February 5, 1850
- Du Bois Parmelee, of New Paltz, NY, received a patent for a
"Calculator" ("Calculating-Machine"); first adding machine with
keys; proved impractical and was not successful.
19, 1872 - Edmund D. Barbour, of Boston, MA, received a
patent for an "Improvement in Calculating-Machines"; first U.S.
patent for an adding machine capable of printing totals and
subtotals; not considered practical.
November 4, 1879
- James Ritty and John Ritty, of Dayton, OH, received a patent
for a "Cash Register and Indicator" ("for use by store-keepers
and others as a means of accurately ascertaining, and at a
glance, the total receipts taken in by the employees for any
given period of time"); nicknamed "Ritty's Incorruptible
Cashier", first working version of a mechanical cash register;
January 30, 1883 - James Ritty and John Birch, of
Dayton, OH, received a patent for a "Cash Register and
Indicator"; assigned to Jacob H. Eckert (Cincinnati, OH);
1883 - cash register business (including patents)
acquired for $1,000 by
china and glassware salesman, formed National Manufacturing
Company; 1884 - acquired by John H. Patterson,
renamed National Cash Register Company; August 27, 1907
- registered "National Cash register" trademark first used
December 1866 (cash-registers, credit registers [and autographic
registers]); 1974 - name changed to NCR
Corporation to symbolize more diverse product line; 1906
- manufactured first electric cash register; 1914 -
producing 110,000 cash registers per year; 1991 -
acquired by AT&T.
Ritty - patent for cash register
March 31, 1885
- Julius E. Pitrat, of Gallipolis, OH, received a Patent for a
"Weighing and Price Scale" ("scale in which the total price of
merchandise in quantity may be quickly and accurately determined
, the price per pound being given"); 1891 -
acquired by Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, businessmen in
Dayton, OH; incorporated Computing Scale Co. (later IBM).
20, 1886 - William Burroughs, Thomas Metcalfe (first
Metcalfe, R.M. Scruggs founded American Arithmometer
Company of St. Louis; August 21, 1888 -
received patent for a
"Calculating Machine"; first practical adding machine; assigned
to American Arithmometer Company;
1905 - name
changed to Burroughs Adding Machine Company;
1953 - renamed
Corporation; September 1986 -
merged with Sperry Corporation, formed
William Seward Burroughs
- Burroughs Corp.
July 19, 1887 -
Dorr Eugene Felt, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for an
"Adding Machine"; October 11, 1887 - received
second patent for an "Adding Machine"; commercial wooden-box
Comptometer; first practical key-driven calculator with
sufficient speed, reliability and economic benefit; 1904
- first steel case Model A, standard for remainder for all
"shoebox" models; 1920s - electric motor drive
November 20, 1888
- Willard L. Bundy, jeweler from Auburn, NY, received a patent
for a "Time Recorder" ("to compel employees of factories and
shops to record at their place of business the time of their
entering the said place, and thus save the extra expense of
watchmen or time-keepers usually employed for the aforesaid
purpose"); time-recording clock;
Harlow Bundy (brother) incorporated Bundy Manufacturing Company
to produce time recorders; 1896 - George W.
Fairchild joined Bundy as investor, director; 1900
- became president of International Time Recording Co., seller
of industrial time clocks as agency of Bundy Manufacturing;
1902 - incorporated in NY as International Time
Recording Co.; (consolidation of Bundy, Chicago Time-Register
Co. acquired in 1901); February 14,
1924 - company renamed IBM.
Harlow Bundy - Bundy
Mfg. became IBM
George W. Fairchild
- International Time Recording Co. became IBM
Herman Hollerith -
Tabulating Machine Company became IBM
January 8, 1889
- Dr. Herman Hollerith, of New York, NY, received two patents
for the "Art of Compiling Statistics"; tabulating machine;
system designed to record separate statistical items by means of
combinations of holes in a punched card to carry information
about an individual; first extensive application was for the
1890 census counting data items such as age, sex, occupation,
etc.; received a patent for an "Apparatus for Compiling
Statistics" ("applicable to the compilation of such statistics
as the population-statistics of a census, or the statistics of
the registration of births, deaths, and marriages, which are
compiles by counting or adding single units as persons").
September 24, 1889
- Alexander Dey, of Glasgow, Scotland, received a patent for a
"Workman's Time-Recorder"; employee time clock (dial time
recorder); used a dial that employees were required to point to
their assigned number, and press to record the time of arrival
and departure. The numbers of the employees and times were
recorded on a sheet of paper wrapped around a drum; first
manufactured by Dey Company; after 1907 -
manufactured as Industrial Time Recorders (ITR).
- Herman Hollerith incorporated Tabulating Machine Company,
world's first electric tabulating, accounting machine company,
especially for use in U.S. census.; later IBM.
March 14, 1899
- Allen De Vilbiss, Jr., of Toledo, OH, received a patent for a
"Scale" ("scale of this character [pendulum] whose hand or index
swings in irregular steps as weight is added to the pan or
platform over a straight-line table whose graduations or marks
are equidistant"); May 22, 1900 - received a
patent for a "Scale" ("price-scales, which employ and are
adapted to compute the total selling price"); assigned to De
Vilbiss Computing Scale Company; 1901 - Henry
Theobald (former NCR general manager) founded Toledo Computing
Scale and Cash Register Company, began production of DeVilbiss
Jr.'s computing scale; 1902 - name changed to
Toledo Computing Scale Company; 1912 - renamed
Toledo Scale Company; 1968 - acquired by Reliance
- Elmer Ambrose Sperry founded Sperry Gyroscope Company to
manufacture navigation equipment, especially gyrocompass;
1933 - Sperry Gyroscope Company became Sperry
Corporation, holding company for Sperry Gyroscope, Ford
Instrument Company, Intercontinental Aviation, Inc., others.
1911 - Charles
F. Flint, merchant banker/trust organizer, engineered merger of
Herman Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company, Computing Scale
Company of America, International Time Recording Company of New
York; June 16, 1911
- incorporated in New York State as
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company; manufactured, sold
machinery ranging from commercial scales, industrial time
recorders to meat and cheese slicers, tabulators, punched
cards); based in New York City, with 1,300 employees; George
Fairchild named first chairman of board of directors; May 1, 1914
- Thomas Watson named general manager (previously with NCR);
February 14, 1924 - company renamed
January 1, 1939
- Bill Hewlett and David Packard formalized partnership (with
encouragement of Stanford professor, mentor Fred Terman);
decided company's name with coin toss; revenue: $5369.
Employees: 2; operations in shed behind house in which Packard
rented an apartment; $538 working capital consisted of cash,
used Sears-Roebuck drill press; first product: 200A audio
oscillator, electronic test instrument used by sound engineers
(eight bought by Disney to develop, test an innovative
sound system for movie
April 9, 1957 -
Hewlett-Packard Company registered "Hewlett HP Packard"
trademark first used in February 1946 (amplifiers, coaxial probe
connectors, power supplies, and waveguide to coaxial adapters).
- John V. Atanasoff, assistant professor of mathematics and
physics (Iowa State College), graduate student Clifford Berry
completed prototype 25-bit adder, 2 25-bit words of memory in
the form of capacitors; Summer 1941 - completed
special-purpose calculator for solving systems of simultaneous
linear equations, later called the "ABC" ("Atanasoff-Berry
Computer"); 60 50-bit words of regenerative capacitor memory,
mounted on two revolving drums, clock speed of 60 Hz, addition
took 1 second, circuits converted between binary, decimal for
input and output, included several hundred vacuum tubes
altogether, used punch cards, moved around by user, for
secondary memory (card system was partial failure - error rate
of 0.001% too high to solve large systems of equations); first
to implement binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel
processing, separation of memory and computing functions;
1942 -1945 - WW II service as Chief, Acoustics Section,
U.S. Naval Ordnance Lab., Washington, DC; 1946 -
removed from Physics Building at Iowa State, dismantled.
April 14, 1943
- John Grist Brainerd, director of research at the University of
Pennsylvania's Moore School, submitted a proposal for an
electronic computer to colleagues at the U.S. Army's Ballistics
Research Laboratory; May 1943 - Army contracted
the Moore School to build ENIAC, the first electronic computer;
not finished until after the war had ended, marked a major step
forward in computing.
January 1, 1946
- John W. Mauchly, physics professor,
graduate student J. Presper Eckert, at
Moore School of Electrical Engineering (University of
Pennsylvania), finished ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Calculator), electronic digital computer; based on
ideas developed by John Atanasoff of Iowa State College;
regarded as first successful, general digital computer,
convinced world that electronic computing was practicable,
masterpiece of electrical engineering, unprecedented in
reliability, computing speed; occupied room 30 by 50 feet; built
out of 17,468 electronic vacuum tubes, largest single electronic
apparatus in world, weighed over 60,000 pounds; staff of six
technicians replaced about 2000 tubes each month; first tasks
primarily for military purposes (calculating ballistic firing
tables, designing atomic weapons); not a stored program machine,
had to be reprogrammed for each task; February 13, 1946
- Mauchly and Eckert demonstrated ENIAC, showed that high-speed
digital computing was possible using vacuum tube technology then
available; laid foundations for modern electronic computing
industry; February 14, 1946
- ENIAC unveiled, dedicated at University of Pennsylvania;
February 1950 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation,
patent rights to ENIAC, acquired by Remington Rand Corporation.
