Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Fashion & Beauty
business biographies  

July 13, 1709 - Giovanni Battista Farina opened G. B. Farina, luxury goods shop, in Cologne, Germany; 1714 - Giovanni Maria Farina (brother) joined company (had created eau de Cologne fragrance in 1703, combination of oils of bergamot, neroli, lemon, rosemary with pure alcohol); renamed Farina & Compagnie; 1716 - Carl Hieronymus Farina (brother) joined; formed Gebrüder Farina & Comp. (Farina Brothers and Co.); after 1716 - renamed Fratelli Farina (Farina Brothers); 1732 - renamed Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina); oldest fragrance factory still standing.

1743 - Claude Moet shipped Champagne to Paris from Epernay for first time; Jean-Rémy Moët (grandson) expanded business; 1832 - handed business to Victor Moët (son), Pierre-Gabriel Chandon de Briailles (son-in-law); name changed to Moët & Chandon; 1971 - merged with Hennessy Cognac; 1987 - merged with Louis Vuitton; renamed LVMH-Moët Hennessy.

April 12, 1799 - Phineas Pratt of Connecticut received first US patent for a comb-cutting machine; 1759 - first commercial scale comb factory by Enoch Noyes of West Newbury, MA made combs from flattened animal horns; 1789 - Andrew Lord made first U.S. made ivory comb at Centerbrook, CT, cut the plate and teeth with a handsaw.

1828 - Pierre François Pascal Guerlain opened perfume store on 42, Rue de Rivoli in Paris; 1853 - introduced Eau de Cologne Impérial; named His Majesty's Official Perfumer (France); 1925 - introduced Shalimar (named after garden in Srinagar, built by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife); one of first perfumes to successfully incorporate large amounts of vanillin in its composition; August 24, 1926 - Guerlain Perfumery Corporation registered "Shalimar" trademark first used April 3, 1926 (perfumes); 1994 - acquired by LVMH (world's largest luxury goods  conglomerate).

1836 - Luigi Marzotto founded, Lanificio Luigi Marzotto & Figli, woolens mill in Valdagno, Italy; 1842 - Gaetano Marzotto (son) took over;1856 - introduced 400-spindle mule-jenny; 1862 - bought 8 mechanical looms from Smith & Bros. in England; 1866 - 200 employees operated carding, spinning, dyeing machines, weaving looms; 1880 - opened spinning factory in Maglio di Spora, Italy; 1910 - company split in half (specified in father's will): Vittorio Emanuele Marzotto (son, led company into export business) took over Valdagno business; Gaetano's grandsons took over Maglio mill; 1921 - Gaetano Marzotto, Jr. took over Valdagno mill; survived Great Depression without being nationalized, reacquired Maglio mill; 1961 - went public; 1972 - fifth-generation Giannino (son), Pietro (grandson) took over; 1985 - established U.S. subsidiary (40% of ITL 402 billion sales outside Italy); 1986 - launched Missoni Uomo label; acquired Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale; 1987 - acquired Lanerossi, became leading Italian textiles group; 1991 - acquired controlling interest in Hugo Boss Group, largest menswear maker in Germany, from Japanese investor Akira Akagi ITL 200 billion ($165 million); 2002 - acquired Valentino S.p.A. from Holding di Partecipazioni Industriali (HPI) for $210 million; 2005 - separated textile, clothing production systems: Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale, main textiles subsidiary, acquired by Zignago (Marzotto family holding); focused on luxury fashion group: established Marzotto S.p.A. and Valentino Fashion Group; 2010 - over half billion dollars in annual sales, more than 3,000 people working in ten production sites in Italy, abroad.

1837 - Thierry Hermes founded saddlery company in Madeleine quarter of Paris; made harnesses, bridles, riding boots for carriage trade; over time added boots, jewelry, home decor items, and silk scarves; 1920 -grandson, Emile, added luggage; 1922 - Emile-Charles Hermes sold his interest in company to Emile-Maurice Hermes (brother); 1923 - created Hermès handbag, Bolide ('racing car'), sleek, modernist design incorporating new zip fastener (Emile-Maurice had bought 2-year zipper patent rights); 1930s - first Hermes store opened in its current Paris location; 1937 - started making silk headscarves scarf; all Hermes products inspired by horses, horse motifs; July 18, 1939 - Hermes Corporation registered "Hermes" trademark first used December 1936 (closcks and watches); 1951 - Robert Dumas (1905-1978) and Jean-Rene Guerrand (1901-1993), sons-in-law, took over; added Hermes to their own surname; 1978 - Dumas's son took over (5th generation Chairman); 1984 - Birkin bag created (for actress Jane Birkin); 1999 - acquired 35-percent stake in Gaultier Couture (Jean-Paul Gaultier). majority of Hermes Group stock is in hands of Dumas, Guerrand, Puech families; 2007 - sales of €1,514.9m.

Thierry Hermes - founded Hermes ( hermes/thierry_hermes.jpg)

1853 - François Goyard became director of Morel (had apprenticed in workshop of Henri Morel, since 1845 [age 17] who had acquired Maison Martin, packing-case and trunkmaker to Duchesse of Berry in 1836); start of La Maison Goyard; 1885 - Edmond (son) took over; renamed E. Goyard Aine; December 3, 1931 - received patent for 'Malle Bureau' (office suitcase - portable box transforms into writing tablet with drawers, when opened); 1937 - Robert Goyard (grandson) took control; 1979 - Francois Edmond Goyard (great grandson) assumed control; August 25, 1992 - Goyard A.A.R.L. Corporation registered "Goyard" trademark first used in U.S. on January 1, 1984 (articles of fancy leather, leather, cloth and skin articles, etc.).

François Goyard - Maison Goyard (

1854 - Louis Vuitton founded Louis Vuitton Malletier ("Louis Vuitton Trunk-Maker"), opened store in Paris on Rue Nueve des Capucines; created luggage, bags and accessories; sold flat-topped trunks that were lightweight and airtight, (bought by France's Empress Eugénie in its first year of sale); 1896 - introduced Monogram canvas (considered the first "designer logo); 1987 - merged with Moët et Chandon and Hennessy, leading manufacturers of champagne and of brandy, to form the world's largest luxury goods conglomerate.

1856 - Thomas Burberry (21), former apprentice to country draper, opened outfitters shop in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England; 1870 - became known  emporium, increased development of outdoor wear for local residents, visiting sportsmen; 1880 - invented gabardine, breathable fabric, yarn waterproofed before weaving; 1888 - received patent on fabric; 1901 - registered equestrian knight device logo as trademark; October 21, 1913 - Burberrys Limited registered "Burberry's B Prorsum" trademark first used July 23, 1909 (suits, overcoats [shirts, and gaiters for general sporting and military wear] for men, women, and children); 1924 - introduced Burberry Check (red, camel, black, white check - known as 'Nova'), as lining for wet weather attire, registered as trademark.

Thomas Burberry (

1872 - Simon Tissot-Dupont (25) established prestigious leather goods workshop in Paris; manufactured wallets and "maroquins" (attache-cases of time, bearing initials of senior civil servants); became official supplier to Magasins du Louvre; 1920s - Andre and Lucien Dupont (sons) innovated, created sumptuous travel cases, produced as one-of-a-kind pieces; 1935 - Chinese lacquer on metal; 1941 - Andre invented first pocket petrol lighter (Ligne 1 model adjustable gas lighter); 1961 - introduced Cricket lighter; 1970- 48% of S. T. Dupont S.A. acquired by Gillette; 1972 - Gillette sold Crickets in U.S. ($1.49; $.70 in 1983); 1973 - Dupont created first luxury jewelry pen (Classique, ballpoint pen in solid silver, with very refined line); 1983 - Cricket line acquired by Swedish Match Company; August 1987 - Dupont acquired by Dickson Concepts Ltd., local wholesaler and retailer of fashion products, watches and jewelry.

Simon Tissot-Dupont - S. T. Dupont S.A. (

July 1, 1880 - Hairdresser Franz Ströher (26) established Franz Ströher-Rothenkirchen in Saxon Vogtland for production, distribution of artificial hair; 1918 - renamed Franz Ströher OHG; 1927 - introduced Wella brand (production, distribution of perm machines, hair driers, hairdressers' equipment, salon furniture); 1950 - renamed Wella AG; introduced Koleston, first hair-conditioning cream tint; June 2, 1953 - registered "Wella" trademark first used December 2, 1931 (preparations for use in the treatment of hair); 2003 - acquired by Procter & Gamble.

1881 - Antonio, Stefano, Quintino Cerruti, cousin founded Lanificio Felli Cerruti, spinning and weaving factory in Biella, Italy (between Milan, Turin); used exceptionally pure local water source for washing, treating wool; 1915 - Silvio Cerruti (son of Antonio) took over; 1950 - Nino Cerruti (20) took over (son of Silvio); modernized machinery, invested in two factories in Milan dedicated to cutting and sewing; 1957- introduced first men’s collection; created new concept: luxury ready-to-wear; November 1967 - opened boutique son Place de la Madeleine in Paris (quickly accounted for 50% of sales); 1978 - introduced fine fragrances; 1980 - launched sports line based on haute couture; 1990 - sold in 30 countries; 1995 - introduced line of jeans; 2000/2001 - acquired by Italian real estate group; 2006 - acquired by Matlin Patterson, American investment group; September 2008 - Florent Perrichon named President.

Antonio Cerruti - Lanificio Felli Cerruti (

April 5, 1882 - Andrew Jergens Sr., Charles H. Geilfus founded The Jergens Soap Company in Cincinnati, OH; original product - coconut oil soap for use in hard water; 1894 - renamed Andrew Jergens & Co.; 1901 - incorporated as Andrew Jergens Co.; acquired John H. Woodbury Company ("Woodbury Facial Soap"); acquired Robert Eastman Company, maker of creams and lotions; most superior formula eventually became original Jergens Lotion, soon to become the number one selling hand lotion in America; January 30, 1912 - registered "Jergens" trademark first used in 1890 (toilet soap); registered second "Jergens" trademark first used in 1893 (perfumes, toilet water, cold cream, face lotions, talcum powder, sachet powder, face powder and shampoo preparations); 1970 - acquired by American Brands for $100 million; 1988 - acquired by Kao Corporation (Japan); September 2002 - Jergens Company expanded into hair care, acquired John Frieda Professional Hair Care businesses.

