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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Chemicals
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1792 - James Woodhouse founded Chemical Society of Philadelphia, first such society in world.

July 19, 1802 - Eleuthre Irne du Pont (E.I.) broke ground for first gun powder mills on Brandywine River; paid $6,740 to Jacob Broom, Wilmington, DE businessman, for site; 1802-1880 -  manufactured black powder.

November 27, 1826 - John Walker, an English pharmacist from Stockton-on-Tees, invented the first practical, strike-anywhere, friction match (refused to patent his creation); used three-inch splints of wood, tipped with potassium chlorate, antimony sulphide, and gum arabic; head was ignited by drawing it through a fold of fine glasspaper; 1829 - similar matches called "Lucifers" were sold throughout London (difference was added sulphur, to aid combustion, and white phosphorus); early twentieth century - Phosphorus sesquisulphide replaced the deadly white phosphorus in the strike-anywhere match.

October 24, 1836 - Alonzo Dwight Phillips, of Springfield, MA, received patent for the "Manufacture of Friction-Matches"; first genuine phosphorous friction safety match made in America (could be struck on any rough surface); made entirely by hand from a mixture of chalk, phosphorus, glue and brimstone (sulphur), known as "loco focos," and later as "lucifers" (gas for lighting and cooking,  spread of cigar smoking); 1860's - about a million matches a day were being manufactured; 1827 - first friction matches (mixture of chemicals for their heads) were made and sold in England.

December 5, 1846 - Christian Frederick Schönbein of Basle, Switzerland, received U.S. Patent for "Improvement in Preparation of Cotton-Wool and Other Substances as Substitutes for Gunpowder"; 1891 - James Dewar and Frederick Abel incorporated nitrocellulose in a mixture that could be handled more safely, replaced gunpower on battlefield (where it had been used for five centuries), until World War II; useful for blasting because it generated about six times the gas of an equal volume of gunpowder, produced less smoke, heat.

June 12, 1849 - Lewis P. Haslett, of Louisville, KY, received a patent for a "Lung Protector" (forerunner of gas mask); first U.S. patent issued for an air purifying respirator.

July 2, 1850 - Benjamin I. Lane, of Cambridge, MA, received patent for a "Respiring Apparatus" (called "Lane's Pneumatic Life-Preserver..."to enter buildings and vessels filled with smoke or impure air and into sewers, mines, wells, and other places filled with noxious gases or impure air, the person being protected from suffocation arising from such causes"); self-contained breathing apparatus (gas mask) with compressed air supply (vs. filtering surrounding air).

1851 - George Crompton, M. A. Furbush launched successful loom making business in Worcester, MA (based on his father’s patent which William Crompton had received on November 14, 1837 for a "Figure Power-Loom", "improvements in figure or fancy power-looms"); November 14, 1854 - received a patent for a "Loom" ("Loom for Weaving Ornamental Figured Fabrics"; added 60% to operating capacity of loom, reduced amount of labor needed to run it by half; 1856 - Lucius J. Knowles, F. B. Knowles (brother) established LJ & FB Knowles in Worcester, MA to manufacture, sell looms for every kind of textile fabric; 1859 - partner retired, George Crompton established Crompton Loom Works; January 21, 1873 - Lucius Knowles received a patent for "Looms" (open-shed fancy cassimere loom); 1897 - merged; formed Crompton & Knowles Loom Works; dominated market for fancy looms in America, woolen looms in world through mid-twentieth century; 1900 - incorporated; 1954 - expanded into dye, chemical business; 1956 - renamed Crompton & Knowles Corporation; 1981 - discontinued loom manufacturing; 1996 - acquired Uniroyal Chemical Corporation for $1.4 billion; September 1, 1999 - merged with Witco Corporation (founded 1920) in deal valued at $2.26 billion; renamed form CK Witco Corporation; major force in world market for additives, polymers, processing equipment, specialty chemicals ($3.2 billion in annual revenues); 2000 - renamed Crompton Corporation.

George Crompton - Crompton & Knowles (

March 27, 1855 - Abraham Gesner, of Williamsburg, NY, received patent for an "Improvement in Processes for Making Kerosene"; first patent for process to obtain oil for illumination from bituminous shale and cannel coal.

February 20, 1857 - William Henry Perkin (18), of King David Fort, Middlesex, UK, received a British patent for "Producing a New Coloring Matter for Dyeing with a Lilac or Purple Color Stuffs of Silk, Cotton, Wool or Other Materials"); first aniline dye, mauveine (aniline purple), first synthetic organic dye); had tried to synthesize quinine, anti-malaria drug.

1860 - Solomon Rose established Rose Rat Exterminator Company in Cincinnati, Ohio; sold large quantities of pyrethrum powders to Union Army during Civil War to kill "cooties" (body lice); 1867 - formulated phosphorous paste for cockroach, rodent control; developed spray gun, powder duster, Rose's Rat Embalmer, colored arsenate trioxide; sold products at retail, by mail order, peddled door to door from cart; 1955 - expanded, opened office in Grand Rapids, MI; 1971 - formed Bio-Serv Corporation as umbrella company for acquired service companies; established distributing division to supply pest control chemicals, equipment to pest control professionals; February 1, 2004 - name changed to Rose Pest Solutions; nation's oldest pest management company.

1863 - Joseph Wilbrand, German chemist, discovered trinitrotoluene (TNT); unaffected by ordinary shocks and jarring, must be set off by a detonator, does not react with metals; 1891 - manufacture of TNT started in Germany.

January 4, 1863 - Eugen Lucius, Wilhelm Meister, August Muller founded Chemische Fabrik Meister Lucius & Co. in Hoechst am Main, Germany (near Frankfurt; obtained permit to operate aniline, aniline-dye factory in 1862); 1867 - name changed to Meister Lucius & Bruning; 1881 - went public became a stock company, Farbwerke vorm. Meister Lucius & Bruning AG (known internationally as Farbwerke Hoechst AG); 1892 - began production of immunological drugs; December 1925 - incorporated into IG Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft; 1945 - Allied Forces dissolved I.G. Farbenindustrie AG, Hoechst plant put under US control from 1945 to 1951; December 7, 1951 - Farbwerke Hoechst AG reestablished in Frankfurt; 1987 - acquired Celanese, formed new subsidiary in the US, Hoechst Celanese; 1999 - merged with Rhone-Poulenc S.A., formed Aventis SA; 2004 - acquired by Sanofi-Synthelabo.

February 10, 1863 - Alanson Crane, of Fortress Monroe, VA, , received patent for an "Improvement in Fire-Extinguishers".

October 14, 1863 - Alfred Nobel received his first patent, Swedish patent for preparation of nitroglycerin (called "blasting oil"); 1868 - Nobel patented dynamite as form for safer handling.

April 6, 1865 - Friedrich Engelhorn, owner of coal gas company in Mannheim, founded BASF as Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik AG [BASF] to produce coal tar dyes and precursors; 30 employees; manufacturing facilities built on opposite side of Rhine River in Ludwigshafen (part of kingdom of Bavaria); 1869 - Heinrich Caro synthesized first natural dye (prepared by Carl Graebe, Carl Lieberman), Alizarin; red dye derived from root of madder plant, mainly used to dye cotton), first global success story; 1876 - Caro synthesized pure blue dye for cotton - methylene blue; 1877 - received Germany's first patent for coal tar dye for methylene blue; 1888 - largest sulfuric acid producer in world at this time; January 1890 - established patent office (later became patent department); 1897 - successfully launched synthetic "pure indigo from BASF" (after 17 years of research at cost of 18 million gold marks); won race to manufacture "king" of natural dyes; January 1, 1900 - 6,207 employees; 1913 - started world's first ammonia synthesis plant, began production of mineral fertilizer; became supplier of agricultural products, moved into high-pressure technology (new area of chemistry); 1923 - successful synthesis of methanol (Matthias Pier); December 1925 - merged with five other companies (including Hoechst , Bayer), formed IG Farbenindustrie AG.