John W. Mauchly -
J. Presper Eckert -
March 28, 1946
- The Census Bureau, National Bureau of Standards agreed to buy
a UNIVAC computer, world's first general all-purpose business
computer, from Presper Eckert and John Mauchly for $225,000
(less than its cost of development); Remington Rand eventually
January 24, 1948
- IBM dedicated Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator
("SSEC") in New York City; handled data, instructions
using electronic circuits made with 13,500 vacuum tubes and
21,000 relays; occupied three sides of 30-ft x 60-ft room: 1)
three punches, thirty readers provided paper-tape storage on
back wall; 2) banks of vacuum tube circuits for card reading,
sequence control, 36 paper tape readers comprising
table-lookup section occupied left wall; 3) electronic
arithmetic unit, storage filled most of right wall; card
readers, card punches, printers, operator's console in center of room.
June 21, 1948-
Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM),
first stored-program computer, ran first program (52-minute program written by
Professor Tom Kilburnz); no keyboard or printer, successfully
tested memory system based on cathode-ray tube developed at
Manchester University in England (previous electronic computers
had to be rewired to execute each new problem); proved theories
set forth by John von Neumann in report that proposed 1)
modifications to ENIAC, electronic computer built at University
of Pennsylvania in mid-1940s, 2) use of binary
instead of digital numbers.
- Jay Forrester used
iron cores as main memory in Whirlwind computer at MIT, first
real-time electronic digital computer (replaced expensive,
unreliable electrostatic tubes with dependable random access
magnetic core memory); conceived the technique of stringing the
cores onto a matrix of wires and thus producing a random access
memory; February 28, 1956 - Jay W.
Forrester, of Wellesley, MA, received patent for a
"Multicoordinate Digital Information Storage Device" ("storage
and selection system for digital information...to store
electrical information in a multi-dimensional array of
coincidence devices, any one of which can be located by a
relatively simple system of coordinate wires...a simpler, more
compact and more reliable information storage system"); magnetic
Jay W. Forrester -
magnetic core memory
June 14, 1951
- Remington Rand delivered UNIVAC 1 ((Universal
Automatic Computer), its first computer, to U.S. Census Bureau; weighed
16,000 pounds, used 5,000 vacuum tubes, could perform about
1,000 calculations per second; world's first commercially
produced electronic digital computer; developed by J. Presper
Eckert, John Mauchly, makers of ENIAC, first general-purpose
electronic digital computer; 1943 - U.S. Army
Ordnance Department sponsored Presper Eckert, John Mauchly at
University of Pennsylvania to build first general-purpose
electronic digital computer to better calculate artillery firing
tables; 1946 - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator), completed at cost of nearly
$500,000; took up 15,000 feet, employed 17,000 vacuum tubes,
programmed by plugging, replugging some 6,000 switches;
December 1945 - first used in calculation for Los Alamos
Laboratories; February 1946 - formally dedicated;
November 4, 1952 - UNIVAC achieved national fame
when it correctly predicted Dwight D. Eisenhower's unexpected
landslide victory in presidential election after only tiny
percentage of votes were in.
November 17, 1951
- J. Lyons & C., Ltd., chain of British tea shops, introduced
world's first computer for business purposes; Lyons Electronic
Office (LEO) performed first calculation - ran program to
evaluate costs, prices, margins on that week's baked goods;
first business machine in world to operate on 'stored program
principle' (new programs permitted machine to perform different
tasks); computer code, based on flow chart of how company's
different job requirements related, developed by Maurice V.
Wilkes, Director of the Mathematical Laboratory (Cambridge
University); systems-oriented approach to programming devised by
David Caminer; less than 100,000th power of modern PC;
January 9, 1965 - LEO turned off.
David Caminer - LEO
October 7, 1954
- IBM displayed, in Poughkeepsie, NY, large all-transistor
calculator needing only 5% of power of comparable electronic
ones. 1957 - introduced IBM 608, fist
all-transistor commercial calculator.
Sperry Corp. acquired Remington Rand, renamed
Sperry Rand; December 9, 1960 - introduced UNIVAC
1107, first electronic computer to use thin-film memory; signed
valuable cross-licensing deal with IBM; remained major military
contractor; 1978 - focused on computer-related
business, renamed Sperry Corp.; 1986 - merged with
Burroughs Corp., formed Unisys.
October 2, 1955
- ENIAC computer deactivated at 11:45 PM.
Norris, Seymore Cray, six other computer engineers quit UNIVAC
division of Sperry Rand Corp. (had sold ERA, pioneering St. Paul
computer company founded in 1946, to UNIVAC); founded Control
Data Corp., in Minneapolis, MN, to concentrate on part of market
that IBM did not dominate: large computers used mainly in
scientific research; 1960 - built he 1604, most
powerful computer in world; 1964 - introduced CDC
6600, first commercial supercomputer, 10 times faster than
anything on market; 1969 - 45,000 employees, $1
billion in annual revenue; 1976 to 1980 - revenue
grew from $2.1 billion to $3.8 billion; 1984 -
revenue peaked at $5 billion; 1985 - losses
reached more than $400 million, 18,000 workers down from 60,000,
plants closed, assets sold; company eventually split into two
February 6, 1957
- The cryotron, superconductive computer switch developed by
Dudley Allen Buck at Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
announced; first practical use of superconductivity; hailed as
revolutionary component for miniaturizing room-sized computers
August 1957 -
Stan Olsen, Harlan Anderson left MIT's Lincoln Laboratory,
established Digital Equipment Corporation to sell minicomputers
to scientific, process control, academic communities; Georges
Doriot, founder of American Research and Develorporation,
supplied $70,000 in venture capital (later sold equity stpment
Coake for about $450 million); pioneered minicomputer
industry with PDP series; 1977 - VAX introduced,
gained strong foothold in commercial data processing; evolved
into complete line from desktop to mainframe, used same VMS
operating system in all models; 1992 - introduced
RISC-based Alpha architecture open system; 1997 -
sold semiconductor manufacturing facilities to Intel; 1998
- acquired by Compaq; 2002 - acquired by Hewlett
March 27, 1961
- Douglas Aircraft Corporation, Charlotte, NC used first mobile
computer center, UNIVAC Solid-State 90 computer loaded into
motor van, on assignment; set up by Remington Rand UNIVAC,
division of Sperry Rand.
February 4, 1964
- John P. Eckert, Jr. and John W. Mauchly, of Philadelphia, PA,
received patent for the "Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer" ("relates to methods and apparatus for performing
calculations involving arithmetical calculations, at extremely
high speeds, and with minimum use of mechanical elements, as
generally so termed , and more particularly relates to the art
of electrical computing machines, with particular reference to a
machine utilizing electronically produced pulses to rwepresent
digits and numbers, and using such pulses for control and
programming operations, thus obviating the need for mechanically
moving parts for these purposes"); ENIAC; assigned to Sperry
April 7, 1964
- IBM launched Systedm/360, $5 billion mainframe computer investment; family of six mutually compatible computers, 40
peripherals that could work together; transformed government,
science commercial landscape; introduced several industry
standards (de facto worldwide standard of 8-bit byte);
orders for System/360 reached 1,000 per
month within two years; 1989
- products based on System/360's architecture accounted for more
than half of company's total revenues.
December 15, 1964
- Kenneth H. Olsen, Bedford, MA, and Richard L. Best, Wayland,
MA, received a patent for "Magnetic Core Memory" ("improved
reliability in the reading and writing processes in which
information is fed into the memory and retrieved from it");
assigned to Digital Equipment Corporation.
Alan Shugart, of
created first floppy disk.
