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March 14, 1837 - Wheatstone & Cooke sent first British telegraph message.

June 10, 1837
- Charles Wheatstone, of Hanover Square, Middlesex, and William Fothergill Cooke, of Breeds Place, Hastings, received an English patent for electric "Five Needle Telegraph"; required six wires between each of its stations; June 10, 1840 - received U. S. patent for an "Improvement in the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph" ('new and useful improvements in giving signals and sounding alarms in distant places by means of electric currents transmitted through metallic circuits"); 10 days before Morse received patent, but Morse given priority as first inventor; Morse patent described prototype of famous dot-dash code; Wheatstone and Cooke had the priority in U.K.; their telegraph had no means of recording messages (Morse regarded it as great disadvantage).

January 6, 1838 - Samuel Morse and partner, Alfred Vail, gave first public demonstration of electric telegraphic system at Vail's Speedwell Iron Works in Morristown, NJ (transmitted a sentence 2 miles); January 24 -  second demonstration at New York University; February 21, 1838 - Morse demonstrated telegraph to President Van Buren, Cabinet in Washington; June 20, 1840 - Samuel F. B. Morse received a patent for "Telegraph Signs" ("improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the application of electro-magnetism"); March 3, 1843 - Congress passed bill to spend $30,000 for telegraph line between Washington, DC and Baltimore; May 24, 1844  - America's first telephone line finished, Morse sent to Baltimore code for "What hath God wrought!"; June 13, 1848 - patent for "Improvement in Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs" reissued; Morse code.

Samuel F. B. Morse (

January 21, 1840 - Charles Wheatstone and W.F. Cooke received earliest English alphabetic telegraph patent; ABC telegraph was popular in England and Europe, did not require  trained telegraphist to read, send the messages; earliest practical application of serial binary coded digital communication.

June 20, 1840 - Samuel F. B. Morse, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Telegraph Signs" ("Improvement in the Mode of Communicating Information by Signals by the Application of Electro-Magnetism"); "American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph".

1843 - First public telegraph line, from Paddington to Slough.

May 24, 1844 - American inventor Samuel F.B. Morse inaugurated world's first commercial telegraph line in  demonstration witnessed by members of Congress; dispatched telegraph message ("What Hath God Wrought?" from the Bible, Numbers 23:23 -suggested to Morse by Annie Ellworth, daughter of the commissioner of patents) from U.S. Capitol to Alfred Vail at railroad station in Baltimore, MD; message telegraphed back to Capitol a moment later by Vail.

November 6, 1845 - First fee-for-service (commercial) telegraph line (second line in U. S.) opened along railroad right-of-way between Lancaster, PA and Harrisburg, PA; January 8, 1946 - first message received.

April 18, 1846 - Royal E. House, of New York City, received a patent for a "Printing Telegraph"; telegraph ticker that would print letters of alphabet; able to print at rate of 50 words a minute in Roman letters.

June 5, 1846 - Telegraph line opened between Philadelphia and Baltimore.

June 27, 1847 - New York and Boston linked by telegraph wires.

June 10, 1848 - First telegraph link established between New York City and Chicago.

1849 - Antonio Meucci discovered the principle of the telephone (discovered transmission of the human voice by electricity while applying electrotherapy to a patient suffering of rheumatisms in his head); 1859 - developed a working model (many years before Alexander Graham Bell's patent in 1876). However, the vagaries of history and the patent office have determined that Antonio Meucci will only be recognized in Italy as the true inventor of the telephone; December 28, 1871 - filed his first patent caveat (notice of intention to take out a patent), on "Talking Telegraph", renewed in 1872 and 1873 but, fatefully, not thereafter; setting into motion a series of mysterious events and injustices which would be incredible were they not so well documented.

Antonio Meucci - invented telephone (

May 1, 1849 - Samuel F. B. Morse received a patent for a "Telegraph" ("improvement in electric telegraphs"); telegraph register; incorporated basic features of 1844 receiver and method for marking dots and dashes on paper.

April 1851 - Group of businessmen in Rochester, NY formed The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company; 1856 - Hiram Sibley, Don Alonzo Watson acquired series of competing telegraph systems (Ezra Cornell largest shareholder); changed name to The Western Union Telegraph Company (signified union of "western" telegraph lines with eastern lines"); 1861 - completed first transcontinental telegraph line, provided fast, coast-to-coast communications during U.S. Civil War; 1866 - introduced first stock ticker, provided brokerage firms with New York Stock Exchange quotations; 1870 - launched time service, helped to standardize time nationally (held distinction as "The Nation's Timekeeper" for nearly a century); 1871 - introduced Western Union Money Transfer service; became company's primary business; 1884 - one of original 11 stocks included in Dow Jones Average; 1914 - introduced first consumer charge card; 1943 - pioneered first commercial inter-city microwave communications system; June 13, 1950 - Western Union Telegraph Company registered "Western Union" trademark first used April 4, 1856 (public and private telegraph, facsimile, television and other wire and wireless message transmission, and the sending and delivery of messages by mail and by messenger); 1974 - introduced first commercial satellite in U.S.; 1980 - revenue from money transfer service exceeded telegram service revenue for first time in Western Union history; 1987 - acquired by Brooke Partners L.P. (Bennett S. LeBow); 1990 - telex, other business services acquired by AT&T for $180 million as part of reorganization; 1991 - formed New Valley Corporation (holding company to shield Western Union name from bankruptcy proceedings); 1993 - introduced first prepaid, disposable telephone card; November 1994 - forced to sell money transfer services (Western Union Financial Services Inc.) as part of Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization; acquired at auction by First Financial Management Corporation; 1995 - merged with First Data Corporation in &7 billion deal; became First Data Corporation subsidiary; 2005 - world's largest money transfer business with $4 billion in revenue - wired more than 275 million transactions per year to 271,000 agencies in Europe, Asia and Latin America; 2006 - handled 147 million consumer-to-consumer money transfers, 249 million consumer-to-business transactions; September 29 2006 - Western Union Financial Services, Inc. spun off.

Hiram Sibley - Western Union  (

November 13, 1851 - Telegraph service began between London and Paris.

May 20, 1856 - David Edward Hughes. of Louisville, KY, received patent for a "Telegraph"; first telegraph ticker that successfully printed type; 1857 - sold rights for $100,000 to the Commercial Co.

May 19, 1857 - William F. Channing, of Boston, MA, Moses G. Farmer, of Salem, MA, received a patent for an "Electromagnetic Fire Alarm Telegraph for Cities" ("to give an instantaneous and definite alarm, either general or local, in a city or town, in case of fire"); first municipal electric fire alarm system; used call boxes,  circuit  between signal station, central station, alarm station with automatic signaling to indicate fire's location.

August 4, 1858 - Cyrus W. Field completed Atlantic cable, established telegraphic communication between U.S. and England (had conceived idea of telegraph cable in 1854, secured charter to lay well-insulated line across floor of Atlantic Ocean; obtained aid of British and American naval ships; made four unsuccessful attempts in 1857; four British, American vessels [Agamemnon, Valorous, Niagara, Gorgon] met in mid-ocean for fifth attempt in July 1858; Niagara and Gorgon, with their load of cable, departed for Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, Agamemnon and Valorous embarked for Valentia, Ireland on July 29, 1858); August 5, 1858 - ship Niagra, anchored at Newfoundland coast, laid 1016 miles of cable; days later other end of cable successfully landed in Ireland; stretched nearly 2,000 miles across Atlantic at depth often of more than two miles; August 16, 1858 - President James Buchanan exchanged formal introductory, complimentary messages with Queen Victoria; took nearly 18 hours to reach Newfoundland (99 words, 509 letters, averaged about 2 minutes per letter; message forwarded across Newfoundland by overhead wire supported on poles; across Cabot Strait by submarine cable to Aspy Bay, Cape Breton; by overhead wire across eastern Canada and Maine, via Boston to New York); September 1858 - cable proved weak, current insufficient, ceased functioning; 1866 - improved cable laid successfully.

October 8, 1860 - Telegraph line between Los Angeles and San Francisco opened.

October 24, 1861 - Western Union Telegraph Company linked eastern, western telegraph networks of nation at Salt Lake City, UT; completed transcontinental line, allowed instantaneous communication between Washington, DC, and San Francisco (eight years before the transcontinental railroad would be completed); Stephen J. Field, chief justice of California, sent first transcontinental telegram to President Abraham Lincoln, predicted that the new communication link would help ensure the loyalty of the western states to the Union during the Civil War.

May 24, 1862 - Field telegraph used for first time in U.S. warfare; army general's headquarters near Williamsport, VA. connected by wire to dvance guard several miles away at Mechanicsville, VA.

May 12, 1865 - Finnish mining engineer Fredrik Idestam granted operating permit by the Finnish Senate; 1866 - wood-pulp mill began production beside lower falls of the Tammerkoski Rapids in Tampere; 1871 - transformed firm into share company, founded Nokia Ltd, with Leo Mechelin (statesman, Finland's most prominent public figure in the late 19th century), transferred all activities to Nokia (Idestam's mills, Nokia Manor, its interest in Nokia Rapids); 1967 - Nokia Ltd. (original paper-making business) merged with Finnish Rubber Works and Finnish Cable Works (established 1912), formed Nokia Corporation.

July 27, 1866 - After two failures, Cyrus W. Field succeeded in laying first underwater telegraph cable between North America, Europe.

1869 - Elisha Gray, customer, bought interest of George Shawk, part owner of Cleveland manufacturing shop associated with Western Union telegraph companies; formed Gray and Barton, partnership with Enos N. Barton, former chief telegraph operator for Western Union at Rochester, NY; Anson Stager, Western Union general superintendent, joined partnership; 1872 - reorganized as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company after Stager convinced Western Union president William Orton to invest in manufacturing enterprise; became Western Union's principal supplier; 1875 - Gray sold his interest, retired; 1878 - Western Union established American Speaking Telephone Co., Western Electric agreed to manufacture telephones for new company (already distributor of telephone equipment for new Bell company); September 1878 - Bell Telephone Co. sued to protect Alexander Graham Bell's patents from infringement by Western Union; November 1879 - Western Union abandoned field; surrendered all patents, claims, network, inventory in return for 20% of phone rentals over next 17 years (life of Bell patents); new company, American Bell Telephone Company, chartered; 1880 - largest electrical manufacturing company in United States; 1881 - Alexander Graham Bell acquired controlling interest; 1882 - joined Bell System, became Bell's exclusive manufacturer of telephones in United States, sold only to American Bell Telephone Company (leased phones to regional "operating" companies, leased phones to end users); long distance service (1881) handled by parent company, local service by operating companies, manufacture by Western Electric; 1907 - Theodore N. Vail, President of AT&T, combined AT&T (formerly American Bell), Western Electric engineering departments into single organization, Western Electric Research Laboratories; 1925 - sold International Western Electric Company subsidiary to ITT; Research Laboratories (engineering department) became Bell Laboratories, greatest private research organization in world; December 23, 1947 - transistor invented (3 Bell Labs scientists received 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for invention); 1956 - Justice Department antitrust consent decree ordered Bell System to divest all non-telephone activities (except those involving national defense); sold Canadian manufacturing holdings; January 1, 1984 - AT&T agreed to divest local Bell telephone companies; established new unit, AT&T Technologies; assumed Western Electric's charter; February 1996 - AT&T Technologies systems and technology units, combined with Bell Labs, renamed Lucent Technologies; April 1996 - Lucent went public; September 30, 1996 - AT&T spin off of Lucent Technologies completed; December 1, 2006 - completed merger with Alcatel (Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Atomiques, de Telecommunications et d' Electronique); renamed Alcatel-Lucent.

June 7, 1870 - Frank L. Pope, of Elizabeth, NJ, and Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Improvement in Printing-Telegraph Instruments" ("communications may not only be recorded automatically in printed characters, at one or more distant points, at the pleasure of transmitting operator, but by which this result may be accomplished with greater certainty and in a much more simple manner").

July 30, 1872 - Mahlon Loomis received a patent for an "Improvement in Telegraphing" ("new and Improved Mode of Telegraphing and of Generating Light, Heat and Motive-Power"); wireless radio.