July 14, 1867 - Alfred Nobel demonstrated dynamite for first time at quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England - combination of nitroglycerin, porous substance called kieselguhr = highly explosive mixture that was much safer to handle, use; christened "dynamite" (Greek word dynamis, meaning "power"); November 26, 1868 - Nobel, of Hamburg, Germany received a U. S. patent for an "Improved Explosive Compound"; dynamite; had invented, in 1863, way to control detonation of nitroglycerin, highly volatile liquid that had been recently discovered but was previously regarded as too dangerous for use; 1865 - invented blasting cap, improved detonator that inaugurated the modern use of high explosives; 1887 - introduced ballistite, smokeless nitroglycerin powder.

Alfred Nobel - invented dynamite (

October 1867 - Edward, Otto, Gustav Mallinckrodt (formerly of Richardson & Co., wholesale druggists) began G. Mallinckrodt & Co. in St. Louis, MO to manufacture fine chemicals for pharmaceutical products; June 1887 - Edward Mallinckrodt took over (brothers died); 1882 - incorporated as Mallinckrodt Chemical Works; 1890 - chief producer of anhydrous ammonia; 1898 - began producing opium-based medicinal narcotics for pharmacists; 1913 - entered medical imaging business; 1928 - Edward, Jr. took over; 1930s - produced medicinal narcotics; December 2, 1942 - first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction took place beneath west stands of University of Chicago's Stagg Athletic Field using Monsanto-produced uranium (Manhattan Project); 1954 - went public; 1982 - acquired Avon Products; sales of $494 million; 1986 - Avon acquired by International Minerals and Chemical Corporation; became global manufacturer, distributor of specialty medical products (industry leader in respiratory care products, number one manufacturer of bulk narcotics and other drug chemicals, world's largest producer of acetaminophen); 1999 - revenue of $2.6 billion; 2000 - acquired by Tyco International for $3.24 billion (business unit of Tyco Healthcare, leader in bulk analgesic pharmaceuticals, respiratory care business); June 29, 2007 - spun off as public company, focused solely on health care, known as Covidien.

Edward Mallinckrodt, Jr. - Mallinckrodt Group (

June 15, 1869 - John W. Hyatt, Jr., of Albany, NY, and Isaiah S. Hyatt, of Rockford, IL, received a patent for an "Improved Method of Making Solid Collodion" ("very small quantity of ether or other appropriate solvent, and dissolving pyroxyline therewith, under a heavy pressure, so that a comparatively hard and solid product is obtained, with great economy of solvents and saving of time"); July 12, 1870 - received patent for "Improvement in Treating and Molding Pyroxyline" ("Improved Process of Dissolving Pyroxyline and Making Solid Collodion") - used heat, pressure on compound with base of cellulose nitrate; founded Albany Dental Plate Company to make dental impressions (vs. rubber); 1872 - renamed Celluloid Manufacturing Company; opened way for development of the modern plastics industry; January 14, 1873 - registered "Celluloid" trademark; first synthetic plastic; used for production of photographic film, other applications; April 16, 1878 - John W. Hyatt, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for "Coating Articles with Celluloid etc."; assigned to Celluloid Manufacturing Company.

John W. Hyatt, Jr. - Celluloid ( Hyatt_John/HyattJohnWesleyThm.jpg)

October 25, 1870 - Averill Chemical Paint Company (New York City) registered first U.S. trademark.

March 16, 1871 - Delaware enacted first US state fertilizer law; April 8, 1881 - law amended; amended several more times.

April 20, 1876 - American Chemical Society, first national chemical society in U.S., organized in New York City; November 9, 1877 - chartered; first U.S. national society for chemists; for "the advancement of chemistry and the promotion of chemical research".

1877 - John Jeyes received a patent for a disinfectant fluid (Jeyes Fluid); first truly effective disinfectant (version of saponified coal tar made by Ferdinand Le Boeuf, pharmacist from Bayonne; used soap made from pine tree resin, rather than original saponin; dissolved rosin soap to a clear solution in tar oils or creosote, formed black disinfectant fluid); 1879 - established Jeyes Sanitary Products; 1896 - granted Royal Warrant (stillsupplies Royal Household); 1964 - formed Jeyes Group; 1998 - acquired by IWP (Household Products Division); 2002 - Jeyes Group sales of €300 million.

John Jeyes - Jeyes Fluid (

February 27, 1879 - US chemists Ira Remsen, Constantine Fahlberg announced discovery of saccharin.

1882 - Lammot du Pont, Solomon Turck (president of Laflin & Rand since 1873) formed Hercules Powder Company with explosives plant in Cleveland, OH; 1902 - DuPont acquired Laflin & Rand; produced more than two-thirds of nation's black powder and dynamite, all of its military smokeless powder; October 19, 1912 - Hercules Powder Company incorporated as manufacturer of explosives as result of court-ordered breakup of DuPont's "Powder Trust" activities; 1919 - sales of $20.5 million, more than 99% from single line of business: commercial explosives (gunpowder, smokeless powder, blasting powder, dynamite); July 11, 1929 - listed on NYSE; 1939 - sales over $41 million, six operating units, more than 200 products (explosives, variety of cellulosic and rosin-based compounds, paper chemicals, insecticides, synthetic resins); 1968 - name changed to Hercules Inc.; July 11, 2008 - Ashland Inc., nation's largest chemical distributor, agreed to buy Hercules for $3.3 billion to double earnings, add additives used in adhesives, paper,  paints.

1886 - W. H. Lawrence, Brush Electric Company executive, founded National Carbon Company (synthetic carbon industry); 1896 - marketed first carbon-zinc battery battery for consumer use ('The Columbia," six inches tall, used to power home telephones); first commercially available battery sold in the U.S.; 1914 - acquired American Ever Ready, manufactured batteries, lighting products; 1917 - merged with Union Carbide, formed The Union Carbide and  Carbon Co.

November 15, 1887 - Dr. Carl Gassner, Jr., of Mentz, Germany, received U. S. patent for a "Galvanic Battery"; first "dry" cell, used zinc as its primary ingredient (like the carbon-zinc, general-purpose batteries available today); 1896 - National Carbide Company (later Union Carbide and Eveready), produced first consumer dry cell battery; 1898 - made first D cell.

1890 - Herbert H. Dow, former college chemistry student at Case School of Applied Science (Cleveland, OH), established Midland Chemical Company in Midland, MI; January 4, 1891 - produced bromine from Midland, Michigan's rich brine resources (main component of patent medicines at that time) by electrolysis; led to an increasing stream of chemicals from brines; September 28, 1891 - received a patent for a "Process of Extracting Bromine from Natural Brine or Bitter Waters"; "blowing-out" process to liberate bromine from brine; became world's most efficient bromine manufacturer through application of electrochemistry; May 18, 1897 - The Dow Chemical Company incorporated, based on Dow's plan to manufacture, sell bleach on commercial scale; 1898 - first commercial scale production of bleach begins; Dow-in-diamond mark created to resolve product shipping problems.

1892 - Ontario-born inventor Thomas L. (Leopold) Wilson (32), Major James T. Morehead accidentally produced calcium carbide at North Carolina-based Wilson Aluminum Company while trying either to make aluminum in an electric furnace; 1894 - formed Electro-Gas Company to further develop calcium carbide product, created first ferrochrome for armor plating; June 18, 1895 - Wilson received a patent for a "Calcium-Carbide Process" ("improved process of producing calcium carbide"); 1897 - John Motley Morehead III (son) became associated with American Calcium Carbide Interest to built plants for calcium carbide gas producing process; 1898 - Electro-Gas Company acquired by Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company; Morehead III organized Union Carbide Company in Virginia to manufacture calcium carbide for acetylene lighting.

John Motley Morehead III - Union Carbide ( Motley Morehead III.jpg)

1901 - John F. Queeny, purchasing agent for a drug company, formed Monsanto Chemical Works (wife's name was Olga Monsanto Queeny) in warehouse near St. Louis, MO waterfront; began producing saccharine (only available in Germany at that time); 1928 - Edgar Monsanto Queeny (son) took over; broadened business into plastics, resins, rubber goods, fuel additives, artificial caffeine, industrial fluids, vinyl siding, dishwasher detergent, anti-freeze, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides; July 24, 1934 - registered "Monsanto" trademark first used in 1901 (chemicals); 1960 - created agricultural division; 1970s - entered biotechnology market; 1982 - first to genetically modify plant cell; late to improve crop productivity; 1997 - spun off chemical, fibers operations into new company called Solutia, became life sciences company; 2000 - merged with Pharmacia/Upjohn, renamed Pharmacia Corporation; 2002 - re-incorporated, declared itself an agricultural company.