1886 - David H. McConnell (28) founded California Perfume Company in single room at 126 Chambers St. in lower Manhattan; hired Persus Foster Eames Albee, former agent with McConnell at Union Publishing, as first sales woman (pioneered Avon's direct-selling); 1895 - built plant, research facility (quality, cost control) in Suffern, NY; 1906 - advertised products for first time; 1928 - introduced line of Avon products (tooth brush, talc, and a cleaner); named because McConnell's office view reminded him of Stratford-on-Avon countryside; August 16, 1932 - registered "Avon" trademark first used in September 1929 (shaving cream, shaving stick, toilet soap); August 30, 1932 - registered "Avon" trademark for perfumes, toilet waters, powder and rouge compacts, lipsticks, rouge, face powder, etc.; September 1939 - company's name changed to Avon Products, Inc.

1889 - Jeanne Lanvin (22) established millinery in rue du Faubourg Saint-Honore in Paris; 1908 - opened custom children's clothing department; oldest Paris fashion houses; 1909 - offered women's clothing; joined Syndicat de la couture, achieved formal status as Couture House; 1924 - opened Lanvin Parfums; 1925 - introduced Mon Peche ('My Sin') in U. S.; 1926 - launched men's clothing, women's sportswear, furs, accessories; 1927 - formed Jeanne Lanvin S.A, Lanvin Parfums S.A.; introduced Arpége perfume; April 21, 1931 - Lanvin Parfums Inc. registered "Arpege" trademark first used in June 1928 (perfume extract); June 5, 1934 - Lanvin Parfums Inc. registered "My Sin" trademark first used in 1923 (perfumes, toilet water, and talcum powder); 1946 - Marie-Blanche de Polignac (daughter) took over; 1982 - launched women's ready-to-wear; 1989 - acquired by Orcofi and L'Oreal; 1992 - couture collections discontinued; 2001 - acquired by Harmonie SA.

1904 - Francois Sporturno moved to Paris from Corsica, changed last name to Coty (variation on mother's maiden name); launched first fragrance, La Rsoe Jacquerinot, in bottle designed by Baccarat; 1908 - opened exclusive shop at 33 Place Vendome; commissioned jeweler, Rene Lalique, to design fragrance bottles; 1914 - introduced face powders, scented body powder; created new category of fragrance beauty products scented with aroma of existing perfume.

October 8, 1906 - Karl Ludwig Nessler demonstrated first "permanent wave" for hair, in his beauty salon in Oxford Street, London, to an invited audience of hair stylists; soaked hair with an alkaline solution, rolled on dozen brass curlers (metal rods weighed 1-3/4 pounds each), stronly heated rods; took about 5 hours; moved to United States, opened salons in New York, Chicago, Detroit, Palm Beach, Philadelphia; peak - 500 employees.

1907 - Eugène Schueller, French chemist, developed innovative hair-color formula; called it Auréole; formulated, manufactured his own products, sold to Parisian hairdressers; 1909 - registered company as L'Oreal (liked sound of name), "Société Française de Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux" ("Safe Hair Dye Company of France"); 1936 - invented the first sunscreen; March 17, 2006 - agreed to pay £652 million to acquire ethical cosmetics company, The Body Shop.

1908 - Max Factor (born Max Faktor in Poland) moved to Los Angeles; 1914 - created make-up specifically for movie-actors (vs. theatrical make-up), would not crack or cake; 1920s - introduced cosmetics to the public; November 12, 1929 - registered "MAX FACTOR'S SUM'R TAN COSMETICS OF THE STARS HOLLYWOOD" trademark first used March 30, 1929 (preparation for creating a suntanned complexion and for preventing sunburn and freckles); August 10, 1937 - registered "MAX FACTOR HOLLYWOOD" trademark first used November 1, 1928 (cosmetics, perfumes, theatrical make-up and similar preparations); June 18, 1940 - registered "MAX FACTOR" trademark first used June 1, 1917 (perfumes, make-up).




Max Factor (

1910 - Florence Nightingale Graham opened salon in New York with $6,000 loan from her older brother; installed bright red door, adopted new name, Elizabeth Arden (hybrid of first, last names of her skincare mentor,  former business partner); 1912 - formulated rogues, tinted powders; March 21, 1922 - Florence N. Lewis, aka Elizabeth Arden, registered "Elizabeth Arden" trademark first used January 2, 1910 (skin solutions and creams, reducing lotion, bleach cream, and depilatory); created business with 17 Elizabeth Arden corporations, 40 Salons worldwide; 1970 - acquired by Eli Lilly & Co.; 1989 - acquired by Unilever; 2001 - acquired by FFI Fragrances (formerly French Fragrances, Inc.)  for $190 million; name changed to Elizabeth Arden, Inc.

1910 - Angelo Zegna, watchmaker, opened wool mill (Lanificio Zegna) in Trivero, in the Alpine foothills near Biella; taken over by Ermenegildo Zegna (youngest of 10) to produce top quality textiles for men’s clothing by selecting finest raw materials, introducing product and process innovations, actively promoting brand; end of the 1930s - employed over 1,000 people; 1938 - exported to United States; January 8, 1952 - Lanificid Rrmenegildo Zegna SNC. Co registered "Astrum Zegna" trademark (textile and knitted fabrics made of wool, silk, cotton, horesehair, jute, hemp, flax, and mistures of such fabrics); 1960s - Angelo, Aldo (grandsons) took over management of Ermenegildo Zegna e Figli; made transition from exclusive production of fabrics to tailoring of high quality suits for men, internationalization of production; 1972 - launched Made to Measure business; 1980 - opened first mono brand store in Paris; 1999 - acquired Lanerie Agnona S.p.A.; 2002 - acquired Guida, owner of Longhi brand; set up a 50-50 joint venture (ZeFer) with Salvatore Ferragamo Group to develop global scale footwear, leather goods business; 2006 - fourth generation management, sales of 779.4 million euros.

Ermenegildo Zegna - Zegna Group (

1913 - Mario Prada founded Fratelli Prada ("Prada Brothers), Prada, SpA; designed, sold handbags, shoes, trunks, suitcases though two boutiques in Milan; 1978 - Miuccia Prada (granddaughter) inherited what was still leather goods business from her mother, led company's expansion into couture; January 17, 1984 - F. Ili Prada di Fernanda e Luigia Prada Partnership registered "Prada" trademark (Leather Goods-Namely, Leather and Leather Like Articles-Namely, Wallets, Purses, Travelling Bags, and Hand Bags; Hides; Trunks and Suit-Cases; Rain Umbrellas; Parasols [and Walking Sticks; Whips, Harness and Saddlery Articles]; early 1990s - acquired financially floundering Rome-based house of Fendi (sold to LVMH).

November 4, 1914 - Edna Woodman Chase, "Vogue" magazine, organized first fashion show, at Ritz-Carlton Hotel in New York City.

September 1915 - Tom Lyle Williams, Chicago chemist, started Maybell Laboratories; began selling 'Lash-Brow-Ine', mail-order product to stimulate growth of eyebrows and lashes (had concocted lash-darkener for his sister in 1913 from blend of Vaseline jelly with coal dust, ash from burnt cork); October 1915 - started advertising in magazines to drive sales; 1917 - launched Maybelline Cake Mascara, first eye cosmetic for everyday use; 1920 - launched eyeshadow; May 5, 1920 - changed name to Maybelline Company; July 15, 1920 - lost trademark infringement suit against Lashbrow Laboratories Company (Benjamin Ansehl vs. Thomas L. Williams - 'Lash-Brow-Ine' held to infringe on 'Lashbrow', sold since 1912); 1930 - introduced eyeliners; February 17, 1942 - Maybelline Co. registered "Maybelline" trademark first used May 5, 1920 (mascara, eyebrow pencils, eye shadow, eyelash and eyebrow cream, eye drops); 1960s - introduced Ultra Lash, waterproof formula in tube dispenser, first mass-market automatic mascara; 1967 - acquired by Plough Inc.; 1970 - introduced foundation, lip, nail lines; 1971 - launched Great Lash; America’s #1 best -selling cosmetic product; 1990 - acquired by Wasserstein Perella; 1996 - acquired by L’Oréal.

1921 - Guccio Gucci (formerly of London's Savoy Hotel) opened leather-goods company, small luggage store in Florence; 1950's - green-red-green web (derived from saddle girth) became brand identifier; 1953 - sons take over (Aldo, Vasco, Ugo, Rodolfo); end of 1960's - interlocking double 'G' logo introduced; 1982 - Maurizio Gucci (Rodolfo's son) owned 50% of company; 1984 - Domenic De Sole named President of Gucci America; late 1987-89 - Bahrain-based Investcorp acquired 50% of company from Aldo Gucci and descendants; 1993 - Investcorp acquired remaining 50% of stock from Maurizio Gucci; 1994 - Tom Ford became creative director; 1995 - De Sole named CEO; 1999 - entered strategic alliance with Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR), became multi-brand group; 34% Gucci Group shares acquired by LVMF; December 1999 - acquired Yves Saint Laurent, YSL Beaute; February 2001 - acquired 66.7% of Bottega Veneta (increased to 78.5% in July); July 2004 - fully acquired by PPR; De Sole, Ford resigned.

May 5, 1921 - Coco Chanel introduced Chanel No. 5; February 24, 1925 - Chanel Inc. registered "Chanel" trademark first used January 1, 1920 (face powder, perfume, eau de cologne, toilet water, lop stick, and rouge); June 14, 1949 - Chanel Inc. registered "Chanel No. 5" trademark first used on January 1, 1921 (perfume).

1922 - Enid Bissett, partner with Ida Rosenthal in Enid Frocks, custom dress business on New York's West 57th Street, restructured boyish form bandeau to have two cups separated by center piece of elastic; William Rosenthal (husband) created garment shape to support natural contours of bust; named it Maiden Form (later Maidenform®) Brassiere; sold undergarment separately; 1923 - incorporated; 1925 - formed Enid Manufacturing Company, produced Maidenform® Brassiere exclusively; 1930 - name changed to Maiden Form Brassiere Company; April 24, 1934 - William Rosenthal, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Brassiere" ("adapted to support the bust in a natural position"); assigned to Maiden Form Brassiere Co.; November 6, 1934 - received second patent for a "Brassiere"; assigned to Maiden Form Brassiere Co.; first intimate apparel company to advertise on buses, billboards, local window and store-counter card displays, radio; 1949 - first "I Dreamed" ad (featured women in their bras acting out fantasies of independence in public places; ran through 1969); September 4, 1951 - Maiden Form Brasserie Co., Inc. registered "Maidenform" trademark first used January 1, 1924 (brassieres, bandeaux, corsets, corselettes, panties, pantie-girdles, girdles, and garter belts); 1960 - company renamed Maidenform, Inc.; 1997 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1999 - emerged fro, bankruptcy; Oaktree Capital Management, LLC majority owner.