October 22, 1872 - Thomas A. Edison received patents for an improvement in "Paper for Chemical Telegraphs" ( using a very thin paste of flour and water that with a solution of potassium iodide would penetrate the paper fabric) and for an improved "Apparatus for Perforating Paper for Telegraph Use" (a compact machine to punch perforated tape used to transmit telegraphic messages - a single hole for a dot or three holes for a dash).

February 4, 1873 - Thomas A. Edison was received a patent for an "Improvement in Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs"; method to sharpen the pulses, reduce problem of marks running together on chemical paper from electric action of one pulsation from telegraph wire not clearing before next followed.

July 1, 1873 - Thomas Edison received a patent for an "Improvement to Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs"; concerned a method to reduce problem of marks running together on chemical paper from electric action of one pulsation from telegraph wire not clearing before next followed; May 3, 1892 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a speaking telegraph.

May 26, 1874 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Automatic Telegraphy and in Perforators Therefor"; produced message directly onto strip of paper such that it was ready to be folded, sent to its destination immediately; letters formed by 5x5 square of 25 punch wires.

1875 - Gardiner G. Hubbard, of Cambridge, MA, and Thomas Sanders, of Haverhill, MA, agreed to finance work of Alexander Graham Bell who was trying to invent talking telegraph -- a telephone; April 6, 1875 - Alexander Graham Bell, of Salem, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraphs"; assigned to Hubbard and Sanders; March 7, 1876 - received a patent for "Improvement in Telegraphy"; Bell's speaking telephone; July 9, 1877 - Bell, Greene, Hubbard, Thomas Watson formed Bell Telephone Company to exploit invention; 1878 - Bell sold his interest to group of financiers; January 28, 1878 - first telephone exchange operated under license from Bell Telephone opened in New Haven, CT; July 30, 1878 - reorganized Bell Telephone Company incorporated in Massachusetts; mid-1878 - Hubbard named Theodore Vail, Superintendent of Railway Mail Services, as general manager of Bell Company; February 17, 1879 - merged with New England Telephone Company (formed February 12, 1878), renamed National Bell Telephone Company; nationwide licensing company to speed establishment of telephone service to cities throughout country; 1882 - American Bell acquired controlling interest in Western Electric Company (became its manufacturing unit); March 3, 1885 - American Telephone and Telegraph Company incorporated as wholly owned subsidiary of American Bell, chartered to build, operate original long distance telephone network; December 30, 1899 - AT&T acquired assets of American Bell, became parent company of Bell System.

January 19, 1875 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Improvement in Telegraph Apparatus".

June 3, 1875 - Alexander Bell used "harmonic telegraph" to transmit a twanging sound from a reed vibrated by Bell's voice along wires to Watson; transmitted voice-like sounds, words were not recognizable; June 3, 1880 - Alexander Graham Bell transmitted first wireless telephone message on newly-invented photophone; projected his voice through an instrument towards a mirror; voice vibrations caused similar vibrations in mirror; Bell directed sunlight into the mirror, which captured and projected the mirror's vibrations which could be deconstructed back into sound at the receiving end of the projection; photophone functioned similarly to the telephone but photophone used light to project information, telephone used electricity.

February 18, 1876 - Direct telegraph link established between Britain and New Zealand.

March 7, 1876 -Alexander Graham Bell, of Salem, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Telegraphy" (February 14, 1876 - Bell and rival inventor Elisha Gray had applied for patents for telephone within hours of one another; U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled Bell the rightful inventor); granted ownership over both  telephone instruments and concept of a telephone system; March 10, 1876 - made first successful voice transmission, telephone call, in Boston as his assistant heard Bell say, ''Mr. Watson, come here. I want you''; first successful experiment with the telephone; later that year, Bell succeeded in making a phone call over outdoor lines; June 6, 1876 - received patent for an "Improvement in Telephonic Telegraph-Receivers"; January 30, 1877 - received a patent  for an "Improvement in Electric Telegraphy".

April 1876 - Lars Magnus Ericsson opened electro-mechanical workshop in a rented kitchen in Stockholm to repair telegraph instruments and other electrical devices; working capital was 1,000 kronor, borrowed from a Mrs. Maria Stromberg of Nygard; company named L.M. Ericsson & Co.; November 1878 - delivery of the first telephones of Ericsson's manufacture.

May 30, 1876 - Thomas a. Edison received three patents for a "Improvement in Duplex Telegraphs"; enabled transmitted signal be sent on same wire as received signal.

July 27, 1876 - After two failures, Cyrus W. Field succeeded in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe.

October 9, 1876 - First two-way telephone conversation occurred over outdoor wires between Alexander Graham Bell and Watson over telegraph line linking Boston and East Cambridge. 

February 12, 1877 - News dispatch from Salem, MA to Boston Globe in Boston, MA (distance of sixteen miles) sent using Alexander Graham Bell's new invention, the telephone, for  first time in U.S.

April 15, 1877 - First telephone installed: Boston-Somerville, Massachusetts.

August 22, 1877 - Alexander Graham Bell received a Canadian patent for "Improvements on Electric Telephony" sold, for $1, 75% interest in patent to Melville Bell (father); father of Canadian telephone industry; December 1878 - Hugh C. Baker (Hamilton, ON) opened first Canadian switchboard (8 lines) for Hamilton and District Telephone Company; 1879 - patent rights acquired by William H. Forbes, associates in National Bell Telephone Company (Boston, MA); 1880 - Charles Fleetford Sise appointed special agent in Canada of  National Bell Telephone Co.; February 1880 - Baker petitioned Parliament to enact legislation to create bell telephone Company of Canada; April 29, 1880 - The Bell Telephone Company of Canada incorporated by Act of Parliament; Sise organized Canadian subsidiary, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada (considered founder of Company); became VP, second president from 1890- 1915; subscribers rose from 2,100 in 1880 to 237,000 in 1914; July 24, 1882 - established Mechanical Department, with 3 employees, to manufacture telephone sets; December 7, 1895 - manufacturing division spun off as Northern Electric & Manufacturing Company Limited (branch plant of Western Electric); March 7, 1968 - use of corporate name "Bell Canada" authorized; June 1, 2003 - major restructuring from geographic focus to three customer market segments: Consumer, Small and Medium-sized Business, Enterprise.

Charles Fleetford Sise - founder Bell Telephone Company of Canada (

August 15, 1877 - Thomas Edison coined telephone greeting "Hello"; suggested its use to president of Telegraph Company to answer the phone instead of "Ahoy" suggested by Alexander Bell.

December 1877 - Western Union established American Speaking Telephone Company (Elisha Gray's patents) to compete with Bell Company;

January 14, 1878 - First demonstration of Alexander Graham Bell's telephone to Queen Victoria at her Osborne House estate on the Isle of Wight; she ordered a private line to be laid between Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight, and Buckingham Palace.

January 15, 1878 - George W. Coy (backed by Herrick P. Frost, Walter Lewis) incorporated District Telephone Company of New Haven in New Haven, CT (awarded a Bell telephone franchise for New Haven and Middlesex counties on November 3, 1877); January 28, 1878 - opened world's first telephone exchange (8 connecting lines strung together, crude switchboard used carriage bolts, handles from teapot lids, bustle wire, served 21 subscribers who paid $1.50/month); February 21, 1878 - issued first U.S. telephone directory; listed about 50 names; April 15, 1878 - set up world's first telephone booth; May 28, 1878 - reorganized The Connecticut District Telephone Company; October 12, 1878 - name changed to The District Telephone and Automatic Signal Company; 1880 - reorganized as The Connecticut Telephone Company; October 2, 1882 - incorporated as Southern New England Telephone (SNET).

September 1, 1878 - Emma Nutt of Boston became first female telephone operator.

October 22, 1878 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Quadruplex-Telegraph Repeaters"; electromagnets, local circuits, switches, connections of quadruplex circuit; messages repeated automatically into one circuit by receiving instrument of other circuit, instead of finger key operated by hand.

1879 - Telephone numbers first used, in Lowell, MA, during epidemic of measles; Dr. Moses Greeley Parker feared that Lowell's four operators might succumb, paralyze telephone service; recommended use of numbers, rather than individual names, for calling more than 200 subscribers; substitute operators could be more easily trained, in event of emergency; created telephone directory system; 1883 - one of largest individual stockholders in American Telephone Company, New England Telephone and Telegraph Company; holdings grew into fortune.

Dr. Moses Greeley Parker - first used telephone numbers (

September 6, 1879 - Telephone Company Ltd. opened first public British telephone exchange in Lombard Street, London (used Edison's system); members paid subscription (origin of  term "subscriber"); served eight subscribers with two-panel Williams switchboard; end of year - about 200 subscribers, two more exchanges opened (Leadenhall Street in City, and at Westminster); 1880 - company opened telephone exchanges in Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Bristol.

December 9, 1879 - M. Daniel Connolly of Philadelphia, Thomas A. Connolly of Washington, DC. and Thomas J. McTighe of Pittsburgh received patent for an "Automatic Telephone-Exchange"; automatic telephone switching system; single-line wire, battery of cells located at each telephone, dial switching mechanism for each line; not introduced commercially but introduced general principle of later dial systems.

June 1, 1880 - Connecticut Telephone Co. installed first pay telephone service in United States, for public use, in its office in New Haven, CT; toll given to an attendant; January 28, 1878 - New Haven exchange founded; 1880 - company had right to build exchanges in any part of Connecticut, western Massachusetts, had right to interconnect exchanges; early toll lines from Bridgeport to New Haven to Hartford.

September 21, 1880 - Francis Blake, of Weston, MA received a patent for an "Individual Cal-Bell" (" which the automatic operation of the dial at the central office may be made to coincide with the automatic operation of the dial at either of the out stations"); March 8, 1881- received a patent for a "Telephone" (" increase the volume and distinctiveness of transmitted speech..."); February 8, 1887 - received a patent for a "Telephone-Transmitter"; assigned to the American Bell Telephone Company; January 1, 1889 - received a patent for a "Speaking Telephone";  Blake Transmitter for telephone communications, significant advancement in communication technology, used widely by Bell Telephone Company, enabled Bell to prevail in protracted patent infringement litigation with Thomas Edison (feeble receiver-transmitter) and Western Union (settled out of court, surrendered all its patents, all telephone business). 

June 3, 1880 - Alexander Graham Bell transmitted first wireless telephone message on his newly-invented "photophone."

August 31, 1880 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electro-Chemical Receiving-Telephone" ("to transmit and reproduce over telegraph-wires speech or other sounds telephonically").

January 19, 1881 - Western Union (William Vanderbilt's telegraph company) acquired Atlantic and Pacific Company (founded by Jay Gould) = ploy for Gould takeover of Western Union; raised doubts about Western Union's leadership and dominance over the industry - WU stock dropped, bought Gould's company; Gould instigated post-acquisition bear raid on WU......bought stock while others sold; gained majority control over WU.

November 29, 1881 - Francis Blake, of Weston, MA, received a patent  for a "Speaking-Telephone".

1882 - Bell Telephone Co. of Canada started manufacturing division (13 employees by year-end); 1895 - spun off into Northern Electric and Manufacturing Co.; 1914 - merged with Imperial Wire & Cable Co.; formed Northern Electric Co. Ltd. (Bell Canada majority owner); 1973 - went public; 1976 - innovated in commercial application of packet switching (technology at heart of Internet); name changed to Northern Telecom; 1979 - launched DMS-100, 100,000-line digital switch; enabled phone companies to develop add-on services for additional fees with no additional cost (in the software); emerged as manufacturer of telecom equipment; 1998 - renamed Nortel Networks; July 2000 - peak of $124.50/share; October 2002 - stock at $.67/share; April 2004 - Frank Dunn, successor as CFO fired; Bill Owens, former U.S. admiral, took over as CEO; June 2004 - Dunn charged with accounting fraud; February 8, 2006 - said it would pay $2.47 billion to settle two class-action suits from accounting scandal; October 15, 2006 - paid $35 million to settle civil charges filed by SEC related to accounting scandal; November 10, 2008 - announced 1,300 layoffs, froze salary increases, reviewed real-estate portfolio, posted $3.4 billion quarterly loss; January 14, 2009 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in United States

January 17, 1882 - Thomas A. Edison received patent  for a "Telephone"; carbon microphone; finely divided conducting material, such as carbon, between metal cups mounted on arms attached to mouthpiece diaphragm; changes in current correspond to pitch and amplitude of sound; one arm conducts electrical current to carbon button, other from it.

