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November 8, 1602 - Bodleian Library at Oxford University opened to public.

November 14, 1732 - The Library Company of Philadelphia, founded by Benjamin Franklin, signed a contract with its first librarian; served as de facto Library of Congress until 1800.

January 15, 1759 - The British Museum opened, at Montague House, Bloomsbury, London.

April 5, 1768 - First US Chamber of Commerce founded, in New York City.

January 12, 1773 - First public museum in America established, in Charleston, SC, the Charleston Museum.

November 8, 1793 - French revolutionary government opened Musťe Central des Arts in Grande Galerie of the Louvre (after more than two centuries as a royal palace begun by King Francis I in 1546 on the site of a 12th-century fortress built by King Philip II to serve as his royal residence).

April 24, 1800 - President John Adams approved legislation that appropriated $5,000 to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress"; January 26, 1802 - President Thomas Jefferson approved the first law defining the role and functions of the new institution; 1814 - British burned Capitol and 3,000 volume Library of Congress; 1815 - purchase of Jefferson's 6,487 volumes for $23,940 approved.

January 26, 1802 - Congress passed act calling for library to be established within U.S. Capitol.

November 20, 1804 - Group of prominent, history-minded New Yorkers met, formed New-York Historical Society.

December 1809 - New York Bible Society founded, as New York auxiliary office of British and Foreign Bible Society, to evangelize, supply Scripture to immigrants, prisoners, hospital patients, soldiers; one of first four Bible societies in America (Philadelphia Bible Society, first, founded 1808); 1810 - distributed 1,941 Scriptures to New York residents, mariners, pioneers in Pacific Northwest; 1836 - began placing Bibles in hotel rooms (continued until late 1980s); 1909 - distributed 4.9 million Scriptures in first century; International Bible Society founded; 1960 - distributed more than 43 million Scriptures to date; 1979 - 108 million Scriptures distributed to date; 300 million Scriptures distributed in 450 languages to date; 2009 - translates, distributes Bible through 45 ministry centers in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America.

1822 - Richard Martin MP piloted first anti-cruelty bill giving cattle, horses and sheep a degree of protection through parliament; 1824 - RSPCA established; first national animal protection society in the world; 1840 - Queen Victoria gave her permission for the SPCA to be called the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

February 5, 1824 - Samuel Vaughan Merrick and William H. Keating founded "The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts" to honor Ben Franklin and advance the usefulness of his inventions; first located in the Philadelphia County Court House (known today as Independence Hall).

June 27, 1829 - English scientist James Smithson died in Genoa, Italy and left will (October 23, 1826): in the event that his only nephew died without any heirs, Smithson decreed that the whole of his estate would go to "the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge" (had never visited U.S.); 1835 - his nephew, Henry James Hungerford, died without children; July 1, 1836 - U.S. Congress authorized acceptance of Smithson's gift; President Andrew Jackson sent diplomat Richard Rush (Pennsylvania) to England to negotiate for transfer of funds; 1838 - Rush returned with decree from English Court of Chancery with 11 boxes containing total of 104,960 gold sovereigns, 8 shillings, 6 pence (shipped in gold to United States Mint in Philadelphia, recoined into American money, yielded $608,318.46), Smithson's mineral collection, library, scientific notes, personal effects; 1841 - Secretary, Professor Joseph Henry, of College of New Jersey, appointed chief executive; August 10, 1846 - President James K. Polk signed the act establishing the Smithsonian Institution as trust to be administered by Board of Regents, Secretary of the Smithsonian; 2008 - composed of 19 museums, nine research centers throughout United States and world, national zoo.

Joseph Henry - first chief executive of Smithsonian  (http://siarchives.si.edu/history/exhibits/baird/henry.jpg)

April 9, 1833 - Nation's first tax-supported public library founded in Peterborough, NH.

October 13, 1843 - Henry Jones, 11 others founded B'nai B'rith ("Sons of the Covenant") vin New York City; oldest Jewish service organization in world; November 1843 - organized first lodge; elected Isaac Dittenhoefer first president; becom national leader in charity work and disaster relief; 1913 - formed Anti-Defamation League to combat anti-Semitism. 

June 6, 1844 - George Williams founded YMCA in London.

October 16, 1844 - The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane formed in Philadelphia, PA with 13 members; first U.S. psychiatric association.

March 18, 1848  - Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted legislation to create Boston Public Library; April 3, 1848 - BPL founded.

September 20, 1848 - American Association for the Advancement of Science founded in Philadelphia, PA to "advance science and serve society"; 87 members, William Charles Redfield as first president; 2010 - world's largest general-science society; serves 10 million individuals through primary membership, affiliations with some 262 scientific societies and academies.

December 24, 1851 - Fire devastated Library of Congress in Washington, DC., destroyed about two-thirds of its 55,000 volumes, including most of Thomas Jefferson's personal library sold to institution in 1815. 

December 29, 1851 - American Young Men's Christian Association organized in Boston.

1855 – Mrs. Arthur (Mary Jane) Kinnaird formed North London Home, or General Females Training Institute, as home for nurses returning from Crimean War; Emma Robarts opened Prayer Union for Women and Girls in London, about same time; 1858 – opened in New York City, Boston as Ladies' Christian Association; 1859 - two London-based organizations merged, established Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA).

May 29, 1861 - 62 companies, banks formed Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce (20 years after founding of city of Hong Kong); oldest, largest business organisation in Hong Kong (around 4,000 members; mission: to promote, represent, safeguard interests of Hong Kong business community.

1862 - Jean-Henri Dunant self-published Un Souvenir de Solferino [A Memory of Solferino] (about one of the bloodiest battles of the nineteenth century at Napoleon's headquarters near the northern Italian town of Solferino): 1) the battle; 2) battlefield after the fighting; 3) a plan to form relief societies to provide care for the wartime wounded; February 7, 1863 - The Societe Genevoise d'Utilite Publique [Geneva Society for Public Welfare] appointed a committee of five, including Jean-Henri Dunant, to examine the possibility of putting plan into action. With its call for an international conference, this committee, in effect, founded Red Cross.

August 22, 1864 - The International Red Cross inaugurated: Twelve nations signed an international treaty, commonly known as the Geneva Convention (for the Amelioration of the "Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field"), agreed to guarantee neutrality to sanitary personnel, to expedite supplies for their use, to adopt special identifying emblem - in virtually all instances a red cross on a field of white; 1901 - Dunant won first-ever Nobel peace prize.  

Jean Henri Dunant - International Red Cross (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1901/dunant.jpg)

July, 5, 1865 - William Booth, ordained Methodist minister, aided by his wife Catherine, formed Christian Mission,  evangelical group dedicated to preaching among "unchurched" people living in midst of appalling poverty in London’s East End. Booth’s ministry recognized  interdependence of material, emotional, spiritual needs. In addition to preaching gospel of Jesus Christ, Booth became involved in feeding, shelter of  hungry, homeless and in rehabilitation of alcoholics; 1878 - name changed to The Salvation Army; 1879 - Lieutenant Eliza Shirley held the first meeting of The Salvation Army in America, in Philadelphia; 1886 - President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement.

April 10, 1866 - New York State Legislature passed Henry Bergh's charter incorporating The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; April 19, 1866 - anti-cruelty law passed, ASPCA given right to enforce it (full time staff of three).

1868 - Banker James Sloan Hutchinson rescued squealing boar from  inhumane behavior of two men who were dragging it to market along street's rough cobblestone; called together group of 15 fellow humanitarians to found The San Francisco SPCA; April 18, 1868 - SF/SPCA received charter from State of California; fourth SPCA in nation, first animal welfare organization west of Rockies; 1884 - built first horse ambulance in West; 1905 - assumed responsibility for city's lost, abused, unwanted animals; 1989 - transferred role of animal control back to municipal government, concentrated on saving animal lives; 1994 - forged Adoption Pact with San Francisco Department of Animal Care & Control, guaranteed that no adoptable dog, cat in San Francisco would be euthanized; December 8, 2008 - opened 60,000 square foot Leanne B. Roberts Animal Care Center; state-of-the-art veterinary hospital, largest medical area of any veterinary hospital in North America, second largest veterinary hospital in North America.

James Sloan Hutchinson - San Francisco SPCA (http://www.sfspca.org/sites/default/files/72_history.jpg)

February 16, 1868 - Charles Algernon Sidney Vivian, English-born actor, member of British fraternity known as Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes, founded Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks formally organized in New York City; declared purposes to practice its four cardinal virtues, Charity - Justice - Brotherly Love - and Fidelity; to promote the welfare and enhance the happiness of its members; to Quicken the spirit of American Patriotism; and to cultivate good fellowship.

April 6, 1869 - Albert Smith Bickmore, one-time student of Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz, succeeded in his proposal to create a natural history museum in New York City; won support of William E. Dodge, Jr., Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., Joseph Choate, J. Pierpont Morgan; Governor of New York, John Thompson Hoffman, signed bill officially creating the American Museum of Natural History; June 2, 1874 - U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant laid cornerstone for the Museum’s first building at 77th Street and Central Park West.

February 10, 1870 - YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association) formed (New York City).

November 24, 1871 - The National Rifle Association  incorporated; first president named: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside.

July 1, 1874 - First zoo in United States opened, in Philadelphia, PA.

November 19, 1874 - The Women's Christian Temperance Union organized in Cleveland, Ohio.

March 10, 1880 - The Salvation Army arrived in United States from England.

May 21, 1881 - Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross.

November 15, 1881 - The American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded.

January 13, 1888 - Thirty-three founding members met at  Cosmos Club, Washington, DC., to create "a society for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge"; January 27, 1888 - The National Geographic Society was incorporated in Washington DC; January 7, 1898 - Alexander Graham Bell assumed presidency of National Geographic Society.

May 28, 1892 - Sierra Club founded "to explore, enjoy, and rendure accessible the mountain regions of the Pacific Coast; to publish authentic information concerning them," and "to enlist the support and cooperation of the people and government in preserving the forests and other natural features of the Sierra Nevada." John Muir elected president; 182 men and women charter members; first conservation effort -campaign to defeat a proposed reduction in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park; June 4, 1892 - Sierra Club Incorporated in San Francisco.

May 23, 1895  - Agreement signed to combine [John Jacob] Astor, [James] Lenox libraries, [Samuel J.] Tilden Trust into New York Public Library; May 23, 1911 - NYPL dedicated; May 24, 1911 - opened to 30-50,000 visitors.

February 19, 1896 - Members of Detroit Chamber of Commerce and Detroit Manufacturers Club formed The Detroit Convention and Business Mens' League to attract convention business to Detroit; gathered list of more than 300 prospects by end of year; formal beginning of concention and visitors bureau industry; 2003 - 12.5 million people attended 12,223 conventions, spent $16 billion (source: Meetings and Conventions Magazine); 155,625 other scheduled meetings generated $13.7 billion in revenue; convention and visitors bureaus 'sell' average of 10,500 hotel rooms per night per year, fund 82% of operating expenses from collected taxes, average 14 employees, have average operating budget of $5.1 million (source: Destination Management Association International).

February 17, 1897 - Alice McLellan Birney founded National Congress of Mothers, forerunner of Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), in Washington, DC as traditional "maternalist" organization; depended for its legitimacy on simultaneous avowal of mothers' rights to influence public policy, disavowal of women's rights leading to sex "equality"; greatest success was nationwide campaign for "mothers' pension" legislation, afforded small stipends to "deserving" single mothers, usually white widows, formed basis for Aid to Dependent Children program of New Deal; 1924 - renamed National Congress of Parents and Teachers.