Ida Rosenthal - Maidenform (

1923 - Hugo Ferdinand Boss, tailor, opened shop in Metzingen, Germany (small town south of Stuttgart); made working clothes for industrial workers (uniforms, raincoats); 1930 - forced into bankruptcy; 1931 - joined Nazi party; 1933 - became RZM-licensed (official) supplier of uniforms to SA, SS, Hitler Youth, NSKK, other Party organizations; 1948 - Uwe and Jochen Holy (grandsons) took over tailoring business , turned it around, produced high quality men's wear; 1980 - sales exceeded DM 100 million; December 3, 1985 - Hugo Boss GmbH registered "Boss Creation Hugo Boss Paris" trademark first used in 1924 (high fashioned men's wear); 1987 - sales of DM 500 million; 1989 - 64% ownership interest acquired by Japanese Leyton House Group; 1991 - acquired by Marzatto S.p.A. for ITL 200 billion ($165 million); 1993 - named Peter Littmann CEO; November 1998 - nemed Werner Baldessarini, chief designer and marketing manager, CEO; 1999-2000 - opened 130 Hugo Boss stores; 2010 - Hugo Boss AG owns around 330 retail stores, franchisees own over 1,000 stores and shops.

1925 - Edoardo, Adele Fendi, newly married, opened small leathergoods shop, fur worshop on Via del Plebiscito in Rome (Adele Casagrande had opened leather, fur workshop in Rome in 1918, changed name to Fendi in 1925); 1946 - five sisters joined company; 1965 - started to work with Karl Lagerfeld, young designer becoming well-known in Paris; created double FF logo; 1966 - Marvin Traub (Bloomingdale's) discovered Fendi bags in Rome, introduced them in New York; 1977 - launched ready-to-wear line; 1994 - Carla Fendi named President of the Board, took place of her sister Paola; 1995 - over 380 employees, about 70% of overall production geared for export (100 boutiques, 2 direct Fendi stores in Rome, New York, 600 points of sale scattered in Italy, abroad); 1999 - acquired by LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton, Prada Holdings; November 2001 - Prada 25.5% stake in Fendi acquired by LVMH Group.

March 1, 1932 - Charles and Joseph Revson, along with chemist, Charles Lachman (contributed the "L" in the REVLON name), founded Revlon; pooled their resources, developed unique manufacturing process (used pigments instead of dyes) for single product - nail enamel; offered to women a rich-looking, opaque nail enamel in wide variety of shades never before available; sold to beauty salons; 1937 - sold through department stores, selected drugstores; 1938 - company became multimillion dollar organization; 1941 - virtual monopoly on beauty salon sales; June 18, 1957 - Revlon Inc. registered "Revlon" trademark first used May 17, 1950 (shampoo); 1973 - Charlie® fragrance introduced; designed for a young, working woman market (1977 - sales passed $1 billion mark); 1985 - acquired by subsidiary of MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.

March 25, 1937 - The first perfumed ad appeared in the Washington, DC "Daily News".

April 6, 1937 - Bausch & Lomb introduced Ray-Ban to public, high-end manufacturer of sunglasses; aviator sunglasses commissioned in 1936 for pilot use by United States Air Force;  November 1, 1938 - registered 'Ray-Ban' trademark first used April 6, 1937 (goggles); 1999 - acquired by Luxotica Group.

October 24, 1939 - Nylon stockings (first man-made fibre made exclusively from mineral sources - strong, elastic, moth-proof, did not absorb moisture), made by Du Pont, sold publicly for first time at Braunstein's ladies shop in Wilmington, DE; specifically intended to compete with silk in women's hosiery market (eventually replaced silk stockings); May 15, 1940 - nationwide sales began.

1945 - Master tailor Nazareno Fonticoli, fashion designer Gaetano Savini opened Brioni Atelier, suit shop, in Rome's central Via Barberini; company named "Brioni" after resort island on coast of Adriatic Sea; 1952 - first men's tailored clothing show at Palazzo Pitti, Florence; 1961 - began wholesale distribution in United States; 1990 - Umberto Angeloni became CEO; opened 23 boutiques in most prestigious cities, resorts in world, “hubs” for International Jet Set; expanded line into women’s haute-couture fashion; 2000 - sales of $150 million, eight hand-production factories, diverse product line.

Nazareno Fonticoli, Gaetano Savini - Brioni (

September 11, 1945 - Toni, Incorporated (St. Paul, MN) registered "Toni" trademark first used August 1, 1944 (home permanent waving kit).

1946 - Jerry and Eileen Ford started modeling agency in apartment on East side of Manhattan; introduced payment system (models paid in advance of their work), established 5-day work week (models paid on Friday, less 10% Ford fee); December 2007 - acquired by Stone Tower Equity Partners.

July 5, 1946 - Bikini, first two-piece bathing suit, made debut during  outdoor fashion show at Piscine Molitor, popular swimming pool in Paris; invented by Jacques Heim, designed by Louis Reard, named after South Pacific atoll where atomic bomb tested in World War II (Heim and Reard had developed competing prototypes; Heim called his "atom", advertised it as "the world's smallest bathing suit"; Reard's swimsuit, basically bra top, two inverted triangles of cloth connected by string, was significantly smaller - made of  30 inches of fabric, promoted as "smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit" Reard's business soared, kept bikini mystique alive in advertisements by declaring that two-piece suit wasn't genuine bikini "unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring"); modeled by Micheline Bernardini, Parisian showgirl, exotic dancer at Casino de Paris (no qualms about appearing nearly nude in public).

1949 - Charles Evans (salesman in aunt's clothing store), Joseph Picone (father's tailor) formed Evan-Picone partnership to create sample from designs of fly-fronts on women's skirts (believed they would work as well as on men's trousers); became successful manufacturer of women's sportswear; 1962 - acquired by Revlon.

1950 - Pierre Cardin opened fashion house on Rue Richepanse; 1953 - presented first collection; 1954 - introduced "bubble dresses"; opened first boutiques in Paris: EVE, then ADAM; 1959 - first time collection of ready-to-wear for women at Printemps department store in Paris; 1961 - started distribution of ready-to-wear and accessories for men; 1963 - same for women; 1979 - first foreign couturier to present collection in China; 1986 - signed contract with USSR for local production of ready-to-wear for men, women children.

1950 - Hazel Gladys Bishop established Hazel Bishop, Inc. to manufacture "Lasting Lipstick"; enlisted help of advertising professional Raymond Spector; introduced non-smear ("stays on you not on him") kissproof lipstick (stayed on the lips longer than any other product then available) for $1 per tube; 1951 - Spector partner forced her out of the $10 million company she created.

1950s - Los Angeles-based chemist named Alberto introduced Alberto VO5 Conditioning Hairdressing (five organic emollients) to rejuvenate hair of Hollywood movie stars damaged by beaming studio lights; Blaine Culver, business partner, started beauty products company; acquired by Leonard (36) and Bernice Lavin for $40,000; renamed Albert-Culver Co.; discontinued all products but VO5; February 25, 1958 - Lobco, Inc. (dba Alberto-Culver Co.) registered "Alberto VO5" trademark first used in January 1939 (preparation used as a hair dressing and as a hair scalp conditioner); became number one brand in its category; 1961 - went public; 1969 - acquired Sally Beauty Company, Inc.; 1972 - persuaded television networks to abandon policies of only selling 60-second commercial spots; bought 30-second ads, ran two commercials back to back; 1983 - introduced Mrs. Dash line of herbs, spices.

1954 - Jacques Courtin opened Institut Clarins beauty salon on Rue Tronchet in Paris; named for Clarins, Roman jailer saved Christians from being devoured at the Coliseum by overfeeding lions; founded Clarins to produce luxury skin-care products, makeup made primarily from plant extracts; 2006 - $1.2 billion in sales.

September 20, 1955 - Evan-Picone, Inc. registered "Tailored by Evan-Picone New York" trademark first used September 1, 1949 (skirts, slacks, shorts, and pedal pushers, for women and misses). 

1958 - Yves Rocher started company focused on nature, feminine beauty in La Gacilly in Brittany, France; products based on beauty through plants (no synthetic additives); early pioneer of process of selling cosmetics by mail order; 1965 - published The Green Book of Beauty (translated into 30 languages); 1969 - opened first store on Boulevard Haussmann in Paris; 2009 - 40 million customers in 80 countries., sales of 2 billion euros; Bris Rocher (grandson) president of Yves Rocher Group. 

1961 - Leonardo Del Vecchio founded Luxottica s.a.s., limited partnership, in Agordo; employed ten people, contract manufacturer of eyewear parts; 1971 - only business became manufacture, sale of finished eyeglass frames; first collection presented at MIDO (International Exhibition of Optics, Optometry and Ophthalmology) in Milan; 1974 - acquired Italian firm Scarrone, its first distribution company; 1988 - signed license agreement with Giorgio Armani; 1995 - acquired US Shoe Corporation, owner of LensCrafters, direct distribution through largest optical retail chain in North America (870 stores); 1999 - acquired Ray-Ban (best known sunwear brand in world); 2001 - acquired Sunglass Hut, Inc., largest sunwear store chain in world (more than 1,550 sales points in North America, approximately 300 stores throughout the rest of world); consolidated direct market penetration); 2007 - 27 brands, approximately 52,000 employees worldwide; June 20, 2007 - agreed to acquire Oakley Inc. in an all-cash deal worth about $2.1 billion.

Leonardo Del Vecchio - founder Luxotica Group ( DelVecchio_photo.jpg_2059440466.jpg)

1962 - Valentino Garavani debuted Valentino fashions in Florence; teamed with Giancarlo Giammetti to form business; 1998 - acquired by HdP, Italian conglomerate controlled, in part, by Gianni Agnelli, head of Fiat, for about $300 million; 2002 - acquired by Marzotto Apparel, Milan-based textile company, for $210 million; May 16, 2007 - controlling interest (29.6%) in Valentino Fashion Group SpA acquired by Permira Advisers (Europe's biggest buyout fund) for $1.06 billion.

Valentino Garavani - Valentino Fashion Group SpA (

January 1962 - Yves Saint Laurent presented first collection in former private residence of painter Forain, at 30 bis rue Spontini à Paris (had been former Art Director at Christian Dior company since 1957, had formed partnership with Pierre Bergé in 1961 to open fashion house); 80 dressmakers in 3 workshops created the fashions; September 16, 1966 - opened Rive Gauche, his first ready-to-wear boutique, at 21 rue de Tournon; January 7, 2002 - presented final collection; retired from Haute Couture.