January 17, 1882 - Leroy Firman of Chicago, IL, received a patent for a "Multiple Switchboard for Telephone Exchanges"; telephone switchboard; addressed problem of increasing numbers of subscribers; handled exchange of thousand or more subscribers with line status information exchanged between switchmen; assigned to Western Electric Manufacturing Co.

March 24, 1883 - Long-distance telephone service inaugurated between Chicago and New York City.

March 27, 1884 - Branch managers of American Bell Telephone Company in Boston called their counterparts in New York City in first long-distance telephone call; June 19, 1900 - Michael I. Pupin, of Yonkers, NY, received a patent for the "Art of Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves and Apparatus Therefor"; method to transmit telephone signals over long distances to maintain clarity; 1901 - patent acquired by Bell Telephone Company.

March 3, 1885 - American Telephone and Telegraph Company incorporated as wholly owned subsidiary of American Bell.

April 7, 1885 - Granville T. Woods, of Cincinnati, OH, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Transmission of Messages by Electricity"; assigned to American Bell Telephone Company.

August 24, 1886 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electrode for Telephone-Transmitters" ("to increase the effectiveness in use of such electrodes").

1887 - Groeneveld, Van der Pol & Co. established Elektrotechnische Fabriek N.V. ("Groeneveld") subsidiary, installer of control, technical equipment for utilities, construction, ship-building industries, incorporated; 1950 - formed Technisch Verkoop Kantoor Groenpol ("Groenpol"), separate sales division; 1968 - Groenpol NV merged with Geveke NV, formed Geveke & Groenpol N.V. (business units of each company continued to operate separately); 1970 - acquired by Steenkolen Handelsvereniging NV; 1983 - Geveke Electronics acquired by management in leveraged buy-out (subsidiary companies brought under parent company, Geveke Electronics International N.V.); May 23, 1985 - went public as Geveke Electronics NV; 1988 - name changed to Getronics NV; October 23, 2007 - acquired by KPN (formerly Koninklijke PTT Nederland, controlled by national Dutch postal services until privatization began in 1994), main provider of telecommunication services in The Netherlands; 2009 - worldwide revenue of €2.5 billion, about 20,000 employees; leading ICT service-provider in world, largest ICT service-provider in Benelux.

February 14, 1888 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Telephone-Transmitter".

August 13, 1889 - William Gray, of Hartford, CT, received a patent for a "Coin-Controlled Apparatus for Telephones" ("may be used in connection with a telephone as a pay-station, the said apparatus being provided with a coin-controlled lock that prevents the sending of messages, while it will allow them to be received"); pay phone; April 22, 1890 - received a second patent for a "Coin-Controlled Apparatus for Telephones" "to control and compel the payment of the fee or toll before the connections desired are made"); January 18, 1898 - received a third patent for a "Coin-Controlled Apparatus for Telephones" ("for the purpose of automatically collecting toll for the use of the instrument at a station and for apprising the central office by distinctive signals that the requisite toll has been paid"); assigned to Gray Telephone Pay Station Company.

February 4, 1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Quadruplex Telegraph"; designed to transmit and receive four independent messages over a single wire, without interference with each other, two in one direction and two in the opposite direction; September 30, 1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Telegraphy".

March 10, 1891 - Almon B. Strowger, an undertaker from Kansas City, MO, received a patent for an "Automatic Telephone-Exchange" ("improvement in automatic, telephonic, telegraphic, and other electrical exchanges"); October 1891 - Auto Electric Company formed; November 3, 1892 - first Strowger telephone exchange opened in LaPorte, IN, with about seventy-five subscribers; used three keys, one for each digit of a three-digit number; subscriber pressed each key the appropriate number of times for each digit; November 29, 1892 - received a second patent for an "Automatic Telephone and Other Electrical Exchange".

March 18, 1891 - First telephone link between London & Paris.

June 2, 1891 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Sextuplex Telegraph".

October 18, 1892 - The first long distance telephone line between Chicago and New York was opened; Chicago Mayor Hempstead Washburn greeted his New York counterpart, Hugh J. Grant.

November 3, 1892 - First automatic telephone exchange, using switching device invented by Almon B. Strowger, opened to public in LaPorte, IN, with about 75 subscribers; did not use a dial to enter desired number; used three keys, one for each digit of a three-digit number (subscriber pressed each key appropriate number of times for each digit).

December 7, 1895 - Bell Telephone Company of Canada spun-off manufacturing arm, incorporated as Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company Limited; supplied telecommunications equipment for Canada's fledgling telephone system; 1900 - began manufacturing first wind-up gramophones; 1914 - merged with Imperial Cable, formed Northern Electric (co-owned by Bell Canada, U.S. company Western Electric); 1922 - started manufacturing radios; 1928 - produced first talking movie sound system in British Empire for theatre in Montreal; 1953 - produced first television sets (used tubes made by RCA); 1964 - acquired by Bell Canada; 1983 - Bell Canada Enterprises formed as parent company to Bell Canada, Northern Telecom; 1998 - acquired Bay Networks, name changed to Nortel Networks; 2000 - spun-off from Bell Canada Enterprises; February 2008 - approximately 32,550 employees worldwide.

1896 - First dial phones (with projecting vanes instead of holes) used in Milwaukee's City Hall; 1912 - first Strowger exchange opened in UK at Epsom in Surrey.

December 12, 1896 - Guglielmo Marconi gave first public demonstration of radio at Toynbee Hall, London.

January 15, 1897 - Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Device for Amplifying Feeble Electrical Currents" ("...such as telephone-currents").

May 14, 1897 - Guglielmo Marconi, of London, England, sent  first communication by wireless telegraph; July 2, 1897 - received British patent for "Improvements in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals, and in Apparatus Therefor"; wireless telegraphy apparatus; formed Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company in England, first wireless electronic communications company; July 13, 1897 - received a patent for a "Transmitting Electrical Signals"; May 9, 1899 - received a patent for an "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to The Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited; June 27, 1899 - received a patent for "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to The Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited; November 22, 1899 -  incorporated Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America; April 10, 1900 - received three patents for an "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to The Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited; May 22, 1900 - received two patents for an "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; June 11, 1901 - received a patentfor an "Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to Marconi's Wireless telegraph Company.

January 11, 1898 - Alexander E. Keith, John Erickson and Charles J. Erickson, of Chicago, received a patent for a "Calling Device for Telephone-Exchanges"; dial telephone; assigned patent to the Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange of Illinois.

May 31, 1898 - French engineer Pierre Azaria sets up Compagnie Generale d'Electricite (CGE); 1925 - acquired Compagnie Generale des Cables de Lyon; 1966 - acquired Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Atomiques, de Telecommunications et d'Electronique (Alcatel); 1985 - Alsthom Atlantique changed to Alsthom; CIT-Alcatel merged with Thomson Telecommunications, renamed Alcatel; 1987 - went private; 1991 - name changed to Alcatel Alsthom; 1998 - renamed Alcatel; 2005 - record year in terms of results, contracts, events, agreements (network transformation solutions); December 1, 2006 - completed merger with Lucent Technologies; renamed Alcatel-Lucent.

Pierre Azaria -  Alcatel (

1899 - Cleyson Leroy Brown, Jacob Brown started telephone business in Abilene, KS with three people; competed with Bell System; 1900 - installed their first long-distance circuit; October 1902 - formed Brown Telephone Company; March 1903 - joined with 14 Kansas independents, incorporated Union Telephone and Telegraph Company to provide long-distance service to Kansas City; September 1911 - Brown consolidated the Brown Telephone Company with three independents, formed United Telephone Company, second largest telephone company in Kansas; 1925 - formed United Telephone and Electric (UT&E) to purchase stock in subsidiary companies across widely scattered geographical areas; 1937 - reorganization plan approved; 1939 - company dissolved, assets absorbed by United Utilities, Incorporated; 1950s - nation's third largest independent telephone company; 1972 - name changed to United Telecommunications; 1986 - launched long distance services under Sprint brand name; 1992 - name changed to Sprint Corporation; 1995 - offered wireless service under Sprint PCS brand; August 13, 2005 - merged with Nextel (founded as FleetCall in 1987) in $35 billion deal (#3 position among U.S. wireless carriers, 44 million subscribers, 80,000 employees nationwide).

Cleyson Leroy Brown - Sprint  (

March 17, 1899 - The first-ever radio distress call was sent, summoned assistance for a merchant ship off the coast of England.

March 27, 1899 - Marconi transmitted across the English Channel from Boulogne, France, to Dover, England at the request of the French Government, which was considering purchasing rights to the invention in France; both transmitter and receiver used a well-insulated copper wire, hung from a 150-ft high mast; messages were exchanged over the 32 miles, trials continued for several days at a speed of up to fifteen words a minute; success made possible communications without expensive undersea cables.

June 19, 1900 - Michael I. Pupin, of Yonkers, NY, professor of electromechanics at Columbia University, received patent for the "Art of Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves and Apparatus"; long distance telephony; improved quality of long-distance telephone and telegraph transmission by inserting coils in the long lines at intervals.

December 12, 1901 - Italian physicist and radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio transmission across the Atlantic Ocean, disproved detractors who told him that the curvature of the earth would limit transmission to 200 miles or less; message--simply the Morse-code signal for the letter "s"--traveled more than 2,000 miles from Poldhu in Cornwall, England, to Newfoundland, Canada; transatlantic radio signal had been headed into space when it was reflected off the ionosphere and bounced back down toward Canada.

August 12, 1902 - Reginald A. Fessenden, of Manteo, NC, received a patent for "Wireless Signaling" ("selective signaling in systems where the signal is transmitted by waves or impulses"); radiotelegraphy, wireless transmission of electromagnetic waves, especially reproduction of words or other audible signals.

December 14, 1902 - Laying of first cable across Pacific Ocean began as British Cable Ship Silvertown left San Francisco, CA for Hawaii; cable laid across 2,277 nautical miles in two weeks; January 1, 1903 - first test message telegraphed to President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington; cables laid from Honolulu to Midway, Midway to Guam, Guam to Manila; January 5, 1903 - public use began.

January 19, 1903 - King Edward VII, President Theodore Roosevelt exchanged greetings in coded radio exchange between Cape Cod and Cornwall, England.

May 23, 1903 - Telephone linked Paris and Rome for first time.

July 3, 1903 - First cable across Pacific Ocean between Hawaii, Midway, Guam and Manila completed, spliced at Manila, Philippines; July 4, 1903 - President Theodore Roosevelt sent first official message over new cable; ended Hawaii’s isolation, connected it to mainland U.S., rest of world. 1902 - all-British telegraph line from Canada to Australia and New Zealand first line to cross Pacific Ocean.

February 1, 1904 - CQD established as international distress signal; sometimes thought to mean, "Come Quick Danger"; "CQ" originated in England as general call on landline wire, preceded time signals and special notices as sign for "all stations"; Marconi company suggested "CQD" for distress signal.

April 26, 1904 - Bell Telephone Company of Antwerp Belgium formed.

November 16, 1904 - John Ambrose Fleming invented first electron tube,  diode thermionic valve capable of actuating telephone receiver.

December 28, 1904 - First weather reports relayed by wireless telegraphy published in London.

March 28, 1905 - Cornelius D. Ehret, of Philadelpha, PA, received a patent for "Art of Transmitting Intelligence" ("...through the natural media through the ageny of electroradiant energy"); faxing did not become practical mode of communication until 1920s; high-speed faxes not available until 1940s.

June 26, 1906 - Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Oscillation-Responsive Device", ("for detecting feeble electrical currents or oscillations in general, and especially such currents or oscillations which are developed in wireless-telegraph receiving systems"); November 13, 1906 - received a second patent for an "Oscillation-Responsive Device".

October 3, 1906 - Second international conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopted SOS as international distress signal, replaced call sign CQD.

November 22, 1906 - International Radio Telegraphic Convention adopted SOS distress signal.

January 12, 1908 - Wireless message sent long-distance for first time, from Eiffel Tower in Paris.

February 18, 1908 - Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Space Telegraphy"; grid electrode tube.

