economic aspects--Italy. Framework for interpreting contracts and related records concerning altarpieces, frescoes painted in Italy from  early fourteenth to early sixteenth centuries.

Ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner (1999). Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Colonial and Postcolonial Worlds. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 424 p.). Tourism and art; Art and society; Art -- Economic aspects.

Richard Polsky (2003). I Bought Andy Warhol. (New York, NY: Abrams, 256 p.). Art Dealer. Polsky, Richard; Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987; Art dealers --United States --Biography; Art --Collectors and collecting --United States. Inner workings of art world - collecting, dealing; 1989 - author set aside $100,000 to purchase Andy Warhol painting (took 12 years through wild speculation of late 1980s to recession of 1990s); artists, gallery owners, auction houses, collectors in business with humor, hypocrisy, greed, gossip.

Richard Polsky (2009). I Sold Andy Warhol (Too Soon). (New York, NY: Other Press, 288 p.). Thirty-year art veteran, Founder of Acme Art, private dealer specializing in works by postwar artists, with an emphasis on Pop art. Art --Economic aspects --History --21st century; Art --Marketing --History --21st century.; At --Collectors and collecting --Psychology. How art industry shifted from art appreciation to monetary appreciation, from power of dealers and galleries to auction houses, during short-lived period when the "art world" became the "art market"; behind-the-scenes politics of auctions, shift in power away from galleries, search for affordable art in rich man's playing field; backdoor tell-all about strange, fickle world of art collecting.

Andrew Popp (2001). Business Structure, Business Culture, and the Industrial District: The Potteries, c. 1850-1914. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 288 p.). Pottery industry--England--Staffordshire--History; Industrial districts--England--Staffordshire--History; Pottery, English--History; Staffordshire (England)--Economic conditions.

Eric Scigliano (2005). Michelangelo's Mountain: The Quest for Perfection in the Marble Quarries of Carrara. (New York, NY: Free Press, 368 p.). Great-Great-Grandson of a Carrara Quarryman. Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564; Sculptors--Italy--Biography; Marble industry and trade--Italy--Carrara--History.

Marc Shell (1995). Art and Money. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 213 p.). Professor of Comparative Literature, Director of Center of Study of Money and Culture (Harvard). Art--Economic aspects; Art--Economic aspects--United States.

Julian Stallabrass (2004). Art Incorporated: The Story of Contemporary Art. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 256 p.). Lecturer in Art History (Courtauld Institute of Art). Art, Modern--20th century--Economic aspects; Art, Modern--21st century--Economic aspects; Freedom and art; Art and society. 

Donald N. Thompson (2008). The $12 Million Stuffed Shark: The Curious Economics of Contemporary Art. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 272 p.). Teaches Marketing, Economics in the MBA program at Schulich School of Business (York University in Toronto). Art, Modern --20th century --Economic aspects; Art, Modern --21st century --Economic aspects; Art --Marketing --History --20th century; Art --Marketing --History --21st century; Art --Collectors and collecting --Psychological aspects. Economics, psychology of contemporary art world; why record prices achieved at auction for works by 131 contemporary artists in 2006, new heights reached in 2007?; money, lust, self-aggrandizement of art world in attempt to determine what makes particular work valuable, others ignored; economics, marketing strategies that enable modern art market to generate astronomical prices.

Sarah Thornton (2008). Seven Days in the Art World. (New York, NY: Norton, 256 p.). Arts Journalist and Artforum Contributor. Art --Marketing; Art --Exhibitions; Art --Competitions; Art criticism. Narrative journey through booming international art market, high-stakes global culture of production, criticism, buying, selling that surrounds it; new dynamics of creativity, taste, status, money, search for meaning in life; institutions that have power to shape art history.

Olav Velthuis (2005). Talking Prices: Symbolic Meanings of Prices on the Market for Contemporary Art. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 288 p.). Visiting Scholar at Princeton University and Columbia University. Art, Modern--20th century--Prices--New York (state)--New York; Art, Modern--20th century--Prices--Netherlands--Amsterdam; Pricing--Social aspects--New York (State)--New York; Pricing--Social aspects--Netherlands--Amsterdam; Art dealers--Psychology.

Peter Watson (1992). From Manet to Manhattan: The Rise of the Modern Art Market. (New York, NY: Random House, 558 p.). Art, Modern--19th century--Marketing; Art, Modern--20th century--Marketing; Art auctions; Art as an investment.

Paul Werner (2006). Museum, Inc.: Inside the Global Art World. (Cambridge, UK: Prickly Paradigm Press, 115 p.). Lecturer at School of the Visual Arts (New York University). Museums; museums--management; conglomerates--arts. New arts conglomerates, whose roots are deeply imbedded in corporate culture.

Rina C. Youngner (2006). Industry in Art: Pittsburgh, 1812 to 1920. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 188 p.). Industries in art; Steel industry and trade in art; Art, American--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh--19th century; Art, American--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh--20th century; Art and society--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh (Pa.)--In art. Artists, contexts, societal factors that influenced depiction of Pittsburgh industry and labor from early nineteenth century to early twentieth century through  variety of art forms.


Business History Links

The History of Props: A Timeline of Props and Product Usage                                           

Assembled by Richard Finkelstein, Harrisonburg, VA, designer of Scenery, Lighting, and Projections; Head of of Stage Design at James Madison University in Virginia.


Bookmark and Share
return to top

      © 2008. Business History