John F. Queeny - Monsanto (

1902 - Dutch government formed nationalized coal company 'De Nederlandse Staatsmijnen' (Dutch State Mines), later became DSM; mining, coal-processing operations grew; coke oven gas byproduct converted into ammonia (ingredient in nitrogenous fertilizers); 1919 - became profitable commodity, Emma coke plant start of chemical activities (closed in 1945); 1930 - produced first fertilizer; 1969 - reorganized into six divisions; 1970 - chemicals, fertilizers comprised company's chief activity (67% of sales); diversified into petrochemicals; 1975 - Dutch Prime Minister closed country's last mine; 1982 - profits from raw materials for plastics grew 14 times; 1970s-1980s - major reorganizations to ensure sufficient scale, greater guarantees for market consumption, diversification into high-quality plastics, fine chemicals; 1985 - developed series of ambitious innovation projects, specialties such as polyethylene fiber Dyneema (strongest fiber on earth); 1989 - went public; acquired Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corporation in US; 1990s -created balance between commerce and research, developed value-adding processes and products (pharmaceutical, food industries), performance materials for automotive, transport industry and electrics, electronics sector; 2002 - 'Royal' title awarded; renamed Royal DSM N.V.; October 2003 - acquired Roche's Vitamins & Fine Chemicals Division; February 2005 - acquired NeoResins, coating resins business of Avecia; July 2007 - acquired Pentapharm Holding Ltd., (manufactured active ingredients, system solutions for cosmetics industry, present in niche pharmaceutical, diagnostics markets).

May 12, 1903 - Carl von Linde, of Munich, Germany, received two patents for a "Process of Producing Low Temperatures, the Liquefaction of Gases, and the Separation of the Constituents of Gaseous Mixtures"; received second patent for same; 1907 - established Linde Air Products Company in Cleveland; November 1, 1917 - acquired by Union Carbide and Carbon Corp. (continued to operate under old company name).

July 7, 1903 - Eppa H. Ryon, of Waltham, MA, and Charles N. Waite, of Landsdowne, PA, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Producing Artificial-Silk Filaments" ("fibers of filaments are formed from solutions of cellulose or other material...machine of this character which will produce a thread or filament of a uniform size regardless of the viscosity of the cellulose solution"); assigned to General Artificial Silk Company; May 10, 1904 - Charles N. Waite received a patent for the "Manufacture of Filaments of Flms from Viscose" ("especially valuable in the manufacture of the filaments commercially known as "artificial silk"); assigned to General Artificial Silk Company; acquired by American Viscose Company, Marcus Hook, PA; 1910 - American Viscose Company first commercially produced rayon; 1911 - 362,000 pounds produced; 1924 - term rayon adopted. 

1905 - Swiss brothers Camille and Henri Dreyfus developed first commercial process to manufacture cellulose acetate (had begun chemical research in shed behind their father's house in 1904); 1910 - used commercially to make films, toilet articles, molded articles; opened factory in Basle (center of the dyestuffs industry), sold products to celluloid industry in France and Germany, motion picture companies;  December 28, 1912 - joined with Alexander Clavel-Respinger, set up "Cellonit Gesellschaft Dreyfus & Co." in Basle, Switzerland for production of fireproof celluloid out of cellulose acetate; 1916 - British Cellulose & Chemical Manufacturing Co. established (low cost producer of acetic acid anhydride); name changed in 1918 to British Celanese Limited; 1918 - Camille Dreyfus founded The American Cellulose & Chemical Manufacturing Company (Amcelle); 1921 - developed dry spinning technique that allowed fiber to be knit, woven for apparel; began commercial production of acetate yarn; January 8, 1924 - British Cellulose & Chemical Manufacturing Co. registered "Celanese" trademark first used in 1922 (threads made wholly or principally from cellulose derivatives; combination of "cellulose" and "ease); 1927 - Amcelle name changed to Celanese Corporation of America; 1930 - went public; 1945-1960 - Celanese fibers company's most important product line; 1987 - acquired by Hoechst AG for $2.85 billion, formed Hoechst Celanese Corporation; July 1, 1997 - Hoechst AG became Strategic Management Holding company; October 25, 1999 – Celanese AG spun-off as publicly traded corporation; October 1, 2004 - acquired by Blackstone Capital Partners; November 2004 - name changed to Celanese Corp.; January 2005 – went public; summer 2005 - focused on core chemicals, technical polymer businesses.


Dr. Camille Dreyfus, Dr. Henry Dreyfus - Celanese (

September 1, 1909 - Otto Haas established U.S. branch office in Philadelphia to sell Oropon, leather bate to tanners (had established partnership with Chemist Otto Röhm in 1907 in Esslingen, Germany); 1915 -  Rohm received German patent for polyacrylic ester as paint binder; April 24, 1917 - Rohm and Haas incorporated; sales about $1 million; 1924 - Haas, Karl Albert Company established Resin Products Company to market synthetic resins for fast-drying varnishes; introduced Lethane, synthetic organic insecticide,  first product developed in its own laboratories; 1935 - acrylic chemistry - developed small-molecule chemistries, acrylic products; introduced cast polymethyl methacrylate, plexiglas (optical clarity, light weight, shatter resistant, ability to withstand heat); 1940-1949 - sales multiplied nine times; 1953 - introduced acrylic emulsions for use as paint binders; birth of latex paints, waterborne textiles, non-woven finishes; March 27, 1956 - registered "Plexiglas" trademark first used June 5, 1935 (plastic sheets, both colored and uncolored, fir interior and exterior constructional purposes); 1960 - Fritz Otto (son) became CEO; 1962 - introduced zinc, magnesium agricultural fungicide; 1970 - Haas family direct control ended (otto's retirement); 1982 - entered electronic chemicals market, acquired 30% interest in Shipley Company (photoresists used in etching chips, microcircuits; acquired full control in 1992); 1990s - sold polymethyl methacrylate franchise (commodity, non-specialty chemical); 1997 - acquired minority interest in Rodell Inc. (chemical slurries, polishing pads); 1999 - acquired LeaRonal Inc. (specialty chemical additives in electronic, metal finishing); merged with Morton International; world's largest specialty-chemical company ($6.5 billion in sales, leader in adhesives, specialty coatings, electronic materials, salt); 2006 - annual sales of $8.2 billion; July 10, 2008 - agreed to be acquired by Dow Chemical, largest U.S. chemicals company (sales of $54 billion) for $18.8 billion in deal part funded by Warren Buffett, Kuwait sovereign wealth fund (at 74% premium to Rohm and Haas’s closing share price on July 9).

September 14, 1909 - Leo H. Baekeland, of Yonkers, NY, registered "Bakelite" trademark first used June 30, 1907 (condensation products of phenol and formaldehyde); December 7, 1909 - received patent for for a "Method of Making Insoluble products of Phenol and Formaldehyde" ("production of hard, insoluble and infusible condensation products of phenols and formaldehyde"); received two patents for "Condensation Product and Method of Making Same" ("some industrial applications in the manufacture of varnishes, resinous products and plastic compounds"); thermosetting artificial plastic; called Bakelite (nonflammable material that was cheaper , more versatile than other known plastics), commonly referred to as the "heat and pressure" patent); gave birth to modern plastics industry; 1910 -  founded General Bakelite Corporation, later Bakelite Company; 1939 - merged with Union Carbide Corporation.