January 19, 1909 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Telegraphy" ("arrangement by which a neutral relay designed to be operated by variations in current strength will be unaffected by reversals in current in the circuit in which the relay is included").

August 11, 1909 - Liner S.S. Arapahoe was first ship to use S.O.S. radio distress call after propeller shaft snapped of coast at Cape Hatteras, NC (distress code CQD, standardized by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. in 1904, had been used previously as maritime distress call; second International Radio Telegraphic Convention in 1906 proposed alternative SOS for its distinctive sound; ratified as international standard in 1908).

May 11, 1911 - Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted charter to DENVER AND EPHRATA TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY (William F. Brossman, farmer friends); opened its first exchange; 1926 - only telephone company serving Ephrata, Lititz exchanges; 1932 - acquired Manheim Telephone Company; 1949 - one of first telephone companies in nation to have all lines serviced by automatic dial equipment; 1956 - joined nationwide long distance dialing network; 1962 - installed Direct Distance Dialing (DDD) equipment for customers; 1963 - first telephone company in Lancaster County to install Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS); 1965 - started D&E Cable TV, Inc.; 1973 - first telephone company in Lancaster County to offer Emergency 911 service; 1984 - first fiber optic cable went into service; first in county to offer digital telephone service; 1986 - offered cellular mobile telephone service; 1988 - first company of its size nationally to have all digital switching; 1996 - went public; 1998 - entered Systems Integration business; 2002 - acquired Conestoga Enterprises (included Conestoga Telephone, Buffalo Valley Telephone Company); 2006 - reached 99% broadband penetration; May 11, 2009 - entered into definitive merger agreement with Windstream Corporation to be acquired in transaction valued at approximately $330 million .

August 20, 1911 - First cable message sent around world from U.S. by commercial telegraph transmitted from New York City (left New York Times building at 7:00 pm, received at 7:16 pm after traveling nearly 29,000 miles through 16 relays via Azores, Gibraltar, India, Philippines, Midway, Guam, Hawaii, San Francisco). 

May 17, 1912 - London newspaper, The Times, reported that new automatic telephone equipment was in place at Epsom for testing; provided 320 Epson telephone subscribers the ability to dial other numbers in the town themselves instead of having to ask the operator to get the number for them; marked the beginning of the telephone automation in Britain, which had already arrived in America, Canada, and other countries.

July 29, 1914 - Transcontinental telephone service began with the first phone conversation between New York and San Francisco; celebrated with telephone conversation between Thomas A. Watson in San Francisco and Alexander Graham Bell in New York City; 1914 - Wendover, Utah was site of completion of first transcontinental telephone line; 1913 -Western Electric's high-vacuum tube for amplifying sound in telephone cables developed.

October 6, 1914 - Edwin H. Armstrong, of Yonkers, NY, received a patent for a "Wireless receiving System" ("improvements in the arrangement and connections of electrical apparatus at the receiving station of a wireless amplify the effect of the received waves upon the current in the telephone or other receiving circuit". 

December 1, 1914 - William J. Doyle (38), Tom Doyle (son), Bob Doyle (cousin) incorporated Roseville Telephone Company to continue service of Roseville Home Telephone Company as rural provider of telephone services (independent local exchange carrier; 160 subscribers); 1915 - 50 subscribers, five operators within Roseville service area; 1953 - Robert L. Doyle (son of William) took over; went public; October 1, 1996 - reorganized, formed Roseville Communications Company, holding company; May 30, 2001 - renamed SureWest Communications; 2005 - 199,141 residential and business listings (Sacramento, Auburn, Roseville), 21 operators in 83 square-mile territory; grew from tiny, antiquated independent exchange into one of best, 24th largest out of more than 1,300 in U. S.; California's third largest telecommunications company.

1915 - First automatic telephone exchange in Britain.

February 7, 1915 - The first wireless message sent from a moving train to a station was received.

January 25, 1915 -  Alexander Graham Bell (68), inventor of the telephone, inaugurated U.S. transcontinental telephone service with a call made between New York City and San Francisco to Dr. Watson, his longtime assistant (previous long distance limit was New York to Denver, and only then with some shouting); line made up of two metallic circuits, used 2,500 tons of hard-drawn copper wire, 130,000 poles and countless loading coils; signal boosted by three vacuum tube repeaters; world's longest telephone line.

September 29, 1915 - In a transcontinental radio telephone demonstration in New York City speech was transmitted from Arlington, VA to San Francisco, CA (2,500 miles), then to Honolulu.

October 21, 1915 - AT&T made the first experimental transatlantic radiotelephone speech communication, using recently developed vacuum-tube transmitters and receivers (an advancement in range over groundbreaking alternator-transmitter tests in 1906).

May 6, 1916 - Navy Department made first successful U.S. radio telephone ship-to-shore conversation via AT&T telephone and telegraph circuits with all navy yards and radio stations in the U.S.; Secretary of the Navy gave orders for the next day's movement to the captain of the battleship New Hampshire, anchored off Fortress Monroe;  first time Navy operated ship direct from the department by wireless telephone.

March 16, 1919 - Wireless telephone invented, enabled air pilots to talk in flight.

June 11, 1922 - A photograph sent by radio across the Atlantic from Rome to Bar Harbor, ME reproduced a 7 x 9.5 in. halftone picture, used light falling on selenium cell to form dots.

August 4, 1922 - AT&T and Bell System shut down all its switchboards and switching stations for one minute in memory of Alexander Graham Bell (died two days earlier); none of the 13 million telephones in operation could be used.

October 3, 1922 - Charles F. Jenkins used city telephone lines  for first time in U.S. for transmission of facsimile photo in Washington, DC from 1519 Connecticut Ave. to U.S. Navy Radio Station NOF at Anacostia, DC.

October 14, 1922 -Pennsylvania exchange in New York City became operational; first automated telephones.

March 3, 1925 - First radio facsimile transmission made in U.S. to distant point sent photographic image from U.S. Navy Radio Station NOF, at Anacostia, DC, to Evening Bulletin in Philadelphia, PA (photographs had been sent as facsimile transmission over city telephone line within Washington DC on October 3, 1922 using photographic plate to record signal received at radio station NOF).

April 16, 1924 - First radio-transmission of wireless: Matthaus Passion.

November 30, 1924 - First trans-Atlantic fax of photograph sent by radio received in New York.

April 18, 1925 - First U.S. commercial transcontinental radio transmission of radio facsimile sent from San Francisco, CA to New York City; nine photographs transmitted, each took seven minutes.

October 6, 1925 - Antoine Barnay received U.S. patent for an "Automatic Switching System" ("...generally known as a step-by-step" system..."); rotary-dial telephone.

March 7, 1926 - First successful transatlantic radio-telephone conversation took place, between New York and London.

June 20, 1926 - Herr Schaetzle demonstrated wireless phone for autos in Berlin, Germany.

January 7, 1927 - Commercial transatlantic telephone service (using radio) inaugurated between New York and London.

February 25, 1927 - Conversation between parties in San Francisco, CA and London established new telephone long distance record of 7,287 miles.

April 5, 1927 - Antoine Barnay, of Paris, FR, received a patent for a "System for Transmitting Electrical Impulses" ("suitable more particularly in automatic telephone systems, and generally in all 'step-by-step switching which the connection is established by means of electrical impulses sent over the two wires of the calling line in series"); rotary-dial telephone.

June 27, 1929 - Scientists at Bell Laboratories revealed system for transmitting television pictures.

1930 - William Clarke, Marie Williams acquired Oak Ridge Telephone Company for $500 from F.E. Hogan, Sr. (75 paid subscribers.); relocated switcboard to Williams’s front parlor so family could man board 24-hours a day; 1946 - Clarke McRae Williams (son) inherited company; 1968 - incorporated as Central Telephone and Electronics; Clarke M. Williams as President and Chairman of the Board (had expanded business into three states serving 10,000 access lines); 1971 - renamed Century Telephone Enterprises, Inc.; October 24, 1978 - listed on New York Stock Exchange; 1983 - obtained FCC approval to operate cellular systems in three areas in Michigan; 1992 - acquired Central Telephone Company of Ohio, Centel subsidiary serving more than 65,000 access lines, for $135 million (increased access line total by 20%); 1996 - surpassed half million-customer mark in local exchange operations, 100,000-customer mark in long distance operations; 1997 - acquired Pacific Telecom, Inc., gained about 660,000 telephone access lines in 12 states (doubling size); 1999 - added to S&P 500; November 25, 2002 - ranked by Business Week as16th among 100 top information technology companies (ahead of all other U.S.-based telecommunication companies); July 1, 2009 - acquired Embarq Corporation, created one of leading communications companies in United States.

March 27, 1930 - First U.S. radio broadcast from ship at sea.

April 29, 1930 - Telephone connection England-Australia went into service.

December 8, 1931 - Lloyd Espenschied, of Kew Gardens, NY, and Herman A. Affel, of Ridgewood, NJ, received a patent for "Concentric Conducting System"; coaxial cable; application was television, requires wide range of transmission frequencies; assigned to AT & T.

February 10, 1933 - Postal Telegram Co. in New York introduced first singing telegram.

May 8, 1933 - Radio Engineering Laboratories of Long Island City, New York installed first police radio system in Eastchester Township, New York; connected headquarters to patrol cars,  patrol cars to one another.

January 12, 1937 - Chester S. Lawton, of Ridgewood, NJ, and Melville H. Bloomer, of Halifax, NS, received first patent for a "Plough for Laying Submarine Cables"; designed to feed a cable at the same time that it would dig a trench in the ocean bed; could be used at depths up to a half mile; assigned to Western Union telegraph Company; June 14, 1938 - first transatlantic cable of high-speed permalloy was buried.

June 5, 1938 - Homer Dudley, with Richard Riesz and Stanley Watkins, Bell Telephone scientists, exhibited first machine to produce intelligible speech-like sounds to public at Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA; called "Pedro, the Voder"; could also imitate sound of various farm animals; spectrum-synthesis device operated from finger keyboard, foot pedal pitch control; duplicated  important physiological characteristic of vocal system, that excitation could be voiced or unvoiced.

September 11, 1946 - First mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation took place between Houston, TX and St. Louis, MO.

June 30, 1948 - Federal Communications Commission authorized telephone recording devices for public use in U.S.; when devices being used, periodic "beep" tone signal used to advise those on telephone line that their conversations were being recorded.

January 14, 1949 - Department of Justice filed anti-trust suit against AT&T; designed to break choke hold over industry by forcing company to relinquish ownership of Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary; 1956 - suit settled, AT&T consented to limit scope of its business to national phone network, government jobs.

September 29, 1950 - Bell Telephone Company tested first automatic telephone answering machine.

November 10, 1951 - Mayor M. Leslie Denning, of Englewood, NJ, called his counterpart in Alameda, CA; beginning of direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service (could begin talking 18 seconds after dialling); 10-digit North American Numbering Plan for area codes introduced.

April 25, 1954 - Bell labs announced first solar battery.

March 4, 1955 - First radio facsimile transmission sent across continent.

October 4, 1955 - Bell Telephone made world's first solar-powered telephone call.

September 25, 1956 - World's first transatlantic telephone cable system began operating (Clarenville, Newfoundland to Oban, Scotland); previous cables had been limited to telegraph transmissions.

March 2, 1959 - Southern New England Telephone Company (New Haven, CT) tested experimental push-button phone to see if customers dialed fewer wrong numbers than with rotary phones.

September 5, 1959 - First trunk dialing system from public call-box inaugurated in Bristol, UK; countrywide service intended to replace Button A and Button B pre-payment system.

September 22, 1959 - First telephone cable linking Europe and United States opened.

March 22, 1960 - Arthur L. Schawlow, of Madison, NJ, and Charles H. Townes, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Masers and Maser Communications Systems"; first laser patent; assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.

August 12, 1960 - Echo I, first successful communications satellite, put into Earth's orbit to relay voice, TV signals; August 13, 1960 - first two-way telephone conversation by satellite took place.

July 10, 1962 - Telstar communications satellite, first geosynchronous communications satellite, launched from Cape Canaveral, FL to relay TV and telephone signals between United States, Europe; set stage for far easier access to information, with much greater speed; made possible first live television signals sent across Atlantic; viewers in France, England saw President Kennedy conduct press conference, audiences in United States watched French singer Yves Montand, changing of guard at England's Buckingham Palace.