1965 - Luciano, Gilberto, Carlo, Giuliana  Benetton founded Benetton Group.

May 1967 - Ralph Lauren established Polo label with successful line (26 boxes) of ties (wide, handmade ties using unexpected, flamboyant, opulent materials); 1969 - established first shop-within-a-shop designer boutique for men in Bloomingdale’s in New York City; 1971 - introduced women's line; opened first store in Beverly Hills, CA; first American designer with his own freestanding store; February 5, 1974 - registered 'Polo by Ralph Lauren' trademark (men's suits, slacks, ties, sweaters, shoes, shirts, hats, belts, socks, and ladies' blouses, skirts, suits and dresses); July 29, 1975 - Polo Fashions, Inc. registered 'Chaps by Ralph Lauren' trademark (jackets, pants, suits and slacks; brand name first used January 23, 1974); 1986 - opened flagship store in Rhinelander mansion (Madison Avenue at 72nd Street); 2002 - $10 billion global business.

1970 - Sidney Kimmel founded, became President of Jones Apparel Division of W. R. Grace; 1975 - acquired by Kimmel and partner, renamed Jones Apparel Group; May 15, 1991 - went public; 1996 - sales of $1 billion; 1993 - acquired Evan-Picone label; October 1998 - acquired Sun Apparel, Inc; June 1999 - acquired Nine West Group Inc.; December 2004 - acquired Barney's New York, Inc.; for $400 million; June 22, 2007 - sold to Istithmar, investment arm of Dubai government, for $825 million.

1975 - Charlie Clifford, former Peace Corps volunteer, founded Tumi Inc. (named for an Inca god), imported leather duffle bags from Colombia; 1980s - introduced garment bag; 1997 - opened first store in Santa Monica, CA; October 2002 - Oaktree Capital Management, LLC, Los Angeles-based private equity firm, acquired controlling interest; October 2004 - acquired by Doughty Hanson (UK buyout firm) for $276 million.

Charlie Clifford - Tumi ( show/images/guests/CharlieClifford.jpg)

1976 - Liz Claiborne, relatively unknown dress designer, Art Ortenberg (husband in textiles, former boss for 20 years), Leonard Boxer and Jerome Chazen established Liz Claiborne Inc. with less than half a million dollars; design-driven company to provide ensemble driven sportswear, available for many years at designer level prices (Calvin Klein, Bill Blass), affordable for the working woman; worked with retailers to test concept of presenting all brand's related sportswear pieces in one department, streamlined consumer's shopping experience; 1981 - went public (sales of $117 million, net income of $20 million); 1985 - first company founded by a woman to be listed in Fortune 500; 1990 - largest women's apparel maker (sales of $1.4 billion, 35 million garments shipped); 2006 - sales of $5 billion.

1980 - John Paul DeJoria (formerly of Redken Laboratories,  leading professional salon product company), Paul Mitchell (hairdresser) established partnership with borrowed $700.00; launched professional hair care system around new styling method, hair sculpting, and new styling product, Hair Sculpting Lotion; eventually become known as John Paul Mitchell Systems; products marketed under brand name Paul Mitchell; traveled extensively, conducted no-cost product demonstrations for salon owners, promised to buy back any unsold products; 1989 - Paul Mitchell died; 2007 - retail sales of approximately $800 million, over 90 products.

Photo of John Paul DeJoria John Paul DeJoria - co-founder John Paul Mitchell Systems ( PublishingImages/JohnPaulDeJoria.jpg)

September 1982 - Kenneth Cole incorporated Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc.; debut collection of ladies' footwear (followed in father's footsteps, former senior executive of El Greco, Inc., shoe manufacturing, design company, manufactured CANDIES women's shoes) from 40-foot trailer truck parked on 6th Avenue, across from shoe industry trade show HQ at New York Hilton; sold 40,000 pairs of shoes (entire stock) in two and a half days; 1984 - first public service campaign (AIDS Research); 1994 - sales of $84.9 million; opened Bloomingdale's Manhattan flagship concept shop; 1996 - operated 17 retail stores in United States, store in Amsterdam, Singapore; 2005 - sales at record level of $518 million; products sold in more than 7,500 department, specialty stores, through Consumer Direct business (more than 80 retail, outlet stores, consumer catalogs, interactive websites).

  Kenneth Cole (

1985 - Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana founded Dolce & Gabbana, leading international luxury goods groups; 2005 - annual sales of 1,151.3 million euros; December 2006 - over 3,000 employees, retail network of 87 stores, 11 factory outlets.

1987 - Joseph Abboud founded JA Apparel Corp; owns Joseph Abboud brand name; menswear label has grown into a $150 million worldwide wholesaler, retailer, and licensor of men?s clothing, accessories, and home furnishings; 2000 - sold for $65 million to RCS MediaGroup.

1988 - Rembrandt Group Limited of South Africa (founded by Anton Rupert, now Remgro Limited) spun off international assets owned; formed Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG; owns minority holding in Cartier Monde SA. Rothmans International (holds investments in Cartier monde, Alfred Dunhill, Montblanc, Chloé); 1989 - acquired Philip Morris's 30% interest in Rothmans International; 1993 - separated tobacco, luxury goods operations into Rothmans International BV/PLC, Vendôme Luxury Group SA/PLC; 1988 - bought out Vendôme Luxury Group minority shareholders; 2003 - completed acquisition of control of Van Cleef & Arpels.

July 15, 1997 - Fashion designer Gianni Versace was shot to death outside his home in Miami; suspected gunman Andrew Phillip Cunanan was found dead eight days later.

March 17, 2006 - The Body Shop agreed to $1.2 billion takeover by the French cosmetics firm L'Oréal; 1976 - started in Brighton, UK as ethical alternative to traditional approach to cosmetics; 2,085 branches worldwide, 304 in UK.

March 12, 2007 - The Weinstein Company and Hilco Consumer Capital announced that they had acquired Halston (brokered by Jimmy Choo) from Neema Clothing for an undisclosed amount.

February 13, 2008 - Liz Claiborne agreed to sell Ellen Tracy Brand to group of investors including Radius Partners and Windsong Brands for up to $42 million in cash.

(JA Apparel Corp.), Jospeh Abboud with Ellen Stern (2004). Threads: My Life Behind the Seams in the High-Stakes World of Fashion. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 256 p.). Founder. Abboud, Joseph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography. 

Joseph Abboud (

(Alberto-Culver Co.), Leonard H. Lavin with Daniel Paisner (2003). Winners Make It Happen: Reflections of a Self-Made Man. (Chicago, IL: Bonus Books, 238 p.). Founding President, CEO, Chairman of Alberto-Culver Corporation. Lavin, Leonard H.; Alberto-Culver Co.--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Toilet preparations industry--United States--History. 

(Elizabeth Arden), Nancy Shuker (1989). Elizabeth Arden: Cosmetics Entrepreneur. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 112 p.). Arden, Elizabeth, 1878-1966; Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Cosmetics industry--United States--History.

Elizabeth Arden ( thumb/4/4a/Elizabeth_Arden_NYWTS.jpg/150px-Elizabeth_Arden_NYWTS.jpg)

(Avon), Sonny Kleinfield (1986). Staying at the Top: The Life of a CEO. (New York, NY: New American Library, 298 p.). Reporter (New York Times). Waldron, Hicks; Avon Products, inc.; Directors of corporations--United States--Biography; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.

David Hall McConnell - founder Avon Products (,david.jpg)

Mrs. Persus Foster Eames Albee - pioneered Avon's direct-selling method ( = first general agent - in Winchester, NH) (

(Avon), Laura Klepacki (2005). Avon :Building The World's Premier Company For Women. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 264 p.). Former Mass-Market Beauty Editor (Women's Wear Daily). Avon Products, Inc. 

(Beene), Brenda Cullerton; foreword by Richard Martin and Harold Koda (1995). Geoffrey Beene. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 141 p.). Beene, Geoffrey; Fashion designers--United States--Biography; Costume design--United States--History--20th century.

(Benetton), a cura di Giuseppe Nardin; con un saggio introduttivo di Raffaele Gaeta (1987). La Benetton: Strategia e Struttura di un'Impresa di Successo. (Roma, IT: Edizioni Lavoro, 138 p.). Benetton (Firm); Textile industry--Italy.

Luciano Benetton Luciano Benetton - Benetton Group (

(Benetton), Luciano Benetton con Andrea Lee (1990). Io e i Miei Fratelli. (Milano, IT: Sperling & Kupfer, 305 p.). Benetton (Firm); Clothing trade--Italy; Clothing trade; Retail trade--Italy.

(Benetton), Sergio Saviane (1998). Il Miliardario: La Vita Segreta di Luciano Benetton. (Venezia, IT: Marsilio, 171 p.). Benetton, Luciano, 1935- ; Clothing trade--Italy. Industrialist and co-founder with his 3 brothers of the clothing and textile company of Treviso (Veneto).

(Benetton), Jonathan Mantle (1999). Benetton: The Family, the Business and the Brand. (London, UK: Little, Brown, 337 p.). Benetton (Firm) -- History. 

(Benetton), Giorgio Brunetti, Paolo Bortoluzzi (2004). Benetton: Da United Colors a Edizione Holding. (Torino, Italy: ISEDI: UTET, 256 p.). Benetton (Firm); Clothing trade--Italy.

(Blass), Bill Blass(2002). Bare Blass. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 181 p.). Blass, Bill; Fashion designers--United States--Biography; Costume design--United States--History--20th century.

(Brioni Roman Style S.p.A.), Ed. Cristina Giorgetti; additional contributions from Stephen Bayley ... [et al ; translations, Deborah Hodges Maschietto, Colin Woodhead] (1995). Brioni, Fifty Years of Style. (Firenze, IT: Octavo, 295 p.). Brioni (Firm)--History; Fashion design--Italy--History--20th century; Men’s clothing--Italy--History--20th century.

(Pierre Cardin), Valerie Mendes (1990). Pierre Cardin: Past, Present, Future (London, UK: 3Nishen Publishing, 192 p.). Cardin, Pierre; Haute Couture--France.

Pierre Cardin (

(Oleg Cassini), Oleg Cassini (1987). In My Own Fashion: An Autobiography. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 379 p.). Cassini, Oleg, 1913- ; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

(Chanel), Marcel Haedrich; Translated from the French by Charles Lam Markmann (1972). Coco Chanel; Her Life, Her Secrets. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 277 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971.

