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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Computers
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February 5, 1850 - Du Bois Parmelee, of New Paltz, NY, received a patent for a "Calculator" ("Calculating-Machine"); first adding machine with keys; proved impractical and was not successful.

November 19, 1872 - Edmund D. Barbour, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Calculating-Machines"; first U.S. patent for an adding machine capable of printing totals and subtotals; not considered practical.

November 4, 1879 - James Ritty and John Ritty, of Dayton, OH, received a patent  for a "Cash Register and Indicator" ("for use by store-keepers and others as a means of accurately ascertaining, and at a glance, the total receipts taken in by the employees for any given period of time"); nicknamed "Ritty's Incorruptible Cashier", first working version of a mechanical cash register; January 30, 1883 - James Ritty and John Birch, of Dayton, OH, received a patent for a "Cash Register and Indicator"; assigned to Jacob H. Eckert (Cincinnati, OH); 1883 - cash register business (including patents) acquired for $1,000 by Eckert, china and glassware salesman, formed National Manufacturing Company; 1884 - acquired by John H. Patterson, renamed National Cash Register Company; August 27, 1907 - registered "National Cash register" trademark first used December 1866 (cash-registers, credit registers [and autographic registers]); 1974 - name changed to NCR Corporation to symbolize more diverse product line; 1906 - manufactured first electric cash register; 1914 -  producing 110,000 cash registers per year; 1991 - acquired by AT&T.

James Ritty - patent for cash register (

March 31, 1885 - Julius E. Pitrat, of Gallipolis, OH, received a Patent for a "Weighing and Price Scale" ("scale in which the total price of merchandise in quantity may be quickly and accurately determined , the price per pound being given"); 1891 - acquired by Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, businessmen in Dayton, OH; incorporated Computing Scale Co. (later IBM).

January 20, 1886 - William Burroughs, Thomas Metcalfe (first president), W.C. Metcalfe, R.M. Scruggs  founded American Arithmometer Company of St. Louis; August 21, 1888 - received patent for a "Calculating Machine"; first practical adding machine; assigned to American Arithmometer Company; 1905 - name changed to Burroughs Adding Machine Company; 1953 -  renamed Burroughs Corporation; September 1986 - merged with Sperry Corporation, formed Unisys.

William Seward Burroughs - Burroughs Corp. (

July 19, 1887 - Dorr Eugene Felt, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for an "Adding Machine"; October 11, 1887 - received second patent for an "Adding Machine"; commercial wooden-box Comptometer; first practical key-driven calculator with sufficient speed, reliability and economic benefit; 1904 - first steel case Model A, standard for remainder for all "shoebox" models; 1920s - electric motor drive introduced.

November 20, 1888 - Willard L. Bundy, jeweler from Auburn, NY, received a patent for a "Time Recorder" ("to compel employees of factories and shops to record at their place of business the time of their entering the said place, and thus save the extra expense of watchmen or time-keepers usually employed for the aforesaid purpose"); time-recording clock; 1889 - Harlow Bundy (brother) incorporated Bundy Manufacturing Company to produce time recorders; 1896 - George W. Fairchild joined Bundy as investor, director; 1900 - became president of International Time Recording Co., seller of industrial time clocks as agency of Bundy Manufacturing; 1902 - incorporated in NY as International Time Recording Co.; (consolidation of Bundy, Chicago Time-Register Co.  acquired in 1901); February 14, 1924 - company renamed IBM.

Harlow Bundy - Bundy Mfg. became IBM (

George W. Fairchild George W. Fairchild - International Time Recording Co. became IBM ( chairmen/images/fairchild.jpg)

Herman Hollerith Herman Hollerith - Tabulating Machine Company became IBM (

January 8, 1889 - Dr. Herman Hollerith, of New York, NY, received two patents for the "Art of Compiling Statistics"; tabulating machine; system designed to record separate statistical items by means of combinations of holes in a punched card to carry information about an individual; first extensive application was for the 1890 census counting data items such as age, sex, occupation, etc.; received a patent for an "Apparatus for Compiling Statistics" ("applicable to the compilation of such statistics as the population-statistics of a census, or the statistics of the registration of births, deaths, and marriages, which are compiles by counting or adding single units as persons").

September 24, 1889 - Alexander Dey, of Glasgow, Scotland, received a patent for a "Workman's Time-Recorder"; employee time clock (dial time recorder); used a dial that employees were required to point to their assigned number, and press to record the time of arrival and departure. The numbers of the employees and times were recorded on a sheet of paper wrapped around a drum; first manufactured by Dey Company; after 1907 - manufactured as Industrial Time Recorders (ITR).

1896 - Herman Hollerith incorporated Tabulating Machine Company, world's first electric tabulating, accounting machine company, especially for use in U.S. census.; later IBM.

March 14, 1899 - Allen De Vilbiss, Jr., of Toledo, OH, received a patent for a "Scale" ("scale of this character [pendulum] whose hand or index swings in irregular steps as weight is added to the pan or platform over a straight-line table whose graduations or marks are equidistant"); May 22, 1900 - received a patent for a "Scale" ("price-scales, which employ and are adapted to compute the total selling price"); assigned to De Vilbiss Computing Scale Company; 1901 - Henry Theobald (former NCR general manager) founded Toledo Computing Scale and Cash Register Company, began production of DeVilbiss Jr.'s computing scale; 1902 - name changed to Toledo Computing Scale Company; 1912 - renamed Toledo Scale Company; 1968 - acquired by Reliance Electric Company.

1910 - Elmer Ambrose Sperry founded Sperry Gyroscope Company to manufacture navigation equipment, especially gyrocompass; 1933 - Sperry Gyroscope Company became Sperry Corporation, holding company for Sperry Gyroscope, Ford Instrument Company, Intercontinental Aviation, Inc., others.

1911 - Charles F. Flint, merchant banker/trust organizer, engineered merger of Herman Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company, Computing Scale Company of America, International Time Recording Company of New York;  June 16, 1911 - incorporated in New York State as Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company; manufactured, sold machinery ranging from commercial scales, industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, tabulators, punched cards); based in New York City, with 1,300 employees; George Fairchild named first chairman of board of directors; May 1, 1914 - Thomas Watson named general manager (previously with NCR); February 14, 1924 - company renamed IBM.

January 1, 1939 - Bill Hewlett and David Packard formalized partnership (with encouragement of Stanford professor, mentor Fred Terman); decided company's name with coin toss; revenue: $5369. Employees: 2; operations in shed behind house in which Packard rented an apartment; $538 working capital consisted of cash, used Sears-Roebuck drill press; first product: 200A audio oscillator, electronic test instrument used by sound engineers (eight bought by Disney to develop,  test an innovative sound system for movie Fantasia); April 9, 1957 - Hewlett-Packard Company registered "Hewlett HP Packard" trademark first used in February 1946 (amplifiers, coaxial probe connectors, power supplies, and waveguide to coaxial adapters).

November 1939 - John V. Atanasoff, assistant professor of mathematics and physics (Iowa State College), graduate student Clifford Berry completed prototype 25-bit adder, 2 25-bit words of memory in the form of capacitors; Summer 1941 - completed special-purpose calculator for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, later called the "ABC" ("Atanasoff-Berry Computer"); 60 50-bit words of regenerative capacitor memory, mounted on two revolving drums, clock speed of 60 Hz, addition took 1 second, circuits converted between binary, decimal for input and output, included several hundred vacuum tubes altogether, used punch cards, moved around by user, for secondary memory (card system was partial failure - error rate of 0.001% too high to solve large systems of equations); first to implement binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing, separation of memory and computing functions; 1942 -1945 - WW II service as Chief, Acoustics Section, U.S. Naval Ordnance Lab., Washington, DC; 1946 - removed from Physics Building at Iowa State, dismantled.

April 14, 1943 - John Grist Brainerd, director of research at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School, submitted a proposal for an electronic computer to colleagues at the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory; May 1943 - Army contracted the Moore School to build ENIAC, the first electronic computer; not finished until after the war had ended, marked a major step forward in computing.

January 1, 1946 - John W. Mauchly, physics professor, graduate student J. Presper Eckert, at Moore School of Electrical Engineering (University of Pennsylvania), finished ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator),  electronic digital computer; based on ideas developed by John Atanasoff of Iowa State College; regarded as first successful, general digital computer, convinced  world that electronic computing was practicable, masterpiece of electrical engineering, unprecedented in reliability, computing speed; occupied room 30 by 50 feet; built out of 17,468 electronic vacuum tubes, largest single electronic apparatus in world, weighed over 60,000 pounds; staff of six technicians replaced about 2000 tubes each month; first tasks primarily for military purposes (calculating ballistic firing tables, designing atomic weapons); not a stored program machine, had to be reprogrammed for each task; February 13, 1946 - Mauchly and Eckert demonstrated ENIAC, showed that high-speed digital computing was possible using vacuum tube technology then available; laid foundations for modern electronic computing industry; February 14, 1946 - ENIAC unveiled, dedicated at University of Pennsylvania; February 1950 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, patent rights to ENIAC, acquired by Remington Rand Corporation.