December 13, 1962 - Relay I, first U.S. communications earth satellite to transmit telephone, television, teleprinter, facsimile signals launched; January 3, 1963 - first test patterns transmitted when solar cells had built up sufficient battery charge.

May 7, 1963 - United States launched AT&T's Telstar II communications satellite; transmitted first transatlantic TV program seen in color on tenth orbit; built with shielding against radiation (damaged AT&T's original Telstar satellite).

October 21, 1963 - Michigan Bell Telephone Company placed in service first trimline telephone in the U.S.; dial and hang-up button were integrated into handpiece midway between microphone and speaker, unnecessary to reach for remote base in order to dial call; August 2, 1965 - commercially available throughout service area for optional additional monthly charge of $1.

November 18, 1963 - First telephone in U.S. with push buttons, instead of rotary dial, placed in commercial service in Carnegie, Greensburg, PA; Touch-Tone telephone had 10 push buttons, manufactured by Western Electric Manufacturing.

April 6, 1965 - U. S. launched Intelsat 1 ("Early Bird"), first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite; satellite's orbital speed matched movement of earth, appeared stationary in sky, never dipped below horizon; could provide simultaneous telephone links or one television link; June 28, 1965 - began providing television, voice services between America and Europe: capacity for 240 voice circuits or one black and white TV channel.

October 8, 1965 - London's Post Office Tower opened as telecommunications tower for TV, radio broadcasting and to carry all microwave traffic into, out of city (now operated by British Telecom).

February 16, 1968 - Haleyville, AL inaugurated first telephone system in U.S. to use 911 as universal emergency services telephone number.

March 1, 1970 - Combined efforts of AT&T, British Post Office (also handled British telephone system) made direct-dialed transatlantic phone calls possible between US and Britain.

May 16, 1972 - Amos Edward Joel, Jr., of South Orange, NJ, received a patent for a "Mobile Communication System" ("...arranged to establish and maintain continuity of communication paths to mobile stations passing from the coverage of one radio transmitter into the coverage of another radio transmitter"); assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.; allowed cell phone users to make uninterrupted calls while moving from one cell region to another.

April 3, 1973 - Inventor Martin Cooper placed first portable phone call; ''shoebox'' phone replaced car phone that weighed more than 30 pounds, cost thousands of dollars.

November 21, 1974 - United States filed antitrust suit to break up AT&T.

October 1, 1981 - British government created British Telecom as public corporation; followed study's recommendation to split Post Office into separate postal, telecommunications units.

January 8, 1982 - American Telephone & Telegraph settled  Justice Department's antitrust lawsuit; agreed to divest itself of 22 Bell System companies; August 5, 1983 - U.S. District Court Judge Harold Greene approved plan to split company into seven regional companies ("Baby Bells"); development of new transmission technology, rapid advancement of computer prompted major changes in government's trust-friendly philosophy; 1974 - government filed anti-trust suit against AT&T, ultimately forced company to divest itself of companies that provided local service.

1983 - Motorola launched first cell phone; supported 1 hour of talk , 8 hours in standby; cost $4,000.

October 11, 1983 - Last hand-cranked (magneto) telephones in United States went out of service; 440 telephone customers in Bryant Pond, ME, switched to direct-dial service.

January 1, 1984 - AT&T was divested of 22 Bell System companies under terms of an antitrust agreement (per U.S. District Court Judge Harold Greeneýs ruling on August 5, 1983); AT&T's assets dropped from $149.5 billion to $34 billion, its workforce shrank from 1.9 million to 373,000 employees.

December 3, 1984 - British Telecom privatized.

October 30 1986 - The first fibre-optic cable across the English Channel began service.

January 26, 1989 - AT&T reported first loss in 103 years; $1.67 billion in 1988.

January 24, 1994 - Nynex Corporation, one of New York's leading phone providers, announced that it was laying off 16,800 workers (20% of its work force) over next three years; reported it would take $1.6 billion charge for year; reflected Nynex's drive to protect its stake in one of nation's prime communication markets.

August 7, 1994 - First telephone link made between Israel and Jordan.

October 25, 1994 - Sprint Corp. announced it was joining forces with Comcast, Tele-Communications, Cox Enterprises to offer full range of phone services, information, multimedia delivery network.

September 20, 1995 - AT&T announced it would split into three smaller companies: 1) ailing computer division, 2) more lucrative Network equipment arm, 3) core communications services (telephones and related business amounted to 60 percent of AT&T's sales, bulk of its profits).

February 8, 1996 - President Clinton signed legislation revamping telecommunications industry, said it would "bring the future to our doorstep"; knocked down regulatory barriers,  opened local telephone, long-distance service and cable television to new competition.

September 25, 1996 - Loral Space Communications announced it had acquired Skynet, AT&T's broadcast satellite division for $712.5 million in cash; AT&T would use that cash to try to compete against "Baby Bells" in long-distance and local markets.

November 10, 1997 - WorldCom Inc., MCI Communications Corp. agreed to a $37 billion merger (largest merger in US history at the time).

February 16, 1998 - Tellabs Inc. acquired Coherent Communications Systems for $670 million.

June 24, 1998 - AT&T Corp. agreed to acquire cash-strapped cable television giant Tele-Communications Inc. for $31.7 billion. gave AT&T cable connections in roughly 33 million homes across United States; company reemerged as local phone force, boosted AT&T's status in booming Internet industry; primed to take leading role in convergence of various telecommunications channels.

July 24, 1998 - Enron Corporation, electricity and gas company in Houston, TX, signed lavish deal to acquire British-based Wessex Water, PLC for $2.2 billion; signaled Enron's first move towards creating a global water subsidiary.

July 28, 1998 - Bell Atlantic, GTE announced a $52 billion merger; created Verizon.

October 5, 1999 - MCI WorldCom Inc. announced $115 billion deal to take over Sprint Corp.

November 14, 1999 - Vodafone AirTouch acquired Mannesmann AG in a $183billion all-share deal, largest corporate merger in history; created 4th largest company in world ($365 billion in sales) behind Microsoft, GE, Cisco Systems.

June 16, 2000 - Federal regulators approved merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE Corp.; created nation's largest local phone company, Verizon.

July 21, 2002 - WorldCom Inc. filed for bankruptcy protection, about a month after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion through deceptive accounting.

November 26, 2002 - WorldCom, government settled civil lawsuit over company's $9 billion accounting scandal.

October 31, 2003 - Bankruptcy court approved MCI's reorganization plans; essentially cleared telecommunications company to exit bankruptcy.

February 17, 2004 - Cingular Wireless agreed to pay nearly $41 billion in cash to buy AT&T Wireless Services.

December 15, 2004 - American telecommunications giants Sprint Corp. and Nextel Communications Inc. announced they would merge in $35 billion deal.

January 31, 2005 - SBC Communications Inc. announced it was acquiring AT&T Corp. for $16 billion.

October 31, 2005 - The Spanish telco Telefónica announced  £18 billion deal to buy the British mobile network operator O2 plc.

January 27, 2006 - Western Union sent last telegram; 1929 - sent more than 200 million telegrams (height of business); 2005 - under 21,000 telegrams sent.

March 6, 2006 - AT & T announced plans to acquire regional-phone company BellSouth Corp. for $67 billion in stock, take full control of Cingular venture (nation's biggest wireless operator with more than 54 million customers); subject to regulatory approval, combined company would serve 70 million local-phone customers, 10 million high-speed DSL Internet users, would have about 315,000 employees, combined revenue of $121 billion (Wall Street's estimate of annual 2006 sales); November 2005 - AT&T Inc. formed after SBC Communications Inc. acquired the old AT&T, adopted the name.

November 17, 2006 - President George W. Bush approved  deal in which French telecommunications equipment maker Alcatel SA would acquire Lucent Technologies Inc. in a $11.8 billion deal; Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) spent 75 days investigating national security implications of transaction; recommended Bush approve it (November 21 statutory deadline to render a decision).

June 29, 2007 - Bell Canada (BCE) agreed to be acquired for $32.6 billion (6x BCE's cash flow) by investment arm of Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan (BCE's largest shareholder), Providence Equity Partners Inc., Madison Dearborn Partners; largest private-equity buyout in history.

August 29, 2007 - Alltel shareholders approved $24.7 billion private equity buyout of country’s fifth-largest wireless operator by GS Capital Partners, private equity arm of Goldman Sachs, and TGP Capital; 12 million customers in 35 states (largest Tier 2 carrier).

(AirTouch Communications), Louis Galambos, Eric John Abrahamson (2002). Anytime, Anywhere: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of a Wireless World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 310 p.). Wireless communication systems--Economic aspects; Cellular telephone systems; Entrepreneurship. Birth, explosion of cellular, wireless communications as seen through eyes of Sam Ginn at AirTouch Communications.

(ALLTEL Corporation), David A. Patten and Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2001). The Legend of ALLTEL. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 208 p.). ALLTEL Corporation--History; Telephone companies--United States--History; Telecommunication--United States--History; Telephone supplies industry--United States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History. 

(AT&T), J. Warren Stehman (1967). The Financial History of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 339 p. [orig. pub. 1925]). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

Alexander Graham Bell ( library/96mar/96margifs/bell2.gif; August 3, 1922 Obituary: http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0303.html

Thomas A. Watson (;  December 15, 1934 Obituary:

(AT&T), Joseph C. Goulden (1968). Monopoly. (New York, NY: Putnam, 350 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

(AT&T), Horace Coon (1971). American Tel & Tel; The Story of a Great Monopoly. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 276 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

(AT&T), Noobar R. Danielian (1974). A.T. & T.: The Story of Industrial Conquest. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 460 p. [orig. pub. 1939]). American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Series: Telecommunications (New York, N.Y. : 1974).

(AT&T), Sonny Kleinfield (1981). The Biggest Company on Earth: A Profile of AT&T. (New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 319 p. [based on series in New York Times]). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

(AT&T), Alvin von Auw (1983). Heritage & Destiny: Reflections on the Bell System in Transition. (New York, NY: Praeger, 480 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

(AT&T), edited by Harry M. Shooshan II (1984). Disconnecting Bell: The Impact of the AT&T Divestiture. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 160 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company; Telephone--Law and legislation--United States; Telecommunication--Law and legislation--United States; Corporate divestiture--United States.

(AT&T), Robert W. Garnet (1985). The Telephone Enterprise: The Evolution of the Bell System's Horizontal Structure, 1876-1909. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 210 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--History; Telephone companies--United States--History.

(AT&T), George D. Smith (1985). The Anatomy of a Business Strategy: Bell, Western Electric and the Origins of the American Telephone Industry. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 237 p.). Academic (NYU&), Founder (Winthrop Group). AT&T, Western Electric, Telephone Industry.

(AT&T), W. Brooke Tunstall; foreword by Richard Tanner Pascale (1985). Disconnecting Parties: Managing the Bell System Break-Up: An Inside View. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 226 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

(AT&T), Neil H. Wasserman (1985). From Invention to Innovation: Long-Distance Telephone Transmission at the Turn of the Century. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 160 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--History; Telephone--United States--History.

(AT&T), Steven P. Feldman (1986). The Culture of Monopoly Management: An Interpretive Study in an American Utility. (New York, NY: Garland, 209 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Management--History; Telephone--United States--Management--History.

(AT&T), Steve Coll (1986). The Deal of the Century: The Breakup of AT&T. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 400 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization--History; Telephone companies--United States--History.

(AT&T), Peter Temin with Louis Galambos (1987). The Fall of the Bell System: A Study in Prices and Politics. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 378 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization--History; Telephone companies--United States--History.

(AT&T), Fred W. Henck and Bernard Strassburg (1988). A Slippery Slope: The Long Road to the Breakup of AT&T. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 277 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization; Telephone companies--United States; Telecommunication--United States; Corporate divestiture--United States; Antitrust law--United States.

(AT&T), Alan Stone (1989). Wrong Number: The Breakup of AT&T. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 381 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization; Telecommunication--Deregulation--United States.