Coco Chanel ( January 11, 1971 Obituary: http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/ onthisday/bday/0819.html

(Chanel), Edmonde Charles-Roux (1981). Chanel and Her World. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 354 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Women fashion designers--France--Biography; France--Social life and customs--20th century.

(Chanel), Axel Madsen (1990). Chanel: A Woman of Her Own. (New York, NY: Holt, 388 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Women fashion designers--France--Biography; Fashion designers--France--Biography.

(Chanel), Amy De La Haye, Shelley Tobin (1994). Chanel, The Couturiere at Work. (Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 136 p.). Assistant Curator in the Textiles and Dress Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum; Curator of Costumes for the National Trust in Devon, England. Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Fashion design--France--History--20th century.

(Chanel), Janet Wallach (1998). Chanel: Her Style and Her Life. (New York, NY: N. Talese, 180 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Costume design--France--History--20th century.

(Chanel), Henry Gidel (2000). Coco Chanel. (Paris, FR: Flammarion, 437 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Women fashion designers--France--Biography; Costume design--France--History--20th century; Woman - Fashion - Biography.

(Chanel), Tilar J. Mazzeo (2010). The Secret of Chanel No. 5: The Intimate History of the World’s Most Famous Perfume. (New York, NY: Harper, 304 p.). Associate Professor of English (Colby College). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Parfums Chanel (Firm); Chanel No. 5 perfume; Perfumes industry --France --History --20th century. Journey to discover secret behind creation, iconic status, extraordinary success of Chanel No. 5, world’s most famous perfume; where art and sensuality met entrepreneurship and desire; how pioneering celebrity fragrance, introduced in late 1920s, took on life of its own, beaome cultural monument.

(Liz Claiborne Inc.), Jane L. Collins (2003). Threads: Gender, Labor, and Power in the Global Apparel Industry. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 207 p.). Professor of Rural Sociology and Women's Studies (University of Wisconsin, Madison). Liz Claiborne Inc.; Women clothing workers--Virginia--Martinsville; Knit goods industry--Virginia--Martinsville--Employees; Clothing workers--Virginia--Martinsville; Clothing trade--United States; Consumers--United States--Attitudes; Women clothing workers--Mexico--Aguascalientes; Knit goods industry--Mexico--Aguascalientes--Employees; Clothing workers--Mexico--Aguascalientes; Globalization--Economic aspects--United States--Case studies; Globalization--Economic aspects--Mexico--Case studies; International business enterprises--United States--Case studies. Diverse ties that link First , Third World workers, managers, producers,  consumers;  human face on globalization.




Liz Claiborne (

(Clarins SA), Jacques Courtin (2006). Une Reussite en Beaute. (Paris, FR: Lattes, 232 p.). Founder Clarins SA. Courtin, Jacques, 1921-2007; Clarins (Firm)--History; Toilet preparations industry--France--History.

(Kenneth Cole Productions), Kenneth Cole (2003). Footnotes: What You Stand For Is More Important Than What You Stand In. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 208 p.). Founder, Kenneth Cole Productions. Kenneth Cole Productions; Advertising--Fashion.

(Coty), Elisabeth Barille (1995). Coty: Parfumeur et Visionnaire. (Paris, FR: Editions Assouline, 180 p.). Coty, Francois, 1874-1934; Coty (Firm); Cosmetics industry--France--Biography.

Photograph:François Coty Francois Coty - Coty Perfumes (

(Coty), Roulhac B. Toledano and Elizabeth Z. Coty (2009). Francois Coty: Fragrance, Power, Money. (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub. Co., 312 p.). Artist, Writer, and Preserver of Historic American Treasures; Granddaughter-in-law of François Coty, Former Director of Cosmetics and Fragrance for Coty, Inc. Coty, Francois, 1874-1934; Businesspeople --France --Biography; Industrialists --France --Biography; Politicians --France --Biography. Revolutionized fragrance industry during first thirty years of twentieth century; "Emperor of Fragrance", France's first billionaire; orphaned at age seven; 1904 - created first fragrance; 1906 - millionaire; commissioned Baccarat to design beautiful bottles for his perfumes; 1926 - one of world's five richest men; owned more than forty French newspapers, dozens of chateaux, estates throughout Europe, statesman, artist, lover.

(Dior - founded 1947), Christian Dior; Translated from the French by Antonia Fraser (1957). Christian Dior and I. (New York, NY: Dutton, 251 p.). Dior, Christian; Fashion designers--France--Paris. 

Christian Dior ( October 24, 1957 Obituary:

(Dior), Marie-France Pochna; translated from the French by Joanna Savill; foreword by Stanley Marcus (1996). Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New. (New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 314 p.). Dior, Christian; Fashion designers--France--Paris--Biography; Costume design--France--Paris--History--20th century.

(Dior), Esmeralda de Rethy, Jean-Louis Perreau (2001). Christian Dior: The Early Years, 1947-1957. (New York, NY: Vendome Press, 127 p.). Dior, Christian; Christian Dior, Inc.; Costume design--France--Paris--History--20th century; Fashion--France--Paris--History--20th century.

Christian Dior (Dior) (2007). Dior by Dior. (London, UK: Victoria and Albert Museum, 178 p.). Dior, Christian; Christian Dior, Inc.; Fashion designers--France--Paris--Biography; Costume design--France--Paris--History--20th century; Fashion--France--Paris--History--20th century. Insight into workings of a great fashion house, private man behind high-profile establishment.

(Perry Ellis), Jonathan Moor (1988). Perry Ellis. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 247 p.). Ellis, Perry, 1940-1986; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

(Esther's Beauty Supply Company), Joseph Osborne (1994). Washing the Elephant: The Authorized Biography of Bettie Esther Parham. (Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance, 175 p.). Parham, Bettie Esther; Esther's Beauty Supply Company; African American women executives -- Biography; African American businesspeople -- Biography; Businesswomen -- United States -- Biography; Hair preparations industry -- United States.

(Max Factor), Fred E. Basten (2008). Max Factor: The Man Who Changed the Faces of the World. (New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 172 p.). Assistant to the Public Relations Director at Max Factor. Factor, Max, 1872?-1938; Cosmetics industry --United States --Biography; Cosmetics --United States. Father of modern make-up; former beautician, wigmaker to Russian imperial family, Romanovs, opened shop in theater district of Los Angeles in 1908; catered to stage actors, sold cosmetics and wigs; created make-up, invented false eyelashes, lip gloss, foundation, eye shadow, eyebrow pencil, concealer; began selling innovative cosmetics to general public; changed faces of world, created cosmetics empire that launched multibillion-dollar beauty industry.

(Ferragamo), Salvatore Ferragamo (1972). Shoemaker of Dreams; The Autobiography of Salvatore Ferragamo. (New York, NY: Crown, 223 p. [orig. pub. 1957]). Ferragamo, Salvatore, 1898-1960; Shoemakers--Italy--Biography.

Photo of Salvatore Ferragamo Salvatore Ferragamo (

(Ferragamo), Stefania Ricci, Cristina Morozzi, Wanda Ferragamo and Samuel Kung (2009). Salvatore Ferragamo - Evolving Legend 1928-2008. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 192 p.). Director of Museo Salvatore Ferragamo, Florence. Ferragamo, Salvatore ,1898-1960; Shoemakers--Italy--Biography. 1927 - Salvatore Ferragamo founded Salvatore Ferragamo Italia S.p.A.; made name famous in California, first in Santa Barbara, then in Hollywood; created footwear for most beautiful women in world, "divas" of emerging American cinema; 2009 - luxury brand with more than 450 stores in over 55 countries.

(FUBU), Daymond John, with Daniel Paisner (2007). Display of Power: How FUBU Changed a World of Fashion, Branding and Lifestyle. (Nashville, TN: Naked Ink, 223 p.). Founder and CEO of Fashion Label FUBU. FUBU; Costume design--United States--History; Costume design--History. Began as bunch of tie-top hats made in author's home in Hollis, Queens; mortgaged home for $100,000, turned half of house into factory, other half for living space for team of neighborhood friends. FUBU - originally BUFU, By Us For Us.

(Princess Galitzine), Irene Galitzine (1996). Dalla Russia alla Russia. (Milan, IT: Longanesi, 320 p.). Galitzine, Irene; Fashion--Italy--Rome--History--20th century; Fashion designers--Italy--Biography.

(Giorgio Inc.), Steve Ginsberg (1989). Reeking Havoc: The Unauthorized Story of Giorgio. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 262 p.). Giorgio, Inc.; Perfumes industry--United States.

(Gucci), Gerald McKnight (1987). Gucci: A House Divided. (New York, NY: D. I. Fine, 362 p.). Gucci (Firm);  Clothing trade--Italy; Clothing trade.

Guccio Gucci ( fashion_beauty/images/gucci1.JPG)

(Gucci), Sarah Gay Forden (2000). The House of Gucci: A Sensational Story of Murder, Madness, Glamour, and Greed (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 351 p.). Gucci, Maurizio, 1948-1995; Gucci (Firm); Businessmen--Italy--Biography; Clothing trade--Italy; Trials (Murder)--Italy.

(Gucci), Tom Ford, Bridget Foley (2004). Tom Ford. (New York, NY: Rizzoli International, 304 p.). Former Creative Director (Gucci, Yves Saint Laurent). Ford, Tom; Gucci; Yves Saint Laurent; Arts & Photography; Fashion Design. 

(Gucci), Sarah Mower (2006). Gucci by Gucci. (New York, NY: Vendome Press, 456 p.). Fashion Journalist; Contributing Editor to Vogue and Gucci (Firm)--History; Fashion design--Italy--History--20th century. Story of the brand, since 1921 inception in Florence, Italy; history of Florentine family-owned saddler that has imprinted its name on fashion consciousness; history of company, glorious visual exploration of its far-reaching influence.

(Gucci), Jenny Gucci (2008). Gucci Wars: How I Survived Murder and Intrigue at the Heart of the World's Biggest Fashion House. (London, UK: John Blake Publishing Ltd., 288 p.). Former Mrs. Paolo Gucci (grandson of founder). Gucci. Former "Gucci wife" (Paulo Gucci) reveals history of betrayal, jealousy, murder; family torn apart by rivalry, greed, in-fighting; Paolo became cruel, vindictive; refused to support wife, daughter; starved his racehorses in attempt to plead poverty; fortune not found after 13 years.