John W. Mauchly - ENIAC (

J. Presper Eckert - ENIAC (

March 28, 1946 - The Census Bureau, National Bureau of Standards agreed to buy a UNIVAC computer, world's first general all-purpose business computer, from Presper Eckert and John Mauchly for $225,000 (less than its cost of development); Remington Rand eventually bought company.

January 24, 1948 - IBM dedicated Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator ("SSEC") in New York City; handled data, instructions using electronic circuits made with 13,500 vacuum tubes and 21,000 relays; occupied three sides of 30-ft x 60-ft room: 1) three punches, thirty readers provided paper-tape storage on back wall; 2) banks of vacuum tube circuits for card reading,  sequence control, 36 paper tape readers comprising table-lookup section occupied left wall; 3) electronic arithmetic unit, storage filled most of right wall; card readers, card punches, printers, operator's console in center of room.

June 21, 1948- Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), first stored-program computer, ran first program (52-minute program written by Professor Tom Kilburnz); no keyboard or printer, successfully tested memory system based on cathode-ray tube developed at Manchester University in England (previous electronic computers had to be rewired to execute each new problem); proved theories set forth by John von Neumann in report that proposed 1) modifications to ENIAC, electronic computer built at University of Pennsylvania in mid-1940s, 2) use of binary instead of digital numbers.

1949 - Jay Forrester used iron cores as main memory in Whirlwind computer at MIT, first real-time electronic digital computer (replaced expensive, unreliable electrostatic tubes with dependable random access magnetic core memory); conceived the technique of stringing the cores onto a matrix of wires and thus producing a random access memory;  February 28, 1956 - Jay W. Forrester, of Wellesley, MA, received patent for a "Multicoordinate Digital Information Storage Device" ("storage and selection system for digital store electrical information in a multi-dimensional array of coincidence devices, any one of which can be located by a relatively simple system of coordinate wires...a simpler, more compact and more reliable information storage system"); magnetic core memory.

  Jay W. Forrester - magnetic core memory (

June 14, 1951 - Remington Rand delivered UNIVAC 1 ((Universal Automatic Computer), its first computer, to U.S. Census Bureau; weighed 16,000 pounds, used 5,000 vacuum tubes, could perform about 1,000 calculations per second; world's first commercially produced electronic digital computer; developed by J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, makers of ENIAC, first general-purpose electronic digital computer; 1943 - U.S. Army Ordnance Department sponsored Presper Eckert, John Mauchly at University of Pennsylvania to build first general-purpose electronic digital computer to better calculate artillery firing tables; 1946 - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), completed at cost of nearly $500,000; took up 15,000 feet, employed 17,000 vacuum tubes, programmed by plugging, replugging some 6,000 switches; December 1945 - first used in calculation for Los Alamos Laboratories; February 1946 - formally dedicated; November 4, 1952 - UNIVAC achieved national fame when it correctly predicted Dwight D. Eisenhower's unexpected landslide victory in presidential election after only tiny percentage of votes were in.

November 17, 1951 - J. Lyons & C., Ltd., chain of British tea shops, introduced world's first computer for business purposes; Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) performed first calculation - ran program to evaluate costs, prices, margins on that week's baked goods; first business machine in world to operate on 'stored program principle' (new programs permitted machine to perform different tasks); computer code, based on flow chart of how company's different job requirements related, developed by Maurice V. Wilkes, Director of the Mathematical Laboratory (Cambridge University); systems-oriented approach to programming devised by David Caminer; less than 100,000th power of modern PC; January 9, 1965 - LEO turned off.

  David Caminer - LEO (

October 7, 1954 - IBM displayed, in Poughkeepsie, NY, large all-transistor calculator needing only 5% of power of comparable electronic ones. 1957 - introduced IBM 608, fist all-transistor commercial calculator.

1955 - Sperry Corp. acquired Remington Rand, renamed Sperry Rand; December 9, 1960 - introduced UNIVAC 1107, first electronic computer to use thin-film memory; signed valuable cross-licensing deal with IBM; remained major military contractor; 1978 - focused on computer-related business, renamed Sperry Corp.; 1986 - merged with Burroughs Corp., formed Unisys.

October 2, 1955 - ENIAC computer deactivated at 11:45 PM.

1957 -  William Norris, Seymore Cray, six other computer engineers quit UNIVAC division of Sperry Rand Corp. (had sold ERA, pioneering St. Paul computer company founded in 1946, to UNIVAC); founded Control Data Corp., in Minneapolis, MN, to concentrate on part of market that IBM did not dominate: large computers used mainly in scientific research; 1960 - built he 1604, most powerful computer in world; 1964 - introduced CDC 6600, first commercial supercomputer, 10 times faster than anything on market; 1969 - 45,000 employees, $1 billion in annual revenue; 1976 to 1980 - revenue grew from $2.1 billion to $3.8 billion; 1984 - revenue peaked at $5 billion; 1985 - losses reached more than $400 million, 18,000 workers down from 60,000, plants closed, assets sold; company eventually split into two businesses.

February 6, 1957 - The cryotron, superconductive computer switch developed by Dudley Allen Buck at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, announced; first practical use of superconductivity; hailed as revolutionary component for miniaturizing room-sized computers of 1950s.

August 1957 - Ken Olsen, Stan Olsen, Harlan Anderson left MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, established Digital Equipment Corporation to sell minicomputers to scientific, process control, academic communities; Georges Doriot, founder of American Research and Develorporation, supplied $70,000 in venture capital (later sold equity stpment Coake for about $450 million); pioneered minicomputer industry with PDP series; 1977 - VAX introduced, gained strong foothold in commercial data processing; evolved into complete line from desktop to mainframe, used same VMS operating system in all models; 1992 - introduced RISC-based Alpha architecture open system; 1997 - sold semiconductor manufacturing facilities to Intel; 1998 - acquired by Compaq; 2002 - acquired by Hewlett Packard.

March 27, 1961 - Douglas Aircraft Corporation, Charlotte, NC used first mobile computer center, UNIVAC Solid-State 90 computer loaded into motor van, on assignment; set up by Remington Rand UNIVAC, division of Sperry Rand.

February 4, 1964 - John P. Eckert, Jr. and John W. Mauchly, of Philadelphia, PA, received patent for the "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer" ("relates to methods and apparatus for performing calculations involving arithmetical calculations, at extremely high speeds, and with minimum use of mechanical elements, as generally so termed , and more particularly relates to the art of electrical computing machines, with particular reference to a machine utilizing electronically produced pulses to rwepresent digits and numbers, and using such pulses for control and programming operations, thus obviating the need for mechanically moving parts for these purposes"); ENIAC; assigned to Sperry Rand Corporation.

April 7, 1964 - IBM launched Systedm/360, $5 billion mainframe computer investment; family of six mutually compatible computers, 40 peripherals that could work together; transformed government, science commercial landscape; introduced several industry standards (de facto worldwide standard of 8-bit byte); orders for System/360 reached 1,000 per month within two years; 1989 - products based on System/360's architecture accounted for more than half of company's total revenues.

December 15, 1964 - Kenneth H. Olsen, Bedford, MA, and Richard L. Best, Wayland, MA, received a patent for "Magnetic Core Memory" ("improved reliability in the reading and writing processes in which information is fed into the memory and retrieved from it"); assigned to Digital Equipment Corporation.

1967 - Alan Shugart, of IBM, created first floppy disk.

December 9, 1968 - Douglas Engelbart, 17 researchers from Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, CA, gave 90-minute demonstration of groupware system called NLS (oNLine System - facilitated creation of digital libraries, storage, retrieval of electronic documents using first successful implementation of hypertext) at Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco; used new device to facilitate computer interaction - three-button palm-sized contraption called a "mouse" (because of its tail-like cable; created first prototypes of device in 1963 at Stanford Research Institute); outlined concepts presaged next 40 years of computing; November 17, 1970 - received patent for an "X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System" ("...for movement by hand over any surface to move a cursor over the display on a cathode ray tube, the indicator control generating signals indicating its position to cause a cursor to be displayed on the tube at the corresponding position"); assigned to Stanford Research Institute; first mouse was simple, hollowed-out wooden block with single push button on top to select, move, manipulate text; 1982 - Logitech sold its first mouse, P4 ($299); 1983 - Apple sold first commercial mouse as part of Apple Lisa system; Microsoft shipped its first IBM PC mouse ($195); two-button mouse initially required special peripheral card.

First Computer Mouse - underside view, held by inventor Douglas Engelbart  (

1969 - CompuServe founded as computer time-sharing service; September 24, 1979 - began operation as first computer information service (electronic mail capabilities, technical support to personal computer users); 1980 - first online service to offer real-time chat online with CB Simulator; 1982 - formed Network Services Division to provide wide-area networking capabilities to corporate clients; February 1998 - wholly owned subsidiary of America Online, Inc.