(AT&T), Leslie Cauley (2005). End of the Line: The Rise and Fall of AT & T. (New York, NY: Free Press, 320 p.). Telecom Reporter (USA Today). AT& T--History; Telecommunication--United States--History--20th century.

(AT&T), Dick Martin (2005). Tough Calls: AT&T and the Hard Lessons Learned from the Telecom Wars. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 294 p.). AT & T--History; Telecommunication--United States--History. 

(BARL Inc.), Tom Bean Bob (1996). How To Be a Successful Corporate So-and-So. (Dallas, TX: Odenwald Press, 122 p.). Former President and CEO (Fischbach and Moore Global Communications, Inc.). Tom Bean Bob, 1933- ; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Success in business--United States.

(Belfast Telegraph), Malcolm Brodie; foreword by Lord Thomson of Fleet (1995). The Tele: A History of the Belfast Telegraph. (Belfast, Northern Ireland: 300 p. Belfast telegraph; Journalism--Ireland--Belfast--History.

(Bell Canada), Lawrence Surtees (1992). Pa Bell: A. Jean de Grandpré & The Meteoric Rise of Bell Canada Enterprises. (Toronto, ON: Random House, 481 p.). Grandpré, A. Jean de; Bell Canada Enterprises -- History; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography.

(Bell Telephone Company of Canada), R.C. Fetherstonhaugh (1944). Charles Fleetford Sise, 1834-1918: A Biography. (Montreal, QU: Gazette Printing Co., 238 p.). Sise, Charles Fleetford, 1834-1918.; Bell Telephone Company of Canada.

(Bell Telephone Laboratories), Roland Mueser, editor (1979). Bell Laboratories Innovation in Telecommunications, 1925-1977. (Murray Hill, NJ: Technical Documentation Dept., Bell Laboratories, 227 p.). Bell Telephone Laboratories, inc.--History; Telecommunication--History; Telephone--History.

(Bell Telephone Laboratories), Jeremy Bernstein (1984). Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Labs in the Information Age. (New York, NY: Scribner, 241 p.). Bell Telephone Laboratories, inc.

(Bermuda Telephone Company Ltd.), Colin H. Benbow (1987). A Century of Progress: A History of the Bermuda Telephone Company Ltd., 1887-1987. (Bermuda: The Company, 131 p.). Bermuda Telephone Company Ltd. -- history.

(Cable and Wireless), Hugh Barty-King (1979). Girdle Round the Earth: The Story of Cable and Wireless and Its Predecessors to Mark the Group's Jubilee, 1929-1979. (London, UK: Heinemann, 413 p.). Cable and Wireless, ltd.--History.

(Collins Radio), Ken C. Braband ; with excerpts from articles by R.L. Carrel ... [et al.] (1983). The First 50 Years: A History of Collins Radio Company and the Collins Divisions of Rockwell International. (Cedar Rapids, IA: Communications Dept., Avionics Group, Rockwell International, 218 p.). Collins, Arthur Andrew, 1909- ; Collins Radio Company--History; Radio supplies industry--United States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History.

(Collins Radio), Ben W. Stearns (2002). Arthur Collins : Radio Wizard. (Marion, IA: Ben W. Stearns, 394 p.). Collins, Arthur Andrew, 1909- ; Collins Radio Company--History; Rockwell International--History; Industrialists--Iowa--Cedar Rapids--Biography; Radio supplies industry--Iowa--Cedar Rapids; Amateur radio stations--History; Avionics--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--History; Aerospace industries--History; Cedar Rapids (Iowa)--Commerce--History.

(Communications Satellite Corporation), Michael E. Kinsley; foreword by Ralph Nader; introd. by Nicholas Johnson (1976). Outer Space and Inner Sanctums: Government, Business, and Satellite Communication / Michael E. Kinsley ; foreword by Ralph Nader ; introd. by Nicholas Johnson. (New York, NY: Wiley, 280 p.). Communications Satellite Corporation; United States. Federal Communications Commission; Artificial satellites in telecommunication; Industrial policy -- United States.

(CTS Corporation), James H. Soltow (1987). Ninety Years: A History of CTS Corporation, 1896-1986. (Elkhart, IN: CTS Corp., 128 p.). CTS Corporation--History; Telephone supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic industries--United States--History.

(DoCoMo), John Beck and Mitchell Wade (2003). DoCoMo: Japan's Wireless Tsunami: How One Mobile Telecom Created a New Market and Became a Global Force. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 240 p.). DoCoMo (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone services industry--Japan--History.

(Elhac Mehmet Esat), Brendan O'Kelly (2001). The Esat Story. (Dublin, IR: Gill & Macmillan, 165 p.). O'Brien, D. P. (Denis Patrick), 1939- ; Elhac Mehmet Esat; Chief executive officers -- Ireland -- Biography; Telecommunication -- Ireland -- Management. 

(LM Ericsson), Artur Attman (1977). LM Ericsson 100 Years. (Stockholm, SW: L. M. Ericsson, 3 vols.). Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson--History. 

Lars Magnus Ericsson - LM Ericsson  (

(Excel), James W. Robinson; foreword by Kenny A. routt (1997). The Excel Phenomenon: The Astonishing Success Story of the Fastest-Growing Communications Company--and What It Means to You. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 225 p.). Excel Communications; Telephone--United States--Long distance; Telecommunication--United States.

(Exchange Telegraph), J. M. Scott (1972). Extel 100: The Centenary History of the Exchange Telegraph Company. (London, UK: Benn, 239 p.). Exchange Telegraph Company.

(GN Store Nord), Ole Lange (1978). Finansmænd, Stramænd og Mandariner: C. F. Tietgen, Privatbanken og Store Nordiske: Etablering 1868-76. (København, Denmark: Gyldendal, 395 p.). Tietgen, Carl Frederik, 1829-1901; Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark); Privatbanken i Kjøbenhavn; Capitalists and financiers--Denmark--History--19th century; Denmark--Foreign economic relations; Denmark--Commerce--History--19th century.

Carl Frederik Tietgen - GN Store Nord  (

--- (1980). Partnere og Rivaler: C. F. Tietgen, Eastern Extension og Store Nordiske: Ekspansion i Kina 1880-86. (København, Denmark: Gyldendal, 282 p.). Tietgen, Carl Frederik, 1829-1901; Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark); Extension Australasia and China Telegraph Company, Limited; Telegraph--China; Investments, Danish--China; Investments, British--China.

(GN Store Nord), Kurt Jacobsen (1997). Den Røde Trad: Det Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskabs Storpolitiske Spil Efter den Russiske Revolution. (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 223 p.). Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark)--History.

(GN Store Nord), Martin J. Iversen (2005). GN Store Nord: A Company in Transition, 1939-1988. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press, 216 p.). Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark)--History; Telegraph--Denmark--History.

(Grameen Phone Ltd.), Nicholas P. Sullivan (2007). You Can Hear Me Now: Connecting the World’s Poor to the Global Economy. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 272 p.). Publisher of the journal Innovations: Technology/Governance/Globalization (MIT Press), Partner in the Global Horizon Fund. Grameen Phone Ltd.; Cellular telephone services industry--Developing countries.; Information technology--Developing countries; Telecommunication--Developing countries. Partnership between Norway’s Telenor and Grameen Bank; "external combustion engine"  three forces) - 1) information technology, imported by 2) native entrepreneurs trained in West, backed by 3) foreign investors.

(Graybar Electric), Frederick R. Warburton (1980). Wiring the World: Forty Years in Nuts & Bolts. (St. Petersburg, FL: Valkyrie Press, 351 p.). Warburton, Frederick R.; Graybar Electric Company inc.--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(International Discount Telecommunications), Howard Jonas (1998). On a Roll: From Hot Dog Buns to High-Tech Billions. (New York, NY: Viking, 293 p.). Jonas, Howard; International Discount Telecommunications (Firm); Telecommunication--United States; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship.  

(Inter-Tel), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1999). Against the Odds: Inter-Tel, the First 30 Years. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: write Stuff Enterprises, 240 p.). Inter-Tel (Firm)--History; Telecommunication--United States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History; Telephone--United States--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

(Intervoice), Richard F. Hubbard & Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2003). Intervoice: Twenty Years of Innovation. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff, 152 p.). Intervoice (Firm) -- History; Speech processing systems industry -- United States -- History; Telecommunication equipment industry -- United States -- History.

(Lorain Products - founded 1936), David N. Keller ( 1991). C. Paul Stocker: His Life and Legacy. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 219 p.). Stocker, C. Paul (Closman Paul), 1904-1978; Electric engineers--United States--Biography; Telephone supplies industry--United States--Biography.

(Lucent), Lisa Endlich (2004). Optical Illusions: Lucent and the Crash of Telecom. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 302 p.). Lucent Technologies (Firm)--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History; Data transmission equipment industry--United States--History. 

(Macrotel), Leonard R. Graziplene (2007). The Macrotel Files: An Intrapreneurial Case Study. (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 242 p.). Telecommunications Industry--United States; Entrepreneurship--United States--History.

(Marconi), W. J. Baker (1972). A History of the Marconi Company. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 413 p.). Marconi Company.

(McCaw Cellular), O. Casey Corr (2000). Money from Thin Air: The Story of Craig McCaw, the Visionary Who Invented the Cell Phone Industry, and His Next Billion-Dollar Idea. (New York, NY: Crown, 310 p.). McCaw, Craig; Cellular telephone systems--United States; Cellular telephones--United States.

(MCI - founded 1968 as Microwave Communications of America by William McGowan), Larry Kahaner (1987). On the Line: How MCI Took on AT&T, and Won! (New York, NY: Warner Books, 344 p.). MCI (Firm)--History; American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization--History; Long distance telephone service--United States--History; Telephone companies--United States--History.

(MCI), Philip L. Cantelon (1993). The History of MCI 1968-1988: The Early Years. (Dallas, TX: Heritage Press, 720 p.). MCI Communications Corporation--History; American Telephone and Telegraph Company--History; Long distance telephone service--United States--History; Telecommunication--United States--History.

(Mercury Communications), Keith Bradley, Foreword by Sir Peter Parker (1992). Phone Wars: Story of Mercury Communications. (London, UK: Random House, 251 p.). Mercury Communications; Telecommunications Industry--Great Britain. 1981 - formed as subsidiary of Cable & Wireless to challenge monopoly of British Telecom.

(Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company), Herbert J. Hackenburg, Jr. (1986). Muttering Machines to Laser Beams: A History of Mountain Bell. (Denver, CO: Mountain Bell, 383 p.). Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company--History; Telephone companies--United States--History.

(Nokia), Dan Steinbock (2001). The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That Transformed an Industry. (New York, NY: AMACOM. Nokia (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone equipment industry--Finland--History.




Fredrik Idestam - founder Nokia (

(Nokia), Martti Häikiö (2002). Nokia: The Inside Story. (Boston, MA: Financial Times, 254 p.). Nokia (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone equipment industry--Finland--History.

(Nokia), Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen, Vishy Gopalakrishnan (2006). Work Goes Mobile: Nokia’s Lessons from the Leading Edge. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 212 p.). Practice Manager in Nokia’s Enterprise Solutions Business Group. Nokia (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone equipment industry--Finland--History. Inside story of Nokia's efforts to use mobile capabilities for business benefits.

(Nortel), Larry MacDonald (2000). Nortel Networks: How Innovation and Vision Created a Network Giant. (Toronto, ON: J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 259 p.). Nortel Networks--History; Northern Telecom Limited--History.

(Northwestern Bell), James Crockett Rippey (1975). Goodbye, Central--Hello, World: A Centennial History of Northwestern Bell: The Diary of a Dream. (Omaha, NE: Northwestern Bell for the Telephone Pioneers of America, 344 p.). Northwestern Bell telephone; Telecommunications.

(One. Tel), Paul Barry (2002). Rich Kids: How the Murdochs and Packers Lost $950 Million in One.Tel. (Milsons Point, N.S.W.: Random House Australia, 392 p.). Murdoch, Rupert, 1931- ; Packer, Kerry; One.Tel (Firm); Telecommunication--Australia; Business failures--Australia.

(Pacific Telesis), Eric Abrahamson, Marjorie Wilkens (1994). Learning to Compete: A History of Pacific Telesis Group. (San Francisco, CA: Pacific Telesis Group, 371 p.). Pacific Telesis Group; AT & T--History. Breakup of Bell System from California point of view; strategic overview of evolution of regulation, technology, telephone business in California.