(Guerlain), Colette Fellous (1987). Guerlain. (Paris, FR: Denoel, 160 p.). Guerlain (History), Perfumes Industry (France) - History.

createur_guerlain.jpg Pierre François Pascal Guerlain (http://perfumes_originales. createur_guerlain.jpg)

(Guess Inc.), Christopher Byron (1992). Skin Tight: The Bizarre Story of Guess v. Jordache--Glamour, Greed, and Dirty Tricks in the Fashion Industry. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 364 p.). Guess (Firm)--Trials, litigation, etc.; Jordache (Firm)--Trials, litigation, etc.; Trials (Fraud)--California--Los Angeles; Clothing trade--Corrupt practices--United States.

(Haggar), Joy G. Spiegel (1978). That Haggar Man: A Biographical Portrait. (New York, NY: Random House, 149 p.). Haggar, J. M., 1892- ; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Men's clothing industry -- United States -- History.

(Haggar), Ed R. Haggar (2001). "Big Ed" and the Haggar Family: Behind an Apparel Giant. (Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 207 p.). Haggar Corporation--History; Men's clothing industry--Texas--History; Clothing trade--Texas--History; Businessmen--Texas--Biography.

(Halston), Steven Gaines (1991). Simply Halston: The Untold Story. (New York, NY: Putnam, 320 p.). Halston, 1932-1990; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

Roy Halston Frowick  ( language_tips/2007-03/07/xin_47030407210152567655.jpg)

(Halston), Elaine Gross & Fred Rottman (1999). Halston: An American Original. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 236 p.). Halston, 1932-1990; Fashion designers--United States--Biography; Costume design--United States--History--20th century.

(Harper Method), Jane R. Plitt (2000). Martha Matilda Harper and the American Dream: How One Woman Changed the Face of Modern Business. (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 184 p.). Visiting Scholar (University of Rochester). Harper, Martha Matilda--Biography; Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Beauty shop supplies industry--Management. 




Martha Matilda Harper ( whomade/images/t_harper.jpg)

(Marc Jacobs), Bridget Foley (2008). Marc Jacobs. (New York, NY: Assouline, 80 p.). Executive Editor of Women's Wear Daily and W magazine. Jacobs, Marc; fashion -- United States -- history. From whiz kid to international fashion superstar.

(Jergens), Paul F. Erwin (1965). With Lotions of Love. (Cincinnati, OH: Author, 107 p.). Jergens (Andrew) Company.

Andrew Jergens Sr. (

(Calvin Klein), Steven Gaines and Sharon Churcher (1994). Obsession: The Lives and Times of Calvin Klein. (New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group, 414 p.). Klein, Calvin, 1942- ; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

(Calvin Klein), Lisa Marsh (2003). The House of Klein: Fashion, Controversy, and a Business Obsession. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 232 p.). Fashion Reporter (New York Post). Klein, Calvin, 1942- ; Calvin Klein, Inc.; Fashion designers United States Biography; Costume design United States History 20th century. 

(Koscot Interplanetary), John Frasca (1972). The Unstoppable Glenn Turner. (Orlando, FL: Glenn W. Turner Enterprises, 218 p.). Turner, Glenn, 1935- ; Success in business.

(Koscot Interplanetary), Glenn W. Turner (1994). Turner, Turner, Turner: The King of Network Marketing. (Orlando, FL: Glen W. Turner Enterprises, 330 p.). Turner, Glen W.; Koscot Interplanetary; cosmetics industry--United States.

(Karl Lagerfeld), Alicia Drake (2006). The Beautiful Fall: Lagerfeld, Saint Laurent, and Glorious Excess in 1970s Paris. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 437 p.). Former Contributing Editor (W, Paris Vogue). Lagerfeld, Karl; Saint Laurent, Yves; haute couture; Paris -- 1970s. Bitter rivalry between (German-born) Lagerfeld and (Algerian-born) Saint Laurent.

(Jeanne Lanvin S.A.), Jerome Picon (2002). Jeanne Lanvin. (Paris, FR: Flammarion, 393 p.). Lanvin, Jeanne, 1867-1946; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Women fashion designers--France--Biography.

 Jeanne Lanvin - Jeanne Lanvin S. A. (

(Jeanne Lanvin S.A.), Dean L Merceron, Contribution by Alber Elbaz and Harold Koda (2007). Lanvin. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 370 p.). Lanvin, Jeanne, 1867-1946; Lanvin S. A.; Fashion design--France--History--20th century. House of Lanvin - oldest surviving couture house; key collections from 1909 - 1946; currently experiencing period of great acclaim, emerging as darling of press, Hollywood, larger fashion community.

(Estee Lauder), Lee Israel (1985). Estée Lauder: Beyond the Magic: An Unauthorized Biography (New York, NY: Macmillan, 186 p.). Lauder, Estée; Cosmetics industry--United States--Biography.

Estee Lauder ( builder/images/profilepix/lauder.jpg)

(Estee Lauder ), Estee Lauder (1985). Estée: A Success Story. (New York, NY: Random House, 222 p.). Founder, Estee Lauder, Inc. Lauder, Estée; Estée Lauder, Inc.--History; Perfumes industry--United States; Cosmetics industry--United States; Businesswomen--United States--Biography.

(L’Bri Pure N’ Natural), Linda & Brian Kaminski; with Jim Waldsmith (2007). Dare to Dream: The Story of L’Bri Pure N’ Natural. (Snowflake, AZ: Cedar Hill Pub., 136 p.). L'Bri Pure N’ Natural (Firm); Cosmetics industry --United States --History. Husband, wife built successful business of skin care products.

(Longchamp), Marie-ClaireAucouturier; Photographs by Philippe Garcia (2009). Longchamp. (New York, NY: Abrams, 208 p.). Cassegrain. Philippe; Longchamp; Luxury goods. 1948 - Philippe Cassegrain founded Longchamp as leather goods for smokers, expanded into small leather goods in 1950s, opened first Longchamp boutiques in 1970s and '80s; partnerships with artists Thomas Heatherwick, Tracey Emin, advertising campaigns with supermodel Kate Moss cemented company's reputation as stylish innovator.

(L'Oréal), Michael Bar-Zohar (1996). Bitter Scent: The Case of L'Oreal, Nazis and the Arab Boycott. (New York, NY: Dutton, 264 p.). L'Oréal (Firm)--History;. 

(L'Oréal), François Dalle (2001). L'Aventure L'Oréal. (Paris, FR: Jacob, 395 p.). Former CEO (1957-1984). Dalle, François, 1918- ; L'Oréal (Firm)--Officials and employees--Biography; Toilet preparations industry--France--History--20th century.

(L'Oréal), Bruno Abescat (2002). La Saga des Bettancourt: L'Oréal, Une Fortune Française. (Paris, FR: Plon, 279 p.). Bettencourt, André; Bettencourt, Liliane; L'Oréal (Firm)--History; Businessmen--France--Biography; Business enterprises--France--History--20th century.

(Luxottica Group), Giorgio Brunetti, Arnaldo Camuffo; con un’Intervista a Leonardo del Vecchio (2000). Del Vecchio e Luxottica: Come si diventa leader mondiali. (Torino, Italy: UTET, 295 p.). Del Vecchio, Leonardo; Luxottica (Firm)--Management; Businessmen--Italy--Biography; Entrepreneurship--Italy--Case studies; Optical trade--Italy.

(LVMH), Claude Vincent, Philippe Monnin (1990). Guerre du Luxe: l'Affaire LVMH. (Paris, FR: Editions F. Bourin, 211 p.). Louis Vuitton Moët-Hennessy (Firm); Consolidation and merger of corporations--France; Conglomerate corporations--France.

Jean-Remy Moet - Grandson (

Bernard Arnault - LVMH ( 280000/images/_282394_bernardarnault.150.jpg)

(LVMH), Nadège Forestier, Nazanine Ravaï. (1990). Bernard Arnault, Ou, Le Goût Du Pouvoir (a Taste of Power) (Paris, FR: O. Orban, 303 p.). Arnault, Bernard, 1949- ; Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (Firm)--Management; Executives--France.

(LVMH), Airy Routier (2003). L'Ange Exterminateur: La Vraie Vie de Bernard Arnault. (Paris, FR: Albin Michel, 422 p.). Arnault, Bernard, 1949- ; Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (Firm)--Management--History; Executives--France--Biography.

(Marilyn Miglin Institute), Marilyn Miglin (2002). Best Face Forward. (Louisville, KY: Chicago Spectrum Press, 301 p.). Miglin, Marilyn; Businesswomen--Illinois--Chicago--Biography; Cosmetics industry--Illinois--Chicago--Biography.

(John Paul Mitchell Systems), Jocelyn Fujii (1993). Paul Mitchell: Man, Work, Vision: Who Was He? (Honolulu, HI: The Paul Mitchell Trust, 112 p.). Mitchell, Paul, 1936-1989; Beauty operators--United States--Biography; Beauty operators--England--Biography; Hairdressing--United States--Equipment and supplies.

(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash (1986). Mary Kay (New York, NY: Perennial, 200 p. [rev. ed.]). Founder, Mary Kay Cosmetics. Ash, Mary Kay; Mary Kay Cosmetics; Cosmetics industry--United States--Biography. Selling; Biography; Entrepreneur; Beauty, Personal; Women- owned business enterprises.

Mary Kay Ash (

(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash (1995). Mary Kay, You Can Have It All: Lifetime Wisdom from America's Foremost Woman Entrepreneur. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 258 p.). Success in business; Success; Businesswomen.

(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash, with Yvonne Pendleton (2008). The Mary Kay Way: Timeless Principles from America’s Greatest Woman Entrepreneur. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 238 p. [orig. pub. in 1984; revised, updated]). Founder Mary Kay, Inc. Ash, Mary Kay; Management; Success in business. Inspiration, real, proven success principles that represent 45 year success story of Mary Kay Ash; timeless guide to entrepreneurial success.

(Maybelline), Alan Andrews Ragland, Sharrie Williams and Bettie Youngs (2010). The Maybelline Story and the Spirited Family Dynasty Behind It. (Del Mar, CA: Bettie Youngs Books, 416 p.). Heir to the Maybelline Legacy. Maybelline (Firm); Cosmetics industry -- United States -- History. Tom Lyle Williams started company in 1915, became billion-dollar business to produce, sell easy-to-use product to darken eyelashes; 1920 - re-named Maybelline in sister's honor; four generations, humanity, glamour, seedy underside of family intoxicated by quest for power, wealth, physical perfection; man whose vision rocketed him to success, woman held in his orbit.