October 29, 1969 - First computer-to-computer link  established on ARPANET.

June 1970 - Xerox Corporation established the Palo Alto research Center (PARC Incorporated) to create "the office of the future" (under direction of Dr. George Pake, physicist specializing in nuclear magnetic resonance, provost of Washington University; Robert Taylor, head of Computer Science Division); focused information technology hardware, software); 2002 - spun off from Xerox; laid foundation for personal computing revolution; invented laser printer, desktop interface for PCs (adopted by Apple for Macintosh, Microsoft for Windows), idea of "ubiquitous computing" in 1980s (paved way for PalmPilot, iPad); 2009 - $60 million in revenue; 2010 - broadened research (solar energy generation, drug discovery tools, water treatment).

September 13, 1970 - IBM announced System 370 computer.

October 19, 1970 - Dr. Gene Amdahl, former IBM Fellow, director of IBM's Advanced Computing Systems (ACS) Laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, founded Amdahl Corporation in in Sunnyvale, CA; specialized in IBM mainframe-compatible computer products; 1997 - acquired by Fujitsu.

February 1, 1972 - Hewlett-Packard introduced first scientific hand-held calculator (HP-35) for $395; 35 keys, first hand-held calculator able to perform logarithmic, trigonometric functions with one keystroke; February 1975 - production discontinued.

October 19, 1973 -  After two-year anti-trust violation suit in  case of Honeywell vs. Sperry Rand, Federal Judge in Minneapolis, MN, declared ENIAC patent (February 4, 1964) invalid (Mauchly, Eckert did not create basic ideas used in assembly of their computer), belatedly credited physicist John Atanasoff with developing first electronic digital computer, Atanasoff- Berry Computer (ABC). 

December 19, 1974 - Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), founded by Ed Roberts, put Altair 8800 microcomputer on sale in U.S., as do-it-yourself computer kit, for $397; used switches for input, flashing lights as display, 8800 microprocessor; demand far exceeded expectations; January 1975 - featured on cover of Popular Electronics; 1977 - Commodore PET introduced, first commercially successful personal computer which integrated  keyboard, monitor in its caseApple II followed later that year.

April 1, 1976 - Steve Jobs (entrepreneur), Steve Wozniak (engineer) created computer circuit boards in Jobs's parents' Los Altos, CA garage, named the product Apple I, sold it to a local computer store; initial financing: Jobs sold his VW van, Wozniak sold his Hewlett Packard calculator; January 3, 1977 - company incorporated; November 29, 1977 - Apple Computer, Inc. registered "Apple" trademark first used in April 1976 (computers and computer programs recorded on paper and tape); December 12, 1980 - went public; May 19, 2001 - opened first Apple retail stores in McLean, VA, Glendale, CA; May 26, 2010 - overtook Microsoft as most valuable technology company in terms of market value ($222.12 billion vs. $219.18 billion).

1976 - Stan Shih, group of university friends founded Multitech in Taipei; became one of pioneers of Taiwan's computer industry; 1986 - adopted Acer brand name; 2007 - 4th largest PC vendor (unit sales) behind Lenovo, HP, Dell; focus on traditional distributors, retailers (vs. internet sales).

March 4, 1977 - First CRAY 1 supercomputer shipped, to Los Alamos Laboratories, New Mexico.

April 16, 1977 - Apple ll introduced at first West Coast Computer Faire, 4KB model for $970 (Tandy TRS-80, Commodore PET also introduced in 1977).

February 16, 1978 - Ward Christensen, Randy Seuss created first Computer Bulletin Board System (Ward and Randy's CBBS, Chicago); used S-100 motherboard, CP/M, 300-baud modem.

April 3, 1981 - Adam Osborne, journalist turned entrepreneur named, founder of Osborne Computer Corporation, introduced Osborne 1, first true mass-produced portable PC (24 pounds, no battery) at West Coast Computer Faire at San Francisco’s Brooks Hall; one of first computers to come with useful software, priced at $1795; 1983 - eclared bankruptcy; 1986 - Osborne Computing closed.

August 12, 1981 - IBM introduced IBM 5150, first Personal Computer at press conference at Waldorf Astoria in New York City (21-pounds, cost $1,565, Intel processing chip, operating system developed by 32-person companty named Microsoft, able to connect to TV set, play games, word process); sold 136,000 units in first year and half of release; 3 million in first five years; base  price of $1,565; 64 kilobytes of memory, expansion slots for up to 640 Kb more; system with two floppies and a serial port cost $3,045; monitor that displayed letters and numbers in green cost $345; machines ran at a speed of 4.77 megahertz.

October 2, 1981 - Daniel Borel, Pierluigi Zappacosta, Giacomo Marini founded Logitech S.A. (name from 'logicel', French word for software), opened first office in in farmhouse in small village of Apples, Switzerland; first business deal to develop graphical editor for Ricoh; 1982 - developed Logitech® P4 mouse designed by Jean-Daniel Nicoud (dome-shaped device, among first commercial mice available, sold for $299); 1985 - introduced first mouse for retail; 1996 - 100 million sold (against heavy competition from IBM, Microsoft, Apple); 2003 - 500 million sold; December 3, 2008 - shipped 1 billionth mouse; sells mice in more than 100 countries, manufactures average of 376,000 mice/day, 7.8 million/month.

  Daniel Borel, Pierluigi Zappacosta, Giacomo Marini - Logitech (

May 7, 1982 - IBM released PC-DOS version 1.1.

February 1982 - Rod Canion, Jim Harris, Bill Murto, three senior managers from semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments, founded Compaq Computer in Hoston, TX; each invested $1,000; first venture funding from Ben Rosen (Sevin-Rosen partners); March 1983 - released first product, Compaq Portable, portable IBM PC compatible personal computer, priced at $2995; sold 53,000 units in first year; 1985 - released Compaq Deskpro 286, 16-bit desktop computer using an Intel 80286 microprocessor running at 6 MHz, cpable of supporting up to 7 MB of RAM; cost $2000 for 40-MB hard disk model; 1986 - introduced first PC based on Intel's new 80386 microprocessor, Compaq Deskpro 386[2]; increased performance leadership over IBM; 1997 - acquired Tandem Computers, known for NonStop server line; instantly gave presence in higher end business computing market; 1998 - acquired Digital Equipment Corporation, leading company in previous generation of computing during the 1970s and early 1980s; made Compaq world's second largest computer maker in terms of revenue; May 3, 2002 - acquired by Hewlett-Packard in $19 billion deal.

Rod Canion, Jim Harris, Bill Murto - Co-Founders Compaq Computer ( systems/compaq/compaq-team.jpg)

June 1982 - Columbia Data Products (founded in 1976 in Columbia, MD) introduced the MPC 1600 "Multi Personal Computer", exact functional copy of the IBM PC model 5150 (except for BIOS); first IBM PC clone; 1983 - revenue of $56 million (vs. $9.4 million in 1982); February 1984 - IBM introduced its first portable PC; August 1984 - CDP sales faltered; 1985 - stock dropped to $0.50 per share, delisted; 1986 - taken private; 1987 - shifted emphasis from hardware to software.

July 1982 - Rich Skrenta (15), high school student at Mt. Lebanon High School, Mt. Lebanon, PA, wrote Elk Cloner "boot" virus that infected Apple II machines through floppy disks; considered first virus to hit computers worldwide; relatively harmless prank.

August 18, 1982 - Wang Laboratories filed for Chapter 11 (failure to keep pace with growth in the Personal Computer [PC] market); founded in the 1951, grew profitable as a major supplier of microcomputers. By the 1970s, the company had become a "multi-national colossus." Company was reborn in 1993 (and is known today as Wang Global) and has become a leading systems integrator and provider of information technology services worldwide.

January 19, 1983 - Apple introduced Lisa (Local Integrated Software Architecture); operating system featured multitasking and virtual memory.

March 8, 1983 - IBM released PC DOS version 2.0.

November 10, 1983 - Fred Cohen presented to security seminar results of first documented working virus (defined as "a program that can 'infect' other programs by modifying them to include a ... version of itself"), created as experiment in computer security when studying for PhD at the University of Southern California.

1984 - Liu Chuanzhi, 10 engineers from Chinese Academy of Sciences, received government permission to start business enterprise, worked from small bungalow in Beijing, founded Lenovo; used brand name, Legend; promoted PC usage throughout China, developed the revolutionary Legend Chinese character card that translated English software into Chinese characters; 2003 - name changed to Lenovo; May 2005 - acquired IBM’s PC division for $1,25 billion; became world's third largest PC maker (behind Dell, HP); over $13 billion in annual reserves, more than 19,000 people worldwide.

January 24, 1984 - Apple Computer unveiled Macintosh personal computer; January 30, 1984 - Steve Jobs first publicly demonstrated Macintosh computer.