TIME Magazine Cover: Leo H. Baekeland - Sep. 22, 1924: Inventors, Business -- Click for Table of Contents Leo H. Baekeland (1907 - transformed phenol and formaldehyde into a moldable substance called "Bakelite" - "the material of a thousand uses" (i. e plastic) ( magazine/archive/ covers/1924/1101240922_400.jpg)

December 3, 1910 - Neon lighting, developed by French physicist Georges Claude as practical alternative to incandescent lighting, made public debut at Paris Motor Show; coating inside of glass tube with combinations of gasses,  phosphors can achieve more than 150 colors; December 11, 1910 - displayed first neon lamp to public; 1923 - Earle C. Anthony bought two signs (which read "Packard") for $2400 in Paris, installed them in his Los Angeles Packard dealership.

October 13, 1914 - Garrett A. Morgan, of Cleveland, OH, received patent for a "Breathing Device" ("portable attachment which will enable a fireman to enter a house filled with thick, suffocating gases and smoke and to breathe freely for some time therein"); gas mask, a breathing device consisting of a canvas hood placed over the head; a double tube extended from the hood and merged into a single tube at the back; the open end held a sponge soaked with water to filter out smoke and to cool incoming air; July 25, 1916 - Morgan rescued several men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel beneath Lake Erie; Morgan gas mask was later refined for use by U.S. Army during World War I.

November 1, 1917 - Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation incorporated acquired stock of: Linde Air Products Co., National Carbon Co., Inc., Prest-O-Lite Co., Inc., Union Carbide Company (formed in 1898); 1920 - built first commercial ethylene plant at Clendenin, WV; 1957 - name changed to Union Carbide Corporation; December 3, 1984 - more than 4,000 people Bhopal, India (360 miles south of New Delhi) died after more than  40 tons of highly poisonous methyl isocyanate gas leaked in 40-minute period from one of three underground tanks at a pesticide plant owned by Union Carbide; February 6, 2001 - acquired by The Dow Chemical Company in $11.6 billion transaction.

June 25, 1921 - Friedrich Karl Bergius, German chemist, invented distillation process to convert coal dust, hydrogen directly into gasoline and lubricating oils without isolating intermediate products; transformed more carbon from coal into oils than is possible with conventional distillation; invented treating mixture of pulverized coal in oil with gas under high pressure (solved heat distribution, temperature regulation problems).

1925 - Hermann Schmitz merged Badische Anilin, Bayer, Agfa, Hoechst, Weiler-ter-Meer, Griesheim-Elektron into Inter-nationale Gesellschaft Farbenindustrie A.G.( I. G. Farben); made Zyklon-B gas used in Nazi death camps; in liquidation since 1952; 2003 - dissolved.

December 7, 1926 - Alkali company Brunner, Mond, Nobel Industries (major explosives manufacturer established in 1870 by Alfred Nobel), United Alkali and British Dyestuffs merged, incorporated Imperial Chemical Industries PLC with 33,000 employees; principal products - chemicals, explosives and accessories, fertilizers, insecticides, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, paints; 1927 - sales of £27 million, pre-tax profit of £4.5 million.

April 1930 - Dr. Wallace H. Carothers, research chemist for Du Pont, discovered neoprene synthetic rubber, synthesized first polyester superpolymer, forerunner of nylon. February 16, 1937 - received patent for "Linear Condensation Polymers" ("relates to the production of fibres from synthetic materials"); synthetic fiber nylon (assigned to the E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc.); covered synthetic linear condensation polymers capable of being drawn into strong pliable fibers, as well as the process for making them; October 27, 1938 - Du Pont announced name for new synthetic fiber yarn: nylon (name derived from New York-London); February 24, 1938 - began production of nylon bristle filament in tooth brushes ("Miracle Tuft Toothbrush") to replace bristles of neck hairs from wild swine from Siberia, Poland,  China; one of first consumer uses - dramatic reduction in production costs, ability to control bristle texture; early nylon bristles very stiff, hurt gums; 1950 -  produced softer nylon bristles; December 15, 1939 - began commercial production of yarn for nylon hosiery.

Wallace Carothers - Inventor of Nylon ( Enlightened/1wallace_carothers.jpg)

November 2, 1931 - DuPont company announced first synthetic rubber, known as DuPrene (renamed neoprene); expensive, but resisted oil and gasoline (unlike natural rubber).

March 27, 1933 - ICI scientists Reginald Gibson and Eric William Fawcett discovered polyethylene by accident while reacting ethylene and benzaldehyde at high pressure; one of the earliest plastics to come into common use; demands of war and the need for a better insulator for cables stimulated the development of polyethylene, played a key role in the development of radar.

May 24, 1934 - Du Pont drew sample of synthetic fiber remarkably like silk, nylon; February 28, 1935 - nylon 6,6, Du Pont's must celebrated product first prepared during process of trying all 81 possible variants of nylon; experience with cellulose based products, Rayon and acetate, vital to rapid commercialization of nylon.

May 21, 1936 - Du Pont began commercial production of Lucite; September 14, 1937- registered "Lucite" trademark first used February 4, 1937 (thermoplastic synthetic resin material, known as methyl methacrylate, in the form of sheets, rods, and tubes and in powdered or granular form); crystal clear, highly non-conducting, low moisture absorbing. Other manufacturers in world use other names, including Perspex and Plexiglass.

April 6, 1938 - Roy J. Plunkett, of  E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., discovered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin; solid lubricant in powdered form, chemically inert, very high melting point, formed by an unexpected polymerization  -- Teflon.

October 27, 1938 - Charles Stine, vice president of E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Inc., announced invention of nylon; 1939 - Du Pont opened full-scale nylon plant in Seaford, DE; production site became "The Nylon Capital of the World"; October 24, 1939 - first public sale of nylons at Braunstein's department store in Wilmington, DE; December 15, 1939 - Nylon yarn sold to hosiery mills to make women's stockings; first use of commercial yarn (made by Du Pont) for apparel; May 1940 - record number of ladies' hose went on sale for first time; production of $9 million sold out, at 33% profit; 1941 - profit of $7 million on sales of $25 million; made nylon for over 60 million pairs of sheer women's hosiery, more than number of women in United States at that time!

January 21, 1941 - Dow Chemical began commercial production of magnesium (extracted from seawater through  electrolytic process) at Freeport, Texas plant; 1916 - Herbert H. Dow first extracted metal from brine in Midland, MI (lightweight metal became critical alloy for airplanes; U.S. military aircraft production escalated, as much as 2,000 pounds of magnesium needed per plant).

February 4, 1941 - Roy J. Plunkett, of Wilmington, DE, received a patent for "Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers"; January 8, 1946 - E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Teflon" trademark first used October 9, 1944 (synthetic resinous fluorine-containing polymers in the form of molding and extruding compositions, fabricated shapes-namely, sheets, [rods] tubes, tape and filaments [-solutions,] and emulsions); 1954 - first used for frying pans.

June 6, 1942 - Adeline Gray, parachute rigger at Pioneer Parachute Company, made first parachute jump in U.S. using nylon parachute; jumped from aircraft flying from Brainard Field, Hartford, CT; convinced audience of 50 critical army, navy observers.

October 28, 1948 - Swiss chemist Paul H. Muller awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT.

1950 - Du Pont pilot plant at Seaford, DE produced Dacron [polyester] "fiber with modified nylon technology."

October 10, 1950 - Dow Chemical Company registered "Styrofoam" trademark first used September 11, 1945 (irregular solid masses of multicellular extended synthetic resinous material [and granular masses of the same material comminuted]).

1951 - J. Paul Hogan and Robert L. Banks, research chemists working for Phillips Petroleum Company, discovered polymer polypropylene unexpectedly during experiments with catalysts while trying to convert natural gas components ethylene, propylene into compounds useful for gasoline; first commercially successful use of new material was in Hula Hoop.

January 30, 1952 - BASF reestablished as one of three successor companies of IG Farben; 1968 - acquired acquires Nordmark-Werke GmbH (Hamburg), entry into pharmaceutical industry; expanded to pharmaceutical active ingredients, fine chemicals, hospital supplies, hygiene products; 1973 - name changed to BASF Aktiengesellschaft; March 2001 - pharmaceuticals business sold to Abbot Laboratories; acquired vitamins business of Takeda Chemical Industries Ltd., Japan, became world's second largest producer of vitamins; 2002 - global market leader in acrylic acid, acrylic acid derivatives; January 2005 - acquired worldwide electronics chemicals business from Merck KgaA, Germany, became leading supplier of electronics chemicals for rapidly growing semiconductor, flat screen industries; June 2006 - acquired Engelhard Corporation, biggest takeover in BASF's corporate history, became worldwide leading supplier in catalytic converter market; took over worldwide construction chemicals business from Degussa AG, Germany; acquired resins specialist Johnson Polymer.