Tom Lyle Williams - founder, Maybelline ( ZDZDSRr9WzM/s1600/scan0007.jpg)

(M&M Products Company), Cornell McBride (2006). A Cut Above: How Cornell McBride Made Millions in the Hair Biz. (Lithonia, GA: MRL Pub., 252 p.). Hair preparations industry -- United States. Invented Sta Sof Fro, one of most famous hair-care products in history.

(Occitane), Pierre Magnan; translated from the French by Richard Seaver (2003). The Essence of Provence: The Story of L'Occitane. (New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 135 p.). Occitane (Firm)--History; Cosmetics industry--France--Provence-Côte d'Azur; Soap trade--France--Provence-Côte d'Azur. 

(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Pierre Daix (1998). François Pinault: Essai Biographique. (Paris, FR: Editions de Fallois, 257 p.). Pinault, François; Businessmen--France--Biography.

(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Caroline Monnot et Pierre-Angel Gay (1999). François Pinault Milliardaire, ou, Les Secrets d'Une Incroyable Fortune. (Paris, FR: Balland, 238 P.). Pinault, François; Businesspeople--France--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--France--Biography; Millionaires--France--Biography.

(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Jean Bothorel (2003). François Pinault: Une Enfance Bretonne. (Paris, FR: Laffont, 153 p.). Pinault, François; Businessmen--France--Biography.

(Polo), Jeffrey A.Trachtenberg (1988). Ralph Lauren: The Man Behind the Mystique (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 302 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

Ralph Lauren - Polo for men Ralph Lauren ( ralph_lauren_photo.jpg)

(Polo), Colin McDowell (2001). RalphLauren: The Man, the Vision, the Style. (London, UK: Cassell, 203 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

(Polo), Michael Gross (2003). Genuine Authentic: The Real Life of Ralph Lauren. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 392 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.

(Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation), Ralph Lauren (2007). Ralph Lauren. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 500 p.). Founder, Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation. Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography. 1967 - designed neckties under Polo label;  only designer to receive CFDA’s four highest honors. Author speaks candidly about himself, his art, peek into mind of one of America’s most accomplished fashion designers of all times.

(Revlon), Andrew Tobias (1976). Fire and Ice: The Story of Charles Revson the Man Who Built the Revlon Empire (New York, NY: Morrow, 282 p.). Revson, Charles, 1906-1975; Revlon, inc.; Cosmetics industry--United States--History.





Charles Revson - founder Revlon (

(Revlon), Richard Hack (1996). When Money Is King: How Revlon's Ron Perelman Mastered the World of Finance to Create One of America's Greatest Business Empires, and Found Glamour, Beauty, and the High Life in the Bargain (Beverly Hills, CA: Dove Books, 285 p.). Perelman, Ronald; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Millionaires--United States--Biography.

(Helena Rubinstein), Patrick O'Higgins (1971). Madame; An Intimate Biography of Helena Rubinstein. (New York, NY: Viking, 296 p.). Rubinstein, Helena, 1870-1965.

Helen Rubinstein - portrait (

(Helena Rubinstein), Lindy Woodhead (2004). War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein and Miss Elizabeth Arden: Their Lives, Their Times, Their Rivalry. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 492 p.). Former Journalist, Fashion PR Executive. Rubinstein, Helena, 1870-1965; Arden, Elizabeth, 1878-1966; Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Cosmetics industry--United States--History; Beauty culture--United States--History. 

(Rubenstein Helena Inc.), Ruth Brandon (2011). Ugly Beauty: Helena Rubinstein, L’Oreal, and the Blemished History of Looking Good. (New York, NY: Harper, 304 p.). Historian, Biographer and Novelist. Rubinstein, Helena, 1870-1965; Helena Rubinstein, inc.; L’Oréal (Firm); Beauty, Personal. Founding of the beauty business; Helena Rubinstein (1870–1965), Polish Jew from poor family with small salon in Australia, became first woman tycoon, self-made millionaire; Eugène Schueller (1881–1957), French chemist, found success in hair dyes; scandal when L’Oréal (founded by Schueller, Nazi collaborator) took over Helena Rubinstein (Polish Jew).

(Sassoon), Directed by Craig Teper (2011). Vidal Sassoon: The Movie. Life of Vidal Sassoon, from early days in Jewish orphanage in London, to time as  soldier, beginnings on Bond Street, revolution he caused; 1960s - pioneered geometric, Bauhaus-inspired hairdos, "wash and wear" philosophy liberated generations of women from tyranny of salon; revolutionized art of hairstyling, left indelible mark on popular culture.

(Sassoon), Vidal Sassoon (2011). Vidal: The Autobiography. (London, UK: Macmillan UK, 360 p.). Sassoon, Vidal; Fashion -- history. From an impoverished childhood (Spanish & Portuguese Jewish Orphanage in Maida Vale), to fighting fascists in London's East End, fighting in army of fledgling state of Israel in late 1940s to global fame as father of modern hairdressing with salons all over world, hairdressing school, global brand.

(Tony & Guy), Guy Mascolo (2003). The Birth of Toni & Guy. (Tenterden, UK: Circular Sounds, 160 p.). Co-Founder. Mascolo. Family; Toni & Guy. Firm; Beauty operators. Great Britain. Biography. 

(Gianni Versace S.p.A.), Deborah Ball (2010). House of Versace: The Untold Story of Genius, Murder, and Survival. (New York, NY: Crown, 343 p.). Reporter (Wall Street Journal Europe). Versace, Gianni; Gianni Versace S.p.A. --History; Fashion design --Italy --History; Fashion designers --Italy; Clothing trade --Italy --History. Legacy of creative genius; from a poor, backward part of southern Italy, transformed fashion world through intuitive understanding of women, how changing culture influenced way they wanted to dress; combined virtuosic talent, extraordinary ambition to almost single-handedly create celebrity culture; fashion, celebrity, business drama, jet-set lifestyles, notorious crime.

(von Furstenberg), Diane von Furstenberg, with Linda Bird Francke (1998). Diane: A Signature Life. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 237 p.). Von Furstenberg, Diane; Women fashion designers--United States--Biography. 

(Louis Vuitton), Stéphanie Bonvicini (2004). Louis Vuitton: Une Saga Française. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 363 p.). Vuitton, Louis, 1821-1892; Vuitton family; Louis Vuitton (Firm)--History; Louis Vuitton Moët-Hennessy (Firm)--History; Luxury goods industry--France--History; Luggage industry--France--History.

(Louis Vuitton), Paul-Gérard Pasols; translated from the French by Lenora Ammon (2005). Louis Vuitton: The Birth of Modern Luxury. (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 616 p.). Former Director of Communications for Louis Vuitton. Vuitton, Louis, 1821-1892; Louis Vuitton (Firm)--History; Luggage--Design--History; Trunks (Luggage)--History. History of House of Vuitton.

(Louis Vuitton), Jill Gasparina, Olivier Salliard, Taro Igarashi, Glenn O'Brien (2009). Louis Vuitton: Art, Fashion and Architecture. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 400 p.). Richest, most varied associations, among luxury brands, with world of art (artists, architects, designers, photographers); house’s most visible collaborations; Louis Vuitton’s patronage during one of most fertile periods of contemporary art, design.

(Louis Vuitton Japan), Kyojiro Hata (2004). The Building of Luxury: The Visionary Genius Behind Louis Vuitton Japan. (New York, NY: Assouline, 128 p.). Director of Louis Vuitton Japan. Vuitton, Louis; luxury goods; turnarounds. 

(Madame C. J.  Walker Manufacturing Co.), A'Lelia Bundles (2001). On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker. (New York, NY: Scribner, 415 p.). Great-great Granddaughter. Walker, C. J., Madam, 1867-1919; Afro-American women executives--Biography; Cosmetics industry--United States--History.  

Click picture for larger image. Madame C. J. Walker ( May 26, 1919 Obituary: http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/ onthisday/bday/1223.html

(Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Co.), Beverly Lowry (2003). Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madam C. J. Walker. (New York, NY: Knopf, 481 p.). Head of Creative Non-Fiction Program (George Mason University). Walker, C. J., Madam, 1867-1919; African American women executives--Biography; Cosmetics industry--United States--History. 

(YSL), Axel Madsen (1979). Living for Design: The Yves Saint Laurent Story. (New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 246 p.). Saint Laurent, Yves; Fashion designers--France--Biography.

Yves St. Laurent (right) ( womansworld/fashion/fashion/images/ysl.jpg)

(YSL), Yves Saint Larent ; dessins d'Yves Saint Laurent; préface de Bernard-Henri Lévy; commentaires d'Hélène de Turckheim (1986). Yves Saint Laurent. (Paris, FR: Musée des arts de la mode, 221 p.). Saint Laurent, Yves; Costume designers -- France -- Biography; Costume design -- France -- History -- 20th century.

(YSL), Laurence Benaïm (1993). Yves Saint Laurent. (Paris, FR: B. Grasset, 475 p.). Saint Laurent, Yves; Fashion designers--France--Biography. 

(YSL), Alice Rawsthorn (1996). Yves Saint Laurent: A Biography. (New York, NY: Nan A. Talese, 405 p.). Correspondent, Financial Times. Saint Laurent, Yves; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Fashion design--France--History--20th century. 

(YSL), Pierre Berge et Jéromine Savignon (2011). Saint Laurent Rive Gauche: La Revolution de la Mode. (Paris, FR: Editions de la Martinière, p.). Co-Founder of Yves Saint Laurent Couture House. Saint Laurent, Yves; Berge, Pierre; Rive Gauche; fashion merchandising -- 1960s. September 26, 1966 - Berge and Saint laurent opened Rive Gauche boutique at 21 rue de Tournon in Paris; offered simple clothes, impeccably tailored, at unbeatable prices carried home in shooping bag with orange and rose-colored edges (the logo of the boutique); immediately successful.

(Zara), Cecilia Monllor (2001). Zarapolis: La Historia Secreta de un Imperio de la Moda. (Barcelona, Spain: Ediciones del Bronce, 287 p.). Ortega Gaona, Amancio, 1936- ; Zara (Firm)--History; Fashion merchandising--Spain.

Frederick H. Abernathy, John T. Dunlop, Janice H. Hammond and David Weill (1999). A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of Manufacturing : Lessons from the Apparel and Textile Industries
 . (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 368 p.). Clothing trade--United States--Management; Manufacturing industries--United States--Management--Data processing; Retail trade--United States--Management; Just-in-time systems; Organizational change; Manufacturing industries--Management; Textile industry--United States--Management.

Teri Agins (1999). The End of Fashion: The Mass Marketing of the Clothing Business. (New York, NY: Morrow, 319 p.). Reporter, Wall Street Journal. Clothing trade; Clothing and dress--Marketing. 