November 1, 1897 - First Library of Congress building opened to public; previously housed in Congressional Reading Room of United States Capitol building.

1901 - Mary Harriman (19) formed Junior League for Promotion of Settlement Movements; mobilized 80 young women (hence name "Junior" League) to work to improve child health, nutrition, literacy among immigrants living on Lower East Side of Manhattan; 1903 - Eleanor Roosevelt joined Junior League of City of New York, taught calisthenics, dancing to young girls at College Settlement House. 

Mary Harriman Mary Harriman - Founder Junior League (hhttp://www.ajli.org/ama/orig/MaryHarriman_new.jpg)

1902 - Rev. Edgar J. Helms, Methodist minister and early social innovator, founded an ‚€œindustrial program as well as a social service enterprise" in Boston; 1910 - formally incorporated, housed in Boston's Morgan Memorial Chapel, became known as Morgan Memorial Cooperative Industries and Stores, Inc.; ‚€œGoodwill Industries‚€Ě later adopted after Brooklyn, NY workshop coined the phrase.

January 28, 1902 - Andrew Carnegie established The Carnegie Institute in Washington, DC with a $10 million endowment; designed "to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind"; translated into an organization dedicated to research and education in "biology, astronomy, and the earth sciences."

1903 - Edward F. Adams, San Francisco Chronicle editorial writer, John P. Young, managing editor of Chronicle, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, president of University of California, Frederick Burk, president of what became San Francisco State University, William P. Lawlor, attorney who later became a justice of the California Supreme Court, founded Commonwealth Club in San Francisco national forum open to all for impartial discussion of public issues important to membership, community, nation; 1911 - Theodore Roosevelt appeared before organization; 1990 - began offering regular programs in other regions of Bay Area; 1997 - World Forum of Silicon Valley merged with The Commonwealth Club.

Edward F. Adams - Commonwealth Club  (http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQmkDGYzBudGSfIbwOqp_td-YAE5xing1nXNuSMGH-V0mRAyp4cXQ&t=1)

1905 - Winifred and Edith Holt founded Lighthouse International in New York City; 1906 - incorporated as The New York Association for the Blind; 1907 - organized First Lay Committee for Prevention of Blindness (later became National Society for the Prevention of Blindness). 

February 23, 1905 - Paul P. Harris, attorney, in Chicago, IL formed The Rotary Club, held first meeting; wished to recapture in professional club same friendly spirit he had felt in small towns of his youth; name "Rotary" derived from early practice of rotating meetings among members' offices.

1906 - Mabel Cratty became General Secretary of newly created National Board, Young Women's Christian Association, two years after entering Y. W. C. A. work in Chicago; only about ten workers, activities directed from one room; grew to 110 women secretaries in 13 foreign countries, 1,300 associations in United States, membership of more than 600,000.

May 1906 - Bancroft Library (UC-Berkeley). Contents of library of Hubert Howe Bancroft (1852 - began his career as a bookseller in San Francisco, built largest book and stationery business west of Chicago, developed a passion for collecting materials on the western regions of North and South America, from Alaska to Patagonia), ferried across the bay to University of California, Berkeley; contained about 60,000 items (rare manuscripts, maps, books, pamphlets, transcripts of archives); signaled the beginning of the University as a research institution; evolved into the most accessible and heavily used special collections library in the country.

May 19, 1906 - The Federated Boys' Clubs in Boston formed with 53 member organizations (first club in Hartford, CT in 1860); 1931 - Boys Club Federation of America became Boys Clubs of America; 1990 - national organization's name changed to Boys & Girls Clubs of America. 

April 19, 1907 - Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage established Russell Sage Foundation for "the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States" (died in 1906, left fortune of about $70 million to his wife); one of oldest of America's general purpose foundations; since World War II, the Foundation has devoted its efforts to strengthening the social sciences as a means of achieving more informed and rational social policy.

May 19, 1907 - Group of prominent New York City business people, philanthropists founded Japan Society; 1911 - produced its first exhibition; annual lecture series initiated; 1922 - first film screening (four-reel film of crown prince's 1921 visit to Europe); 1928 - Education Program initiated with display of Good Will Dolls sent to America by more than 2,500,000 school children in Japan; 1952 - activities slowly resumed, stewardship of John D. Rockefeller 3rd (to 1978) led to unified vision, firm financial foundation with revitalized mission "to bring the people of the United States and of Japan closer together in their appreciation and understanding of each other"; 1953 - Performing Arts Program introduced American audiences to more than 500 programs of Japan's vibrant contemporary, revered traditional dance, music theater; facilitated Eleanor Roosevelt's participation in Intellectual Interchange Program; 1971 - Japan House, designed by architect Junzo Yoshimura, opened; 1972 - Toyota Language Center began with single class.

John D. Rockefeller, 3rd





John D. Rockefeller 3rd - Japan Society (http://www.rockarch.org/bio/images/jdr3Bio.jpg)

July / August 1907 - Sir Robert Baden-Powell held experimental camp on Brownsea Island, Poole, Dorset to test ideas on giving greater variety in training of boys in good citizenship; brought together 22 boys, some from public schools and some from working class homes, put them into camp under his leadership; resulted in the foundation of World Scout & Guide Movements.

January 24, 1908 - Boy Scouts movement began in England with publication of first installment of Robert Baden-Powell's "Scouting for Boys"; 1900 - Baden-Powell became national hero in Britain for his 217-day defense of Mafeking in South African War; September 1909 - first national Boy Scout meeting held at Crystal Palace in London (10,000 Scouts showed up, including  group of uniformed girls who called themselves Girl Scouts); 1910 - Baden-Powell organized Girl Guides as separate organization; February 8, 1910 - Chicago publisher William Boyce incorporated Boy Scouts of America; 1912 - Juliette Gordon Low founded Girl Scouts of America in Savannah, GA; 1916 - Baden-Powell organized Wolf Cubs, caught on as Cub Scouts in United States, for boys under age of 11; 1920 - first international Boy Scout Jamboree held in London, Baden-Powell acclaimed Chief Scout of world.

Robert Baden-Powell



Robert Baden-Powell - Founder of Boy Scouts  (http://www.nndb.com/people/049/000044914/bp.jpg)

February 12, 1909 - Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. DuBois, Henry Moscowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard, William English Walling founded The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (initially called the National Negro Committee).

1910 - New Brunswick, NJ established New Brunswick Board of Trade to provide local businesses with an outlet to network with each other, identify opportunities to grow; name later changed to New Brunswick Chamber of Commerce and the Raritan Valley Chamber of Commerce; 1980s - name changed to Middlesex County Regional Chamber of Commerce (Convention & Visitors Bureau); voice of Business Community in Central New Jersey; 2010 - represented over 700 member organizations with over 50,000 employees.

February 8, 1910 - William D. Boyce incorporated The Boy Scouts of  America.

William D. Boyce - founder of Boy Scouts of America (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/William_D_Boyce.png

March 17, 1910 - Luther Gulick, M.D., his wife, Charlotte,  founded Camp Fire Girls in Lake Sebago, Maine as first nonsectarian organization for girls in United States; 1975 - membership expanded to include boys; serves nearly 750,000 children and youth annually.

1911 - Group of Chicago men began meeting to discuss business, make contacts, share experiences; called themselves The Executives’ Club of Chicago; became business forum for thought leadership, professional development, best business practices; one of nation’s oldest, most prestigious business organizations; provides information, resources needed to establish effective global partnerships, enhance intellectual exchange, develop future diverse business leaders, promote Chicago as a world class global business center.

May 23, 1911 - President William Howard Taft dedicated New York Public Library, largest marble structure ever constructed in United States; occupied two-block section of Fifth Avenue between 40th and 42nd Streets, beaux-arts structure took 14 years to complete at cost of $9 million; May 24, 1911 - opened doors to public, some 40,000 citizens passed through to make use of a collection that already consisted of more than a million books.

1912 - National Vigilance Committee to monitor advertising created; 1946 - Associated Advertising Clubs of the World (1921), National Association of Better Business Bureaus, Inc. (1933) merged, became Association of Better Business Bureaus, Inc.; November 4, 1952 - Association of Better Business Bureaus, Inc. registered "Better Business Bureau" trademark first used in October 1927 (investigative and information services relative to business and trade practices for protecting responsible business against abusive business practices and for establishing and maintaining legitimate advertising and merchandising practices); 1970 - merged into Council of Better Business Bureaus; June 21, 1994 - Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc. registered "Torch" logo first used in May 1962.

March 12, 1912 - Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low assembled 18 girls for meeting of Girl Guides in Savannah, GA; later became Girl Scouts of America; June 10, 1915 - organization  incorporated as Girl Scouts, Inc. under laws of the District of Columbia; December 1917 - Mistletoe Troop, in Muskogee, OK, baked cookies, sold them in its high school cafeteria as a service project; 2006 - 200 million boxes of cookies generate $700 million in sales.

Portrait of Juliette Gordon Low by A. Jonnieaux, commissioned by Low for the boardroom of Juliette Gordon Low - founder of Girl Scouts of America (http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/media_content/m-3369.jpg)

April 12, 1912 - Group of 700 delegates, from various commercial, trade organizations, formed U.S. Chamber of Commerce, unified body of business interest; 2002 - represented more than 3 million businesses, nearly 3,000 state and local chambers, 830 associations, over 90 American Chambers of Commerce abroad.

1913 -  Fifteen prominent physicians, business leaders in New York City founded American Society for the Control of Cancer (ASCC); 1945 - reorganized as American Cancer Society.

March 14, 1913 - John D. Rockefeller gave $100 million to Rockefeller Foundation.

February 13, 1914 - The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, known as ASCAP, founded in New York City.

January 21, 1915 - State of Michigan approved corporate  charter for first Kiwanis (from Otchipew Native American "NunKee-wan-is", translated as "we have a good time, we make noise") Club in Detroit, MI; results of organizing efforts of Allen S. Browne (professional organizer, owns rights to organization, collected $5 fee for each new member) and Joseph C. Prance (tailor, first "Kiwanian"); Prance and Ottie Robertson (club secretary) started club in Cleveland; 1916 - became international with  organization of Kiwanis club of Hamilton, ON; 1919 - organization bought Browne out for  $17,500; 1921 - adopted policies that emphasized community service (urban-rural cooperation, public affairs, underprivileged children); 1924 - 1,200 clubs; 90,000 members;  1962 - worldwide expansion approved; 2006 - 8,400 clubs in 96 nations; more than 600,000 active members; slogan: "Serving the Children of the World".

August 1916 - Boys’ and Girls’ Bureau committee formed at  Eastern States Agricultural and Industrial Exposition in Springfield, MA to raise funds for general advancement of activities for boys and girls; 1919 - Junior Achievement started, headed by Theodore N. Vail, president of AT&T; February 27, 1920 - committee changes its name to the Junior Achievement Bureau; October 1920 - Horace A. Moses, president of the Strathmore Paper Company, becomes chairman of the Junior Achievement Bureau (serves for 27 years); April 18, 1921 - Junior Achievement incorporated.

 1918 - Horace Moses, President of Strathmore Paper Co.,  Theodore Vail, president of American Telephone & Telegraph co-founded Junior Achievement; February 1920 - committee changed name to Junior Achievement Bureau; October 1920 - Horace A. Moses named chairman (serves for 27 years).