February 12, 1952 - E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Dacron" trademark first used March 16, 1951 (synthetic polyester fibers for generalized use in the industrial arts); first commercially marketed polyester fiber.

May 8, 1952 - Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Company opened first large coal hydrogenation chemicals plant in U.S. in Institute, WV; designed for converting coal into chemicals; $11 million plant processed up to 300 tons of coal a day; coal pulverized, mixed with oil to form paste, converted with heat and pressure to combine with hydrogen gas to form liquid chemical intermediate products (cresols, higher phenols, naphthalene, aromatic hydrocarbons).

June 10, 1952 - E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered 'Mylar' trademark first used on June 21, 1951 (polyester film); extraordinarily strong polyester (PET) film that grew out of the development of Dacron in the early 1950s (used in consumer markets for magnetic audio and video tape, capacitor dielectrics, packaging and batteries).

1954 - Yung-Ching Wang (tea farmer's son, named Taiwan's "God of Management" by Taiwan politicians and news media) founded Formosa Plastics Corporation; 1957 - produced 4 MT/day of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, smallest PVC plant in world at that time; 1958 - established Nan Ya Plastics Corporation to produce secondary products such as PVC pipes, PVC film, plastic leather; New Eastern Corporation formed to help consume Nan Ya's products by making tertiary products (handbags, luggage, shoes, curtains, raincoats, blow-molded toys, for export market); solved problem of slow sales of PVC resins; enormous tertiary processing industry created; led to prosperous development of local petrochemical industry, contributed significantly to economic development of Taiwan; 1965 - diversified into textile industry; 1984 - began investing in manufacturing of printed circuit boards, copper-clad laminates; largest private enterprise in Taiwan.

January 1, 1958 - Wilbert L. (Bill) and Genevieve (Vieve) Gore started W. L. Gore & Associates in basement of their home in Newark, DE; initially served electronic products market; 1969 - Bob Gore (son) discovered remarkably versatile new polymer (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, or ePTFE); led to entry into medical, fabric, industrial markets; October 24, 1972 - registered "Gore-Tex" trademark first used May 28, 1970 (yarn and thread for conversion as by weaving into fabric materials); March 18, 1980 - received a patent for a "Waterproof Laminate" ("...waterproof layered article in sheet form that possesses a high moisture vapor transmission rate even under adverse climatic conditions...suitable for rainwear garments and tents"); 2007 - 8,000 employees, more than 45 plants and sales locations worldwide, sales of $2 billion.

Bill and Vieve Gore - W. L. Gore & Associates (

January 29, 1958 - The Boston Herald printed letter from Olga Owens Huckins attacking DDT pesticide as dangerous (friend of Rachel Carson, author of "Silent Spring", an early call for modern environmentalism (asked important questions about balancing industrial and agricultural needs, progress, protection of the environment, quality of life).

September 6, 1958 - First U.S. interstate pipeline for transport of ethylene placed in service between Lake Charles, Louisiana and Orange, Texas; ran 30 miles, provided ethylene to E.I. duPont de Nemours & Company at Orange for manufacture of synthetic rubber.

August 27, 1963 - E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Corfam" trademark first used August 15, 1962 (poromeric material-i.e. microporous and permeable coriaceous sheet material for genearlized use in the industrial arts); carbon-based, synthetic substitute for leather; January 27, 1964 - introduced Corfam for uses with shoes, handbags, belts, suitcases; company predicted that 25% of America's shoes would be made of Corfam by 1984; 1971 - production ceased; synthetic leather snubbed by customers despite one of best-prepared products in terms of market, technology development; described as "Du Pont's $100-Million Edsel" (Leonard Sloane, New York Times, April 11, 1971).

January 27, 1964 - E.I. duPont de Nemours Co. introduced Corfam (hydrocarbon-based, synthetic substitute for leather); DuPont predicted that by 1984, 25% of America's shoes would be made of Corfam. But synthetic leather was snubbed by customers in droves; one of best-prepared products in terms of market, technology development and yet it failed; time on  market: seven years; 1971 - production ceased; Corfam was described by Leonard Sloane in New York Times as, "Du Pont's $100-Million Edsel."

1965 - Stephanie Kwolek and Herbert Blades, Du Pont research chemists, created KEVLAR, manmade organic fiber which provided enhanced strength, light weight and flexibility.

October 18, 1969 - Federal government banned artificial sweeteners known as cyclamates (non-caloric sweetener discovered in 1937 and widely used as tabletop sweetener, in sugar-free beverages, in baked goods and other low-calorie foods, particularly in combination with sacchari) because of evidence they cause cancer in laboratory rats (one experiment showed bladder tumors in laboratory rats fed large doses of cyclamate); June 1985 - new experiments by National Academy of Sciences indicated that cyclamates were not carcinogenic by itself; approved for use in more than 50 countries.

December 31, 1972 - Executive order of Environmental Protection Agency banned insecticide DDT.]

May 15, 1973 - Nathanial Convers Wyeth, of Mendenhall, PA, and Ronald Newman Roseveare, of Wilmington, DE, received a patent for a "Biaxially Oriented Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Bottle" ("hollow, biaxially oriented thermoplastic article, such as a bottle, particularly useful in bottling liquids under pressure, i.e. carbonated beverages or aerosols, etc."); PET beverage bottle; first plastic strong enough to hold highly pressurized carbonated beverages without bursting, safe enough to secure FDA approval; assigned to E. I du Pont de Nemours Company.

January 29, 1978 - Sweden banned aerosol sprays because of damage to environment, the first country to do so.

July 6, 1981 - Dupont announced plans to merge with Houston-based oil and energy company,  Conoco Inc. in a deal valued between $6.5 and $7 billion (single biggest merger in U.S. corporate history at the time); 1998 - Dupont unveiled plans to gradually divest itself of Conoco via offerings to the public and its shareholders alike.

May 15, 1995 - Dow Corning Corp. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, cited potentially astronomical expenses from liability lawsuits.

November 15, 1999 - Evergreen Nylon Recycling facility began operation in Augusta, GA; Honeywell Intl Inc. developed,  patented process to produce caprolactam with same quality as virgin caprolactam without using petroleum; kept carpet out of U.S. landfills; August 29, 2001 - plant closed because of unanticipated costs.

January 6, 2009 - Lyondellbasell Industries (created in 2007 when Basell acquired Lyondell) applied in U.S. District Court to place its U.S. operations, holding company in Germany under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; $26 billion in debt, nearly 13 times company's operating earnings; largest ever bankruptcy in chemical industry; other bankruptcy filings in chemical industry (Solutia, Dow Corning, W.R. Grace) were smaller, acted primarily because of environmental liabilities.

(Air Products), Andrew J. Butrica (1990). Out of Thin Air: A History of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 1940-1990. (New York, NY: Praeger, 319 p.). Pool, Leonard Parker, 1906-1975; Air Products and Chemicals, inc.--History; Chemical industry--United States--History; Gas industry--United States--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(Albright and Wilson Ltd.), Richard E. Threlfall (1951). The Story of 100 Years of Phosphorus Making, 1851-1951. (Oldbury, UK: Albright & Wilson, 400 p.). Albright and Wilson, ltd.; Phosphorus.

(Scott Bader Commonwealth ltd), Susanna Hoe (1978). The Man Who Gave His Company Away: A Biography of Ernest Bader, Founder of the Scott Bader Commonwealth. (London, UK: Heinemann, 242 p.). Bader, Ernest, 1890- ; Scott Bader Commonwealth, ltd.; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Business enterprises--Great Britain.