December 9, 1968
- Douglas Engelbart, 17 researchers from
Research Center at Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park,
CA, gave 90-minute demonstration of
groupware system called NLS (oNLine System - facilitated
creation of digital libraries, storage, retrieval of electronic
documents using first successful implementation of hypertext)
at Fall Joint
Computer Conference in San Francisco; used new
device to facilitate computer interaction -
three-button palm-sized contraption called a "mouse" (because
of its tail-like cable; created first
prototypes of device in 1963 at Stanford Research Institute);
outlined concepts presaged next 40 years of computing;
November 17, 1970 -
received patent for an "X-Y Position Indicator for a Display
System" ("...for movement by hand over any surface to move a
cursor over the display on a cathode ray tube, the indicator
control generating signals indicating its position to cause a
cursor to be displayed on the tube at the corresponding
assigned to Stanford Research Institute; first mouse was simple, hollowed-out
wooden block with single push button on top to select, move,
manipulate text; 1982
- Logitech sold its first mouse, P4 ($299);
1983 - Apple sold first commercial mouse
as part of Apple Lisa system; Microsoft shipped its first IBM PC
mouse ($195); two-button mouse initially required special
First Computer Mouse
- underside view, held by inventor Douglas Engelbart
- CompuServe founded as computer time-sharing service;
September 24, 1979 - began operation as first computer
information service (electronic mail capabilities, technical
support to personal computer users); 1980 - first
online service to offer real-time chat online with CB Simulator;
1982 - formed Network Services Division to provide
wide-area networking capabilities to corporate clients;
February 1998 - wholly owned subsidiary of America
October 29, 1969
- First computer-to-computer link established on
- Xerox Corporation established the Palo Alto research Center
(PARC Incorporated) to create "the office of the future" (under
direction of Dr. George Pake, physicist specializing in nuclear
magnetic resonance, provost of Washington University; Robert
Taylor, head of Computer Science Division); focused information
technology hardware, software);
2002 - spun off from Xerox; laid foundation for
personal computing revolution; invented laser printer, desktop
interface for PCs (adopted by Apple for Macintosh, Microsoft for
Windows), idea of "ubiquitous computing" in 1980s (paved way for
PalmPilot, iPad); 2009
- $60 million in revenue; 2010
- broadened research (solar energy generation, drug discovery
tools, water treatment).
September 13, 1970
- IBM announced System 370 computer.
October 19, 1970
- Dr. Gene Amdahl, former IBM Fellow, director of IBM's Advanced
Computing Systems (ACS) Laboratory in Menlo Park, CA,
founded Amdahl Corporation
in in Sunnyvale, CA; specialized in IBM mainframe-compatible
computer products; 1997 - acquired by Fujitsu.
February 1, 1972
- Hewlett-Packard introduced first scientific hand-held
calculator (HP-35) for $395; 35 keys, first hand-held calculator
able to perform logarithmic, trigonometric functions with one
keystroke; February 1975 - production
October 19, 1973
- After two-year anti-trust violation suit in case
of Honeywell vs.
Sperry Rand, Federal
Judge in Minneapolis, MN, declared ENIAC patent (February 4,
1964) invalid (Mauchly, Eckert did not create basic ideas used
in assembly of their computer), belatedly credited physicist
with developing first electronic digital computer, Atanasoff-
Berry Computer (ABC).
December 19, 1974
- Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), founded by
put Altair 8800 microcomputer on sale in U.S., as do-it-yourself computer kit, for $397;
used switches for input, flashing lights as display, 8800
microprocessor; demand far exceeded expectations; January
1975 - featured on cover of Popular Electronics;
1977 - Commodore PET introduced, first commercially
successful personal computer which integrated keyboard,
monitor in its caseApple II followed later that year.
April 1, 1976
- Steve Jobs (entrepreneur), Steve Wozniak (engineer) created
computer circuit boards in Jobs's parents' Los Altos, CA garage,
named the product Apple I, sold it to a local computer store;
initial financing: Jobs sold his VW van, Wozniak sold his
Hewlett Packard calculator;
January 3, 1977 - company incorporated;
1977 - Apple Computer, Inc. registered "Apple" trademark
first used in April 1976 (computers and computer programs
recorded on paper and tape);
December 12, 1980 - went
public; May 19, 2001
- opened first Apple retail stores in McLean, VA, Glendale, CA;
May 26, 2010 -
overtook Microsoft as most valuable technology company in terms
of market value ($222.12 billion
vs. $219.18 billion).
- Stan Shih, group of university friends founded Multitech in
Taipei; became one of pioneers of Taiwan's computer industry;
1986 - adopted Acer brand name; 2007 -
4th largest PC vendor (unit sales) behind Lenovo, HP, Dell;
focus on traditional distributors, retailers (vs. internet
March 4, 1977
- First CRAY 1 supercomputer shipped, to Los Alamos
Laboratories, New Mexico.
April 16, 1977
- Apple ll introduced at first West Coast Computer Faire,
model for $970
TRS-80, Commodore PET also introduced
February 16, 1978
- Ward Christensen, Randy Seuss created first Computer Bulletin
Board System (Ward and Randy's CBBS, Chicago); used S-100
motherboard, CP/M, 300-baud modem.
April 3, 1981 -
Adam Osborne, journalist turned entrepreneur named, founder of
Osborne Computer Corporation, introduced Osborne 1, first true
mass-produced portable PC (24 pounds, no battery) at West Coast
Computer Faire at San Francisco’s Brooks Hall; one of first
computers to come with useful software, priced at $1795;
1983 - eclared
bankruptcy; 1986 -
Osborne Computing closed.
August 12, 1981
- IBM introduced IBM 5150, first Personal Computer at press
conference at Waldorf Astoria in New York City (21-pounds, cost
$1,565, Intel processing chip, operating system developed by
32-person companty named Microsoft, able to connect to TV set,
play games, word process); sold 136,000 units in first year and half of
release; 3 million in first five years; base price of
$1,565; 64 kilobytes of memory, expansion slots for up to 640 Kb
more; system with two floppies and a serial port cost $3,045;
monitor that displayed letters and numbers in green cost $345;
machines ran at a speed of 4.77 megahertz.
2, 1981 - Daniel Borel, Pierluigi
Zappacosta, Giacomo Marini founded Logitech S.A. (name
from 'logicel', French word for software), opened first
office in in farmhouse in small village of Apples,
Switzerland; first business deal to develop graphical
editor for Ricoh; 1982
- developed Logitech® P4 mouse designed by Jean-Daniel
Nicoud (dome-shaped device, among first commercial mice
available, sold for $299); 1985 - introduced first
mouse for retail; 1996
- 100 million sold (against heavy competition from IBM,
Microsoft, Apple); 2003
- 500 million sold;
December 3, 2008 - shipped 1 billionth
mouse; sells mice in more than 100 countries,
manufactures average of 376,000 mice/day, 7.8
Daniel Borel, Pierluigi
Zappacosta, Giacomo Marini
- Logitech (http://www.logitech.com/repository/397/jpg/2907.1.0.jpg)
May 7, 1982
- IBM released PC-DOS version 1.1.
February 1982 -
Rod Canion, Jim Harris, Bill Murto, three senior managers from
semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments, founded Compaq
Computer in Hoston, TX; each invested $1,000; first venture
funding from Ben Rosen (Sevin-Rosen partners); March 1983
- released first product, Compaq Portable, portable IBM PC
compatible personal computer, priced at $2995; sold 53,000 units
in first year; 1985 - released Compaq Deskpro 286,
16-bit desktop computer using an Intel 80286 microprocessor
running at 6 MHz, cpable of supporting up to 7 MB of RAM; cost
$2000 for 40-MB hard disk model; 1986 - introduced
first PC based on Intel's new 80386 microprocessor, Compaq
Deskpro 386; increased performance leadership over IBM;
1997 - acquired Tandem Computers, known for NonStop
server line; instantly gave presence in higher end business
computing market; 1998 - acquired Digital Equipment Corporation,
leading company in previous generation of computing during the
1970s and early 1980s; made Compaq world's second largest
computer maker in terms of revenue; May 3, 2002 -
acquired by Hewlett-Packard in $19 billion deal.
Rod Canion, Jim Harris, Bill Murto
- Co-Founders Compaq Computer
June 1982 -
Columbia Data Products (founded in 1976 in Columbia, MD)
introduced the MPC 1600 "Multi Personal Computer", exact
functional copy of the IBM PC model 5150 (except for BIOS);
first IBM PC clone; 1983 - revenue of $56 million
(vs. $9.4 million in 1982); February 1984 - IBM
introduced its first portable PC; August 1984 -
CDP sales faltered; 1985 - stock dropped to $0.50
per share, delisted; 1986 - taken private;
1987 - shifted emphasis from hardware to software.
- Rich Skrenta (15), high school student at Mt. Lebanon High
School, Mt. Lebanon, PA, wrote Elk Cloner "boot" virus that
infected Apple II machines through floppy disks; considered
first virus to hit computers worldwide; relatively harmless
August 18, 1982
- Wang Laboratories filed for Chapter 11 (failure to keep pace
with growth in the Personal Computer [PC] market); founded in
the 1951, grew profitable as a major supplier of microcomputers.
By the 1970s, the company had become a "multi-national
colossus." Company was reborn in 1993 (and is known today as
Wang Global) and has become a leading systems integrator and
provider of information technology services worldwide.
January 19, 1983
- Apple introduced Lisa (Local Integrated Software
Architecture); operating system featured multitasking and
March 8, 1983
- IBM released PC DOS version 2.0.
November 10, 1983
- Fred Cohen presented to security seminar results of first
documented working virus (defined as "a program that can
'infect' other programs by modifying them to include a ...
version of itself"), created as experiment in computer security
when studying for PhD at the University of Southern California.