1985 - Ted Waitt (22) founded Gateway 2000 in Iowa farmhouse; started with $10,000 loan guaranteed by his grandmother, rented computer, three-page business plan; sold computers direct to consumers; 1991 - introduced distinctive cow-spotted boxes (tribute to its farm heritage; 1993 - cracked Fortune 500, went public, traded on NASDAQ; 1997 - moved to New York Stock Exchange; January 2006 - approximately 1,800 employees.

March 19, 1985 - IBM ceased production of its floundering home computer, the PCjr (only sold 240,000 units); November of 1983 - first introduced to fuel IBM's efforts to rule the consumer computer market; touted the computer as a "compact, low-cost" machine for "personal productivity applications, learning and entertainment."

April 8, 1985 - Amdahl released UTS/V, first mainframe Unix.

April 17, 1986 - IBM produced first megabit-chip.

November 11, 1986 - Sperry Rand, Burroughs merged, formed Unisys; nation's second largest computer company.

April 2, 1987 - IBM introduced PS/2 and OS/2 operating systems.

July 24, 1987 - IBM-PC DOS Version 3.3 (updated) released.

August 16, 1988 - IBM introduced software for artificial intelligence.

November 2, 1988 - Cornell University graduate student, Robert T. Morris, unleashed computer "worm" intended as experimental, self-replicating, self-propagating program; "Morris worm", first internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention,  replicates wildly, clogs thousands of computers around the country (universities, military sites, medical research facilities); message how to kill the worm and prevent reinfection could not be delivered; Morris tried, fined, given probation.

May 13, 1991 - Apple released Macintosh System 7.0.

May 17, 1993 - Intel's new Pentium processor unveiled.

August 6, 1997 - Apple Computer, Microsoft agreed to share technology; Microsoft acquired minority stake in Apple for $150 million.

September 16, 1997 - Apple Computer rehired founder ,  former CEO Steve Jobs to temporarily run company during  search for permanent leader.

September 22, 1997 - IBM announced it had revolutionized computer chips by using copper instead of aluminum in  production of semiconductors.

January 26, 1998 - Compaq Corporation acquired Digital Equipment Corporation for $9.6 billion; largest acquisition in history of the computer industry.

October 23, 1999 - Apple Computer's Mac OS 9 released.

October 23, 2001 - Apple introduced iPod portable music player; 2006 - domestic market share in flash-memory players = 68% (source: NPD Group); iPod sales reached 100 million (Sony Walkman - 14 years); June 19, 2008 - more than 5 billion songs purchased, downloaded from iTunes Store.

December 7, 2004 - IBM agreed to sell PC division to China-based Lenovo Group, took 18.9% stake in Lenovo, in deal valued at $1.75 billion: increased Lenovo's current PC business fourfold: annual sales volume of 11.9 million units, revenue of $12 billion (third largest PC company, behind Dell and HP).

October 12, 2005 - Apple Computer released Video iPod.

2006 - Hewlett Packard passed IBM, became revenue leader in computer industry; largest information company in world.

October 22, 2007 - Apple Computer reported better-than-expected fourth quarter earnings (profit rose 67 percent year over year to $1.01 per share on revenue of $6.22 billion), stock rose to all time high just above $189 per share, market value reached $161 billion = most valuable computer maker, 4th most valuable technology company: Microsoft ($329 billion), Google ($211 billion), Cisco Systems ($195 billion).

May 26, 2010 - Apple Computer passed Microsoft as most valuable technology company (in terms of market capitalization) - $222.12 billion vs. $219.18 billion for Microsoft (Exxon Mobil - only American company valued higher, market capitalization of $278.64 billion).

Apple's performance since Steve Jobs became 'interim CEO' (

Microsoft's performance since Steve Ballmer became CEO (


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Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak - co-founders Apple Computer   (

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(Apple), Jeffrey S. Young (1988). Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 440 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Microcomputers--Biography; Apple computer--History.

(Apple), Frank Rose (1989). West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer. (New York, NY: Viking, 356 p.). Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

(Apple), Guy Kawasaki (1990). The Macintosh Way. (New York, NY: HarperPerennial, 209 p. [orig. pub. 1989]). Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh Division--History; Macintosh (Computer)--Programming--Marketing--History; Computer software--Marketing--History; Microcomputers--Programming--Marketing--History.

(Apple), Doug Menuez, photography; Markos Kounalakis, text; Paul Saffo, introduction (1993). Defying Gravity: The Making of Newton. (Hillsboro, OR: Beyond Words Pub., 176 p.). Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer software industry--United States--Case studies.

(Apple), Jim Carlton (1997). Apple: The inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania and Business Blunders That Toppled an American Icon. (New York, NY: Times Business/Random House, 465 p.). Apple Computer, Computer Industry

(Apple), Gil Amelio and William L. Simon (1998). On the Firing Line: My 500 Days at Apple. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 298 p.). Amelio, Gil; Apple Computer, Inc.--Management; Executives--United States--Biography; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies.

(Apple), Owen W. Linzmayer (1999). Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc. (San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, 268 p.). Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

(Apple), Michael S. Malone (1999). Infinite Loop: How the World's Most Insanely Great Computer Company Went Insane (New York, NY: Doubleday, 597 p.). Editor (Forbes ASAP). Apple Computer, Inc.; Corporate culture -- Case studies; Computer industry -- Case studies.

(Apple), Alan Deutschman (2000). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 321 p.). Contributing Editor (Vanity Fair). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer industry--United States; Corporate culture--United States. 

(Apple), Steven Levy (2000). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. (New York, NY: Penguin Books, 328 p. [orig. pub. 1984]). Macintosh (Computer).

(Apple), Andy Hertzfeld and Steve Capps (2004). Revolution in the Valley: The Insanely Great Story of How the Mac Was Made. (Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, 291 p.). Co-creator of the Mac; Wrote Finder and Macintosh system utilities. Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh Division --History; Computer industry --United States --History; Macintosh (Computer). Hallways, backrooms of Apple, birthplace of groundbreaking Macintosh computer; development of Macintosh, from inception as underground skunkworks project in 1979 to triumphant introduction in 1984, beyond; what it was like to be at birth of personal computer revolution; portrait of talented, often eccentric characters who made up Macintosh team.

(Apple), Jeffrey L. Cruikshank (2005). The Apple Way. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 224 p.). Cofounder of Kohn-Cruikshank, Inc. Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer industry--United States; Corporate culture--United States. Secrets, management principles that keep Apple ahead.

(Apple), Dylan Jones (2005). iPod, Therefore I Am: Thinking Inside the White Box. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 288 p.). Editor-in-Chief of British GQ. iPod (Digital music player).

(Apple), Jeffrey S. Young, William L. Simon (2005).  iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 320 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer engineers--United States--Biography.

(Apple), Steve Wozniak with Gina Smith (2006). iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Co-Founder, Apple Computer. Wozniak, Steve, 1950- ; Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer engineers--United States--Biography; Inventors--United States--Biography; Computer industry--United States--History. 1975 - combined computer circuitry with regular typewriter keyboard and a video screen.

(Apple), Steven Levy (2006). The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 284 p.). Chief Technology Correspondent (Newsweek). Apple Computer, Inc.; iPod (Digital music player). Creation of iPod -one of most successful consumer products in decades; changed behavior, society and Apple.

(Apple), Leander Kahney (2008). Inside Steve’s Brain. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 304 p.). Editor, Wired News. Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc. --Management; Computer industry --United States. Part biography, part leadership guide; principles that guide Jobs to launch killer products, attract fanatically loyal customers, manage some of world’s most powerful brands; revolutionized computers in 1970s and ’80s (Apple II, Mac), animated movies in 1990s (Pixar), digital music in 2000s (iPod, iTunes); bundle of contradictions.

(Apple), Jason Dennis O'Grady (2008). Apple Inc. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 200 p.). Editor of Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer industry --United States. How did Apple go from making computers that made difference but not much of dent in overall market to creating device (iPod) and music service (iTunes) that has changed way we buy, experience music? How did MacIntosh, its successors capture hearts, minds of computer users so deeply that being a "Mac person" makes you member of special club?

(Apple), Brian X. Chen (2011). Always On: How the iPhone Unlocked the Anything-Anytime-Anywhere Future--and Locked Us In. (New York, NY: Da Capo, 288 p.). Former Associate Editor for Macworld magazine. Apple, Inc. -- history; iPhone -- history. Apple's App Store was reason company initially zoomed past competitors; how iPhone's capability to handle still-growing number of functions created world in which people can be in "anything-anytime-anywhere" reality; implications of Apple's focus on vertical integration (company controls software, hardware) on current issues related to user privacy (education, law enforcement).

(Apple), Jay Elliot and William L. Simon (2011).The Steve Jobs Way: iLeadership for a New Generation. (New York, NY: Vanguard Press, 256 p.). Former Executive Vice President of Operations at Apple Computer, Founder and Chairman of Migo Software, Inc.; Journalist. Jobs, Steve; Apple, Inc. -- history; Apple, Inc. -- new products. How Jobs achieved greater success in product development than anyone in history - changed many things about communicating/exchanging information: 1) passion, 2) insistence on being involved in smallest product decisions (where small labels are placed).