(PAETEC Communications), Arunas A. Chesonis and David Dorsey (2007). It Isn’t Just Business, It’s Personal: How PAETEC Thrived When All the Big Telecoms Couldn’t. (Rochester, NY: RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 171 p.). Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of PAETEC Corporation. Telecommunication--United States--Management; Management--United States--Employee participation; PAETEC Communications. How, by following handful of basic ethical principles, company emerged as example of how to succeed in twenty-first century.

(QUALCOMM), Dave Mock (2005). The Qualcomm Equation: How a Fledgling Telecom Company Forged a New Path to Big Profits and Market Dominance. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 224 p.). Practicing Engineer and Consultant to Telecommunications Industry. QUALCOMM Inc.; Telecommunication; Wireless communication systems; Spread spectrum communications; Code division multiple access. 

(Research in Motion), Alastair Sweeny (2009). BlackBerry Planet: The Story of Research in Motion and the Little Device That Took the World by Storm. (Toronto, ON, Wiley Canada, 284 p.). Journalist. Research in Motion (Firm) --History; BlackBerry (Smartphone). Innovative electronic organizer; how little device became machine that connected planet; branding, marketing success of BlackBerry.

mike_lazaridis Mike Lazaridis - Research in Motion


Jim Balsillie - Research in Motion (

(Research in Motion), Rod McQueen; Foreword by Jim Balsillie, Mike Lazaridis (2010). BlackBerry: The Inside Story of Research in Motion. (Toronto, ON, Key Porter Books, 320 p.). Author. Research in Motion (Firm) --History. Launched in 1984, by Mike Lazaridis and Jim Balsillie, with $15,000 loan; grown into one of largest, most profitable companies in world; 2009 - sold more than 50 million BlackBerrys, annual profits in excess of $11 billion; biography of the device’s popularity, origins, development, geniuses who were its inspiration.

(RF Micro Devices), Jerry D. Neal, with Jery Bledsoe (2005). Fire in the Belly: Building a World-Leading High-Tech Company from Scratch in Tumultuous Times. (Asheboro, NC: Down Home Press, 220 p.). Co-Founder, Executive Vice President for Marketing and Strategic Development of RFMD. 

(Roseville Telephone Company), Stephen R. Chanecka (1995). History of the Roseville Telephone Company. (Roseville, CA: Roseville Telephone Co., 427 p.). Roseville Telephone Company--History; Telephone companies--California--Roseville--History.

(Southern Bell), Kenneth Lipartito (1989). The Bell System and Regional Business: The Telephone in the South, 1877-1920. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 283 p.). Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company--History; Telephone companies--Southern States--History; Telephone--Southern States--History.

(Southern New England Telephone Company), J. Leigh Walsh (1950). Connecticut Pioneers in Telephony: The Origin and Growth of the Telephone Industry in Connecticut. (New Haven, CT: Morris F. Tyler Chapter, Telephone Pioneers of America, 444 p.). Southern New England Telephone Company; Telephone -- Connecticut.

(Southern New England Telephone Company), E. Wight Bakke (1966). Bonds of Organization: An Appraisal of Corporate Human Relations. (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 239 p. [2nd ed.]). Southern New England Telephone Company; Connecticut Union of Telephone Workers; Industrial relations.

(Standard Telephone and Cables), Peter Young (1983). Power of Speech: A History of Standard Telephones and Cables, 1883-1983. (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 221 p.). Standard Telephones and Cables (London, England)--History; Telecommunication--Great Britain--History; Telephone--Great Britain--History.

(Telecom Australia), P. J. Gribble (1981). What Hath God Wrought: The Story of the Electric Telegraph, Queensland. (Brisbane, Australia: Telecom Australia, 710 p.). Telegraph --Australia --History.

(Telefonica Espanola), Gabriela Martinez (2006). Telefonica Espanola: The Digital Reconquest of the Americas. (Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 273 p.). Assistant Professor, School of Journalism (University of Oregon). Telefonica Espanola; Telecommunications Industry--Spain. How politics and economics have affected Telefónica's patterns of ownership, structural growth, geographic expansion.

(TelMex), The Company (1991). Historia de la Telefonía en México, 1878-1991. (México, D.F.: Teléfonos de México, 221 p.). Teléfonos de México, S.A.--History; Telephone--Mexico--History.

(TelMex), José Martínez (2002). Carlos Slim: Retrato Inédito. (Mexico, D. F.: Oceano, 270 p.). Slim Helú, Carlos 1940- ; Teléfonos de México, S.A.--History; Businessmen--Mexico--Biography; Mexico Mexico City. 

(Titan Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen and Richard F. Hubbard (2002). The Legend of the Titan Corporation. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 144 p.). Titan Corporation--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States; Defense industries--United States. 

(United Telephone), Lucinda Dixon Grove (1982). United Telephone Service Since 1901: United Telephone System--Eastern Group History. (Mechanicsburg, PA: Center Square Press, 212 p.). United Telephone System--History; United Telecommunications--History.

(Vodaphone), Trevor Merriden (2003). Rollercoaster: The Turbulent Life and Times of Vodafone and Chris Gent. (Oxford, UK: Capstone, 205 p.). Editor, Human Resources magazine. Gent, Chris. 1948- ; Vodafone Group; Cellular telephone services industry. 

(Western Electric), Richard Balzer (1976). Clockwork: Life In and Outside an American Factory. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 333 p.). Western Electric Company; Electric industry workers--Massachusetts--North Andover; Industrial sociology--Massachusetts--North Andover.

Elisha Gray Elisha Gray - Western Electric ( rr/scitech/mysteries/images/gray.jpg)

(Western Electric), Stephen B. Adams and Orville R. Butler (1999). Manufacturing the Future; A History of Western Electric. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 270 p.). Telephone Supplies, Electronic Supplies.

(Western Union), M. J. (Mike) Rivise (1950). Inside Western Union. (New York, NY: Sterling Pub. Co., 248 p.). Western Union Telegraph Company.

(Western Union), George P. Oslin (1992). The Story of Telecommunications. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 507 p.). Inventor of Singing Telegram in 1933 for Western Union. Telecommunication--History; Telecommunication--United States--History.

--- (1998). One Man's Century: From the Deep South to the Top of the Big Apple: A Memoir. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 118 p.). Inventor of Singing Telegram in 1933 for Western Union. Oslin, George P., 1899- ; Western Union Telegraph Company--History; Telecommunication--United States--Employees--Biography; Inventors--United States--Biography; Southern States--Social life and customs--1865-.

John Brooks (1976). Telephone: The First Hundred Years. (New York, NY: Random House, 369 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company; Téléphone--Etats-Unis--Histoire; Telephone--United States--History.

Deep Kanta Lahiri Choudhury (2010). Telegraphic Imperialism: Crisis and Panic in the Indian Empire, c.1830. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 277 p.). Telegraph -- India; Telegraph -- India -- History; Telegraph -- Social aspects -- India; Social change -- India; India -- History -- British occupation, 1765-1947. Telegraph system of British Indian Empire, c.1850-1920; one of most significant transnational phenomena of imperial world, link between communication, Empire, social change; first electronic communication network transformed language, distance, time.

Robert W. Crandall (1991). After the Breakup: U.S. Telecommunications in a More Competitive Era. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 174 p.). Telephone--United States; Telephone--Deregulation--United States.

Robert W. Crandall (2005). Competition and Chaos: U.S. Telecommunications Since the 1996 Telecom Act. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 212 p.). United States. Telecommunications Act of 1996; Telecommunication policy--United States; Telecommunication--Deregulation--United States; Competition--Government policy--United States; Telecommunication--Law and legislation--United States. Effect of 1996 Telecommunications Act on major telecommunications providers, economic welfare in United States.

Martin Fransman (2002). Telecoms in the Internet Age: From Boom to Bust to--? (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 290 p.). Telecommunication; Internet.

Louis Galambos, Eric John Abrahamson (2002). Anytime, Anywhere: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of a Wireless World. Wireless communication systems--Economic aspects; Cellular telephone systems; Entrepreneurship.

John Steele Gordon (2002). A Thread Across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable. (New York, NY: Walker, 240 p.). Columnist, American Heritage Magazine. Cables, Submarine--Atlantic Ocean--History; Telegraph--United States--History; Telegraph--Great Britain--History.  

Cyrus West Field (transatlantic cable)  []

Elton W. Hall (2003). Francis Blake: An Inventor’s Life, 1850-1913.  (Boston, MA, Massachusetts Historical Society, 219 p.). Former Curator of the New Bedford Whaling Museum. Blake, Francis, 1850-1913; Inventors --United States --Biography; Telephone; Photography, Instantaneous. Changed way Americans communicated in 19th century, how they saw themselves; major inventions: telephone transmitter, innovations in high-speed photography; Blake Transmitter became world standard ( name emblazoned on transmitters used in Alexander Graham Bell's devices in the last twenty years of 19nth century); helped revolutionize photography, transformed role of photograph in American society.

Francis Blake - Telephone Transmitter (

John Handley (2005). Telebomb: The Truth Behind the $500-Billion Telecom Bust and What the Industry Must Do To Recover. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 264 p.). Partner (Accenture). United States. Telecommunications Act of 1996; Telecommunication--United States; Telecommunication--Deregulation--United States; Telecommunication policy--United States. 

Eric Harwit (2008). China’s Telecommunications Revolution. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 208 p.). Professor of Asian Studies at the University of Hawaii. Telecommunication --China; Telecommunication --Economic aspects --China; Telecommunication --Social aspects --China. Most successful developing nation in history for spreading telecommunications access; how China conducted remarkable "telecommunications revolution"; corporate, government policy to get citizens connected to both voice, data networks; key issues - building, running country's Internet, mobile phone company rivalry, foreign investment in sector, telecommunications in Shanghai; country's internal "digital divide"; how equitable telecommunications revolution has been; how PRC's entry in WTO will shape future course of telecommunications growth.

Ed. Friedhelm Hillebrand (2001). GSM and UMTS: The Creation of Global Mobile Communication. (New York, NY: Wiley, 582 p.). Global system for mobile communications (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). How wireless specifications for GSM, UMTS technologies in mobile communications market evolved; 1982 - GSM initiative began; became success in Europe, how it evolved to global mobile communication system; 1992 - first GSM networks went into commercial service; technical history of development of GSM, early evolution to UMTS.

Jill Hills (2002). The Struggle for Control of Global Communication: The Formative Century. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 327 p.). Telecommunication--History; Globalization--History; Competition, International--History. 

Anton A. Huurdeman (2003). The Worldwide History of Telecommunications. (New York, NY: Wiley, 638 p.). Former Transmission Product Manager (Alcatel). Telecommunication--History.

Richard R. John (2010). Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications. (Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 528 p.). Professor of Journalism, Graduate School of Journalism (Columbia University). Telecommunication --United States --History. 1845 - first fee-for-service telegraph line opened along railroad right-of-way between Lancaster, PA Harrisburg, PA; history of evolution of telegraph, telephone - first electrical communications networks; how technological imperatives, economic incentives, political decision making at federal, state, municipal levels determined access to these networks; 1865-1915 - Western Union, Bell System emerged as dominant providers for telegraph, telephone; 1900 - civic ideal of mass access trumped elitist ideal of exclusivity, shaped commercialization of telephone; 1910 - telegraph became widely accessible.

Paul Israel (1992). From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the Changing Context of American Invention, 1830-1920. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 251 p.). Technology--United States--History; Telegraph--United States--History; Inventions--United States--History.

Peter R. Jensen (2000). From the Wireless to the Web: The Evolution of Telecommunications, 1901-2001. (Sydney, AU: University of New South Wales Press, 306 p.). Telecommunication--History--20th century; Telecommunication--History--20th century.

Guy Klemens (2010). The Cellphone: The History and Technology of the Gadget That Changed the World. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 216 p.). Cell phone systems. History of cellular phone from beginnings in 1940s to present (early mobile phones debuted as early as 1946, expensive novelty until 1980s); fundamental concepts involved in wireless communication, ramifications of cellular technology on economy, U.S. and international law, human health, society.