- Liu Chuanzhi, 10 engineers from Chinese Academy of Sciences,
received government permission to start business enterprise,
worked from small bungalow in Beijing, founded Lenovo; used
brand name, Legend; promoted PC usage throughout China,
developed the revolutionary Legend Chinese character card that
translated English software into Chinese characters; 2003
- name changed to Lenovo; May 2005 - acquired
IBM’s PC division for $1,25 billion; became world's third
largest PC maker (behind Dell, HP); over $13 billion in annual
reserves, more than 19,000 people worldwide.
January 24, 1984
- Apple Computer unveiled Macintosh personal computer;
January 30, 1984 - Steve Jobs first publicly
demonstrated Macintosh computer.
- Ted Waitt (22) founded Gateway 2000 in Iowa farmhouse; started
with $10,000 loan guaranteed by his grandmother, rented
computer, three-page business plan; sold computers direct to
consumers; 1991 - introduced distinctive
cow-spotted boxes (tribute to its farm heritage; 1993
- cracked Fortune 500, went public, traded on NASDAQ; 1997
- moved to New York Stock Exchange; January 2006 -
approximately 1,800 employees.
March 19, 1985
- IBM ceased production of its floundering home computer, the
PCjr (only sold 240,000 units); November of 1983 - first
introduced to fuel IBM's efforts to rule the consumer computer
market; touted the computer as a "compact, low-cost" machine for
"personal productivity applications, learning and
April 8, 1985
Amdahl released UTS/V, first mainframe Unix.
April 17, 1986
- IBM produced first megabit-chip.
November 11, 1986
- Sperry Rand, Burroughs merged, formed Unisys; nation's second
largest computer company.
April 2, 1987
- IBM introduced PS/2 and OS/2 operating systems.
July 24, 1987
- IBM-PC DOS Version 3.3 (updated) released.
August 16, 1988
- IBM introduced software for artificial intelligence.
November 2, 1988
- Cornell University graduate student,
Robert T. Morris, unleashed computer "worm" intended as
experimental, self-replicating, self-propagating
program; "Morris worm", first internet-distributed computer worm
to gain significant mainstream media attention,
replicates wildly, clogs
thousands of computers around the country (universities,
military sites, medical research facilities); message how to
kill the worm and prevent reinfection could not be delivered;
Morris tried, fined, given probation.
May 13, 1991
Apple released Macintosh System 7.0.
May 17, 1993
- Intel's new Pentium processor unveiled.
August 6, 1997 -
Apple Computer, Microsoft agreed to share technology; Microsoft
acquired minority stake in Apple for $150 million.
September 16, 1997
- Apple Computer rehired founder , former CEO Steve Jobs
to temporarily run company during search for permanent
September 22, 1997
- IBM announced it had revolutionized computer chips by using
copper instead of aluminum in production of
January 26, 1998
- Compaq Corporation acquired Digital Equipment Corporation
for $9.6 billion; largest acquisition in history of the computer
October 23, 1999
- Apple Computer's Mac OS 9 released.
October 23, 2001
- Apple introduced iPod portable music player; 2006
- domestic market share in flash-memory players = 68% (source:
NPD Group); iPod sales reached 100 million (Sony Walkman - 14
years); June 19, 2008 - more than 5 billion songs
purchased, downloaded from iTunes Store.
December 7, 2004
- IBM agreed to sell PC division to China-based Lenovo Group,
took 18.9% stake in Lenovo, in deal valued at $1.75 billion:
increased Lenovo's current PC business fourfold: annual sales
volume of 11.9 million units, revenue of $12 billion (third
largest PC company, behind Dell and HP).
October 12, 2005
- Apple Computer released Video iPod.
2006 - Hewlett
Packard passed IBM, became revenue leader in computer industry;
largest information company in world.
October 22, 2007
- Apple Computer reported better-than-expected fourth quarter
earnings (profit rose 67 percent year over year to $1.01 per
share on revenue of $6.22 billion), stock rose to all time high
just above $189 per share, market value reached $161 billion =
most valuable computer maker, 4th most valuable technology
company: Microsoft ($329 billion), Google ($211 billion), Cisco
Systems ($195 billion).
2010 - Apple
Computer passed Microsoft as most valuable
technology company (in terms of market capitalization) -
$222.12 billion vs. $219.18 billion for Microsoft (Exxon
Mobil - only American company valued higher,
market capitalization of $278.64 billion).
(Amdahl Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Amdahl. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff
Syndicate,, 144 p.). Amdahl Corporation--History; Computer
(Apple), Michael Moritz (1984).
The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 336 p.). Apple computer--History.
Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak -
co-founders Apple Computer (http://images.businessweek.com/ss/07/06/0608_tech_birthplace/image/applegarage.jpg)
Jean-Louis Gassée; translated from the French by
Isabel A. Leonard (1987).
The Third Apple: Personal Computers & the Cultural
Revolution. (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, 212 p.). Former Head of
Apple's southern European division, Former
Vice-President in Charge of Product Development.
Computers and civilization. Changes
in manufacturing, marketing, trade practices in highly
competitive information, service economy largely
dependent on computers; fundamental differences between
computer and brain.
(Apple), Rob Price, Jill Savini,
Thom Marchionna (1987).
So Far: The First Ten Years of a Vision.
(Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, 152 p.). Apple Computer
-- history. Apple Computer Tenth Anniversary
Publication; history, products, names of every employee
who worked there over first 10 years.
(Apple), John Scully with John A. Byrne
Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple -- a Journey of Adventure, Ideas and the
Future. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 450 p.). Computer
Industry, Apple Computer.
(Apple), Lee Butcher (1988).
Accidental Millionaire: The Rise and Fall of Steven Jobs at
Apple Computer. (New York, NY: Paragon House, 224 p.).
Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer
industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United
(Apple), Jeffrey S. Young (1988).
Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. (Glenview, IL:
Scott, Foresman, 440 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ;
Microcomputers--Biography; Apple computer--History.
(Apple), Frank Rose (1989).
West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer.
(New York, NY: Viking, 356 p.). Apple Computer, Inc.--History;
Computer industry--United States--History.
(Apple), Guy Kawasaki (1990).
The Macintosh Way. (New York, NY: HarperPerennial, 209
p. [orig. pub. 1989]). Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh
(Apple), Doug Menuez, photography; Markos
Kounalakis, text; Paul Saffo, introduction (1993).
Defying Gravity: The Making of Newton. (Hillsboro, OR:
Beyond Words Pub., 176 p.). Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer
software industry--United States--Case studies.
(Apple), Jim Carlton (1997).
Apple: The inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania and Business
Blunders That Toppled an American Icon. (New York, NY:
Times Business/Random House, 465 p.). Apple Computer, Computer
(Apple), Gil Amelio and William L. Simon
On the Firing Line: My 500 Days at Apple. (New York, NY:
HarperBusiness, 298 p.). Amelio, Gil; Apple Computer,
Inc.--Management; Executives--United States--Biography; Computer
industry--United States--Management--Case studies.
(Apple), Owen W. Linzmayer (1999).
Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc.
(San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, 268 p.). Apple Computer,
Inc.--History; Computer industry--United States--History.
(Apple), Michael S. Malone (1999).
Infinite Loop: How the World's Most Insanely Great Computer
Company Went Insane (New York, NY: Doubleday, 597 p.).
Editor (Forbes ASAP). Apple Computer, Inc.; Corporate culture --
Case studies; Computer industry -- Case studies.
(Apple), Alan Deutschman (2000).
The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. (New York, NY: Broadway
Books, 321 p.). Contributing Editor (Vanity Fair). Jobs, Steven,
1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer industry--United States;
Corporate culture--United States.
(Apple), Steven Levy (2000).
Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer
That Changed Everything. (New York, NY: Penguin Books,
328 p. [orig. pub. 1984]). Macintosh (Computer).
(Apple), Andy Hertzfeld and Steve Capps
Revolution in the Valley: The Insanely Great Story of How the
Mac Was Made. (Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, 291
p.). Co-creator of the Mac; Wrote Finder and Macintosh system
utilities. Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh Division --History;
Computer industry --United States --History; Macintosh
(Computer). Hallways, backrooms of Apple, birthplace of
groundbreaking Macintosh computer; development of Macintosh,
from inception as underground skunkworks project in 1979 to
triumphant introduction in 1984, beyond; what it was like to be
at birth of personal computer revolution; portrait of talented,
often eccentric characters who made up Macintosh team.
(Apple), Jeffrey L. Cruikshank (2005).
The Apple Way.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 224 p.). Cofounder of
Kohn-Cruikshank, Inc. Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer,
Inc.; Computer industry--United States; Corporate
culture--United States. Secrets, management principles that keep Apple ahead.
(Apple), Dylan Jones (2005).
iPod, Therefore I Am: Thinking Inside the White Box.
(New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 288 p.). Editor-in-Chief of British
GQ. iPod (Digital music player).
(Apple), Jeffrey S. Young, William L. Simon
Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 320 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple
Computer, Inc.--History; Computer engineers--United
(Apple), Steve Wozniak with Gina Smith (2006).
iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal
Computer, Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It. (New
York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Co-Founder, Apple Computer. Wozniak,
Steve, 1950- ; Apple Computer, Inc.--History; Computer
engineers--United States--Biography; Inventors--United
States--Biography; Computer industry--United States--History.