(BASF), Werner Abelshauser, Wolfgang von Hippel, Jeffrey Allan Johnson, and Raymond G. Stokes (2003). German Industry and Global Enterprise - BASF: The History of A Company. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 688 p.). Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik (BASF)--history; BASF Aktiengesellschaft -- History; Chemical industry -- Germany -- History.

Friedrich Engelhorn -  BASF (

(Cabot Corp.), Thomas D. Cabot (1979). Beggar on Horseback: The Autobiography of Thomas D. Cabot. (Boston, MA: D. R. Godine, 191 p.). Cabot, Thomas Dudley, 1897- ; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(Cain Chemical), Gordon Cain (1997). Everybody Wins!: A Life in Free Enterprise. (Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Press, 353 p.). Cain, Gordon, 1912- ; Chemical engineers--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--Biography; Free enterprise--United States. 

(Cain Chemical), Gordon Cain (2002). Everybody Wins!: A Life in Free Enterprise. (Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Press, 353 p. [2nd ed.]). Entrepreneur, Leverage Buyout Specialist. Cain, Gordon, 1912- ; Chemical engineers--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--Biography; Free enterprise--United States.  

(W. Canning PLC), David A. Thomas (1985). The Canning Story, 1785-1985. (London, UK: Springwood Books, 195 p.). W. Canning PLC. -- History; Chemical industry -- Great Britain -- History; Electronic industries -- Great Britain -- History; Mineral industries -- Great Britain -- History.

(Celanese), Richard W. Hall (1969). Putting Down Roots: Twenty-Five Years of Celanese in Mexico. (New York, NY: Celanese Corp., 128 p.). Celanese Corporation of America.; Celanese Mexicana S.A.

(Chemcraft), John Tyler (2003). The Chemcraft Story: The Legacy of Harold Porter. (Haworth, NJ: St. Johann Press, 130 p.). Porter, Harold Mitchell, 1893-1963; Porter Chemical Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Businessmen--Maryland--Hagerstown--Biography; Chemistry set industry--United States--History; Chemistry sets--United States--History; Educational toy industry--United States--History; Educational toys--United States--History.

(Commercial Solvents Corp.), Fred C. Kelly (1936). One Thing Leads to Another; The Growth of an Industry. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 103 p.). Commercial Solvents Corp.; Solvents.

(Crosfield (Joseph) & Sons ltd.), A. E. Musson (1967). Enterprise in Soap and Chemicals Joseph Crosfield & Sons, Limited, 1815-1965. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 384 p.). Crosfield (Joseph) & Sons, ltd.

(Degussa AG), Peter Hayes (2004). From Cooperation to Complicity: Degussa in the Third Reich. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 373 p.). Theodore Z. Weiss Professor of Holocaust Studies (Northwestern University). Degussa (Firm) History; Gold industry Germany History.

(DSM), Arjan van Rooij (2007). The Company That Changed Itself: R and D and the Transformations of DSM. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press, 384 p.). Researcher at the Technical University of Eindhoven in the Netherlands. Royal DSM N.V.; Economics--Development, Growth, Planning. Crucial role of industrial research in three major identity shifts of Dutch chemical company DSM over past 100 years; helped company to diversify, maintain, improve existing businesses; industry, identity, corporate culture of reinvention.

(Dow), Murray Campbell and Harrison Hatton (1951). Herbert H. Dow, Pioneer in Creative Chemistry. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 168 p.). Dow, Herbert Henry, 1866-1930.

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(Dow), William B. Seward. (1974). East from Brazosport. (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 191 p.). Dow Chemical Company; International business enterprises--Social aspects.

(Dow), Stanley J. Thompson (1980). The S/B Latex Story: Recollections of "Can Do" at Dow. (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 326 p.). Thompson, Stanley J.; Dow Chemical Company; Styrene-butadiene rubber.

(Dow), Christopher J. Duerksen (1982). Dow vs. California: A Turning Point in the Envirobusiness Struggle. (Washington, DC: Conservation Foundation, 151 p.). Dow Chemical Company; Industrial policy--California--Solano County; Petroleum chemicals industry--Environmental aspects--California--Solano County.

(Dow), Don Whitehead (1983). The Dow Story: The History of the Dow Chemical Company. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 298 p. [Reprint of 1968 ed.]). Dow, Herbert Henry, 1866-1930; Dow Chemical Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.

(Dow), Edited by Ray H. Boundy, J. Lawrence Amos (1990). A History of the Dow Chemical Physics Lab: The Freedom To Be Creative. (New York: M. Dekker, 229 p.). Dow Chemical Physics Lab; Chemical engineering laboratories--Michigan--Midland.

(Dow), E.N. Brandt (1997). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First Century. (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 649 p.). Journalist who joined Dow in 1953 and later served as director of public relations. Dow, Herbert Henry, 1866-1930; Dow Chemical Company--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--History. 

(Dow), Margaret Levenstein (1998). Accounting for Growth: Information Systems and the Creation of the Large Corporation. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 277 p.). Dow Chemical Company--History; Dow Chemical Company--Accounting; Information resources management; Management information systems.

(Dow), E.N. Brandt (2003). Chairman of the Board: A Biography of Carl A. Gerstacker. (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 256 p.). Former PR Officer for Dow Chemical; Company Historian since 1983. Gerstacker, Carl A., 1916- ; Dow Chemical Company; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--History. 

(Dow Chemical), Andrew Liveris (2010). Make It in America: The Case for Re-Inventing the Economy. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, p.). Chairman and CEO. Industrial policy --United States; Manufactures --United States; Economic forecasting --United States; United States --Economic conditions --2009-. America’s future economic growth, prosperity depend on the strength of its manufacturing sector; how manufacturing sector creates economic value at scale unmatched by any other, is to creating jobs inside, outside factory; how other nations are building manufacturing sectors to stay competitive in global economy; how America has failed to keep up; agenda to get back on track to lead world.

(Dow Corning), Dorothy Langdon Yates (1985). William R. Collings: Dow Corning's Pioneer Leader. (Midland, MI: Dow Corning, 120 p.). Collings, William Ralph, 1893-1980; Dow Corning Corporation--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--History.

(Dow Corning), Earl L. Warrick (1990). Forty Years of Firsts: The Recollections of a Dow Corning Pioneer. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 330 p.). Dow Corning Corporation--History; Silicone industry--United States--History.

(Du Pont), Charles F. Rideal and Albert W. Atwood (1912). The History of the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Powder Company; A Century of Success. (New York, NY: Business America, 224 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.

Eleuthere Irenee Du Pont (

Alfred I. Du Pont ( overview_images/alfred_i_dupont.jpg)

Pierre S. Du Pont (

(Du Pont), Marquis James (1941). Alfred I. Du Pont, The Family Rebel. (Indianapolis, IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 599 p.). DuPont, Alfred I. (Alfred Ire´ne´e), 1864-1935.

(Du Pont), William S. Dutton (1951). Du Pont: One Hundred and Forty Years. (New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 408 p. [3rd ed.]). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History.

(Du Pont), Stephen Salsbury (1952). Du Pont, The Autobiography of an American Enterprise: The Story of E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company, Published in Commemoration of the 150th Anniversary of the Founding of the Company on July 19, 1802. (Wilmington, DE: Distributed by Scribner, 138 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company; Du Pont, Pierre S. (Pierre Samuel), 1870-1954; General Motors Corporation.

(Du Pont), Max Dorian; translated by Edward B. Garside (1962). The du Ponts: From Gunpowder to Nylon. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 303 p.). Du Pont family (Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, 1739-1817); E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.

(Du Pont), Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and Stephen Salsbury, with the assistance of Adeline Cook Strange (1971). Pierre S. Du Pont and the Making of the Modern Corporation. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 722 p.). DuPont, Pierre Samuel, 1870-1954; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company; General Motors Corporation.

(Du Pont), James Phelan & Robert Pozen (1973). The Company State: Ralph Nader's Study Group Report on DuPont in Delaware. (New York, NY: Grossman, 464 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company; Delaware -- Social conditions; Delaware -- Politics and government.

(Du Pont), Gerard Colby (1974). Du Pont: Behind the Nylon Curtain. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 623 p.). Du Pont family; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company; United States--Social conditions; United States--Economic conditions.