June 17, 1917 - Melvin Jones, Chicago businessman, member of Business Circle of Chicago, convened organizational meeting to discuss expansion of business clubs' horizons from purely professional concerns to betterment of communities and world at large; took name of one of the invited groups, the "Association of Lions Clubs"; October 1917 - national convention held in Dallas, TX; constitution, by-laws, objects, code of ethics approved.

December 12, 1917 - Father Edward J. Flanagan, 31-year-old Irish priest, opened Boys Town, home for troubled, neglected children at 106 North 25th Street, Omaha, NE; six boys entered to seek better life; 1921 - more than 1,300 neglected boys from 17 states had passed through Boys Town.

1919 - Eglantyne Jebb established Save the Children Fund in England to provide aid to young survivors in war-ravaged Vienna; 1923 - wrote Children's Charter; 1932 - John Voris founded Save the Children (U.S.) in New York to help needy Appalachian children through programs that help families better provide for their children; 1933 - working with families and communities in five state; 1989 - UN General Assembly unanimously adopted Convention on the Rights of the Child, comprehensive treaty, based on Jebb's 1923 declaration of rights and protections for children; 1998 - ratified by all but three countries.

Eglantyne Jebb. (Copyright: Save the Children UK) Eglantyne Jebb - Save the Children Fund  (http://www.childrensradiofoundation.org.php5-12.dfw1-1.websitetestlink.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/doc-eglantyne-jebb6.jpg)

March 15, 1919 - The American Legion founded in Paris; November 10, 1919 - held first national convention in Minneapolis.

October 22, 1924 - Toastmasters International founded.

June 10, 1935 - William G. Wilson (stockbroker from New York City), Dr. Robert Smith (heart surgeon from Akron, OH) founded Alcoholics Anonymous; July 15, 1948 - Alcoholic Anonymous founded in Britain.

January 15, 1936 - Henry Ford established Ford Foundation as legal device with which Ford family could escape then-President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "soak the rich" taxes. The foundation received a 95 percent equity on all non-voting Ford stock, while the family retained a five percent equity of all voting common stock. Without the restructuring, the Ford family would have had to pay over $321 million in federal inheritance taxes. To pay, the family would have had to sell so much of their stock that they would have lost control over the company. By the end of 1955 - foundation had disposed of $875 million of the family fortune, announced plans to diversify its assets by selling 7,000,000 million shares of Ford stock. at its height, the Ford Foundation had assets of $4 billion; promotes: population control, famine prevention,  the arts and educational media, peace and the protection of the environment.

1936 - Joseph Knapp held first organizational meeting of Ducks Unlimited; January 29, 1937 - incorporated in Washington, DC to conserve, restore, manage wetlands and associated habitats for North America's waterfowl.

February 5, 1936 - National Wildlife Federation formed.

January 3, 1938 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt, adult victim of polio, founded National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed March of Dimes Foundation; non-partisan association of health scientists and volunteers that helped fund research for a polio vaccine and assisted victims on the long path through physical rehabilitation; at a fundraiser, celebrity singer Eddie Cantor jokingly urged the public to send dimes to the president, coining the term "March of Dimes"; public took his appeal seriously, flooded the White House with 2,680,000 dimes and thousands of dollars in donations; 1941 - foundation provided funding for the development of an improved iron lung, which helped polio patients to breathe when muscle control of the lungs was lost; 1949 - March of Dimes appointed Dr. Jonas Salk to lead research for a polio vaccine; 1955 - Salk developed and tested the first successful polio vaccine.

1939 - Women's Volunteer Service for Civil Defense in London, UK prepared, delivered meals to disadvantaged neighbors (homeless after German planes bombarded English soil); brought refreshments in canteens to servicemen during World War II; canteens came to be known as "Meals on Wheels"; first organized nutrition program; January 1954 - Margaret Toy, social worker in Philadelphia's Lighthouse Community Center, pioneered program to provide nourishment that met dietary needs of homebound seniors, other "shut-ins" in area who otherwise would have to go hungry; requested by Philadelphia Health & Welfare Council, funded by grant from Henrietta Tower Wurtz Foundation; charged fee ranging from 40 to 80 cents per day based on individual's ability to pay; first American home-delivered meal program; Columbus, OH was second city to establish community based meals program; 1958 - city of Rochester, NY began home-delivered meal program.

February 4, 1941 - United Service Organizations, civilian agency, incorporated in New York State; formed by pooled resources of YMCA, YWCA, National Catholic Community Service, the National Jewish Welfare Board, the Traveler’s Aid Association and the Salvation Army to handle the on-leave recreation needs for the members of the Armed Forces; sent many actors, musicians, and other performers to entertain the troops; 1948 - original USO disbanded; 1949 - formed again, still exists, provides recreation, entertainment, children's programs and other services to U.S. military families.

October 5, 1942 - Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (Oxfam) met for first time; aim: to high-light the problems created by the Nazi occupation of Greece, and requesting that relief be sent to those in most urgent need; Canon T R Milford of the University Church and Professor Gilbert Murray, a member of the national Committee and former Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, are founding members; 1943 - registers as nonprofit.

April 25, 1944 - United Negro College Fund incorporated with 27 member colleges; 1943 - Dr. Frederick D. Patterson, President of Tuskeegee Institute, wrote an open letter in the Pittsburgh Courier to the presidents of other private black colleges; urged them to pool their financial resources and appeal to the nation's conscience.

November 4, 1946 - The Constitution of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) became effective (headquarters if n Paris); November 16, 1945 - charter was signed by 37 states in London; main objective is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, culture and communication.

December 11, 1946 - General Assembly of the United Nations voted to establish United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), organization to help provide relief,  support to children living in countries devastated by war; two countries have failed to ratify the treaty--Somalia (does not currently have an internationally recognized government) and the United States (because of concerns about its potential impact on national sovereignty and the parent-child relationship).

1949 - Walter Paepcke, Chairman of Container Corporation of America and Trustee of University of Chicago, organized Goethe Bicentennial Convocations in Aspen, CO, 20-day celebration of the 200th birthday of German poet and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; 1950 - created what is now Aspen Institute; Institute's Executive Seminar (patterned on Great Books program at U. of Chicago) - leaders better understand human challenges facing organizations, communities they serve; Institute supported 15 policy programs directed by leading policymakers, practitioners: international peace and security, democracy and citizenship; economic opportunity; social innovation through business; the nonprofit sector; community initiatives for children and families.

December 12, 1955 - The Ford Foundation made the biggest donation to charity the world had ever seen: $500,000,000 to hospitals, medical schools, and colleges.

1956 - John D. Rockefeller 3rd founded Asia Society; initially established to promote greater knowledge of Asia in U.S.; today a global institution (offices throughout U.S. and Asia) that fulfills educational mandate through wide range of cross-disciplinary programming; programs have expanded to address Asian American issues, effects of globalization, pressing concerns in Asia (human rights, status of women, environmental and global health issues).

May 8, 1956 - Henry Ford II resigned as chair of Ford Foundation. 

1958 - Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus, retired high school principal, founded American Association for Retired Persons (AARP) to promote independence, dignity, purpose for older persons, to enhance quality of life for older persons, to encourage older people "To serve, not to be served"; had founded National Retired Teachers Association (NRTA) in 1947  to promote productive aging, need of retired teachers for health insurance; 1999 - name changed to AARP.

May 28, 1961 - Amnesty International, human rights organization, founded as British lawyer, Peter Benenson, launched an Appeal for Amnesty '61 with publication of article, "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The London Observer newspaper, London (UK) about imprisonment of two Portuguese students who had raised their wine glasses in toast to freedom; appeal reprinted in other papers across world; organization; based mandate on United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (document created through work of American Eleanor Roosevelt, adopted by United Nations General Assembly in December 1954); created on principle that people have fundamental rights that transcend national, cultural, religious, ideological boundaries; worked to obtain prompt and fair trials for all prisoners, to end torture and executions, to secure release of prisoners of conscience; July 1961 - first international meeting with delegates from Belgium, UK, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland and the United States decides to establish "a permanent international movement in defense of freedom of opinion and religion."

Peter Benenson Peter Benenson - founder Amnesty International  (http://www.amnesty.org.nz/files/73485_Peter_Benenson_signs_UDHR_petition%20(1).jpg)

1962 - Felice N. Schwartz founded Catalyst to help women enter the workforce; first board of directors comprised five college presidents (Smith, Wellesley, Lawrence, Mills, Sarah Lawrence) who endorsed idea of organization to expand options for women; 1969- first national survey of employer attitudes towards hiring women for part-time management positions; 1971 - established National Network of Career Resource Centers; 1977 - created Corporate Board Placement service; 1980 - established Career and Family Center; 1986 - created Center for Career and Leadership Development; 1993 - established national benchmark for women's progress in corporate America.

Felice N. Schwartz - Founder, Catalyst  (http://internationalwomensday.org/sites/default/files/ imagecache/480X360_scale/image/blog/felice.gif)

June 30, 1966 - 28 persons attending Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women founded National Organization for Women in Washington, DC.

September 26, 1971 - 'Greenpeace' founded by 12 activists who set sail on the Phyllis Cormack from Vancouver, BC across the Gulf of Alaska for Amchitka Island, a tiny island off the West Coast of Alaska, which is one of the world's most earthquake-prone regions, site of US underground nuclear testing. Amchitka was the last refuge for 3000 endangered sea otters, and home to bald eagles, peregrine falcons and other wildlife. US still detonated the bomb, but the voice of reason had been heard. Nuclear testing on Amchitka ended that same year, and the island was later declared a bird sanctuary; July 10, 1987 - Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior, flagship of international conservation group, sinks after French agents in diving gear plant a bomb on the hull of the vessel in Aukland Harbor, New Zealand; had been preparing for a protest voyage to a French nuclear test site in the South Pacific. French authorities denied responsibility in the bombing and continued to do so even after New Zealand police arrested two French secret service agents. Later in the year, however, a British newspaper uncovered evidence of French President Francois Mitterrand's authorization of the bombing plan, leading to several top-level resignations in Mitterrand's cabinet and an admission by French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius that the agents had sunk the vessel under orders; two agents pleaded guilty to the lesser charges of manslaughter and willful damage and were each sentenced to 10 years in prison. Following negotiations with the French government, New Zealand released them a year later; 1992 - President Mitterrand ordered a halt to French nuclear testing; 1995 - resumed.

1976 - Millard Fuller, his wife, Linda, co-founded Americus, Georgia-based Habitat for Humanity; two goals: build as many houses as it can, using the principles of sweat equity, no interest, no-profit, volunteer-driven construction- one house, one family at a time-in every corner of the world; make housing a matter of conscience everywhere.

1982 - Gael Greene, restaurant critic for New York magazine, and James Beard founded Citymeals-on-Wheels, raised private funds to supplement government-funded weekday meal delivery program conducted through City's Department for the Aging; collected $30,000, provided 6,000 holiday Christmas and Hanukkah meals; June 30, 2006 - funded preparation, delivery of over 2 million meals to more than 17,000 homebound elderly New Yorkers.

Gael Greene - co-founder Citymeals-on-Wheels  (http://www.epicurious.com/images/features/articles/gael/gael_greene.jpg)

beard051506.JPG James Beard - co-founder Citymeals-on-Wheels  (http://www.nndb.com/people/922/000115577/james-beard-1-sized.jpg)

1982 - Helen verDuin Palit, soup kitchen worker, founded City Harvest; noticed that neighboring restaurants were wasting good food every day; gathered volunteers and borrowed cars and vans to transport the food from where it was not needed to where it was needed; has distributed more than 100 million pounds of food to network of more than 800 emergency food programs throughout New York City; delivers average of 53,000 pounds of food daily; cost to deliver a pound of food is 24 cents.