1975 - combined computer
circuitry with regular typewriter keyboard and a video screen.
(Apple), Steven Levy (2006).
The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and
Coolness. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 284 p.).
Chief Technology Correspondent (Newsweek). Apple Computer, Inc.;
iPod (Digital music player). Creation of iPod -one
of most successful consumer products in decades; changed
behavior, society and Apple.
(Apple), Leander Kahney (2008).
Inside Steve’s Brain. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 304 p.).
Editor, Wired News. Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; Apple Computer, Inc.
--Management; Computer industry --United States.
Part biography, part leadership
guide; principles that guide Jobs to launch killer products,
attract fanatically loyal customers, manage some of world’s most
powerful brands; revolutionized computers in 1970s and ’80s
(Apple II, Mac), animated movies in 1990s (Pixar), digital music
in 2000s (iPod, iTunes); bundle of contradictions.
(Apple), Jason Dennis O'Grady (2008).
Apple Inc. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 200 p.).
Editor of PowerPage.org. Apple Computer, Inc.; Computer industry
--United States. How did Apple go from making computers that
made difference but not much of dent in overall market to
creating device (iPod) and music service (iTunes) that has
changed way we buy, experience music? How did MacIntosh, its
successors capture hearts, minds of computer users so deeply
that being a "Mac person" makes you member of special club?
(Apple), Brian X. Chen (2011).
Always On: How the iPhone Unlocked the Anything-Anytime-Anywhere
Future--and Locked Us In. (New York, NY: Da Capo, 288
p.). Former Associate Editor for Macworld magazine. Apple, Inc.
-- history; iPhone -- history. Apple's App Store was reason
company initially zoomed past competitors; how iPhone's
capability to handle still-growing number of functions created
world in which people can be in "anything-anytime-anywhere"
reality; implications of Apple's focus on vertical integration
(company controls software, hardware) on current issues related
to user privacy (education, law enforcement).
(Apple), Jay Elliot and William L. Simon
Steve Jobs Way: iLeadership for a New Generation.
(New York, NY: Vanguard Press, 256 p.). Former Executive Vice
President of Operations at Apple Computer, Founder and Chairman
of Migo Software, Inc.; Journalist. Jobs, Steve; Apple, Inc. --
history; Apple, Inc. -- new products. How Jobs achieved
greater success in product development than anyone in
history - changed many things about communicating/exchanging
information: 1) passion, 2) insistence on being involved
in smallest product decisions (where small labels are placed).
(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Alice R. Burks and
Arthur W. Burks (1988).
The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story. (Ann
Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 387 p.). Atanasoff,
John V. (John Vincent); Electronic digital computers--History.
Design, construction of ABC (more technical perspective).
John V. Atanasoff -
(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Clark R.
Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. (Ames, IA:
Iowa State University Press, 274 p.). Atanasoff, John V. (John
Vincent); Electronic data processing--Biography. Details the
design and construction of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer with
emphasis on the relationships of the individuals.
(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Alice Rowe Burks;
foreword by Douglas Hofstadter (2003).
Who Invented the Computer?: The Legal Battle that Changed
Computing History. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 463
p.). Computers--United States--History; Computers--United
States--Patents; Patent suits--United States.
(Brandt Inc.), Charles J. Wallman (1984).
Edward J. Brandt, Inventor: His Inventions and His Company,
1890-1983. (Watertown, WI: Brandt, 200 p.). Brandt,
Edward J. (Edward Julius), 1859- ; Brandt, Inc.--History; Cash
register industry--United States--History; Inventors--United
(Commodore), Michael S. Tomczyk (1984).
The Home Computer Wars: An Insider's Account of Commodore and
Jack Tramiel. (Greensboro, NC: Compute! Publications,
301 p.). Tramiel, Jack; Commodore computers.
Tramiel - Commodore
(Control Data), James C. Worthy (1987).
William C. Norris: Portrait of a Maverick. (Cambridge,
MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 259 p.). Norris, William C., 1911-;
Control Data Corporation--History; Computer industry--United
States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.
William Norris -
co-founder Control Data
(Control Data), Robert Price (2005).
The Eye for Innovation: Recognizing Possibilities and Managing
the Creative Enterprise. (New Haven, CT: Yale University
Press, 352 p.). Former CEO (Control Data). Control Data
Corporation--History; Technological innovations--Management;
Information technology; Creative ability in business.
Technology plus innovation
(Cray Research), Charles J. Murray (1997).
The Supermen: The Story of Seymour Cray and the Technical
Wizards Behind the Supercomputer. (New York, NY: Wiley,
232 p.). Cray, Seymour; Computer engineers--United
States--Biography; Cray computers--Design and
(Data General), Tracy Kidder (1981).
The Soul of a New Machine. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown,
293 p.). Data General Corporation; Computer engineering--Popular
(Dell), Michael Dell with Catherine Fredman
Direct from Dell: Strategies that Revolutionized an Industry
(New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 236 p.). Dell Computers, Computer
(Dell), Steven Holzner (2005).
How Dell Does It: Using Speed and Innovation To Achieve
Extraordinary Results. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 234
p.). Contributing Editor at PC Magazine. Dell Computers,
How processes, practices, culture function within Dell’s
(Digital Equipment), David A. Buchanan and
James McCalman (1989).
High Performance Work Systems: The Digital Experience .
(New York, NY: Routledge, 227 p.). Digital Equipment Corporation
--Management; Computer industry --Great Britain --Management
(Digital Equipment), Glenn Rifkin and George
The Ultimate Entrepreneur: The Story of Ken Olsen and Digital
Equipment Corporation (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 336 p.).
(Digital Equipment), Edited by Jamie Parker
Digital at Work: Snapshots from the First Thirty-Five Years.
(Burlington, MA: Digital Press, 212 p.). Digital Equipment
Corporation -- History; Computer industry -- United States --
(Digital Equipment), Edgar H. Schein ... [et
DEC Is Dead, Long Live DEC: The Lasting Legacy of Digital
Equipment Corporation. (San Francisco, CA:
Barrett-Koehler, 319 p.). Professor of Organizational Psychology
and Management (MIT). Digital Equipment Corporation--History;
Digital Equipment Corporation--Biography; Computer
industry--United States--History; Computer industry--United
(Digital Equipment), Alan R. Earls (2004).
Digital Equipment Corporation. (Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia,
128 p.). Digital Equipment Corporation--History; Computer
industry--United States--History. Pioneer in computer technology;
market valuation of more than $12 billion, employed
approximately 120,000 people worldwide (second only to IBM).
(ENIAC), Nancy Stern (1981). From ENIAC to
UNIVAC: An Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly computers.
(Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 286 p.). Electronic digital
computers--History; Computer industry--United States--History;
(ENIAC), Scott McCartney (1999).
ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's First Computer.
(New York, NY: Walker, 262 p.). Journalist (Wall Street
Journal). Electronic digital computers -- History; Computer
industry -- United States -- History.
(Hewlett-Packard), David Packard ; edited by
David Kirby with Karen Lewis (1995).
The HP Way: How Bill Hewlett and I Built Our Company.
(New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 212 p.). Co-Founder of
Hewlett-Packard. Packard, David, 1912- ; Hewlett, William R.;
Hewlett-Packard Company--History; Microelectronics
industry--United States--History; Computer industry--United
States--History; Electronics engineers--United
States--Biography; Businessmen--United States--Biography.
(Hewlett-Packard), Barbara Waugh with Margot
Silk Forrest (2001).
The Soul in the Computer: The Story of a Corporate Revolutionary.
(Maui, HI: Inner Ocean, 249 p.). Waugh, Barbara; Hewlett-Packard
Company; Social responsibility of business; Corporate culture;
Social action; Political activists.
(Hewlett-Packard), George Anders (2003).
Perfect Enough: Carly Fiorina and the Reinvention of
Hewlett-Packard. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 288 p.).
Former Reporter (Wall Street Journal). Fiorina, Carly; Packard,
David, 1912- ;Hewlett, William R.; Hewlett-Packard
Company--Management; Hewlett-Packard Company--History;
Electronic industries--United States--Management--Case studies;
Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies;
Organizational change--United States--Case studies; Women
executives--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United
(Hewlett-Packard), Peter Burrows (2003).
Backfire: Carly Fiorina's High-Stakes Battle for the Soul of
Hewlett-Packard. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 296 p.). Fiorina,
Carly; Hewlett, William R.; Hewlett-Packard Company; Compaq
Computer Corporation; Electronic industries--United States;
Computer industry--United States; Consolidation and merger of
corporations--United States--Case studies;
Corporations--Investor relations--United States--Case studies.
(Hewlett-Packard), Carly Fiorina (2006).
Tough Choices: A Memoir. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 336
p.). Former President and CEO of Hewlett-Packard from 1999 to
2005. Fiorina, Carly; Women executives--United
States--Biography. Led HP
for six years through drastic changes, controversial merger;
sudden, very public firing by board.