(Du Pont), Graham D. Taylor and Patricia E. Sudnik (1984). Du Pont and the International Chemical Industry (Boston, MA: Twayne, 251 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History; Chemical industry--History.

(Du Pont), Norman B. Wilkinson (1984). Lammot Du Pont and the American Explosives Industry, 1850-1884. (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 332 p.). Du Pont, Lammot, 1831-1884; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--History--19th century; Explosives industry--United States--History--19th century.

(Du Pont), David A. Hounshell, John Kenly Smith, Jr. (1988). Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R&D, 1902-1980. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 756 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History; Research, Industrial--United States--History.

(Du Pont), William P. Bebbington (1990). History of Du Pont at the Savannah River Plant. (Wilmington, DE, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., 271 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company --History; Savannah River Plant (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company) --History; Nuclear weapons industry --United States --History; Nuclear weapons plants --South Carolina --History.

(Du Pont), Robert F. Burk (1990). The Corporate State and the Broker State: The Du Ponts and American National Politics, 1925-1940. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 359 p.). Du Pont family; Business and politics--United States--History--20th century; United States--Politics and government--20th century.

(Du Pont), Joseph Frazier Wall (1990). Alfred I. du Pont The Man and His Family. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 685 p.). DuPont, Alfred I. (Alfred Irénée), 1864-1935; Du Pont family; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Du Pont), Charles W. Cheape (1995). Strictly Business: Walter Carpenter at Du Pont and General Motors. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 309 p.). Carpenter, Walter Samuel, 1888-1976; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; General Motors Corporation--History; Executives--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--Management--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--Management--History.

(Du Pont), Matthew E. Hermes (1996). Enough for One Lifetime: Wallace Carothers, Inventor of Nylon. (Washington, DC: American Chemical Society and the Chemical Heritage Foundation, 345 p.). Carothers, Wallace Hume, 1896-1937; Chemists--United States--Biography; Nylon.

(Du Pont), Pap Ndiaye (2001). Du Nylon et des Bombes: du Pont de Nemours, le Marché et l'Etat Américain, 1900-1970. (Paris, FR: Belin, 397 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History;; Chemical industry--United States--History; Research, Industrial--United States--History; Military-industrial complex--United States--History.

(Du Pont), Adrian Kinnane (2002). DuPont: From the Banks of the Brandywine to Miracles of Science. (Wilmington, DE: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., 268 p.). Researcher and Manager for Historical Projects (History Associates). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History; International business enterprises--History.

(Du Pont), Pap Ndiaye; translated by Elborg Forster (2006). Nylon and Bombs: Dupont and the March of Modern America. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 397 p. [orig. pub. 2001]). Associate Professor of U.S. History (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History; Research, Industrial--United States--History; Military-industrial complex--United States--History. Lives and careers of Du Pont's chemical engineers; Du Pont's development of nylon (symbolized new way of life) and plutonium (synonymous with annihilation).

(Du Pont), Kaori O'Connor (2011). Lycra: How a Fiber Shaped America. (New York, NY: Routledge, 171 p.). Research Fellow in the Department of Anthropology (University College London). Sport clothes industry -- History; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company -- History; Baby boom generation -- History. Development of specific fabric, insights into U.S. corporate history, changing image of women in America, how seemingly doomed product came to occupy a position never imagined by its inventors, contained in wardrobe of virtually every American; relationship between technology, science, society over past half century.

(Du Pont Canada), H. H. Lank and E. L. Williams (1982). The Du Pont Canada History (Du Pont Canada Inc., 367 p.). Du Pont of Canada; Industries -- Canada -- History.

(Exxon Chemical Company), Shaukat Raza Mirza (2005). From Exxon to Engro. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 256 p.). Managing Director, Pakistan State Oil. Exxon Chemical Company; Leveraged buyouts. Pakistan's first employee buy-out - of Exxon Chemical Pakistan Ltd. 

(Formosa Plastics), Tian xia bian ji zhu (1999). Ta Men Wei Shen mo Cheng Gong? Tai Su. (Taibei Shi, Taiwan: Tian xia za zhi: Zong jing xiao Li ming shu bao she, 292 p.). Wang, Yongqing, 1917-2008; Taiwan su jiao gong ye gu fen you xian gong si --Management; Industrial management --Taiwan.

Yung-Ching Wang - Formosa Plastics (

(Formosa Plastics), Piao Dongxie, Li Chenghuan zhu ; Piao Dongxie, Yan Shuling yi (2004). Wang Yongqing zhuan. (Qingdao, China: Qingdao chu ban she, 257 p.). Wang, Yongqing, 1917-2008; Businessmen --Taiwan --Biography; Industrialists --Taiwan --Biography.

(Hercules), Davis Dyer and David B. Sicilia (1990). Labors of a Modern Hercules: The Evolution of a Chemical Company. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 528 p.). Hercules Incorporated--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.

(Hercules), Al Giacco (2003). Maverick Management: Strategies for Success. (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 291 p.). Former CEO, Hercules. Giacco, Alexander F.; Hercules Incorporated; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography; Industrial management--United States. 

(Hoechst AG - founded 1863), Ernst Bäumler (1989). Farben, Formeln, Forscher: Hoechst und die Geschichte der Industriellen Chemie in Deutschland. (Munich, GER: Piper, 543 p.). Hoechst AG--History; Chemical industry--Germany--History.

(Hooker Electrochemical Company), Robert Evans Thomas (1955). Salt & Water, Power & People; A Short History of Hooker Electrochemical Company. (Niagara Falls, NY: The Company, 109 p.). Hooker Electrochemical Company.

(IG Farben), Richard Sasuly (1947). IG Farben. (New York, NY: Boni & Gaer, 312 p.). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft.

Carl Bosch, co-founder, I. G. Farben (

Hermann Schmitz (right) - IG Farben chairman of managing board (1935) (

(IG Farben), Joseph Borkin (1978). The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben. (New York, NY: Free Press, 250 p.). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft; I.G. Farben Trial, Nuremberg, Germany, 1947-1948; War crime trials--Germany--Nuremberg.

(IG Farben), Raymond G. Stokes (1988). Divide and Prosper: The Heirs of I.G. Farben Under Allied authority, 1945-1951. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 290 p.). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft; Chemical industry--Political aspects--Germany (West)--History--20th century; United States--Foreign economic relations--Germany (West); Germany (West)--Foreign economic relations--United States.

(IG Farben), Peter Hayes (2001). Industry and Ideology: IG Farben in the Nazi Era. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 411 p. [2nd ed.]). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie; Aktiengesellschaft--Political activity--History--20th century; Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei--History; Chemical industry--Political aspects--Germany--History--20th century; Mineral industries--Political aspects--Germany--History--20th century; World War, 1939-1945; Germany--Politics and government--1933-1945.

(IG Farben), Kim Coleman (2006). IG Farben and ICI, 1925-53: Strategies for Growth and Survival. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 288 p.). Lecturer in Modern European History (University of Essex). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft--History; Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.--History; Chemical industry--Germany--History--20th century; Chemical industry--Great Britain--History--20th century. Comparative analysis of strategies for world market domination, survival (during, after Second World War).

(IG Farben), Janis Schmelzer (2006). G Farben, vom "Rat der Götter": Aufstieg und Fall. (Stuttgart, Germany: Schmetterling, 199 p.). Chemical industry -- Germany -- History -- 20th century; Chemical industry -- Political aspects -- Germany -- History -- 20th century; Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft; Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft -- Political activity -- History -- 20th century; Chemicals industry politics Weimar Republic Third Reich war economy 20th century Germany; Chemische Industrie Politik Weimarer Republik Drittes Reich Kriegswirtschaft 20. Jahrhundert Deutschland.