Helen verDuin Palit Helen verDuin Palit - founder City Harvest  (http://www.ttu.edu/profiles/images/Palit-Helen.jpg)

January 20, 2004 - The Salvation Army announced donation likely to exceed $1.5 billion from estate of Joan Kroc, widow of McDonald's founder Ray Kroc.

June 2009 - Giving USA Foundation reported charitable giving in 2008 ($307.65 billion) fell by largest percentage in five decades (decrease of 5.7% on inflation-adjusted basis over $314 billion given in 2007).


(AARP), Charles R. Morris (1996). The AARP: America's Most Powerful Lobby and the Clash of Generations. (New York, NY: Times Books, 286 p.). American Association of Retired Persons--History; Retirees--United States--Social conditions.

Ethel Percy Andrus - AARP (http://www.obcgs.com/ firstwomen/andrus.gif)

(AARP), Dale Van Atta (1998). Trust Betrayed: Inside the AARP. (Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 208 p.). American Association of Retired Persons--Corrupt practices; Retirees--Societies, etc.--Corrupt practices--United States; Pressure groups--Corrupt practices--United States; Lobbying--Corrupt practices--United States.

(Alabama Baptist Children’s Home), Cynthia Adams Wise (1991). The Alabama Baptist Children’s Home: The First One Hundred Years. (Montgomery, AL: Brown Print. Co., 208 p.). Alabama Baptist Children’s Home--History; Baptists--Alabama--Charities--History; Church work with orphans--Alabama--History.

(American Bible Society), Peter J. Wosh (1994). Spreading the Word: The Bible Business in Nineteenth-Century America. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 271 p.). Professor of History (NYU). American Bible Society -- History -- 19th century; Bible -- Publication and distribution -- United States; United States -- Social conditions; United States -- Economic conditions.

(American Cancer Society), Walter S. Ross (1987). Crusade: The Official History of the American Cancer Society. (New York, NY: Arbor House, 283 p.). American Cancer Society--History; Cancer--Research--United States--History.

(American Museum of Natural History), Geoffrey Hellman (1969). Bankers, Bones & Beetles; The First Century of the American Museum of Natural History. (Garden City, NY: Published for the American Museum of Natural History [by] the Natural History Press, 275 p.). American Museum of Natural History.

(Arizona Historical Society), C.L. Sonnichsen (1984). Pioneer Heritage: The First Century of the Arizona Historical Society. (Tucson, AZ: Arizona Historical Society, 230 p.). Arizona Historical Society --History.

(ASPCA - oldest humane organization in America, founded 1866), Alvin F. Harlow (1957). Henry Bergh, Founder of the A.S.P.C.A. (New York, NY: J. Messner, 186 p.). Bergh, Henry, 1811-1888; American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; Animal rights activists--Biography; Animal welfare--Societies, etc.

1. Henry Bergh - ASPCA (http://www.aspca.org/about-us/~/media/Files/about-us/images-misc-sizes/henry-bergh-etching.ashx)

(Aspen Institute), Sidney Hyman (1975). The Aspen Idea. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 386 p.). Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies.

(Arizona Historical Society), C.L. Sonnichsen (1984). Pioneer Heritage: The First Century of the Arizona Historical Society. (Tucson, AZ: Arizona Historical Society, 230 p.). Arizona Historical Society--History.

(Atlantic Philanthropies), Conor O'Clery (2007). The Billionaire Who Wasn't: How Chuck Feeney Secretly Made and Gave Away a Fortune. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 352 p.). Former Foreign Correspondent for The Irish Times in London, Moscow, Beijing, Washington, and New York. Feeney, Chuck; Duty Free Shoppers; Philanthropists -- Biography. One of greatest untold retail triumphs of 20th century, one of greatest, most mysterious American philanthropists in modern times; 1988 - 23rd on Forbes richest list; secretly transferred all his wealth to  foundation, Atlantic Philanthropies; one of greatest, most mysterious American philanthropists in modern times. 

(Battelle Memorial Institute), George A.W. Boehm, Alex Groner (1986). Science in the Service of Mankind: The Battelle Story. (Columbus, OH: Battelle Press, 197 p. [4th ed.]). Battelle Memorial Institute--History; Research institutes--Ohio--History.

(Boston Public Library), Walter Muir Whitehill (1956). Boston Public Library; a Centennial History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 274 p.). Boston Public Library -- History.

Photo of Nicholas Vattemare Nicholas Marie Alexandre Vattemare  - advocated establishing public library in Boston @1827  (http://www.bpl.org/graphics/Vattemar_n.jpg)

(Boy Scouts), Michael Rosenthal (1986). The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement. (New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 335 p.). Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Baron, 1857-1941; Boy Scouts--Biography; Boy Scouts--History; England--Social conditions--19th century.

(Boy Scouts), Tim Jeal (1990). The Boy-Man: The Life of Lord Baden-Powell. (New York, NY: Morrow, 670 p.). Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Baron, 1857-1941; Great Britain. Army--Biography; Generals--Great Britain--Biography; Boy Scouts--Great Britain--Biography.

(Boy Scouts), Robert H. MacDonald (1993). Sons of the Empire: The Frontier and the Boy Scout Movement, 1890-1918. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 258 p.). Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Baron, 1857-1941; Boy Scouts--History; Frontier and pioneer life.

(Cambridge University Library), J.C.T. Oates (1986). Cambridge University Library: A History. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, vol. 1). Cambridge University Library--History; Academic libraries--England--Cambridge (Cambridgeshire)--History. Incomplete Contents: [1] From the beginnings to the Copyright Act of Queen Anne.

(Cambridge University Library), David McKitterick (1986). Cambridge University Library: A History: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 812 p., Vol. 2). Cambridge University Library--History; Academic libraries--England--Cambridge (Cambridgeshire)--History.

(Carnegie Foundation), Ellen Condliffe Lagemann (1983). Private Power for the Public Good: A History of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 246 p.). Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching--History.

(Carnegie Foundation), Ellen Condliffe Lagemann (1992). The Politics of Knowledge: The Carnegie Corporation, Philanthropy, and Public Policy. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 347 p.). Carnegie Corporation of New York--History; Endowments--United States--History; United States--Social policy.

(Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York), Joseph Bucklin Bishop (1918). A Chronicle of One Hundred & Fifty Years; The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1768-1918. (New York, NY, Scribner, 311 p.). Former New York Newspaper Editor. New York. Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York. Chamber of Commerce.

(Chicago Historical Society), Catherine M. Lewis (2005). The Changing Face of Public History: The Chicago Historical Society and the Transformation of an American Museum. (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 172 p.). Associate Professor of History and Women’s Studies (Kennesaw State University) and Special Projects Coordinator for the Atlanta History Center. Chicago Historical Society; Historical museums --Illinois --Chicago; Public history --Illinois --Chicago. Prevailing assumptions about museum as commemorative site dedicated to civic pride undermined attempts to create public forum to interpret city's past; ways in which one of most innovative museums in US has continually grappled with issues confronting museum professionals, those concerned about role of history in lives of American citizens.

(City Parochial Foundation), Victor Belcher (1991). The City Parochial Foundation, 1891-1991: A Trust for the Poor of London. (Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar Press, 378 p.). City Parochial Foundation (London, England)--History; Charities--England--London--History; Poor--England--London--History.

(Cleveland Foundation), Diane Tittle (1992). Rebuilding Cleveland: The Cleveland Foundation and Its Evolving Urban Strategy. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 328 p.). Cleveland Foundation--History; Endowments--Ohio--Cleveland--History; Social responsibility of business--Ohio--Cleveland--History; Cleveland (Ohio)--Social conditions.

(Cleveland Museum of Art), William Mathewson Milliken (1975). A Time Remembered: A Cleveland Memoir. (Cleveland, OH: Western Reserve Historical Society, 187 p.). Milliken, William Mathewson, 1889- ; Cleveland Museum of Art; Cleveland (Ohio)--Social life and customs. 

(Cleveland Museum of Art), William Mathewson Milliken (1977). Born Under the Sign of Libra: An Autobiography. (Cleveland, OH: Western Reserve Historical Society, 299 p.). Milliken, William Mathewson, 1889- ; Cleveland Museum of Art; Museum directors--United States--Biography.

(Concern), Tony Farmar (2002). Believing in Action: The First Thirty Years of Concern, 1968-1998. (Dublin, IR: A. & A. Farmar, 246 p.). Concern (Organization)--History; Humanitarian assistance, Irish--History; International relief--Developing countries; Humanitarian assistance--Developing countries; Community development--Developing countries.

(Consumers Union), Editors of Consumer Reports Books with Monte Florman; introduction by Walter Cronkite (1986). Testing: Behind the Scenes at Consumer Reports, 1936-1986. (Mount Vernon, NY: Consumers Union, 166 p.). Consumers Union of United States; Commercial products--Testing.

(Dallas Public Library), Michael V. Hazel (2001). The Dallas Public Library: Celebrating a Century of Service, 1901-2001. (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 252 p.). Dallas Public Library--History; Public libraries--Texas--Dallas--History--20th century.

(Detroit Institute of Arts), William H. Peck (1991). The Detroit Institute of Arts: A Brief History. (Detroit, MI, The Institute : Distributed by Wayne State University Press, 210 p.).Senior Curator of Ancient Art at the Detroit Institute of Arts.Detroit Institute of Arts --History.

(Detroit Institute of Arts), Jeffrey Abt (2001). A Museum on the Verge:A Socioeconomic History of the Detroit Institute of Arts, 1882-2000. (Detroit, MI  Wayne State University Press.315 p.).Associate Professor. Department of Art and Art History (Wayne State University).Detroit Institute of Arts --History; Art museums --Michigan --Management --History --20th century; Art museums --Michigan --Management --History --19th century.

(Detroit Museum of Art), Margaret Sterne (1980). The Passionate Eye: The Life of William R. Valentiner. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 407 p.). Valentiner, Wilhelm Reinhold, 1880-1958; Detroit. Museum of Art; Museum directors--United States--Biography.

(Dublin Chamber of Commerce), L.M. Cullen (1983). Princes & Pirates: The Dublin Chamber of Commerce, 1783-1983. (Dublin, IR: Dublin Chamber of Commerce, 126 p.). Dublin Chamber of Commerce--History; Dublin (Ireland)--History.

(Ducks Unlimited), S. Kip Farrington, Jr. (1945). The Ducks Came Back, The Story of Ducks Unlimited. (New York, NY: Coward-McCann, inc., 138 p.). Ducks Unlimited; Ducks; Duck shooting; Ducks--Protection of.

(Ducks Unlimited), Jon R. Tennyson (1977). A Singleness of Purpose: The Story of Ducks Unlimited. (Chicago, IL: Ducks Unlimited, 127 p.). Ducks Unlimited; Waterfowl management--North America--History.

(Edmonton Chamber of Commerce), John F. Gilpin (1983). Century of Enterprise: The History of the Edmonton Chamber of Commerce. (Edmonton, AB: Edmonton Chamber of Commerce, 193 p.). Edmonton Chamber of Commerce --History; Boards of trade --Alberta --Edmonton --History; Edmonton (Alta.) --Commerce --History.