(IBM), Charles Ranlett Flint (1923).
Memories of an Active Life; Men, and Ships, and Sealing Wax.
(New York, NY: Putnam, 349 p.). Flint, Charles Ranlett;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States--Case
Charles Ranlett Flint
Computing- Tabulating- Recording Co. by merger;
name changed to IBM)
June 20, 1956
Thomas J. Watson, Jr.
(IBM CEO in 1956 - "IBM
means service") (http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/watsonjr/images/6703PH04.jpg)
(IBM), Thomas J. Watson (1954).
"As a Man Thinks ...": Thomas J. Watson, the Man and His
Philosophy of Life as Expressed in His Editorials. (New
York, NY: IBM Corporation, 183 p.). Founder of IBM. Watson,
Thomas John, 1874-1956; philosophy -- business.
(IBM), Thomas Graham Belden and Marva Robins
The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 332 p.). Watson, Thomas John,
1874-1956; International Business Machines Corporation--History;
(IBM), Thomas J. Watson (1963).
A Business and Its Beliefs; The Ideas That Helped Build IBM
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 107 p.). International Business
(IBM), William Rodgers (1969).
Think; A Biography of the Watsons and IBM. (New York,
NY: Stein and Day, 320 p.). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956;
Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; International Business Machines
(IBM), Nancy Foy (1975).
The Sun Never Sets on IBM. (New York, NY: Morrow, 218
p.). International Business Machines Corporation; Computer
(IBM), Rex Malik (1975).
And Tomorrow ... the World?: Inside IBM. (London, UK:
Millington,, 496 p.). International Business Machines
(IBM), Clair F. Vough with Bernard Asbell
Tapping the Human Resource: A Strategy for Productivity.
(New York, NY: AMACOM, 212 p.). International Business Machines
Corporation. Office Products Division; Wages and labor
productivity -- Case studies.
(IBM), Saul Engelbourg (1976).
International Business Machine : A Business History (New
York, NY: Arno Press, 385 p. [Originally presented as author's
thesis, Columbia, 1954]). International Business Machines
(IBM), Katharine Davis Fishman (1981).
The Computer Establishment. (New York, NY: Harper & Row,
468 p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History;
Computer industry--United States--History.
(IBM), Robert Sobel (1981).
IBM: Colossus in Transition (New York, NY: Times Books,
360 p.). International Business Machines-History
(IBM), Franklin M. Fisher, John J. McGowan,
and Joen E. Greenwood (1983).
Folded, Spindled, and Mutilated: Economic Analysis and U.S. v.
IBM. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 443 p.). International
Business Machines Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.;
Antitrust law--United States; Computer industry--Law and
legislation--United States; Antitrust law--Economic
aspects--United States; computer industry--Law and
legislation--Economic aspects--United States; United States;
United States--Trials, litigation, etc.
(IBM), Franklin M. Fisher, James W. McKie,
Richard B. Mancke (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing
Industry: An Economic History. (New York, NY: Praeger, 532
p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History;
Computer industry--United States--History.
(IBM), Richard T. DeLemarter (1986).
Big Blue: IBM's Use and Abuse of Power. (New York, NY:
Dodd, Mead, 393 p.). IBM, Computer Industry, Monopolies.
(IBM), F.G. "Buck" Rodgers, with Robert L.
The IBM Way: Insights into the World's Most Successful Marketing
Organization. (New York,. NY: Harper & Row, 235 p.).
International Business Machines Corporation;
Computers--Marketing--Case studies; Electronic office
machines--Marketing--Case studies; Marketing--Case studies.
(IBM), Robert Sobel (1986).
IBM vs. Japan: The Struggle for the Future
(New York, NY: Stein & Day, 262 p.). International Business
Machines Corporation; Computer industry; Computer
industry--United States; Computer industry--Japan.
(IBM), Watts S. Humphrey (1987).
Managing for Innovation: Leading Technical People.
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 206 p.). International
Business Machines Corporation -- Management; High technology
industries -- Management; Organizational change; Professional
(IBM), James Chposky and Ted Leonsis (1988).
Blue Magic: The People, Power, and Politics Behind the IBM
Personal Computer. (New York, NY: Facts on File, 228
p.). International Business Machines Corporation--History; IBM
microcomputers--History; IBM Personal Computer--History.
(IBM), Michael Killen (1988).
IBM, The Making of the Common View. (Boston, MA:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 284 p.). International Business
Machines Corporation; Computer industry.
(IBM), David Mercer (1988).
The Global IBM: Leadership in Multinational Management .
(New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 374 p.). International Business
Machines Corporation -- Management; International business
enterprises -- Management -- Case studies.
(IBM, D. Quinn Mills (1988).
The IBM Lesson: The Profitable Art of Full Employment.
(New York, NY: Times Books, 216 p.). International Business
Machines Corporation -- Management; International Business
Machines Corporation -- Employees; Computer industry -- United
States -- Employees.
(IBM), William W. Simmons with Richard B.
Inside IBM: The Watson Years: A Personal Memoir. (Bryn
Mawr, PA: Dorrance, 202 p.). Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956;
Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ; Watson, Arthur Kittredge, 1919-1974;
International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer
industry--United States--History; Businesspeople--United
(IBM), Jacques Maisonrouge; translation by
Nina Rootes. (1989).
Inside IBM: A Personal Story. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 316 p.). Maisonrouge, Jacques, 1924- ;
International Business Machines Corporation--Management;
International business enterprises--Management;
(IBM), Regis McKenna (1989).
Who's Afraid of Big Blue?: How Companies Are Challenging IBM--
and Winning. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 218 p.).
International Business Machines Corporation; Computer
industry--United States; Competition--United States.
(IBM), Thomas J. Watson, Jr. and Peter Petre
Father, Son & Co.: My Life at IBM and Beyond. (New York,
NY: Bantam Books, 468 p.). Watson, Thomas J., 1914- ;
International Business Machines Corporation--History;
(IBM), Roy A. Bauer, Emilio Collar, Victor
Tang with Jerry Wind, Patrick Houston (1992).
The Silverlake Project: Transformation at IBM. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 219 p.). Three of the Major
Gigures behind the AS/400; Former Business Week Writer.
International Business Machines Corporation; Computer
industry--United States--Management--Case studies.
Most radical cultural change in
IBM's history, switched from product-driven to market-driven
approach to doing business.
(IBM), Paul Carroll (1993).
Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM. (New York, NY: Crown
Publishers, 375 p.). Journalist (Wall Street Journal). IBM,
(IBM), Charles H. Ferguson and Charles R.
Computer Wars: The Fall of IBM and the Future of Global
Technology (New York, NY: Times Books, 272 p.).
International Business Machines Corporation; Computer industry;
Computer industry--United States; Competition, International.
(IBM), Emerson W. Pugh (1995).
Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 405 p.). International Business
Machines Corporation--History; Computer industry--United
(IBM), Daniel Quinn Mills, G. Bruce Friesen
Broken Promises: An Unconventional View of What Went Wrong at
IBM (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 210 p.).
International Business Machines Corporation; Computer
industry--United States; Competition--United States.
(IBM), Doug Garr (1999).
IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner and The Business Turnaround of the
Decade. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 375 p.).
Gerstner, Louis V.; International Business Machines Corporation;
Computer industry--United States.
(IBM), Robert Slater (1999).
Saving Big Blue: Leadership Lessons and Turnaround Tactics of
IBM's Lou Gerstner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 309 p.).
Gerstner, Louis V.; International Business Machines Corporation;
Computer industry--United States.
(IBM), Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. (2002).
Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?: Inside IBM's Historic
Turnaround. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 372 p. p).
Chairman, CEO of IBM (April 1993 - March 2002). International
Business Machines Corporation--Management; International
Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer
industry--United States--History; Electronic office machines
industry--United States--History; Corporate turnarounds--United
States--Case studies. IBM's competitive, cultural transformation; only company
at pinnacle of an industry, fallen to near collapse, returned to
(IBM), Kevin Maney (2003).
The Maverick and His Machine: Thomas Watson, Sr., and the
Making of IBM. (New York, NY: Wiley, 485 p.). USA Today
Technology Columnist. Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson,
Thomas J., 1914- ; Watson, Arthur Kittredge, 1919-1974;
International Business Machines Corporation--History; Computer
industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United
(IBM), Richard S. Tedlow (2003).
The Watson Dynasty: The Fiery Reign and Troubled Legacy of
IBM's Founding Father and Son. (New York, NY:
HarperBusiness, 340 p.). Professor (Harvard Business School).
Watson, Thomas John, 1874-1956; Watson, Thomas J., 1914-
;International Business Machines Corporation History;
Family-owned business enterprises United States Case studies;
Fathers and sons United States Case studies; Executives United
(IBM), Ed Aswad, Suzanne M. Meredith (2005).
IBM in Endicott. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.).