(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Alice R. Burks and Arthur W. Burks (1988). The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 387 p.). Atanasoff, John V. (John Vincent); Electronic digital computers--History. Design, construction of ABC (more technical perspective).

John V. Atanasoff - Atanasoff-Berry Computer (

(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Clark R. Mollenhoff (1988). Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 274 p.). Atanasoff, John V. (John Vincent); Electronic data processing--Biography. Details the design and construction of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer with emphasis on the relationships of the individuals.

(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Alice Rowe Burks; foreword by Douglas Hofstadter (2003). Who Invented the Computer?: The Legal Battle that Changed Computing History. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 463 p.). Computers--United States--History; Computers--United States--Patents; Patent suits--United States.

(Brandt Inc.), Charles J. Wallman (1984). Edward J. Brandt, Inventor: His Inventions and His Company, 1890-1983. (Watertown, WI: Brandt, 200 p.). Brandt, Edward J. (Edward Julius), 1859- ; Brandt, Inc.--History; Cash register industry--United States--History; Inventors--United States--Biography.

(Commodore), Michael S. Tomczyk (1984). The Home Computer Wars: An Insider's Account of Commodore and Jack Tramiel. (Greensboro, NC: Compute! Publications, 301 p.). Tramiel, Jack; Commodore computers.

Casella di testo:





Jack Tramiel - Commodore (

(Control Data), James C. Worthy (1987). William C. Norris: Portrait of a Maverick. (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 259 p.). Norris, William C., 1911-; Control Data Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

Larger view William Norris - co-founder Control Data (

(Control Data), Robert Price (2005). The Eye for Innovation: Recognizing Possibilities and Managing the Creative Enterprise. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 352 p.). Former CEO (Control Data). Control Data Corporation--History; Technological innovations--Management; Information technology; Creative ability in business. Technology plus innovation improves society. 

(Cray Research), Charles J. Murray (1997). The Supermen: The Story of Seymour Cray and the Technical Wizards Behind the Supercomputer. (New York, NY: Wiley, 232 p.). Cray, Seymour; Computer engineers--United States--Biography; Cray computers--Design and construction--History.

(Data General), Tracy Kidder (1981). The Soul of a New Machine. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 293 p.). Data General Corporation; Computer engineering--Popular works.

(Dell), Michael Dell with Catherine Fredman (1999). Direct from Dell: Strategies that Revolutionized an Industry (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 236 p.). Dell Computers, Computer Industry.

Michael S. Dell Michael Dell (

(Dell), Steven Holzner (2005). How Dell Does It: Using Speed and Innovation To Achieve Extraordinary Results. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 234 p.). Contributing Editor at PC Magazine. Dell Computers, Computer Industry. How processes, practices, culture function within Dell’s business model. 

(Digital Equipment), David A. Buchanan and James McCalman (1989). High Performance Work Systems: The Digital Experience . (New York, NY: Routledge, 227 p.). Digital Equipment Corporation --Management; Computer industry --Great Britain --Management --Case studies.

Ken Olsen (

(Digital Equipment), Glenn Rifkin and George Harrar (1990). The Ultimate Entrepreneur: The Story of Ken Olsen and Digital Equipment Corporation (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 336 p.).

(Digital Equipment), Edited by Jamie Parker Pearson (1992). Digital at Work: Snapshots from the First Thirty-Five Years. (Burlington, MA: Digital Press, 212 p.). Digital Equipment Corporation -- History; Computer industry -- United States -- History.

(Digital Equipment), Edgar H. Schein ... [et al.] (2003). DEC Is Dead, Long Live DEC: The Lasting Legacy of Digital Equipment Corporation. (San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler, 319 p.). Professor of Organizational Psychology and Management (MIT). Digital Equipment Corporation--History; Digital Equipment Corporation--Biography; Computer industry--United States--History; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies. 

(Digital Equipment), Alan R. Earls (2004). Digital Equipment Corporation. (Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia, 128 p.). Digital Equipment Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History. Pioneer in computer technology; market valuation of more than $12 billion, employed approximately 120,000 people worldwide (second only to IBM). 

(ENIAC), Nancy Stern (1981). From ENIAC to UNIVAC: An Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly computers. (Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 286 p.). Electronic digital computers--History; Computer industry--United States--History; ENIAC (Computer).

(ENIAC), Scott McCartney (1999). ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's First Computer. (New York, NY: Walker, 262 p.). Journalist (Wall Street Journal). Electronic digital computers -- History; Computer industry -- United States -- History.

(Hewlett-Packard), David Packard ; edited by David Kirby with Karen Lewis (1995). The HP Way: How Bill Hewlett and I Built Our Company. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 212 p.). Co-Founder of Hewlett-Packard. Packard, David, 1912- ; Hewlett, William R.; Hewlett-Packard Company--History; Microelectronics industry--United States--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Electronics engineers--United States--Biography; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

Bill Hewlett (

David Packard ( bios/images/packard.jpg)

(Hewlett-Packard), Barbara Waugh with Margot Silk Forrest (2001). The Soul in the Computer: The Story of a Corporate Revolutionary. (Maui, HI: Inner Ocean, 249 p.). Waugh, Barbara; Hewlett-Packard Company; Social responsibility of business; Corporate culture; Social action; Political activists.

(Hewlett-Packard), George Anders (2003). Perfect Enough: Carly Fiorina and the Reinvention of Hewlett-Packard. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 288 p.). Former Reporter (Wall Street Journal). Fiorina, Carly; Packard, David, 1912- ;Hewlett, William R.; Hewlett-Packard Company--Management; Hewlett-Packard Company--History; Electronic industries--United States--Management--Case studies; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies; Organizational change--United States--Case studies; Women executives--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Hewlett-Packard), Peter Burrows (2003). Backfire: Carly Fiorina's High-Stakes Battle for the Soul of Hewlett-Packard. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 296 p.). Fiorina, Carly; Hewlett, William R.; Hewlett-Packard Company; Compaq Computer Corporation; Electronic industries--United States; Computer industry--United States; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--Case studies; Corporations--Investor relations--United States--Case studies.

(Hewlett-Packard), Carly Fiorina (2006). Tough Choices: A Memoir. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 336 p.). Former President and CEO of Hewlett-Packard from 1999 to 2005. Fiorina, Carly; Women executives--United States--Biography. Led HP for six years through drastic changes, controversial merger;  sudden, very public firing by board.

(IBM), Charles Ranlett Flint (1923). Memories of an Active Life; Men, and Ships, and Sealing Wax. (New York, NY: Putnam, 349 p.). Flint, Charles Ranlett; Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--Case studies.

Charles Ranlett Flint (created Computing-  Tabulating- Recording Co. by merger; name changed to IBM) (

Thomas J. Watson, Sr.   ( images/t_j_watson_sr.jpg) June 20, 1956 Obituary: http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0217.html

Thomas J. Watson, Jr. (IBM CEO in 1956 - "IBM means service")  (

Louis V. Gerstner Jr. Lou Gerstner (

(IBM), Thomas J. Watson (1954). "As a Man Thinks ...": Thomas J. Watson, the Man and His Philosophy of Life as Expressed in His Editorials. (New York, NY: IBM Corporation, 183 p.). Founder of IBM. Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; philosophy -- business.

(IBM), Thomas Graham Belden and Marva Robins Belden (1962). The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 332 p.). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; International Business Machines Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(IBM), Thomas J. Watson (1963). A Business and Its Beliefs; The Ideas That Helped Build IBM (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 107 p.). International Business Machines Corporation.

(IBM), William Rodgers (1969). Think; A Biography of the Watsons and IBM. (New York, NY: Stein and Day, 320 p.). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; International Business Machines Corporation.

(IBM), Nancy Foy (1975). The Sun Never Sets on IBM. (New York, NY: Morrow, 218 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry.

(IBM), Rex Malik (1975). And Tomorrow ... the World?: Inside IBM. (London, UK: Millington,, 496 p.). International Business Machines Corporation.

(IBM), Clair F. Vough with Bernard Asbell (1975). Tapping the Human Resource: A Strategy for Productivity. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 212 p.). International Business Machines Corporation. Office Products Division; Wages and labor productivity -- Case studies.

(IBM), Saul Engelbourg (1976). International Business Machine : A Business History (New York, NY: Arno Press, 385 p. [Originally presented as author's thesis, Columbia, 1954]). International Business Machines Corporation.

(IBM), Katharine Davis Fishman (1981). The Computer Establishment. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 468 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

(IBM), Robert Sobel (1981). IBM: Colossus in Transition (New York, NY: Times Books, 360 p.). International Business Machines-History

(IBM), Franklin M. Fisher, John J. McGowan, and Joen E. Greenwood (1983). Folded, Spindled, and Mutilated: Economic Analysis and U.S. v. IBM. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 443 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Antitrust law--United States; Computer industry--Law and legislation--United States; Antitrust law--Economic aspects--United States; computer industry--Law and legislation--Economic aspects--United States; United States; United States--Trials, litigation, etc.