(Exploratorium), K.C. Cole (1978). Vision: In the Eye of the Beholder. (San Francisco, CA: Exploratorium, 106 p.). Exploratorium (Organization); Vision --Exhibitions; Visual perception --Exhibitions; Optical illusions --Exhibitions.

(Exploratorium), Hilde Hein; foreword by Philip Morrison (1990). The Exploratorium: The Museum as Laboratory. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 256 p.). Exploratorium (Organization); Museums --California --San Francisco.

(Exploratorium), K. C. Cole (2009). Something Incredibly Wonderful Happens: Frank Oppenheimer and the World He Made Up. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 416 p.). Oppenheimer, Frank, 1912-1985; Physicists --United States --Biography. World-famous Exploratorium (San Francisco) founded by Frank Oppenheimer as hands-on science museum that continues to influence others in field; survey of his early career, his work at Exploratorium, his philosophy about science education, life.

(1912–1985). Like his brother, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, Frank both worked on the Manhattan Project and was a victim of the 1950s Red Scare. Blacklisted and unable to find a university professorship, he taught high school in Colorado, turning out scores of science prize winners. After moving to California, Oppenheimer drew on his teaching experience to found the Exploratorium, a hands-on science museum that continues to influence others in the field. In this fond memoir, well-regarded science writer Cole (The Universe and the Teacup), who knew Oppenheimer well, capably surveys his early career, but the book’s true subject is his work at the Exploratorium and his philosophy, not just of science education but of life. This constitutes most of the second half of the book, which may frustrate readers looking for pure biography, but it offers much that is provocative for those interested in science education.

(Grace A. Dow Memorial Library), Dorothy Langdon Yates (2000). Tell Me a Story- for One Hundred Years: The Grace A. Dow Memorial Library. (Midland, MI: Grace A. Dow Memoral Library, 142 p.). Grace A. Dow Memorial Library--History; Public libraries--Michigan--Midland--History.

(Glenmore Museum), Fred M. Diehl (1989). A Gentleman from a Fading Age: Eric Lafferty Harvie. (Calgary, AB: Devonian Foundation, 200 p.). Harvie, Eric Lafferty, 1892-1975; Petroleum industry and trade--Canada--History; Lawyers--Canada--Biography; Businesspeople--Canada--Biography; Philanthropists--Canada--Biography.

(Goodwill Industries of America), Beatrice Plumb (1965). Edgar James Helms, the Goodwill Man. (Minneapolis, MN: T. S. Denison, 231 p.). Helms, Edgar James 1863- ; Goodwill Industries of America.

Rev. Edgar J. Helms - Goodwill Industries  (http://www.yourgoodwill.org/images/photo_rev_edgar_helms.jpg)

(Goodwill Industries of America), John Fulton Lewis (1977). u> Goodwill: For the Love of People. (Washington, DC: Goodwill Industries of America, 456 p.). Goodwill Industries of America--History.

(Goodwill Industries of Mississippi), Lynda Sowell (1988). Thirty Years of Good Wll: The History of Goodwill Industries in Mississippi. (Jackson, MI: Goodwill Industries of Mississippi, 104 p.). Goodwill Industries of Mississippi--History; Vocational rehabilitation--Mississippi--History--20th century.

(Habitat for Humanity International Inc.), Paul Leonard (2006). Music of a Thousand Hammers: Inside Habitat for Humanity. (New York, NY: Continuum, 184 p.). Former CEO of Habitat for Humanity. Leonard, Paul, 1940- ; Habitat for Humanity International, Inc.; Low-income housing. How he got involved with Habitat, extraordinary experiences while working on projects around world.

(Independent Sector), Brian O'Connell (2005). Fifty Years in Public Causes: Stories from a Road Less Traveled. (Medford, MA: Tufts University Press, 242 p.). Cofounder, First President of Independent Sector; Professor at University College of Citizenship and Public Service (Tufts University). O'Connell, Brian; Independent Sector; Nonprofit organizations -- United States; careers -- nonproft. Memoir of life devoted to providing opportunities for citizens to improve their lives, strengthen their communities, empower democracy.

(International Rescue Committee), Andrew F. Smith; foreword by Henry A. Kissinger (2002). Rescuing the World: The Life and Times of Leo Cherne. (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 223 p.). Cherne, Leo, 1912- ; International Rescue Committee--History; Refugees--Services for; Human rights workers--Biography; Human services personnel--Biography.

(JSTOR), Roger C. Schonfeld (2003). JSTOR: A History. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 412 p.). Research Associate at the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. JSTOR (Organization)--History; JSTOR (Computer file); Periodicals--Databases. 

(Junior League of Denver), Ellen Kingman Fisher (1993). Junior League of Denver: Leaders in Community Service, 1918-1993. (Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 160 p.). Junior League of Denver--History; Women--Colorado--Denver--Societies and clubs--History; Women in community organization--Colorado--Denver--History.

(W. K. Kellogg Foundation), Mary B. Cohen (2005). From Vision to Innovative Impact: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Seventy-Five Years of Philanthropy. (Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 328 p.). W.K. Kellogg Foundation; Endowments--United States; Social action--Case studies; Community development--Case studies.

(Library of Congress), David C. Mearns (1972). The Story Up to Now: The Library of Congress, 1800-1946. (Boston, MA: Gregg Press, 226 p. [orig. pub. 1947]). Library of Congress--History.

image of Thomas Jefferson






Thomas Jefferson (http://millercenter.org/images/academic/americanpresident/presidents/jefferson.jpg)

(Library of Congress), John Y. Cole (1979). For Congress and the Nation: A Chronological History of the Library of Congress Through 1975. (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 196 p.). Library of Congress--History.

--- (1993). Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress. (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 103 p.). Library of Congress--History; National libraries--United States--History.

(Library of Congress), Jane Aikin Rosenberg (1993). The Nation's Great Library: Herbert Putnam and the Library of Congress, 1899-1939. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 235 p.). Putnam, Herbert, 1861-1955; Library of Congress--History; National libraries--United States--History; Libraries--United States--History.

(Library of Congress), James Conaway; foreword by James H. Billington; introduction by Edmund Morris (2000). America's Library: The Story of the Library of Congress, 1800-2000. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 226 p.). Library of Congress--History; National libraries--Washington (D.C.)--History--19th century; National libraries--Washington (D.C.)--History--20th century.

(Lincoln Center), Ralph G. Martin (1971). Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 192 p.). Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

(Lincoln Center), Edgar B. Young; with a foreword by Frank Stanton (1980). Lincoln Center, The Building of an Institution. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 334 p.). Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

(Lincoln Center), Alan Rich (1984). The Lincoln Center Story. (New York, NY: American Heritage Pub. Co., 128 p.). Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

(Lions International), Robert J. Casey and W. A. S. Douglas. (1949). The World's Biggest Doers; The Story of the Lions. (Chicago, IL: Wilcox & Follett, 307 p.). Lions International.

(Lions International), Glenn D. Kittler (1968). The Dynamic World of Lions International; The Fifty-Year Saga of Lions Clubs. (New York, NY: M. Evans, 240 p.). Lions International.

(Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce), Charles Dwight Willard (1899). A History of the Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles, California: From Its Foundation, September, 1888, to the Year 1900. (Los Angeles, CA: Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner, 322 p.). Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce.

(Mechanics’ Institute-San Francisco), Richard Reinhardt (2005). Four Books, 300 Dollars and a Dream: An Illustrated History of the First 150 Years of the Mechanics’ Institute of San Francisco. (San Francisco, CA: Mechanics’ Institute, 123 p.). Mechanics’ Institute (San Francisco, Calif.)--History. 1854 - skilled machinists, carpenters, dealers in building supplies, manufacturers of stoves, hand tools, wheels, barrels, wagons  held first meeting to stimulate growth of industry on Pacific Coast;  how pioneer reading room for education of craftsmen became major library, research facility, social center in heart of busy city.

(Memorial Art Gallery), Elizabeth Brayer (1988). Magnum Opus: The Story of the Memorial Art Gallery, 1913-1988. (Rochester, NY: The Gallery, 206 p.). University of Rochester. Memorial Art Gallery.

(MFA-Boston), Walter Muir Whitehill (1970). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; A Centennial History. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 888 p.). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

(MOMA), Russell Lynes (1973). Good Old Modern; An Intimate Portrait of the Museum of Modern Art. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 490 p.). Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.).

(MOMA), Alice Goldfarb Marquis (1989). Alfred H. Barr, Jr.: Missionary for the Modern. (Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 431 p.). Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902- ; Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)--History; Art museum directors--United States--Biography.

(Pierpont Morgan Library), Pierpont Morgan Library; foreword by Charles E. Pierce, Jr.; introduction by Jean Strouse (2007). The Morgan Library: An American Masterpiece. (New York, NY: The Library, 174 p.). Pierpont Morgan Library; Rare book libraries--New York (State)--New York; Research libraries--New York (State)--New York. Illustrated tribute to historic landmark.

(Morgan Pierpont Library), Heidi Ardizzone (2007). An Illuminated Life: Belle da Costa Greene’s Journey from Prejudice to Privilege. (New York, NY: Norton, 514 p.). Assistant Professor of American Studies (University of Notre Dame). Greene, Belle da Costa; Berenson, Bernard, 1865-1959 --Friends and associates; Pierpont Morgan Library--History; African American librarians--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Women library administrators--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Manuscripts--Collectors and collecting--New York (State)--New York--History; Art--Collectors and collecting--New York (State)--New York--History; Passing (Identity)--United States--Case studies; New York (N.Y.)--Intellectual life--20th century. 1905 - hired by J. P. Morgan to organize his rare book, manuscript collection; 1915 - had shaped Pierpont Morgan Library collection, was proto-celebrity in New York and art world, renowned for self-made expertise, acerbic wit, flirtatious relationships.  

(Montclair Art Museum), Robert D.B. Carlisle (1982). A Jewel in the Suburbs: The History of the Montclair Art Museum. (Montclair, N.J.: The Museum, 161 p.). Montclair Art Museum.

(Museum of Fine Arts Boston), Walter Muir Whitehill. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; A Centennial History. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2 vols.). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

(Museum of Science & Industry), Herman Kogan (1973). A Continuing Marvel; The Story of the Museum of Science and Industry. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 233 p.). Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago, Ill.).

(Museum of Science and Industry), Jay Pridmore (1996). Inventive Genius: The History of the Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago. (Chicago, IL: The Museum, 190 p.). Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago, Ill.)--History.

(National Cowboy Hall of Fame), Dean Krakel (1977). Adventures in Western Art. (Kansas City, MO: Lowell Press, 379 p.). Krakel, Dean Fenton, 1923- ; National Cowboy Hall of Fame and Western Heritage Center; Museum directors--United States--Biography; West (U.S.) in art.

(National Petroleum Council), Joseph A. Pratt, William H. Becker, & William M. McClenahan, Jr. (2002). Voice of the Marketplace: A History of the National Petroleum Council. (College Station, TX: Texas A & M University, 292 p.). National Petroleum Council--History; Petroleum industry and trade--Government policy--United States--History; Gas industry--Government policy--United States--History; Energy policy--United States--History; Environmental policy--United States--History; Energy advisory committees--United States--History; Executive advisory bodies--United States--History; National security--United States.

(National Institutes of Health), Judith Robinson (2001). Noble Conspirator: Florence S. Mahoney and the Rise of the National Institutes of Health. (Washington, DC: Francis Press, 342 p.). Mahoney, Florence S. (Florence Stephenson); Medicine--United States--Biography.