Rich Ling (2004). The Mobile Connection: The Cell Phone’s Impact on Society. (San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 244 p.). Senior Research Scientist at Telenor (Norways largest telecommunications company), Adjunct Professor at the University of Udine, Italy. Cellular telephone systems--Social aspects. Impact of phone on daily life - accessibility, safety, security, coordination of social and business activities, use of public places.

--- (2008). New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication Is Reshaping Social Cohesion. (Cambridge, MAs: MIT Press, 224 p.). Senior Researcher at Telenor (Norwegian telecommunications company), Adjunct Research Scientist (University of Michigan). Cellular telephones--Social aspects; Interpersonal communication--Technological innovations--Social aspects; Communication and culture. How mobile telephone affects social bonding, 2 kinds of interactions: 1) mediated by mobile communication, 2) those that are face to face; strengthens social bonds among family, friends (creates what he calls "bounded solidarity"); engenders, develops social cohesion within family, peer group; ritual interaction is catalyst for development of social bonding.

Annteresa Lubrano (1997). The Telegraph: How Technology Innovation Caused Social Change. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 182 p.). Telegraph--History; Telecommunication--Technological innovations; Technological innovations--Social aspects; Information technology--Social aspects.

Carolyn Marvin (1988). When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 269 p.). Telecommunication--History--19th century; Electric engineering--History--19th century.

John L. McLucas (1991). Space Commerce. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 241 p.). Electronics Engineer in Aviation and Space Technology. Space industrialization--United States; Artificial satellites in telecommunication--United States.

Susan E. McMaster (2002). The Telecommunications Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 191 p.). Telephone--United States--History; Telecommunication policy--United States--History. 

Christos J. Moschovitis (1999). History of the Internet: A Chronology, 1843 to the Present. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 312 p.). Telecommunications. A chronology of telecommunications from Babbage's earliest theories of a "Difference Engine" to the impact of the Internet in 1998 to future trends.

James B. Murray, Jr. (2001). Wireless Nation: The Frenzied Launch of the Cellular Revolution in America. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 338 p.). McCaw, Craig; Cellular telephone services industry--History; Cellular telephone systems--United States; Cellular telephones--United States.

Seth Shulman (2008). The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Graham Bell’s Secret. (New York, NY: Norton, 252 p.). Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922; Gray, Elisha, 1835-1901; Telephone--History; Telephone--Patents; Inventors--United States--Biography. Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha Gray filed patent applications on same day in 1876; compelling evidence that Bell peaked at rival inventor's patent application, stole  crucial element from it, lived uncomfortable lie for rest of his life.

Kenneth Silverman (2003). Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of Samuel F.B. Morse. (New York, NY: Knopf, 503 p.). Pulitzer-Prize Winner. Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, 1791-1872; Inventors--United States--Biography; Artists--United States--Biography; Telegraph; Morse code. 

George D. Smith (1985). The Anatomy of a Business Strategy: Bell, Western Electric and the Origins of the American Telephone Industry. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 237 p.). Telephone Industry, AT&T, Western Electric.

Tom Standage (1998). The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century's On-Line Pioneers. (New York, NY: Walker and Co., 227 p.). Telegraph--History.

Christopher H. Sterling, Phyllis W. Bernt, Martin B. H. Weiss (2005). Shaping American Telecommunications: A History of Technology, Policy, and Economics. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 419 p.). Telecommunication--United States; Telecommunication policy--United States. Interplay among technical innovation, policy decisions, regulatory developments.

Alan Stone (1997). How America Got On-Line: Politics, Markets, and the Revolution in Telecommunications. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 241 p.). Telecommunication--United States--History; Entrepreneurship--United States--History; Technological innovations--Economic aspects--United States--History; Information society--United States--History.

Lawrence Surtees (1994). Wire Wars: The Canadian Fight for Competition in Telecommunications. (Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall Canada, 420 p.). Unitel Communications Inc.; Bell Canada; Long distance telephone service--Canada; Telecommunication policy--Canada; Competition--Canada.

Andrew Wheen (2010). Dot-Dash to Dot.Com: How Modern Telecommunications Evolved from the Telegraph to the Internet. (New York, NY: Springer, 301 p.). Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (UK). Telecommunication -- History; Telecommunication -- Technological innovations. Development of complex technology from electric telegraph to Internet; feats of 19th century engineering, impact of first telecommunication systems on Victorian world; how success of electric telegraph led to development of telephone, fax machine; early experiments that led to Internet, World Wide Web; how networks work; phenomenal growth of mobile networks; how digital revolution is driving introduction of "next generation networks;" extraordinary growth in network applications.


Business History Links

Antique Telephone History                                                                                         

The pages on this site will provide links to the history of the telephone and the histories of a number of current telephone companies. In addition, information about antique telephones, wiring diagrams, where to obtain parts and the Antique Telephone Collectors Association is provided.

AT & T  History                                                                                      

AT&T Technology Timeline                                                                                 

Features descriptions of telecommunication, sound, and data technology developments starting with the birth of the telephone in 1876. Some of the of the events include fax service (1924), sound motion pictures (1926), synthetic speech (1936), the first mobile telephone call (1946), the first direct-dial transcontinental telephone call (1951), UNIX and the Internet (1969), and quantum computing (1999). From AT&T.

Atlantic Cable & Submarine Telegraphy History                                                                   

From the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic  network.

Bell Labs History                                                                    

Cable and Wireless History                                                                              

From its beginning in the 1860's, Cable & Wireless has played a major part in the establishment and development of telecommunications around the world.

Thomas Alva Edison Patent Collection                                                             

Patent Numbers 1 (06/01/1869) - 1084 (05/16/1933).

Ericcson History                                                            

French (Transatlantic) Cable Station Museum                                                     

Opened in July 1972 - American termination point for a telegraph cable that came directly to Orleans, MA from France; called "Le Direct", installed in 1898 and was almost 3200 miles long; first French Cable was installed in 1869, landed in Duxbury MA.

The Great Transatlantic Cable                                        
In the modern era of instantaneous communication, it is perhaps difficult to imagine a world only 130 years ago where sending messages and other items to Europe was a rather time-consuming affair. Transatlantic communications were vastly improved when Cyrus Field, a New York paper manufacturer, completed construction of a 2,000-mile-long cable beneath the Atlantic in 1866. This delightful website is designed to complement the American Experience documentary on the construction of the cable, and will be of great interest to those with a penchant for the history of technology. Visitors can learn about the laborious process involved with the construction of the cable, take part in an online poll, and learn about the science behind the transatlantic cable. Additional materials include a detailed timeline of related events, additional interviews with experts in the field, and a selection of cable-related humor from the period.

HELL'S BELLS: A Radio History of the Telephone                                                                     

8-part series: fascinating glimpse into the history of telecommunications with great relevance for those interested in the future of the Internet.

Guglielmo Marconi -- 1874-1937                                                                               

MarconiCalling is a detail-rich, digital archive drawn from the extensive Marconi Collection housed at Chelmsford, England. The site provides an in-depth look at Guglielmo Marconi, the wireless telegraph company he founded, and their impact on the interconnected lives that we live today. The site provides links to other useful resources, a bibliography, a timeline, and a searchable archive that includes photographs, film clips, sound clips, newspaper articles, artifacts, and telegrams sent and received by the Titanic. Subjects: Marconi, Guglielmo, 1874-1937 -- Biography | Telegraph, Wireless -- Marconi system | People.

 Guglielmo Marconi ( /eb-media/20/2320-003-F5A055EB.gif)

The Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress                                         

Comprises about 6,500 items, or approximately 50,000 images, that document Morse's invention of the electromagnetic telegraph, his participation in the development of telegraph systems in the United States and abroad, his career as a painter, his family life, his travels, and his interest in early photography, religion, and the nativist movement. Included in the collection are correspondence, letterbooks, diaries, scrapbooks, printed matter, maps, drawings, and other miscellaneous materials. The papers included date from 1793 to 1919, but most are from 1807 to 1872. The collection includes the original paper tape containing the first telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?," sent on May 24, 1844. The digitization of the Morse Papers is made possible through the generous support of the AT&T Foundation.

Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation
1995 - The Post and Telecommunications Museum Foundation established as part of the West German postal reform; historical roots go to the 19thCentury and the founding of the Reich Postal Museum in Berlin; documents historic development of postal and telecommunications in all its  manifestations. The statutory mission of the Museum Foundation to represent the "development of communication and thus collect the related banking, goods and people in the postal and telecommunications and open", to and extends the range of collection areas, however, considerably - down to the diverse forms of communication in present and future; collections date to 1872 (Reich Postal Museum).  

The Museum of Communications                                                                        

Formerly known as the Vintage Telephone Equipment Museum, reveals the history of the telephone and the equipment that makes it all work.

New Hampshire Telephone Museum                                                                    

Created by Dick and Paul Violette, who worked their way up from apprenticeships to become Chairman and President/CEO of the Merrimack County Telephone Company; collection of telephones, equipment and tools begins with a replica of the very first telephone, which carried inventor Alexander Graham Bell’s words to his startled assistant Thomas A. Watson. ("Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you!"); development of the telephone from hand-cranked magneto boxes on walls (you generated your own electricity to call the operator) to the wireless technologies of today. Crank a magneto telephone to connect yourself to an antique switchboard ... and dial a telephone to see a 9-foot-tall stepping switch in action.

Porthcurno Telegraph Museum                                                 

Where telegraph cables that linked Britain with its Empire and other nations came ashore. The valley was the hub of international cable communications from 1870-1970 and also training college for the communications industry until 1993. Porthcurno was the largest cable station in the world, has only working cable station (complete in all details except the actual cable) in the world. Museum is owned and operated by The Cable & Wireless Porthcurno and Collections Trust (The PK Trust), an independent educational charity and heritage trust. The PK Trust was created in 1997 by Cable & Wireless to hold the Company's historic premises and collections at Porthcurno. The Trust was to develop these resources to create a sustainable museum and archive but also provide the basis for the regeneration of the valley.

The Telecommunications History Group, Inc.                                                                            

Maintains and operates one of the nation's largest privately held telecommunications archives. THG is a permanent collective memory of the telecommunications industry, dedicated to preserving the history of the industry and to telling the stories behind the history.

Telephone Collectors International                                                                                 

Organization of telephone collectors, hobbyists and historians who are helping to preserve the history of the telecommunications industry through the collection of telephones and telephone related material. Our collections represent all aspects of the industry; from the very first wooden prototypes that started the industry to the technological marvels that made the automatic telephone exchange possible.

Telephone Tribute                                                                                                 

Pays tribute to the telephone from a historical aspect. provides technical information, human interest stories, links to other telephony related web sites, resources for students and teachers, and other features.

Telephone History Website                                                      

Nikola Tesla Museum                                                                                                       

December 5, 1952 - Nikola Tesla Museum was founded in accordance with the decision of the Government of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia; unique institution of science and culture in Yugoslavia and in the world. It is the only museum in the world which preserves the original and personal inheritance of Nikola Tesla; plays a significant role in providing abundant information to the researchers of history of science, inventions and patent rights as well as for environmental protection projects and studies of pollution-free energy sources.

Uniting a Nation: Two Giants of Telecommunications                                                         

The invention of the telegraph and the telephone provided the first "paving stones" for what has today become the information superhighway. The Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress holds the main body of the papers of the two American inventors most responsible for the 19th century revolution in telecommunications, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alexander Graham Bell. During the next few years, manuscripts and photographs donated to the Library of Congress by descendents of Morse and Bell will be made available online as part of the American Memory Historical Collections. The production of these collections is supported by a generous gift from the AT&T Foundation.

Western Union Telegraph Company Records, 1820-1995                      

This listing of Western Union Telegraph Company records begins with a concise history of the telegraph, including Samuel F.B. Morse's invention of the early telegraph, the Morse Code system, further developments that allowed Roman letters to be sent in addition to dots and dashes, early commercial telegraph services, the 1860 Pacific Telegraph Act, and the history of Western Union Telegraph Company. From the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, Smithsonian Institution.

Wireless History Foundation Hall of Fame                                                  

First and only effort focused solely on preserving the story of wireless in the United States. The WHF will chronicle the evolution of markets and technology, the contributions of numerous organizations, and the achievements of individuals, all of which fueled the growth of wireless communications.


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