(IBM), Franklin M. Fisher, James W. McKie, Richard B. Mancke (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. (New York, NY: Praeger, 532 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

(IBM), Richard T. DeLemarter (1986). Big Blue: IBM's Use and Abuse of Power. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 393 p.). IBM, Computer Industry, Monopolies.

(IBM), F.G. "Buck" Rodgers, with Robert L. Shook (1986). The IBM Way: Insights into the World's Most Successful Marketing Organization. (New York,. NY: Harper & Row, 235 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computers--Marketing--Case studies; Electronic office machines--Marketing--Case studies; Marketing--Case studies.

(IBM), Robert Sobel (1986). IBM vs. Japan: The Struggle for the Future (New York, NY: Stein & Day, 262 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry; Computer industry--United States; Computer industry--Japan.

(IBM), Watts S. Humphrey (1987). Managing for Innovation: Leading Technical People. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 206 p.). International Business Machines Corporation -- Management; High technology industries -- Management; Organizational change; Professional employees.

(IBM), James Chposky and Ted Leonsis (1988). Blue Magic: The People, Power, and Politics Behind the IBM Personal Computer. (New York, NY: Facts on File, 228 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; IBM microcomputers--History; IBM Personal Computer--History.

(IBM), Michael Killen (1988). IBM, The Making of the Common View. (Boston, MA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 284 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry.

(IBM), David Mercer (1988). The Global IBM: Leadership in Multinational Management . (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 374 p.). International Business Machines Corporation -- Management; International business enterprises -- Management -- Case studies.

(IBM, D. Quinn Mills (1988). The IBM Lesson: The Profitable Art of Full Employment. (New York, NY: Times Books, 216 p.). International Business Machines Corporation -- Management; International Business Machines Corporation -- Employees; Computer industry -- United States -- Employees.

(IBM), William W. Simmons with Richard B. Elsberry (1988). Inside IBM: The Watson Years: A Personal Memoir. (Bryn Mawr, PA: Dorrance, 202 p.). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; Watson, Arthur Kittredge, 1919-1974; International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(IBM), Jacques Maisonrouge; translation by Nina Rootes. (1989). Inside IBM: A Personal Story. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 316 p.). Maisonrouge, Jacques, 1924- ; International Business Machines Corporation--Management; International business enterprises--Management; Executives--France--Biography.

(IBM), Regis McKenna (1989). Who's Afraid of Big Blue?: How Companies Are Challenging IBM-- and Winning. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 218 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry--United States; Competition--United States.

(IBM), Thomas J. Watson, Jr. and Peter Petre (1990). Father, Son & Co.: My Life at IBM and Beyond. (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 468 p.). Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; International Business Machines Corporation--History; Executives--United States--Biography.

(IBM), Roy A. Bauer, Emilio Collar, Victor Tang with Jerry Wind, Patrick Houston (1992). The Silverlake Project: Transformation at IBM. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 219 p.). Three of the Major Gigures behind the AS/400; Former Business Week Writer. International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies. Most radical cultural change in IBM's history, switched from product-driven to market-driven approach to doing business.

(IBM), Paul Carroll (1993). Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 375 p.). Journalist (Wall Street Journal). IBM, Computer Industry.

(IBM), Charles H. Ferguson and Charles R. Morris (1994). Computer Wars: The Fall of IBM and the Future of Global Technology (New York, NY: Times Books, 272 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry; Computer industry--United States; Competition, International.

(IBM), Emerson W. Pugh (1995). Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 405 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History..

(IBM), Daniel Quinn Mills, G. Bruce Friesen (1996). Broken Promises: An Unconventional View of What Went Wrong at IBM (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 210 p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry--United States; Competition--United States.

(IBM), Doug Garr (1999). IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner and The Business Turnaround of the Decade. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 375 p.). Gerstner, Louis V.; International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry--United States.

(IBM), Robert Slater (1999). Saving Big Blue: Leadership Lessons and Turnaround Tactics of IBM's Lou Gerstner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 309 p.). Gerstner, Louis V.; International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry--United States.

(IBM), Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. (2002). Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?: Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 372 p. p). Chairman, CEO of IBM (April 1993 - March 2002). International Business Machines Corporation--Management; International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Electronic office machines industry--United States--History; Corporate turnarounds--United States--Case studies. IBM's competitive, cultural transformation; only company at pinnacle of an industry, fallen to near collapse, returned to set agenda.

(IBM), Kevin Maney (2003). The Maverick and His Machine: Thomas Watson, Sr., and the Making of IBM. (New York, NY: Wiley, 485 p.). USA Today Technology Columnist. Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; Watson, Arthur Kittredge, 1919-1974; International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(IBM), Richard S. Tedlow (2003). The Watson Dynasty: The Fiery Reign and Troubled Legacy of IBM's Founding Father and Son. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 340 p.). Professor (Harvard Business School). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ;International Business Machines Corporation History; Family-owned business enterprises United States Case studies; Fathers and sons United States Case studies; Executives United States Biography. 

(IBM), Ed Aswad, Suzanne M. Meredith (2005). IBM in Endicott. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; International Business Machines Corporation--Pictorial works; Computer industry--United States--History; Electronic office machine industry--United States--History; Company towns--New York (State)--Endicott--History. Bundy Manufacturing Company relocated to Endicott, NY, part of greatest industrial revolution in world: development of corporation, people, ideas that made IBM a household word.

(IBM), Kevin Maney, Steve Hamm, Jeffrey M. O’Brien (2011). Making the World Work Better: The Ideas that Shaped a Century and a Company. (Upper Saddle River, NJ IBM Press, 350 p.). Former Reporter, Editor and Columnist (USA Today); Writer and Videographer in IBM's Corporate Communications Department; Former Senior Editor (Fortune, Wired). International Business Machines Corporation --History; International Business Machines Corporation --Management; Computer industry --United States --History. How IBM has distinctly contributed to evolution of technology, modern corporation over past 100 years; Nobel Prize-winning work of company’s research laboratories (punch-card tabulator, mainframe, personal computer, memory chip, disk drive, scanning tunneling microscope (essential to nanotechnology), new fields of mathematics), missteps and successes (bet-the-business gamble on legendary System/360 in 1960s to turnaround from company’s near-death experience in early 1990s); first large American company to pay all employees salaries (vs. hourly wages), early champion of hiring women and minorities, pioneer of new approaches to doing business (model of globally integrated enterprise); lasting impact on society (enabled U.S. Social Security System, space program, airline reservations, modern banking, retail); lessons: anticipate change, be willing, able to continually transform.

(ICL), Martin Campbell-Kelly (1989). ICL: A Business and Technical History. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 409 p.). ICL Limited--History; Computer industry--Great Britain--History.

(Lenovo), Zhijun Ling, Martha Avery (Translator (2006). The Lenovo Affair: The Growth of China's Computer Giant and Its Takeover of IBM-PC. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 250 p.). Reporter for the People’s Daily (Shanghai). Lenovo, Computer industry -- China. Rise of company in changing business environment in China; history of Lenovo (Lianxiang in China), founder Liu Chuanzhi; contended with two powerful forces: market and government. 

 Liu Chuanzhi - Lenovo (

(Lenovo), Steve Hamm (2008). The Race for Perfect: Inside the Quest To Design the Ultimate Portable Computer. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 293 p.). Communications Strategist and Writer for IBM, Former Journalist (BusinessWeek). Microcomputers; Portable computers -- Design and construction. Lenovo’s ThinkPad X300 laptop, “halo” product to draw customers to Lenovo’s entire line (Lenovo acquired IBM’s PC division in 2005 to get ThinkPad laptops); how ambitious company marshaled its resources to pursue laptop perfection; collided head-on with Apple’s super-slim MacBook Air—-with surprising results; entrepreneurs, designers have pushed relentlessly in quest to create perfect device from earliest days of portable computing (40 years ago); produced few fabulous successes, many failures; driven by basic rule of tech industry: innovate or die; lessons: 1) innovate constantly to differentiate products; 2) create timeless design principles; 3) integrate design, engineering so products are useful, fun to use; 4) improve quality and convenience without compromise; 5) tap social networks to turn customers into fans.

(LEO), David Caminer, John Aris, Peter Hermon, Frank Land (1998). LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 392 p.). Devised Systems-Oriented Approach to Programming. Leo computer; Business --Data processing --History; Computers --Great Britain --History. November 17, 1951 - J. Lyons & Company, chain of British tea shops, introduced world's first computer for business purposes; first business machine in world to operate on 'stored program principle'.

(Linux), Linus Torvalds and David Diamond (2001). Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 262 p.). Torvalds, Linus, 1969- ; Linux; Computer programmers--Finland--Biography.

(MIPS), Michael S. Malone (1991). Going Public: MIPS Computer and the Entrepreneurial Dream. (New York, NY: E. Burlingame Books, 291 p.). Going public (Securities)--Case studies; Entrepreneurship--Case studies; Computer industry--Case studies.