International Business Machines Corporation--History;
International Business Machines Corporation--Pictorial works;
Computer industry--United States--History; Electronic office
machine industry--United States--History; Company towns--New
York (State)--Endicott--History. Bundy Manufacturing Company
relocated to Endicott, NY, part of greatest industrial
revolution in world: development of corporation, people, ideas
that made IBM a household word.
(IBM), Kevin Maney, Steve Hamm, Jeffrey M.
Making the World Work Better: The Ideas that Shaped a Century
and a Company. (Upper Saddle River, NJ IBM Press, 350
p.). Former Reporter, Editor and Columnist (USA Today); Writer
and Videographer in IBM's Corporate Communications Department;
Former Senior Editor (Fortune, Wired). International Business
Machines Corporation --History; International Business Machines
Corporation --Management; Computer industry --United States
--History. How IBM has distinctly contributed to evolution of
technology, modern corporation over past 100 years; Nobel
Prize-winning work of company’s research laboratories
(punch-card tabulator, mainframe, personal computer, memory
chip, disk drive, scanning tunneling microscope (essential to
nanotechnology), new fields of mathematics), missteps and
successes (bet-the-business gamble on legendary System/360 in
1960s to turnaround from company’s near-death experience in
early 1990s); first large American company to pay all employees
salaries (vs. hourly wages), early champion of hiring women and
minorities, pioneer of new approaches to doing business (model
of globally integrated enterprise); lasting impact on society (enabled U.S. Social Security System, space program,
airline reservations, modern banking, retail); lessons:
anticipate change, be willing, able to continually transform.
(ICL), Martin Campbell-Kelly (1989).
ICL: A Business and Technical History. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 409 p.). ICL Limited--History; Computer
(Lenovo), Zhijun Ling, Martha Avery
The Lenovo Affair: The Growth of China's Computer Giant and Its
Takeover of IBM-PC. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 250 p.).
Reporter for the People’s Daily (Shanghai). Lenovo, Computer
industry -- China. Rise of
company in changing business environment in China; history of
Lenovo (Lianxiang in China), founder Liu Chuanzhi; contended
with two powerful forces: market and government.
Liu Chuanzhi -
(Lenovo), Steve Hamm (2008).
The Race for Perfect: Inside the Quest To Design the Ultimate
Portable Computer. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 293
p.). Communications Strategist and Writer for IBM, Former
Journalist (BusinessWeek). Microcomputers; Portable computers --
Design and construction. Lenovo’s ThinkPad X300 laptop, “halo”
product to draw customers to Lenovo’s entire line (Lenovo
acquired IBM’s PC division in 2005 to get ThinkPad laptops); how
ambitious company marshaled its resources to pursue laptop
perfection; collided head-on with Apple’s super-slim MacBook
Air—-with surprising results; entrepreneurs, designers have
pushed relentlessly in quest to create perfect device from
earliest days of portable computing (40 years ago); produced few
fabulous successes, many failures; driven by basic rule of tech
industry: innovate or die; lessons: 1) innovate constantly to
differentiate products; 2) create timeless design principles; 3)
integrate design, engineering so products are useful, fun to
use; 4) improve quality and convenience without compromise; 5)
tap social networks to turn customers into fans.
(LEO), David Caminer, John Aris, Peter Hermon,
Frank Land (1998).
LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 392 p.). Devised Systems-Oriented
Approach to Programming. Leo computer; Business --Data
processing --History; Computers --Great Britain --History.
November 17, 1951 -
J. Lyons & Company, chain of British tea shops, introduced
world's first computer for business purposes; first business
machine in world to operate on 'stored program principle'.
(Linux), Linus Torvalds and David Diamond
Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary.
(New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 262 p.). Torvalds, Linus, 1969- ;
Linux; Computer programmers--Finland--Biography.
(MIPS), Michael S. Malone (1991).
Going Public: MIPS Computer and the Entrepreneurial Dream.
(New York, NY: E. Burlingame Books, 291 p.). Going public
(Securities)--Case studies; Entrepreneurship--Case studies;
Computer industry--Case studies.
(Mouse), Thierry Bardini (2000).
Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins
of Personal Computing. (Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press, 284 p.). Associate Professor in the Department
of Communication (Universite de Montreal). Microcomputers
--History; Human-computer interaction; User interfaces (Computer
systems). 1960s at Stanford Research
Institute - Douglas Engelbart, small team of researchers,
developed cornerstones of personal computing: mouse, windowed
user interface, hypertext, networking; revolutionary vision,
systematic way to think, organize coevolution of humans, their
tools; radical improvement in how to make people work
- created the 'mouse'
(NCR), Samuel Crowther (1923).
John H. Patterson, Pioneer in Industrial Welfare.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 364 p.). Patterson, John
Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register Company.
John H. Patterson -
(NCR), Roy Wilder Johnson (1932). The Sales
Strategy of John H. Patterson, Founder of the National Cash
Register Company. (Chicago, IL: The Dartnell Group, 344 p.).
Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922; National Cash Register
Company; Salesmen and salesmanship.
(NCR), George Francis Taubeneck (1937).
They Didnt' Know They Wanted It; How John H. Patterson Developed
the Specialty Selling Formula. (Detroit, MI: Business News
Publishing Co., 222 p.). Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922;
National Cash Register Company, Dayton, O.; Salesmen and
(NCR), Issac F. Marcosson (1945).
Wherever Men Trade; The Romance of the Cash Register.
(New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 263 p.). Patterson, John Henry,
1844-1922; National Cash Register Company; Cash registers.
(NCR), Stanley C. Allyn (1968).
My Half Century with NCR. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
209 p.). National Cash Register Company.
(NeXT Computer), Randall E. Stross (1993).
Steve Jobs and the NeXT Big Thing. (New York, NY:
Atheneum, 374 p.). Jobs, Steven, 1955- ; NeXT Computer, Inc.;
(Osborne Computer Corporation), Adam Osborne
and John Dvorak (1984).
Hypergrowth: The Rise and Fall of Osborne Computer Corporation.
(Berkeley, CA: Idthekkethan Pub. Co., 204 p.). Osborne Computer
Corporation; Computer industry--United States; Microcomputers.
(SAP), Hasso Plattner in conversation with
August-Wilhelm Scheer, Siegfried Wendt, and Daniel S. Morrow;
translated from the German by William McKone (2000).
Anticipating Change: Secrets Behind the SAP Empire.
(Roseville, CA: Prima Tech, 275 p.). SAP AG; Computer software
(Sperry Rand), Thomas Parke Hughes (1971).
Elmer Sperry; Inventor and Engineer. (Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins Press, 348 p.). Sperry, Elmer Ambrose, 1860-1930.
Elmer Ambrose Sperry
- Sperry Rand, Unisys
June 17, 1930
(Sperry Rand), David E. Lundstrom (1987).
A Few Good Men from Univac. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
227 p.). Univac computer--History; Computer industry--History.
(Sperry Rand), Thomas A. Russo (2002).
Mechanical Typewriters: Their History, Value, and Legacy.
(Atglen, PA: Schiffer Pub. Ltd., 256 p.). E. Remington &
Sons--History; Remington Rand, Inc.--History;
Typewriters--History; Typewriters--Collectors and collecting.
(Victor Comptometer), Edwin Darby (1968).
It All Adds Up; The Growth of Victor Comptometer Corporation.
(Chicago, IL: Victor Comptometer Corporation, 243 p.). Victor
(Wang), An Wang with Eugene Linden (1986).
Lessons: An Autobiography. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,
248 p.). Wang, An, 1920- ; Wang Laboratories, Inc.--History;
Computer industry--United States--History;
An Wang (http://home.wxs.nl/~janvdv/images/Copy_of_RIMG0007.JPG)
(Wang), Charles C. Kenney (1992).
Riding the Runaway Horse: The Rise and Decline of Wang
Laboratories. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 323 p.). Wang,
An, 1920- ; Wang Laboratories, Inc.--History; Computer
industry--United States--History; Electronic industries--United
(Wyly Corporation), Ben Voth (1974).
A Piece of the Computer Pie. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub.
Co., 182 p.). Wyly Corporation; Computer industry--United
(Xerox), Ed. Giuliana Lavendel (1980).
A Decade of Research: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 1970-1980.
(New York, NY: R.R. Bowker & Co. Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto
(Xerox), Ed. Giuliana Lavendel (1990).
PARC, The Second Decade, 1980-1990. (Palo Alto, CA: Xerox
Palo Alto Research Center, 810 p.). Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto
(Xerox), Michael Hiltzik (1999).
Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer
Age. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 448 p.).
Correspondent (Los Angeles Times). Xerox Corporation. Palo Alto
Research Center--History; Computer
Jon Agar (2003).
The Government Machine: A Revolutionary History of the Computer.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 554 p). Computers--Government
policy--Great Britain--History; Public administration--Great
Britain--Data processing--History; Civil service--Effect of
technological innovations on--Great Britain--History.
Mechanization of government work
in United Kingdom from 19th-early 21st century; tied to rise of
"expert movements" (deployment of machines was attempt to gain
control over state action).
Geoffrey D. Austrian (1982).