Ed. Regina Lee Blaszczyk (2007). Producing Fashion: Commerce, Culture, and Consumers. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press,, 363 p.). Visiting Scholar in the Department of the History and Sociology of Science (University of Pennsylvania). Fashion design --20th century --History; Fashion merchandising --20th century --History; Consumers’ preferences --20th century --History; Marketing --Management --20th century --History; Product management --20th century --History. Historical role of business, commerce in creating international market for style goods; how economic institutions in Europe, North America laid foundation for global fashion system, sustained it commercially through mechanisms of advertising, licensing, marketing, publishing, retailing; how public and private institutions worked to shape fashion, style, taste with varying degrees of success.

Chandler Burr (2002). The Emperor of Scent: A Story of Obsession, Perfume, and the Last Mystery of the Senses. (New York, NY: Random House, 318 p.). Turin, Luca; Smell; Nose; Biophysicists--Great Britain--Biography. Dr. Luca Turin, pioneering scientist obsessed with "smell track" of everyday life.

--- (2008). The Perfect Scent: A Year Inside the Perfume Industry in Paris and New York. (New York, NY: Holt, 306 p.). Pperfume Critic (New York Times). Perfumes industry--Popular works; Perfumes--Popular works. Process of creating a perfume; personalities which envision, design, create, launch perfumes that drive billion-dollar industry; year behind scenes observing creation of two major fragrances (Hermes, Coty).

Carole Conover (1978). Cover Girls: The Story of Harry Conover (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 224 p.). Conover, Harry, 1912- ; Models (Persons) -- United States; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

Irene Daria (1990). The Fashion Cycle: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at a Year with Bill Blass, Liz Claiborne, Donna Karan, Arnold Scaasi, and Adrienne Vittadini. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 240 p.). Costume design--United States; Costume designers--United States.

Simon Doonan (1998). Confessions of a Window Dresser: Tales from a Life in Fashion. (New York, NY: Penguin Studio, 239 p.). Barney's "doyen of display". Doonan, Simon, 1952- ; Window dressers--Great Britain--Biography.

Stuart Ewen and Elizabeth Ewen (1982). Channels of Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping of American Consciousness. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 312 p.). Fashion History, Advertising, Consumers.

Carole Collier Frick (2002). Dressing Renaissance Florence: Families, Fortunes, & Fine Clothing. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 347 p.). Associate Professor of History (Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville). Clothing trade--Italy--Florence--History--To 1500; Tailoring--Italy--Florence--History--To 1500; Costume--Italy--Florence--History--15th century; Florence (Italy)--Social life and customs. 

Michael Gross (1995). Model: The Ugly Business of Beautiful Women. (New York, NY: Morrow, 524 p.). Esquire magazine. Modeling agencies; Models (Persons) -- United States. Day-to-day business of beautiful young women, sex, drugs; history of modeling industry.

Susannah Handley (1999). Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution: A Celebration of Design from Art Silk to Nylon and Thinking Fibres. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 192 p.). Clothing trade--History--20th century; Fashion--History--20th century; Synthetic fabrics; Nylon. 

Ed. Beth Harris (2005). Famine and Fashion: Needlewomen in the Nineteenth Century. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 252 p.). Women dressmakers--History--19th century; Dressmaking--History--19th century; Fashion--History--19th century.

Daniel Delis Hill (2004). As Seen in Vogue: A Century of American Fashion in Advertising. (Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 226 p.). Vogue; Advertising--Fashion--United States--History--20th century; Fashion--United States--History--20th century; Costume--United States--History--20th century; Dress accessories--United States--History--20th century. 

Geoffrey Jones (2010). Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry. (New York, NY Oxford University Press, 416 p.). Isidor Straus Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School). Beauty industry -- history. Beauty industry - from emergence in 19th century to present day; how today's global giants grew; how successive generations of entrepreneurs built brands which shaped perceptions of beauty, business organizations needed to market them; how they democratized access to beauty products, defined gender and ethnic borders of beauty, its association with handful of cities; homogenization of beauty ideals throughout world; effect of globalization.

Morag Martin (2009). Selling Beauty: Cosmetics, Commerce, and French Society, 1750-1830. (Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 228 p.). Associate Professor of History (College at Brockport, State University of New York). Cosmetics industry --France --History. Flourishing commerce of cosmetics as political ideals and Enlightenment philosophies radically altered popular sentiment; evolution of popular tastes, standards of beauty during late 18th, early 19th centuries; French citizenry rebelled against excesses of aristocracy, shifted consumer beauty practices; social and economic world of cosmetic production, consumption; criticisms against use of cosmetics; how producers and retailers responded to quickly evolving fashions; survival of industry depended on ability to find customers among emerging working and middle classes; use of cosmetics seen as threat to social morals; healthfulness of products questioned; cosmetics producers reassured consumers of  moral, physical safety of products.

Robert O'Byrne (2000). After a Fashion: A History of the Irish Fashion Industry. (Dublin, IR: Town House and Country House, 180 p.). Fashion design--Ireland--History; Fashion--Ireland--History; Fashion designers--Ireland--History.

Kathy Lee Peiss (1999). Hope in a Jar: The Making of America's Beauty Culture. (New York, NY: Holt, 334 p.). Beauty culture--United States--History; Cosmetics--United States--History. Masks and faces -- Women who painted -- Beauty culture and women's commerce -- The rise of the mass market -- Promoting the made-up woman -- Everyday cosmetic practices -- Shades of difference -- Identity and the market.

Teresa Riordan (2004). Inventing Beauty: A History of the Innovations That Have Made Us Beautiful. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 307 p.). Technology Columnist (New York Times). Beauty, Personal--History; Beauty culture--History; Cosmetics--History; Clothing and dress--History. 

Rob Schorman (2003). Selling Style: Clothing and Social Change at the Turn of the Century. (Philadelphia, PA: PENN/University of Pennsylvania Press,, 212 p.). Fashion merchandising--United States--History--19th century; Clothing trade--United States--History--19th century; Social change--United States--History--19th century.

Ed. Philip Scranton (2000). Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America. (New York, NY: Routledge, 340 p.). Beauty, Personal--United States--History; Clothing trade--United States--History; Fashion--United States--History; United States--Commerce--History.

Sarah Abrevaya Stein (2008). Plumes: Ostrich Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 244 p.). Maurice Amado Chair in Sephardic Studies, Department of History (University of California, Los Angeles). Ostrich feather industry -- History; Jewish merchants -- History. Global commerce, colonial economic practices, rise and fall of glamorous luxury item from 1880s until First World War; thirst for exotic ornament among fashionable women in Europe, America prompted bustling global trade in ostrich feathers; when feathers fell out of fashion with consumers, result was economic catastrophe for many; prominent, varied roles of Jews in feather trade across global commodity chain.

Susan Mosher Stuard (2006). Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 344 p.). Professor of History Emeritus (Haverford College). Luxury goods industry--Italy--History--To 1500; Luxuries--Italy--History--To 1500; Clothing and dress--Italy--History--Medieval, 500-1500; Fashion--Italy--History--To 1500; Consumption (Economics)--Italy--History--To 1500; Italy--Economic conditions. Arrival of fashion in European history. 

Kelley Styring (2007). In Your Purse: Archaeology of the American Handbag. (Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 112 p.). Former Head of Market Research at both Procter & Gamble and Frito-Lay. Role of purse in a woman's life. Deep-seated needs a purse and its contents fulfill, styles of purses that facilitate organization, products that perform in the purse.

Thuy Linh Nguyen Tu (2010). The Beautiful Generation: Asian Americans and the Cultural Economy of Fashion. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 259 p.). Assistant Professor of Asian Pacific American Studies (New York University). Asian American fashion designers; Fashion -- Social aspects -- United States; Fashion -- Economic aspects -- United States. Role of Asian American designers in New York’s fashion industry; how they relate to garment workers who produce their goods, to Asianness as a fashionable commodity; 1990s - Young Asian Americans emerged as leading fashion designers (Doo-Ri Chung, Derek Lam, Thakoon Panichgul, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu); have won prestigious awards, been chosen to head major clothing labels, had designs featured in Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, other fashion magazines; “Asian” shapes, fabrics, iconography, colors filled couture runways, mass-market clothing racks; rise of Asian American designers to historical patterns of immigration, racial formation, globalized labor, familial and family-like connections between designers and garment workers.

Mark Tungate (2005). Fashion Brands: Branding Style from Armani to Zara. (Sterling, VA: Kogan Page, 243 p.). Fashion merchandising; Brand name products; Advertising--Fashion. 

Rachel C. Weingarten (2006). Hello, Gorgeous!: Beauty Products in America, 40s-60s. (Portland, OR: Collectors Press, 176 p.). President, GTK Marketing Group. Beauty culture--United States--History--20th century; Beauty, Personal--United States--History--20th century; Cosmetics--United States--History--20th century. Products that became staples for generations of women, set standard for innovations in industry.

Claire Wilcox (2007). The Golden Age of Couture: Paris and London 1947-1957. (New York, NY: Abrams, 224 p.). Senior Curator in the Victoria &Albert Museum’s Textiles & Fashion Department. Coutre; Fashion Design -- History. History of couture - from Parisian dressmaking workshops to large commercial industry in mid-20th century;  inner workings of exclusive design houses, inspiration behind some of most famous styles of all time.


Business History Links

Benetton Advertising History                                              pub_benetton.html                                                         

Luciano Benetton: "The purpose of advertising is not to sell more. It's to do with institutional publicity, whose aim is to communicate the company's values (...) We need to convey a single strong image, which can be shared anywhere in the world." Oliviero Toscani pursues this: "I am not here to sell pullovers, but to promote an image"... Benetton's advertising draws public attention to universal themes like racial integration, the protection of the environment, Aids...

International Perfume Museum                                                                  

International Perfume Museum's exceptional collections retrace the history of perfumes, and also that of soap, and make-up and cosmetics, over 4,000 years.

Perfume Museum of Barcelona                                                                                

The Perfume Museum of Barcelona, installed in the Paseo de Gracia 39, it was inaugurated in 1963 in order to show the perfume vessels and containers evolution.

Unofficial Calvin Klein Ads Archive                                                               

This is not a catalog. It is merely a collection of previously published Calvin Klein magazine advertisements. A collection of more than 300 reproductions of advertisements from 1980 to the present, produced to sell Calvin Klein products, such as jeans, underwear, swimwear, and fragrances. Organized according to featured model or product. Most ads are annotated with name and date of magazine where they appeared; some list name of photographer.


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