(Mouse), Thierry Bardini (2000). Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 284 p.). Associate Professor in the Department of Communication (Universite de Montreal). Microcomputers --History; Human-computer interaction; User interfaces (Computer systems). 1960s at Stanford Research Institute - Douglas Engelbart, small team of researchers, developed cornerstones of personal computing: mouse, windowed user interface, hypertext, networking; revolutionary vision, systematic way to think, organize coevolution of humans, their tools; radical improvement in how to make people work effectively.

Douglas Engelbart - created the 'mouse' ( Douglas_Engelbart_in_2008.jpg/200px-Douglas_Engelbart_in_2008.jpg)

(NCR), Samuel Crowther (1923). John H. Patterson, Pioneer in Industrial Welfare. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 364 p.). Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register Company.

John H. Patterson - NCR (

(NCR), Roy Wilder Johnson (1932). The Sales Strategy of John H. Patterson, Founder of the National Cash Register Company. (Chicago, IL: The Dartnell Group, 344 p.). Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register Company; Salesmen and salesmanship.

(NCR), George Francis Taubeneck (1937). They Didnt' Know They Wanted It; How John H. Patterson Developed the Specialty Selling Formula. (Detroit, MI: Business News Publishing Co., 222 p.). Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register Company, Dayton, O.; Salesmen and salesmanship.

(NCR), Issac F. Marcosson (1945). Wherever Men Trade; The Romance of the Cash Register. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 263 p.). Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register Company; Cash registers.

(NCR), Stanley C. Allyn (1968). My Half Century with NCR. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 209 p.). National Cash Register Company.

(NeXT Computer), Randall E. Stross (1993). Steve Jobs and the NeXT Big Thing. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 374 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; NeXT Computer, Inc.; NeXT (Computer).

(Osborne Computer Corporation), Adam Osborne and John Dvorak (1984). Hypergrowth: The Rise and Fall of Osborne Computer Corporation. (Berkeley, CA: Idthekkethan Pub. Co., 204 p.). Osborne Computer Corporation; Computer industry--United States; Microcomputers.

Adam Osborne (

(SAP), Hasso Plattner in conversation with August-Wilhelm Scheer, Siegfried Wendt, and Daniel S. Morrow; translated from the German by William McKone (2000). Anticipating Change: Secrets Behind the SAP Empire. (Roseville, CA: Prima Tech, 275 p.). SAP AG; Computer software industry--Germany.

(Sperry Rand), Thomas Parke Hughes (1971). Elmer Sperry; Inventor and Engineer. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 348 p.). Sperry, Elmer Ambrose, 1860-1930.

Elmer Ambrose Sperry - Sperry Rand, Unisys ( June 17, 1930 Obituary: 1012.html

(Sperry Rand), David E. Lundstrom (1987). A Few Good Men from Univac. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 227 p.). Univac computer--History; Computer industry--History.

(Sperry Rand), Thomas A. Russo (2002). Mechanical Typewriters: Their History, Value, and Legacy. (Atglen, PA: Schiffer Pub. Ltd., 256 p.). E. Remington & Sons--History; Remington Rand, Inc.--History; Typewriters--History; Typewriters--Collectors and collecting.

(Victor Comptometer), Edwin Darby (1968). It All Adds Up; The Growth of Victor Comptometer Corporation. (Chicago, IL: Victor Comptometer Corporation, 243 p.). Victor Comptometer Corporation.

(Wang), An Wang with Eugene Linden (1986). Lessons: An Autobiography. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 248 p.). Wang, An, 1920- ; Wang Laboratories, Inc.--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

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Dr. An Wang (

(Wang), Charles C. Kenney (1992). Riding the Runaway Horse: The Rise and Decline of Wang Laboratories. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 323 p.). Wang, An, 1920- ; Wang Laboratories, Inc.--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Electronic industries--United States--History.

(Wyly Corporation), Ben Voth (1974). A Piece of the Computer Pie. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 182 p.). Wyly Corporation; Computer industry--United States.

(Xerox), Ed. Giuliana Lavendel (1980). A Decade of Research: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 1970-1980. (New York, NY: R.R. Bowker & Co. Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto Research Center--History.

(Xerox), Ed. Giuliana Lavendel (1990). PARC, The Second Decade, 1980-1990. (Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 810 p.). Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto Research Center--History.

(Xerox), Michael Hiltzik (1999). Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 448 p.). Correspondent (Los Angeles Times). Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto Research Center--History; Computer science--Research--California--Palo Alto--History.

Jon Agar (2003). The Government Machine: A Revolutionary History of the Computer. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 554 p). Computers--Government policy--Great Britain--History; Public administration--Great Britain--Data processing--History; Civil service--Effect of technological innovations on--Great Britain--History. Mechanization of government work in United Kingdom from 19th-early 21st century; tied to rise of "expert movements" (deployment of machines was attempt to gain control over state action).

Geoffrey D. Austrian (1982). Herman Hollerith, Forgotten Giant of Information Processing. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 418 p.). Hollerith, Herman, 1860-1929; Electronic data processing--Biography.

Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray (1996). Computer: A History of the Information Machine. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 342 p.). Teacher of Computer Science (Warwick University), Exec. Dir., Computing Research Association. Computers--History; Electronic data processing--History.

Martin Campbell-Kelly (2003). A History of the Software Industry: From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.). Teacher of Computer Science (Warwick University). Computer software industry--History.

I. Bernard Cohen (1999). Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 329 p.). Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), Computers, Computer Engineers. 

Compiled by James W. Cortada (1990). A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing, Computers, and the Information Processing Industry. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 644 p.). Computers--History--Bibliography; Electronic data processing--History--Bibliography.

--- (1996). Second Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing, Computers, and the Information Processing Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 416 p.). Computers--History; Electronic data processing--History.

James W. Cortada (1993). Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865-1956. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 344 p.). Office equipment and supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic office machine industry--United States--History.

--- (1993). The Computer in the United States: From Laboratory to Market, 1930 to 1960. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 183 p.). Computer engineering--United States--History; Computers--United States--History; Computer industry--United States--History.

--- (2004). The Digital Hand: How Computers Changed the Work of American Manufacturing, Transportation, and Retail Industries. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 494 p.). Automation--Economic aspects--United States; Manufacturing industries--United States--Automation; Transportation--United States--Automation; Retail trade--United States--Automation.  

Charles H. Ferguson (1999). High St@kes, No Prisoners: A Winner's Tale of Greed and Glory in the Internet Wars. (New York, NY: Times Business, 392 p.). Computer industry--California--Santa Clara County; High technology industries--California--Santa Clara County; Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies; Wealth--California--Santa Clara County.

Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine (2000). Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 463 p. [2nd. ed]). Microcomputers--United States-History.

Dennis Hayes (1989). Behind the Silicon Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era. (Boston, MA: South End Press, 215 p.). Computer industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County).

John Hendry (1989). Innovating for Failure: Government Policy and the Early British Computer Industry. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 240 p.). Computer industry--Government policy--Great Britain--History.

Andrew Hodges (1983). Alan Turing: The Enigma. (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 587 p.). Turing, Alan Mathison, 1912-1954; Mathematicians--Great Britain--Biography.

Alan Turing ( graphics/turing.jpg)

Rama D. Jager, Rafael Ortiz (1997). In the Company of Giants: Candid Conversations with the Visionaries of the Digital World (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 232 p.). Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies; Computer software industry--United States--Management--Case studies; Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies; Success in business--United States--Case studies; Chief executive officers--United States--Interviews.

David Leavitt (2005). The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Teaches Creative Writing (University of Florida, Gainesville). Turing, Alan Mathison, 1912-1954; Mathematicians--Great Britain--Biography; Gay men--Legal status, laws, etc.--Great Britain; Artificial intelligence--History. Originator of ideas that led to invention of computer.

Steve Lohr (2009), Digital Revolutionaries: The Men and Women Who Brought Computing to Life. (New York, NY: Roaring Brook Press, 176 p.). Senior Writer and Technology Reporter (New York Times). Computers -- History; Computer scientists. History of computers, celebration of human ingenuity that led world from ENIAC to iMAC.

Steven Levy (2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. (New York, NY: Penguin, 455 p. [orig. pub. 1994]). Computer programming; Computer hackers.

John Markoff (2005). What the Dormouse Said--: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. (New York, NY: Viking, 310 p.). Technology Reporter (New York Times). Microcomputers--History; Computers and civilization; Nineteen sixties. 

David A. Mindell (2002). Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing before Cybernetics. (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 439 p.). Frances and David Dibner Associate Professor of the History of Engineering and Manufacturing in the Program in Science, Technology, and Society (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Computers--History; Electronic data processing--History. 

Arthur L. Norberg (2005). Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 347 p.). ERA Land-Grant Chair in History of Technology, Professor in the Program in History of Science and Technology and in the Department of Computer Science (University of Minnesota).  Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (Philadelphia, Pa.) -- History; Engineering Research Associates -- History; Remington Rand, Inc. -- History; Electronic digital computers -- History; Computer industry -- History. Importance of  years 1946-1957 in history of computing.