Herman Hollerith, Forgotten Giant of Information Processing.
(New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 418 p.). Hollerith,
Herman, 1860-1929; Electronic data processing--Biography.
Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray
Computer: A History of the Information Machine. (New
York, NY: Basic Books, 342 p.). Teacher of Computer Science
(Warwick University), Exec. Dir., Computing Research
Association. Computers--History; Electronic data
Martin Campbell-Kelly (2003).
A History of the Software Industry: From Airline Reservations to
Sonic the Hedgehog. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.).
Teacher of Computer Science (Warwick University). Computer
I. Bernard Cohen (1999).
Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 329 p.). Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973),
Computers, Computer Engineers.
Compiled by James W. Cortada (1990).
A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing, Computers,
and the Information Processing Industry. (New York, NY:
Greenwood Press, 644 p.). Computers--History--Bibliography;
Electronic data processing--History--Bibliography.
Second Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing,
Computers, and the Information Processing Industry.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 416 p.). Computers--History;
Electronic data processing--History.
James W. Cortada (1993).
Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and
the Industry They Created, 1865-1956. (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 344 p.). Office equipment and
supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic office
machine industry--United States--History.
The Computer in the United States: From Laboratory to Market,
1930 to 1960. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 183 p.).
Computer engineering--United States--History; Computers--United
States--History; Computer industry--United States--History.
The Digital Hand: How Computers Changed the Work of American
Manufacturing, Transportation, and Retail Industries.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 494 p.).
Automation--Economic aspects--United States; Manufacturing
industries--United States--Automation; Transportation--United
States--Automation; Retail trade--United States--Automation.
Charles H. Ferguson (1999).
High St@kes, No Prisoners: A Winner's Tale of Greed and Glory in
the Internet Wars. (New York, NY: Times Business, 392
p.). Computer industry--California--Santa Clara County; High
technology industries--California--Santa Clara County;
Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies;
Wealth--California--Santa Clara County.
Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine (2000).
Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 463 p. [2nd. ed]).
Dennis Hayes (1989).
Behind the Silicon Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely
Era. (Boston, MA: South End Press, 215 p.). Computer
industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County).
John Hendry (1989).
Innovating for Failure: Government Policy and the Early British
Computer Industry. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 240 p.).
Computer industry--Government policy--Great Britain--History.
Andrew Hodges (1983).
Alan Turing: The Enigma. (New York, NY: Simon and
Schuster, 587 p.). Turing, Alan Mathison, 1912-1954;
Rama D. Jager, Rafael Ortiz (1997).
In the Company of Giants: Candid Conversations with the
Visionaries of the Digital World (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 232 p.). Computer industry--United
States--Management--Case studies; Computer software
industry--United States--Management--Case studies;
Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies; Success in
business--United States--Case studies; Chief executive
David Leavitt (2005).
The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the
Computer. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Teaches
Creative Writing (University of Florida, Gainesville). Turing,
Alan Mathison, 1912-1954; Mathematicians--Great
Britain--Biography; Gay men--Legal status, laws, etc.--Great
Britain; Artificial intelligence--History. Originator of ideas that led
to invention of computer.
Steve Lohr (2009), Digital
Revolutionaries: The Men and Women Who Brought Computing to Life.
(New York, NY: Roaring Brook Press, 176 p.). Senior Writer and
Technology Reporter (New York Times). Computers -- History;
of computers, celebration of human ingenuity that led world from
ENIAC to iMAC.
Steven Levy (2001).
Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. (New York,
NY: Penguin, 455 p. [orig. pub. 1994]). Computer programming;
John Markoff (2005).
What the Dormouse Said--: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped
the Personal Computer Industry. (New York, NY: Viking,
310 p.). Technology Reporter (New York Times).
Microcomputers--History; Computers and civilization; Nineteen
David A. Mindell (2002).
Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing
before Cybernetics. (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins
University Press, 439 p.). Frances and David Dibner Associate
Professor of the History of Engineering and Manufacturing in the
Program in Science, Technology, and Society (Massachusetts
Institute of Technology). Computers--History; Electronic data
Arthur L. Norberg (2005).
Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at
Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research
Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957. (Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press, 347 p.). ERA Land-Grant Chair in History of
Technology, Professor in the Program in History of Science and
Technology and in the Department of Computer Science (University
of Minnesota). Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation
(Philadelphia, Pa.) -- History; Engineering Research Associates
-- History; Remington Rand, Inc. -- History; Electronic digital
computers -- History; Computer industry -- History.
Importance of years
1946-1957 in history of computing.
Photographs by Mark Richards; text by John
Alderman; foreword by John Toole (2007).
Core Memory: A Visual survey of Vintage Computers Featuring
Machines from the Computer History Museum. (San
Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 160 p.). Computers--History;
Electronic data processing--History. Modern technology's
evolution through world's most renowned computer collection,
Computer History Museum in Silicon Valley. Vivid photos capture
these historically important machines (Eniac, Crays 1 3, Apple I
and II); authoritative text profiles each, tells stories of
their innovations, peculiarities. Thirty-five machines are
profiled in over 100 extraordinary color photographs.
Joel N. Shurkin (1996).
Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from
Mainframes to Microprocessors. (New York, NY: Norton,
363 [updated pbk. ed.]). Computers--History.
Jane Smiley (2010).
The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John
Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer. (New York, NY: Doubleday,
256 p.). Pulitzer Prize Winner. Atanasoff, John V. (John
Vincent); Sperry Rand Corporation --History --20th century;
Computer scientists --United States --Biography; Inventors
--United States --Biography; Physicists --Iowa --Biography;
College teachers --Iowa --Biography; Electronic digital
computers --History --20th century; Patents --United States
--History --20th century; Intellectual property --United States
--History --20th century. Race to develop digital computing;
1941 - professor of physics (Iowa State University) combined binary
number system and electronic switches, with array of
capacitors on moving drum to serve as memory; produce first
computing machine to make life of scientists easier;
built machine; changed world; never patented device; 1973
- federal court decision in
Honeywell v. Sperry Rand voided 1964
US patent 3,120,606 for ENIAC; put invention of
electronic digital computer in public domain; provided legal
recognition to Atanasoff as inventor of first electronic digital
computer; opened intellectual property gates to computer
John V. Atanasoff - Electronic Digital Computer
Robert Slater (1987).
Portraits in Silicon (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 374 p.).
Neal Stephenson (1999).
In The Beginning. . . was the Command Line. (New York,
NY: Avon Books, 151 p.). Operating systems (Computers).
Mostly well-reasoned examination, partial
rant, thoughtful, irreverent, hilarious treatise on
cyber-culture past, present on operating system tyrannies.
Doron Swade (2001).
The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build
the First Computer. (New York, NY: Viking, 342 p.).
Technology Historian and Assistant Director of London's Science
Museum. Babbage, Charles, 1791-1871; Calculators--Great
Britain--History--19th century. 1821 - Inventor and mathematician
Charles Babbage reviewed set of mathematical tables, found
excess of errors in results; began lifelong enterprise to
design, built mechanical calculating engine, world's first
computer; Babbage's 19th-century quest to build calculating
machine, author built replica for
bicentennial of Babbage's birth.
Eric G. Swedin, David L. Ferro (2007).
Computers: The Life Story of a Technology. (Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 192 p.). Associate Professor
in Information Systems and Technologies (Weber State
University); Associate Professor in Computer Science (Weber
State University). Computers and
Short history of dynamic technology, central themes from ancient
times to present day; revolutionized how information organized,
how people communicate, way we think about human mind.
Fred Turner (2006).
From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole
Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism.
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 327 p.). Assistant
Professor in the Department of Communication (Stanford
University). Brand, Stewart; Whole earth catalog (New York, NY);
Computers and civilization; Information
technology--History--20th century; Counterculture--United
States--History--20th century; Computer networks--Social
aspects; Subculture--California--San Francisco--History--20th
century; Technology--Social aspects--California, Northern.
- computers embodied rigid organization, mechanical conformity;
1990s - computers represented collaborative,
digital utopia modeled on communal ideals of hippies; untold
story of highly influential group of San Francisco
Bay–area entrepreneurs who brokered long-running collaboration
between San Francisco flower power, emerging technological
hub of Silicon Valley.
M. Mitchell Waldrop (2001).
The Dream Machine: J. C. Licklider and the Revolution That Made
Computing Personal (New York, NY: Viking, 502 p.).
Licklider, J. C. R.; Microcomputers--History.
Jeffrey R. Yost (2005).
The Computer Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
288 p.). Associate Director of Charles Babbage Institute for the
History of Information Technology (University of Minnesota).
Computer industry--United States--History.
Business History Links
American Computer Museum
America's Information Age Museum (The Museum of Minds &
Technology); 1990 - George & Barbara Keremedjiev opened museum
in Bozeman, Montana as a nonprofit 501(c) (3) organization;
focus is the presentation of the fundamentals of modern computer
based technology with extensive displays showcasing the history
of the information age while also offering in-depth displays for
those who are serious technophiles.