(Natural History Museum), Richard Fortey (2008). Dry Storeroom No. 1: The Secret Life of the Natural History Museum. (New York, NY: Knopf, 320 p.). Senior Paleontologist at the Natural History Museum in London. Natural History Museum--London--history. London’s Natural History Museum, its treasures, extraordinary people, meticulous research, driving passions; social history of scientific accomplishments of 19th, 20th, 21st centuries.

(Nature Conservancy), Bill Birchard (2005). Nature's Keepers: The Remarkable Story of How the Nature Conservancy Became the Largest Environmental Organization in the World. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 272 p.). Nature Conservancy (U.S.)--History. 

(NY Historical Society), Pamela Spence Richards (1984). Scholars and Gentlemen: The Library of the New-York Historical Society, 1804-1982 (Hamden, CT: Arhon Book, 144 p.). New-York Historical Society. Library -- History; Historical libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; Libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; Learning and scholarship -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; New York (N.Y.) -- Intellectual life.

(NY Historical Society), Larry E. Sullivan, Preface by Louise Mirrer (2004). The New-York Historical Society: A Bicentennial History, 1804-2004. (New York, NY: New-York Historical Society, in conjunction with Akashic Books, 125 p.). New-York Historical Society. Library -- History; Historical libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; Libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; Learning and scholarship -- New York (State) -- New York -- History; New York (N.Y.) -- Intellectual life. History of Society's collection building (from earliest gatherings of natural history specimens,  ancient Egyptian artifacts to rich holdings in: colonial and Revolutionary War manuscripts; rare books, including the first ones printed in New York; colonial and eighteenth century newspapers; approximately one million pieces of advertising ephemera; maps, prints, housands of paintings, including Audobon's watercolors; sculptures, decorative arts, furniture; more.

(New York Public Library), Phyllis Dain (1972). The New York Public Library; a History of Its Founding and Early Years. (New York, NY: New York Public Library, 466 p.). New York Public Library.

Photo of Dr. John Shaw Billings


Dr. John Shaw Billings - first NYPL director (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/about/ image/newbillingssmall.jpg)

--- (2000). The New York Public Library: A Universe of Knowledge. (London, UK: New York Public Library in association with Scala Publishers, 144 p.). New York Public Library--History--20th century; Public libraries--New York (State)--New York--History--20th century. 

(John M. Olin Foundation), John J. Miller (2005). A Gift of Freedom: How the John M. Olin Foundation Changed America. (San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books, 241 p.). Olin, John M., 1892-1982; John M. Olin Foundation--History; Conservatism--United States. "Venture capital fund for the conservative movement."

(Opportunity International), Philippa Tyndale (2004). Don't Look Back: The David Bussau Story: How an Abandoned Child Became a Champion of the Poor. (Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 299 p.). Bussau, David; Opportunity International (Australia); Philanthropists--Australia--Biography; Non-governmental organizations--Australia--Biography. 

(Peabody Institute), William Crowninshield Endicott (1911). History of the Peabody Institute, Danvers, Mass., 1852-1911. (Boston, MA: Thomas Todd Co., 166 p.). Peabody Institute (Danvers, Mass.).

(Peabody Museum), Walter Muir Whitehill (1949). The East India Marine Society and the Peabody Museum of Salem; A Sesquicentennial History. (Salem, MA: Peabody Museum, 243 p.). East-India Marine Society of Salem; Peabody Museum of Salem.

(Peale's Museum), Charles C. Sellers (1980). Mr. Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art. (New York, NY: Norton, 370 p.). Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827; Peale family; Peale's Museum (Philadelphia, Pa.); Museum directors--United States--Biography.

(Port of New York Authority), Jameson W. Doig (2001). Empire on the Hudson: Entrepreneurial Vision and Political Power at the Port of New York Authority. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 582 p.). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey--History; Harbors--New York (State)--New York--History--20th century; Harbors--New Jersey--History--20th century; Harbors--Economic aspects--New York (State)--New York--History--20th century; Harbors--Economic aspects--New Jersey--History--20th century.

(Queens PL), Jeffrey A. Kroessler (1996). Lighting the Way: The Centennial History of the Queens Borough Public Library, 1896-1996. (Virginia Beach, VA: Donnig Co., 138 p.). Queens Borough Public Library -- History; Public libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 19th century; Public libraries -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century. Published in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Queens Borough Public Library by the Queens Library Foundation.

(Rockefeller Foundation), Robert Shaplen (1964). Toward the Well-Being of Mankind: Fifty Years of the Rockefeller Foundation. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 214 p.). Rockefeller Foundation.

(Rockefeller Foundation), E. Richard Brown (1979). Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 283 p.). Rockefeller Foundation--History; Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching--History; Medicine--United States--History--20th century; Medical policy--Business community participation--United States--History--20th century; Charities, Medical--United States--History--20th century; Medical economics--United States--History--20th century; Medical education--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918.

(Rockefeller Foundation), Gerald Jonas (1989). The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science. (New York, NY: Norton, 430 p.). Endowment of research.

(Rockefeller Foundation), Christopher Lawrence (2005). Rockefeller Money, the Laboratory, and Medicine in Edinburgh, 1919-1930: New Science in an Old Country. (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 384 p.). Professor of the History of Medicine at the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine (University College London). Rockefeller Foundation--History; University of Edinburgh Faculty of Medicine--History; Rockefeller Foundation; Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; University of Edinburgh. Faculty of Medicine; Medicine--Scotland--Edinburgh--History--20th century; Medical colleges--Scotland--Edinburgh--History--20th century; Medical education--Scotland--Edinburgh--History--20th century; Medical education--Scotland--Edinburgh--Endowments--History--20th century; Medicine--Research--Scotland--Edinburgh--History--20th century; Medicine--Research--Scotland--Edinburgh--Endowments--History--20th century; Medical laboratories--Scotland--Edinburgh--History--20th century; Hospitals, University--history--Scotland; Schools, Medical--history--Scotland; Foundations--history--Scotland; History, 20th Century--Scotland; Laboratories, Hospital--history--Scotland; Social Change--history--Scotland. Evolution of biomedicine in 20th century.

(Room To Read), John Wood (2006). Leaving Microsoft To Change the World: An Entrepreneur’s Odyssey To Educate the World’s Children. (New York, NY: Collins, 266 p.). Founder, Room To Read. Wood, John, 1964 Jan. 29- ; Room to Read (Organization); Education, Rural--South Asia--Case studies; Education, Rural--Southeast Asia--Case studies. Organization has donated more than 1.2 million books, established more than 2,600 libraries, 200 schools, sent 1,700 girls to school on scholarship-ultimately touched lives of 875,000 children with  lifelong gift of education. 

(Rotary Club), Paul Percy Harris (1948). My Road to Rotary; the Story of a Boy, a Vermont Community and Rotary (Chicago, IL: A. Kroch, 318 p.). Rotary International.

Paul Percy Harris - Rotary Club  (http://www.rotaryfirst100.org/presidents/1910harris/paulharris/other-countries/images/paul.jpg)

(Rotary Club), James P. Walsh ; edited by Harry Treadwell (1979). The First Rotarian: The Life and Times of Paul Percy Harris, Founder of Rotary (Shoreham, UK: Scan Books, 351 p.). Harris, Paul Percy, 1868-1947; Rotary International; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

(Rotary Club), Paul H. Heidebrecht (1990). God's Man in the Marketplace: The Story of Herbert J. Taylor. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 120 p.). Taylor, Herbert John, 1893-1978; Rotary International--Presidents--Biography; Christian biography--United States; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Rotary Club), David C. Forward (2003). A Century of Service: The Story of Rotary international. (Evanston, IL: One Rotary Center, 354 p.). Rotary International; Social service; Fellowship.

(Rotary Club of Chicago), Oren Arnold (1966). The Golden Strand; An Informal History of the Rotary Club of Chicago. (Chicago, IL: Quadrangle Books, 312 p.). Rotary Club, Chicago.

(Rotary Club of Indianapolis), E. Bruce Geelhoed (2000). The Rotary Club of Indianapolis, 1913-1998: A Club, a Community, and a Century (Carmel, IN: Guild Press of Indiana, 246 p.). Rotary Club of Indianapolis--History.

(Rotary Club of Longview Tex.), Eugene W. McWhorter (1995). The Club and the Town: The Rotary Club and the City of Longview, Texas, Year by Year from 1920 to 1995. (Longview, TX: Longview Rotary Endowment Fund, 102 p.). Rotary Club (Longview, Tex.)--History; Longview (Tx.)--History.

(Rotary Club of Marquette), Richard F. O’Dell; foreword by Stanley E. McCaffrey (1982). Reaching Out: A History of the Rotary Club of Marquette, Michigan, 1916-1981. (Marquette, MI: The Club, 254 p.). Rotary Club of Marquette--History.

(Rotary Club of Queenstown Singapore), Lim Kuang Hui (1980). A Year of Service: Dedicated to the 75th Anniversary of Rotary International. (Singapore: Rotary Club of Queenstown, 154 p.). Rotary Club of Queenstown, Singapore--History; Rotary International.

(Rotary Club of Richmond), Robert W. Waitt (1963). The Glitter of the Golden Years, 1913-1963; The Story of Fifty Years of Rotary in Richmond. (Richmond, VA: Richmond Rotary Club, 114 P.). Rotary Club, Richmond.

(Rotary Club of Sacramento), F. Melvyn Lawson (1986). A Saga of Service, 1913-1985. (Sacramento, CA: Rotary Club of Sacramento, 247 p.). Rotary Club of Sacramento--History.

(Rotary Club of Saint Paul), John W. Turcotte (1995). Rotary Club of Saint Paul: Club #10, 1910-1995. (St. Paul, MN: Saint Paul Rotary Foundation, 112 p.). Rotary Club of Saint Paul (Saint Paul, Minn.)--History.

(Rotary Club of San Francisco), Mitchell Postel (1983). Seventy-Five Years in San Francisco: A History of Rotary Club Number 2. (San Francisco, CA: Presidio Press for Rotary Club, 150 p.). Rotary Club of San Francisco.

(Rotary Club of Trenton), J. Lewis Unsworth (1970). History of the Trenton Rotary Club, 1914-1969; Fifty-Five Years of Civic and Social Activities. (Trenton, NJ: Published under the auspices of the Trenton Historical Society, 214 p.). Rotary Club, Trenton.

(Rotary Club of Vienna), Erich Heintel (1975). 50 Jahre Rotary Club Wien, 1925-1975: Jubilaumsfestschrift. (Wien, Austria: Rotary Club Wien, 176 p.). Rotary Club, Vienna.

(Rotary Club of Wellington NZ), Alistair Rowe (1971). Fifty Years of Rotary in Wellington (1921-1971). (Wellington, NZ: Rotary Club of Wellington, 115 p.). Rotary Club, Wellington, N.Z.--History.

(Royal Ontario Museum), Lovat Dickson (1986). The Museum Makers: The Story of the Royal Ontario Museum. (Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum, 214 p.). Royal Ontario Museum--History.

(Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust), Lewis E. Waddilove (1983). Private Philanthropy and Public Welfare: The Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust, 1954-1979. (London, Uk: Allen & Unwin, 237 p.). Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust -- History; Great Britain Charities Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust 1954-1979.