Photographs by Mark Richards; text by John Alderman; foreword by John Toole (2007). Core Memory: A Visual survey of Vintage Computers Featuring Machines from the Computer History Museum. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 160 p.). Computers--History; Electronic data processing--History. Modern technology's evolution through world's most renowned computer collection, Computer History Museum in Silicon Valley. Vivid photos capture these historically important machines (Eniac, Crays 1 3, Apple I and II); authoritative text profiles each, tells stories of their innovations, peculiarities. Thirty-five machines are profiled in over 100 extraordinary color photographs.

Joel N. Shurkin (1996). Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from Mainframes to Microprocessors. (New York, NY: Norton, 363 [updated pbk. ed.]). Computers--History.

Jane Smiley (2010). The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 256 p.). Pulitzer Prize Winner. Atanasoff, John V. (John Vincent); Sperry Rand Corporation --History --20th century; Computer scientists --United States --Biography; Inventors --United States --Biography; Physicists --Iowa --Biography; College teachers --Iowa --Biography; Electronic digital computers --History --20th century; Patents --United States --History --20th century; Intellectual property --United States --History --20th century. Race to develop digital computing; 1941 - professor of physics (Iowa State University) combined binary number system and electronic switches, with array of capacitors on moving drum to serve as memory; produce first computing machine to make life of scientists easier; built machine; changed world;  never patented device; 1973 - federal court decision in Honeywell v. Sperry Rand voided 1964 US patent 3,120,606 for ENIAC; put  invention of electronic digital computer in public domain; provided legal recognition to Atanasoff as inventor of first electronic digital computer; opened intellectual property gates to computer revolution.

John V. Atanasoff - Electronic Digital Computer (

Robert Slater (1987). Portraits in Silicon (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 374 p.). Computer Industry.

Neal Stephenson (1999). In The Beginning. . . was the Command Line. (New York, NY: Avon Books, 151 p.). Operating systems (Computers). Mostly well-reasoned examination, partial rant, thoughtful, irreverent, hilarious treatise on cyber-culture past, present on operating system tyrannies.

Doron Swade (2001). The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build the First Computer. (New York, NY: Viking, 342 p.). Technology Historian and Assistant Director of London's Science Museum. Babbage, Charles, 1791-1871; Calculators--Great Britain--History--19th century. 1821 - Inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage reviewed set of mathematical tables, found excess of errors in results; began lifelong enterprise to design, built mechanical calculating engine, world's first computer; Babbage's 19th-century quest to build calculating machine, author built replica for bicentennial of Babbage's birth.

Eric G. Swedin, David L. Ferro (2007). Computers: The Life Story of a Technology. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 192 p.). Associate Professor in Information Systems and Technologies (Weber State University); Associate Professor in Computer Science (Weber State University). Computers and civilization; Computers--history. Short history of dynamic technology, central themes from ancient times to present day; revolutionized how information organized, how people communicate, way we think about human mind. 

Fred Turner (2006). From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 327 p.). Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication (Stanford University). Brand, Stewart; Whole earth catalog (New York, NY); Computers and civilization; Information technology--History--20th century; Counterculture--United States--History--20th century; Computer networks--Social aspects; Subculture--California--San Francisco--History--20th century; Technology--Social aspects--California, Northern. Early 1960s - computers embodied rigid organization, mechanical conformity; 1990s - computers represented collaborative, digital utopia modeled on communal ideals of hippies; untold story of  highly influential group of San Francisco Bay–area entrepreneurs who brokered long-running collaboration between San Francisco flower power, emerging technological hub of Silicon Valley. 

M. Mitchell Waldrop (2001). The Dream Machine: J. C. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (New York, NY: Viking, 502 p.). Licklider, J. C. R.; Microcomputers--History.

Jeffrey R. Yost (2005). The Computer Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 288 p.). Associate Director of Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Technology (University of Minnesota). Computer industry--United States--History.


Business History Links

American Computer Museum                                                                                          

America's Information Age Museum (The Museum of Minds & Technology); 1990 - George & Barbara Keremedjiev opened museum in Bozeman, Montana as a nonprofit 501(c) (3) organization; focus is the presentation of the fundamentals of modern computer based technology with extensive displays showcasing the history of the information age while also offering in-depth displays for those who are serious technophiles.

Apple Computer, Inc. History                                                                                        

Covers the period of the invention of the Apple I in 1976 through the present day. The History section details the history of Apple and the people who made it (available in English, German, Japanese, Spanish, and Swedish). The Gallery is a comprehensive catalog including photos and specifications of all Apple computers ever built. 

Bundy Museum                                                                                                     

Queen Anne/shingle-style mansion in Binghamton, NY, designed by architect Elfred H. Bartoo and built in 1892 for Harlow E. Bundy, who founded the company that evolved into present-day IBM. Willard L. Bundy, brother of Harlow, invented a clock, which could record the times that employees started and ended their shifts. Harlow decided to market his brother’s invention and incorporated the Bundy Manufacturing Company in 1889 as the first time recording company in the world. The clock became an important tool of American industry at the beginning of the twentieth century. As a result, Harlow E. Bundy became known as "the man who marketed time".

Comptometer: Biography of a Machine                                                     

Early development of the business calculator around the turn of the twentieth century in America. Also, for the ever-growing number of collectors, curators and just fans of this elegant machine, the "shoebox" Comptometer.

Computer History Museum                                                                             

Established in 1996 - a public benefit organization dedicated to the preservation and celebration of computing history. Mission: to preserve and present for posterity the artifacts and stories of the information age, the history of the computing revolution and its worldwide impact on the human experience. Home to one of the largest collections of computing artifacts in the world, a collection comprising over 4,000 artifacts, 10,000 images, 4,000 linear feet of cataloged documentation and gigabytes of software.

Computer Museum of America                                             Http://Www.Computer-Museum.Org/                                           

One of the world's largest collections of historic computing equipment.

ENIAC Virtual Museum                                                                 Http://Www.Seas.Upenn.Edu:8080/~Museum/                      

Invention and enduring impact of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large scale, general-purpose computer, activated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.

The Evolution of the Computer                                                     

Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University of San Diego.

Hewlett Packard History                                                    

The History of Computing Project                                                                               

Started in 1986, THOCP is a collaborative effort to record and publish the history of the computer and its roots.

IBM at 100                                                                               

iPod Design and Apple Stock Over the Years                   

iPod was unveiled in 2001, but it took time for sales to reach a level that impressed Wall Street; major iPod releases, along with starting prices.

Lyons Electronic Office (LEO)                                                                          

November 17 1951 - J. Lyons company began weekly operation of a bakery valuations job on a computer called LEO (Lyons Electronic Office); first business application to go live on a stored program computer anywhere in the world.

Mouse - 1968 Demo                                                                             
On December 9, 1968, Douglas C. Engelbart and the group of 17 researchers working with him in the Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, CA, presented a 90-minute live public demonstration of the online system, NLS, they had been working on since 1962. The public presentation was a session of the Fall Joint Computer Conference held at the Convention Center in San Francisco, and it was attended by about 1,000 computer professionals. This was the public debut of the computer mouse.

Museum of Obsolete Computers                                                         Http://Www.Obsoletecomputermuseum.Org/                      

Just a place to stop by and reminisce about the old days of personal computing. It's by no means a definitive guide to any of these wonders of the near past.

Old Calculator Web Museum                                                           Http://Www.Geocities.Com/Siliconvalley/Lab/7510/                  

Simply devoted to preserving, documenting, and sharing the technology of desktop automatic calculating machines -- from the electro-mechanical calculators of the 1950's and '60's, through the beginnings of the pocket wonders we have today, which had their roots in the early 1970's, and on into the beginnings of the desktop computer of the mid-1970's through the early 1980's.

Selling the Computer Revolution: Marketing Brochures in the Collection                                                                                           
Those who study the history of technology and science have long been interested in exploring the ways in which various products become wide-spread, and in recent years, there has been a rather focused interest in the promotion and marketing of devices such as the computer. The good people at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California have created this intriguing online collection and exhibition dedicated to computer marketing brochures from the years 1948 to 1988. This period marked an exponential growth in the power of such machines, particularly in terms of those marketed for personal use. All told, the site contains over 261 items, and visitors can use a very detailed search engine to look for specific documents of interest. From the collection’s homepage, visitors can also browse around by decade, company, or application type. There are some real gems that should not be missed, including the brochure for the Atari 800 from 1980 and the promotional materials for the Pace 231R Analog Computer, which looks suspiciously like a massive control terminal that one would find at the dramatic conclusion of a James Bond movie of the same era.

The Turing Archive for the History of Computing               

The Virtual Museum of Computing                                           Http://Vlmp.Museophile.Com/Computing.Html                       

This virtual museum includes an eclectic collection of World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available both locally and around the world.


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