(Sage Foundation), Ruth Crocker (2006). Mrs. Russell Sage: Women's Activism and Philanthropy in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America. (Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 556 p.). Professor of History (Auburn University). Sage, Margaret Olivia Slocum, 1828-1918; Women philanthropists --United States --Biography; Charities --United States --History. Ruling-class woman (in her 70s) who became major American philanthropist; wife of robber-baron Russell Sage (partner of Jay Gould); took on mantle of active, reforming womanhood in New York voluntary associations; advocate for rights of women, responsibilities of wealth, for moral reform, material benefit; funded wide spectrum of progressive reforms that had lasting impact on American life (Russell Sage Foundation).

(Russell Sage), Paul Sarnoff 1965). Russell Sage, The Money King: The Man Who Banked the Tycoons. (New York, NY: I. Obolensky, 398 p.). Sage, Russell, 1816-1906.

(Salvation Army), Edward Bishop (1964). Blood and Fire; The Story of General William Booth and the Salvation Army. (London, UK: Longmans, 114 p.). Booth, William, 1829-1912; Salvation Army.

William Booth - Salvation Army  http://www.salvationarmy.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/W_Booth_founder-1.jpg)

(Salvation Army), Bernard Watson (1964). A Hundred Years’ War. The Salvation Army: 1865-1965. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 318 p.). Salvation Army--History.

(Salvation Army), Richard Collier (1965). The General Next to God; The Story of William Booth and the Salvation Army. (New York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Booth, William, 1829-1912; Salvation Army.

(Salvation Army), Bernard Watson (1970). Soldier Saint: George Scott Railton, William Booth’s First Lieutenant. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 254 p.). Booth, William, of the Salvation Army; Railton, George Scott.

(Salvation Army), Barbara Bolton (1980). Booth's Drum: The Salvation Army in Australia, 1880-1980. (Sydney, AU: Hodder and Stoughton, 287 p.). Salvation Army--Australia--History.

(Salvation Army), Lowell Tarling (1980). Thank God for the Salvos: The Salvation Army in Australia 1880 to 1980. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 127 p.). Salvation Army--Australia--History.

(Salvation Army), Roger J. Green; foreword by Kay F. Rader (1996). Catherine Booth: A Biography of the Cofounder of the Salvation Army. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 336 p.). Booth, Catherine Mumford, 1829-1890; Booth, William, 1829-1912; Salvation Army--History; Salvationists--England--Biography.

(Salvation Army), Lillian Taiz (2001). Hallelujah Lads & Lasses: Remaking the Salvation Army in America, 1880-1930. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 239 p.). Salvation Army--United States--History--19th century; Salvation Army--United States--History--20th century. Evangelism and urban relief in America. 

(Salvation Army), Pamela J. Walker (2001). Pulling the Devil's Kingdom Down: The Salvation Army in Victorian Britain. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 337 p.). Associate Professor of History (Carleton University, Ottawa). Salvation Army -- Great Britain -- History; Great Britain -- Church history -- 19th century. Religious movement began in 1865, combined early feminism, street preaching, holiness theology, intentionally outrageous singing into what soon became Salvation Army; how Army entered into nineteenth-century urban life; neighborhood religion, with "battle plan" especially suited to urban working-class geography, cultural life; ability to use popular leisure activities as inspiration.

(Salvation Army), Robert A. Watson and Ben Brown (2001). The Most Effective Organization in the U.S.: Leadership Secrets of the Salvation Army. (New York, NY: Crown Business, p.). Former Commander of Salvation Army; Founding Staff Member USA Today. Salvation Army--Government; Leadership--Religious aspects--Salvation Army; Organizational effectiveness--Case studies; Leadership--Case studies. 

(San Francisco PL), Peter Booth Wiley (1996). A Free Library in This City: The Illustrated History of the San Francisco Public Library. (San Francisco, CA: Weldon Owen, 240 p.). San Francisco Public Library--History; Public libraries--California--San Francisco--History--19th century.

(Sierra Club), Michael P. Cohen (1988). The History of the Sierra Club, 1892-1970. (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 550 p.). Sierra Club--History.

[Painting by Herbert A. Collins Sr.]




John Muir - first Sierra Club President (http://www.yosemite.ca.us/library/ yosemite_indians_and_ other_sketches/images/thumbnail/john_muir.jpg; December 25, 1914 Obituary: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0421.html

(Sierra Club), Tom Turner (1991). Sierra Club: 100 Years of Protecting Nature. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 288 p.). Sierra Club--History; Nature conservation--United States--History.

(Smithsonian), Geoffrey T. Hellman (1978). The Smithsonian: Octopus on the Mall. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 224 p. [orig. pub. 1967]). Smithsonian Institution.

Smithson portrait





James Smithson - Smithsonian (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/ smithson/smithson.jpg)

(Smithsonian), Cynthia R. Field, Richard E. Stamm, and Heather P. Ewing (1993). The Castle: An illustrated History of the Smithsonian Building. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 176 p.). Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.); Public buildings --Washington (D.C.); Washington (D.C.) --Buildings, structures, etc.

(Smithsonian), Richard Kurin (1997). Reflections of a Culture Broker: A View from the Smithsonian. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 315 p.). Smithsonian Institution--Management; Smithsonian Institution--Public relations; Anthropological museums and collections--Washington (D.C.)--Management; Museum exhibits--Political aspects--United States; Museum techniques--United States; Culture conflict--United States; United States--Cultural policy.

(Smithsonian), Nina Burleigh (2003). The Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams, and the Making of America's Greatest Museum. (New York, NY: Morrow, 320 p.). Smithson, James, 1765-1829; Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848; Smithsonian Institution--History. 1829 - wealthy English naturalist left his library, mineral collection, entire fortune to the "United States of America, to found ... an establishment for the increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men" -- even though he had never visited the United States or known any Americans. Congressman John Quincy Adams worked tirelessly to enact the legislation, passed in 1846, founding the Smithsonian Institution. 

(Smithsonian), Heather Ewing (2007). The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 448 p.). Architectural Historian. Smithson, James, 1765-1829; Smithsonian Institution--History. Man at center of English Enlightenment, creation of America's greatest museum, largest museum, research complex in world.

(Strawbery Banke Museum), J. Dennis Robinson (2008). Strawbery Banke: A Seaport Museum 400 Years in the Making. (Portsmouth, NH: Strawbery Banke Museum & Peter E. Randall Publisher, 432 p.). Editor and Owner of the popular regional web site SeacoastNH.com. Strawbery Banke Museum; New Hampshire -- history. 400 years of history along Piscataqua River, controversial founding of Strawbery Banke Museum in 1958; politics of preservation in small blue-collar city. 

(Sunshine Terrace Foundation), Kenneth W. Godfrey (1998). Sunshine Terrace Foundation: Fifty Years of Caring, 1948-1998. (Logan, UT: Sunshine Terrace Foundation, Inc., 182 p.). Sunshine Terrace Foundation--History; Nursing homes--Utah--Logan--History; Long-term care facilities--Utah--Logan--History; Adult day care centers--Utah--Logan--History.

(Sutter Club), Timothy Comstock (1989). The Sutter Club: One Hundred Years. (Sacramento, CA: The Club, 250 p.). Sutter Club--History.

(Sir Dorabji Tata Trust), R.M. Lala ; with a foreword by J.R.D. Tata (1998). The Heartbeat of a Trust: A Story of Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. (New Delhi, IN: Tata Mcgraw-Hill Pub. Co., 227 p. [3rd ed.]). Tata, Dorabji, Sir, 1859-1932; Sir Dorabji Tata Trust; Endowments--India.

(Teach for America), Wendy Kopp (2001). One Day, All Children--: The Unlikely Triumph of Teach for America and What I Learned Along the Way. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 208 p.). Founder, Teach for America. Kopp, Wendy; Teach for America (Project); Elementary school teachers--In-service training--United States; Elementary school teaching--United States; Education, Elementary--United States. 

(Texas State Historical Association), Richard B. McCaslin; foreword by J.P. Bryan (2006). At the Heart of Texas: One Hundred Years of the Texas State Historical Association, 1897/1997. (Austin, TX: Texas State Historical Association, 300 p.). Professor of History (University of North Texas). Texas State Historical Association--History. Unique interaction of forces—university, political, academic/lay membership.

(Toronto Public Library), Margaret Penman (1983). A Century of Service: Toronto Public Library, 1883-1983. (Toronto, ON: The Library, 102 p.). Toronto Public Library--History; Public libraries--Ontario--Toronto--History.

(United Way), William Aramony (1987). The United Way: The Next Hundred Years. (New York, NY: D. I. Fine, 127 p.). CEO, United Way (Fired in 2000 after accounting irregularities discovered). United Way--History.

(Wellcome Trust), A.R. Hall and B.A. Bembridge; with a foreword by Sir David Steel (1986). Physic and Philanthropy: A History of the Wellcome Trust, 1936-1986. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 479 p.). Wellcome, Henry S. (Henry Solomon), Sir, 1853-1936; Wellcome Trust (London, England)--History; Medicine--Research--Endowments; Veterinary medicine--Research--Endowments.

(Whitney Museum), Flora M. Biddle (1999). The Whitney Women and the Museum They Made: A Family Memoir. (New York, NY: Arcade, 420 p.). Granddaughter of Whitney Museum's Founder, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 1875-1942; Miller, Flora Whitney; Biddle, Flora Miller; Whitney Museum of American Art. 

(Women's Club), Jewel Boone Hamilton Gunter (1995). Committed: The Official 100-Year History of the Woman's Club of Houston, 1893-1993. (Houston, TX: D. Armstrong, Inc., 423 p.). Woman's Club of Houston (Houston, Tex.)--History; Women--Texas--Houston--Societies and clubs--History.

(Wren Library Trinity College Cambridge), edited by David McKitterick (1995). The Making of the Wren Library, Trinity College, Cambridge. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 153 p.). Wren, Christopher, Sir, 1632-1723; Trinity College (University of Cambridge). Library--History; Academic libraries--England--Cambridge--History; Library buildings--England--Cambridge--History; Cambridge (England)--Buildings, structures, etc.

(Yale-New Haven Hospital), Wendy Murphy (2001). A Leader of Substance: Yale-New Haven Hospital at 175 Years. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 144 p.). Yale-New Haven Hospital--History; Hospitals--Connecticut--New Haven--History.

(YMCA), Richard C. Morse (1913). History of the North American Young Men's Christian Associations. (New York, NY: Association Press, 290 p.). YMCA.

George Williams - YMCA  (http://www.ymcanorthernyork.org/images/George%20Williams.JPG)

(YMCA), Sherwood Eddy (1944). A Century with Youth, A History of the Y.M.C.A. from 1844 to 1944. (New York, NY: Association Press, 153 p.). YMCA.

(YMCA), C. Howard Hopkins (1951). History of the Y.M.C.A. in North America. (New York, NY: Association Press, 818 p.). Young Men's Christian Associations--History--United States.

(YMCA-Chicago), Emmett Dedmon (1957). Great Enterprises; 100 Years of the YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago. (New York, NY: Rand McNally, 383 p.). Young Men's Christian associations--Illinois--Chicago.

(YMCA-Greater New York), Pamela Bayless (2002). The YMCA at 150: A History of the YMCA of Greater New York, 1852-2002. (New York, NY: YMCA of Greater New York, 232 p.). YMCA of Greater New York--History; YMCA of Greater New York--Pictorial works; YMCA of the USA--History; Nonprofit organizations--New York (N.Y.); Adult education--New York (N.Y.); Vocational education--New York (N.Y.); Religious institutions--New York (N.Y.); New York (N.Y.)--Social conditions--19th century; New York (N.Y.)--Social conditions--20th century.

(YMCA-International), George W. Keitel (1950). A Topical History of Y'sdom, 1920-1953; The Story of the International Association of Y's Men's Clubs--The Service Club of the YMCA. (Lawrence, KS: International Association of Y's Men's Clubs, 354 p.). Young Men's Christian Associations. International Association of Y's Men's Clubs.

(YMCA-Kansas City), Bishop Carl Sidney (1934). More Than a Building; A Story of the Kansas City, Missouri, Young Men's Christian Association. (Kansas City, MO: Western Baptist Publishing Company, 116 p.). Young men's Christian associations. Kansas City, Mo. [from old catalog].

(YMCA-Los Angeles), Harold A. Wagner (1979). As I Lived It: An Autobiographical History of the YMCA of Los Angeles, 1925-1966. (Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Co., 332 p.). Wagner, Harold A.; YMCA of Los Angeles; Young Men's Christian associations--California--Los Angeles--Biography; Los Angeles (Calif.)--Biography.

(YMCA-Minneapolis), S. Wirt Wiley ... and Florence Lehmann (1938). Builders of Men; A History of the Minneapolis Young Men's Christian Association: 1866-1936. (Minneapolis, MN, 339 p.). Young Men's Christian Associations. Minneapolis.

(YMCA-New Orleans), J. Calvin Williams (1982). YMCA, New Orleans, 1982: 130 Years of History on the Mississippi Crescent. (New Orleans, LA: Metropolitan YMCA of Greater New Orleans, 102 p.). YMCA of New Orleans--History.

(YMCA-San Francisco), Clifford Merrill Drury (1963). San Francisco YMCA; 100 Years by the Golden Gate, 1853-1953. (Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Co., 256 p.). YMCA--California--San Francisco.

Ed. Richard F. America (1995). Philanthropy and Economic Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 227 p.). Corporations -- Charitable contributions -- United States; Community development -- United States. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

Carl Bakal (1979). Charity U.S.A.: An Investigation into the Hidden World of the Multi-Billion Dollar Charity Industry. (New York, NY: Times Books, 498 p.). Writer, Editor, PR. Charities--United States; Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations--United States; Fund raising. 

Jeffrey A. Charles (1993). Service Clubs in American Society: Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 226 p.). Rotary International; Kiwanis International; Lions International; Clubs -- United States -- Case studies.

Horace Coon; with a new introduction by Patrick D. Reagan (1990). Money to Burn: Great American Foundations and Their Money. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 352 p. [orig. pub. 1938]). Endowments--United States.

Leslie R. Crutchfield and Heather McLeod Grant; foreword by Steve Case (2008). Forces for Good: The Six Practices of High-Impact Nonprofits. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 336 p.). Managing Director of Ashoka: Innovators of the Public. Nonprofit organizations--Management; Leadership; Organizational effectiveness. 12 nonprofits that have achieved extraordinary levels of impact; six practices these organizations use: 1) advocate and serve; 2) make markets work; 3) inspire evangelists; 4) nurture non-profit networks; 5) master the art of adaptation; 6) share leadership.

Mark Dowie (2001). American Foundations: An Investigative History. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 320 p.). Endowments--United States--History; Charities--United States--History.

Joel L. Fleishman (2007). The Foundation: A Great American Secret: Private Wealth Is Changing the World. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 341 p.). Professor of Law and Public Policy (Duke University). Charities--United States; Endowments--United States; Associations, institutions, etc.--United States. History of foundations, stories of most successful foundation initiatives (and of those that failed), why it matters.

Peter Frumkin (2006). Strategic Giving: The Art and Science of Philanthropy. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 458 p.). Professor of Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, Director of the RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service (University of Texas at Austin). Nonprofit organizations--United States; Charities--United States; Philanthropists--Charitable contributions--United States. Framework to understand, develop philanthropic strategy. Five essential elements donors must consider when developing philanthropic strategy.

Charlotte Georgi and Terry Fate (1985). Fund-Raising, Grants, and Foundations: A Comprehensive Bibliography. (Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 194 p.). Fund raising--United States--Bibliography.

Joseph C. Goulden (1971). The Money Givers. (New York, NY: Random House, 341 p.). Endowments--United States.

Charles Handy and Elizabeth Handy (2006). The New Philanthropists. (London, UK: William Heinemann, 160 p.). Philanthropists--Biography. Social entrepreneurship. Successful, wealthy entrepreneurs who are using their money, expertise to make a difference in world.

Randall G. Holcombe (2000). Writing Off Ideas: Taxation, Foundations, and Philanthropy in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 284 p.). Endowments -- United States; Endowments -- Taxation -- United States; Nonprofit organizations -- Taxation -- United States; Tax exemption -- United States. Series Independent studies in political economy.

Edited with an introduction by Myron Magnet (2000). What Makes Charity Work?: A Century of Public and Private Philanthropy (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, 242 p.). Charities--United States; Public welfare--United States.

Susan A. Miller (2007). Growing Girls: The Natural Origins of Girls' Organizations in America. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 270 p.). Lecturer in the Women's Studies and History and Sociology of Science Departments (University of Pennsylvania). Girl Scouts of the United States of America --History; Camp Fire Girls --History; Girls --United States --History --20th century. Girls' organizations founded in first half of 20th century, from socio-historical perspective; how notions of uniform identity, civic duty, "primitive domesticity," fitness shaped formation of modern girl.

Waldemar A. Nielsen (1972). The Big Foundations. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 475 p.). Endowments--United States.

--- (1996). Inside American Philanthropy: The Dramas of Donorship. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 292 p.). Endowments--United States; Philanthropists--United States.

Waldemar A. Nielsen; with a new introduction by the author (2002). Golden Donors: A New Anatomy of the Great Foundations. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 468 p. [orig. pub. 1985]). Philanthropists--United States--Biography; Endowments--United States--History; Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations--United States--History.

Susan U. Raymond (2004). The Future of Philanthropy: Economics, Ethics, and Management. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 308 p.). Managing Director of Research, evaluation, and Strategic Planning for Changing Our World, Inc. She serves as Chief Analyst for OnPhilanthropy.com, a global resource for nonprofit professionals. Nonprofit organizations. Issues that will shape philanthropic, nonprofit environment in future; questions about   assumptions on which nonprofits are built, from which philanthropic dollars flow.

Susan Rose-Ackerman (1986). The Economics of Nonprofit Institutions: Studies in Structure and Policy. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 423 p.). Nonprofit organizations--United States; Nonprofit organizations--Taxation--United States.

Walter Stewart (1996). The Charity Game: Greed, Waste and Fraud in Canada's $86-billion-a-Year Compassion Industry. (Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 262 p.). Charities -- Canada; Fund raising -- Canada; Canada -- Social policy.


Business History Links

The Bancroft Library: Video Presentations                                     http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/info/video.html

Five brief "video presentations that explore the history and research activities" of the Bancroft Library. Featuring librarians who work at the Bancroft, "these excerpts are part of a video documentary that traces the origins, collections, and services of The Bancroft Library, one of the nation's leading archival and special collections repositories." From the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

A Brief History of the YMCA Movement                                             http://www.ymca.net/about_the_ymca/history_of_the_ymca.html 

History of the YMCA, or Young Men's Christian Association ("but don't misinterpret this to mean that YMCAs are only for young, Christian men"), founded in London in 1844 "in response to unhealthy social conditions arising in the big cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution." Topics include a discussion of how the YMCA evolved to include women and other faiths; programs; accomplishments; and a biography of founder George Williams. From the YMCA U.S. headquarters.

Foundations On-Line: A Directory of Charitable Grantmakers          http://www.foundations.org/                                                 

Provides links to corporate, private, and community foundations' and grantmakers' home pages to obtain grant applications, reports, e-mail addresses, and more. Subjects: Grants-in-aid -- United States -- Directories | Charities -- Directories.

Girl Scout History                                                                                http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/history/                         

History of the Girl Scouts of the USA, which was founded in 1912 by Juliette Gordon Low. Features a biography of Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low, an illustrated timeline, links to museum exhibits (such as the history of Girl Scout uniforms and Girl Scout cookies), and a "This Month in Girl Scout History" feature. From the official website of the Girl Scouts of the USA.

GreatNonprofits                                                                    http://greatnonprofits.org/                                                

Encourages employees, volunteers, and donors of charitable organizations to give reviews; tab in the menu at the top of the page entitled "Find Reviews", where visitors can search for nonprofits by "Name", "Location", "Highest Ratings", "Most Reviewed", and "Most Recently Reviewed". Visitors can also browse using keywords, such as "arts", "environment", "mentoring", and "youth". Many of the reviews are by those who were drawn to the organization because they needed help. Visitors can "Write a Review" of a nonprofit that is already in the directory of almost 5500 organizations, or add their own listing for a new nonprofit. At the bottom of the homepage, interested visitors can also subscribe to an e-mail of "biweekly tips on volunteering, giving and innovation in nonprofits."

History of Meals on Wheels Programs                                           http://www.mowaa.org/displayContent.asp?mid=1§tid=9                  

Brief history of this program that provides home-delivered meals to homebound seniors and others in need. Discusses British World War II roots, the "first American home-delivered meal program" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (started in 1954) and the second program in Columbus, Ohio, and other history of the program. From the Meals on Wheels Association of America (MOWAA).

Jefferson's Legacy Brief History of the Library of Congress                 http://www.4uth.gov.ua/usa/english/arts/jeffersn/loc.htm                 

The Library of Congress occupies a unique place in American civilization. Established as a legislative library in 1800, it grew into a national institution in the nineteenth century. Since World War II, it has become an international resource of unparalleled dimensions.

National Council of Nonprofit Associations                                        http://www.ncna.org/                                                                   

The diversity of nonprofits in the United States is somewhat staggering, so it makes sense to find out that such a group as the National Council of Nonprofit Associations (NCNA) exists. The NCNA is a national network that serves over 22,000 member nonprofits, and also works towards advocating on behalf of its members via its home office in Washington, D.C. On the organization's homepage, visitors can learn about its upcoming conferences and meetings, and also read the latest policy news updates. The Resources area is probably the place that most general users of the site will find most helpful. Here, visitors can learn about job opportunities in the nonprofit sector and peruse a set of external links that lead to such other relevant sites as Nonprofit Quarterly and the Chronicle of Philanthropy.

Timeline: The History of the Lighthouse [Philadelphia], 1893-2004         http://www.lighthousephilly.org/history.htm                           

Illustrated history of this nonprofit organization that was founded in 1893 as a settlement house and has provided a variety of family and community services in Philadelphia. Highlights include the "broom brigade" to clean up streets and the first Meals on Wheels program in the U.S. (1954). Timeline is interspersed with significant dates in U.S. history. From The Lighthouse Philadelphia.

U.S. Chamber of Commerce                                             http://www.uschamber.com/                                                

One would be hard pressed to find a better slogan for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce than "Fighting for Your Business", so it is rather fortunate that they have already effectively trademarked these exact words. With a long and storied history dating back to 1912, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce is the world’s largest not-for-profit business federation, representing over 3 million businesses and 2800 state and local chambers. Their website will be most useful to both businesspersons and those with an interest in the role this organization plays throughout the United States in terms of its effect on the creation of national and local policy regarding the climate for small and large businesses. As might be expected, the homepage contains a full-site directory, which will lead visitors to information on international trade, current issues of relevance to business, and the Chamber’s own Center for Workforce Preparation. Some visitors may also wish to sign up for their free weekly e-newsletters, which cover topics such as corporate citizenship and workforce preparation.


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