(IG Farben), Thomas Hager (2008). The Alchemy of Air: A Jewish Genius, a Doomed Tycoon, and the Discovery that Changed the Course of History. (New York, NY: Harmony Books, 384 p.). Haber, Fritz, 1868-1934; Bosch, Carl, 1874-1940; Chemists --Germany --Biography; Nitrogen fertilizers --History --20th century; Technological innovations --History --20th century. German chemists, Nobel laureates Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch discovered economical mass synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen, hydrogen; often called most important invention of 20th century; saved world, lost everything via unforeseen results of discovery; Bosch, former managing director of Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik [BASF] Company proposed all I.G companies merge; created I.G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft — I.G. Farben on December 9, 1925.

(IG Farben), Diarmuid Jeffreys (2008). Hell’s Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler’s War Machine. (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 496 p.). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft--History; Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei; Industrial policy--Germany--History--20th century; Forced labor--Germany--History--20th century; Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945); World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities. Rise, fall of IG Farben, from nineteenth-century origins (discovery of synthetic dyes) through upheavals of Great War era, to company’s fateful role in World War II; codependence of industry, Third Reich; infamous connections to Nazi Party, complicity in atrocities of Holocaust.

(IG Farben), Stephan H. Lindner; English translation by Helen Schoop (2008). Inside IG Farben: Hoechst During the Third Reich. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 388 p.). Professor of Interdependence of Technological and Social Change (University of the Bundeswehr in Munich). Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft --History; Hoechst AG --History; World War, 1939-1945 --Atrocities; Chemical industry --Political aspects --Germany --History --20th century. 1925 - IG Farben formed; became synonymous with participation of German industry in most heinous crimes of Nazi regime; relationship between management, employees, Nazi party, its organizations; exclusion, persecution of employees, particularly Jewish employees; extent of Hoechst's involvement in exploitation of forced labor, active participation in human experiments in several concentration camps; motivations of those responsible for this conduct.

(Imperial Chemical), W.J. Reader (1970). Imperial Chemical Industries: A History. (London, UK: Oxford University Press, 2 vols.). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.; Chemical industry--Great Britain. v. 1. The forerunners, 1870-1926.--v. 2. The first quarter century, 1926-1952.

(Imperial Chemical), Ian M. Clarke (1985). The Spatial Organisation of Multinational Corporations. (London, UK: Croom Helm, 287 p.). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.; International business enterprises; Industrial management; Chemical industry.

(Imperial Chemical), Andrew M. Pettigrew (1985). The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries. (New York, NY: Blackwell, 542 p.). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.--History--20th century; Chemical industry--Great Britain--History--20th century.

(Imperial Chemical), Patrick Brodie (1990). Crescent over Cathay: China and ICI, 1898 to 1956. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 294 p.). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd--History; Chemical industry--China--History.

(Imperial Chemical), John Harvey-Jones (1991). Getting It Together. (London, UK: Heinemann, 378 p.). Harvey-Jones, John, 1924- ; Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Executives--Great Britain--Biography.

(Imperial Chemical), Carol Kennedy (1993). ICI: The Company That Changed Our Lives. (London, UK: P. Chapman, 223 p. [2nd ed.]). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd. -- History; Chemical industry -- Great Britain -- History.

(Interlab Inc.), Howard M. Layton (2000). The Thirteen Club: A Journey from Riches to Rags and Back. (Brookfield, CT: Three Spires Publishing. Layton, Howard; Interlab Inc.; Wet-chemistry processing.

(International Minerals and Chemical Corporation), Joseph Sander (1975). Hunger Can’t Wait. (Libertyville, IL: International Minerals & Chemical Corp., 178 p.). International Minerals and Chemical Corporation; Food supply--Congresses--History; Agriculture--Congresses--History. Story of the world food production conferences sponsored by the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation.

(M. W. Kellogg), Robert H. Multhaup and Gunther P. Eschenbrenner (1996). Technology's Harvest: Feeding a Growing World Population. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 321 p.). M.W. Kellogg Company; Fertilizer industry--United States; Chemical industry--United States--History; Chemical engineering--United States--History.

(Koppers Company), Ferdinand C. Latrobe (1941). Iron Men and Their Dogs. (Baltimore, MD: I. R. Drechsler, 225 p.). Koppers Company (1927- ) Bartlett Hayward Division.

(Marchon Products), Alan W. Routledge (2005). Marchon: The Whitehaven Chemical Works. (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus, 128 p.). Leader of InFocus Photographic Society. Marchon Products Ltd. -- History; Chemical industry -- England -- Whitehaven -- History.

(May & Baker), Judy Slinn (1984). A History of May & Baker, 1834-1984. (Cambridge: Hobsons, 196 p.). Chemical Industry-Great Britain, May & Baker-History.

(Monsanto), Dan J. Forrestal (1977). Faith, Hope, and $5,000: The Story of Monsanto: The Trials and Triumphs of the First 75 Years (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 285 p.). Monsanto Company--History.

Edgar M. Queeny - Monsanto (

(Montedison S.p.A.), a cura di Franco Amatori e Bruno Bezza (1990). Montecatini, 1888-1966: Capitoli di Storia di Una Grande Impresa. (Bologna, Italy: Societa Editrice Il Mulino, 480 p.). Professor of Economic History (Bocconi University, Milan). Montedison Group--History; Società Montecatini--History; Chemical industry--Italy--History; Fertilizer industry--Italy--History; Conglomerate corporations--Italy--History; Big business--Italy--History.

(Morrells Woodfinishes - founded 1902 as F. T. Morrell & Company), Christopher Mulvey (1994). Frank Thomas Morrell: Edwardian Entrepreneur. (Winchester, UK: Estcourt Press, 181 p.). Professor of English and American Studies and Director of the Electronic Text Institute (University College Winchester). Morrell, Frank Thomas, 1860-1949; Morrill family; Businesspeople--England--Biography; Varnish industry--England--History.

(Perstorp AB), Alf Akerman (1981). Making Money From Smoke: Perstorp AB 1881-1981. (Perstorp, Sweden: The Company,    p). Perstorp AB; chemicals -- specialty.

(Phillips Plastics), Bill Beck (1994). The People Process: A Manufacturing Story. (Phillips, WI: Phillips Plastics Corp., 133 p.). Phillips Plastics Corporation--History; Plastics industry and trade--United States--History.

(Polymer Corporation), Matthew J. Bellamy (2005). Profiting the Crown: Canada's Polymer Corporation, 1942-1990. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University Press, 296 p.). Lecturer in Economics and History (Carleton University). Synthetic rubber.

(Reckitt and Sons), Basil Norman Reckitt (1951). The History of Reckitt and Sons, Limited. (London, UK: A. Brown, 113 p.). Reckitt and Sons. Main products were Starch, Blue, Grate Polish and Metal Polish including Brasso.

(Reilly Industries), Bill Beck; edited by Kim Hackett (1996). Good Chemistry: The Story of P.C. Reilly and Reilly Industries. (Indianapolis, IN: Reilly Industries, 216 p.). Reilly, Peter Celestine, 1869-1952; Reilly Industries, Inc.--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United States--History; Organic compounds--Synthesis--United States--History; Coal-tar products--United States--History.

(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Marcel Peyrenet (1978). La Dynastie des Gillet: Les Maîtres de Rhône-Poulenc. (Paris, FR: Le Sycomore, 198 p.). Gillett family; Businesspeople--France--Biography.

(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Jean Domenichino; préface par Henri Morsel (1994). De la Chimie et des Hommes: Histoire d'une Entreprise, Rhône-Poulenc, Pont-de-Claix. (Grenoble, FR: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 163 p.). Rhône-Poulenc (Firm); Chemical industry--France--Isère--History; Chemical workers--France--Isère--History.

(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Stéphane Pineau ; préface de Bertrand Louvet (1994). Les Usines de Melle: Un Siècle de Chimie, des Pionniers à la Multinationale. (Mougon, FR: Geste Editions, 152 p.). Rhône-Poulenc (Firm)--History; Industries--France--Melle--History; Chemical industry--France--Melle--History; Melle (France)--Economic conditions.

(Rohm and Haas), Willard S. Randall and Stephen D. Solomon (1977). Building 6: The Tragedy at Bridesburg. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 317 p.). Rohm and Haas Company; Dichloromethyl ether--Physiological effect; Lungs--Cancer--Pennsylvania--Bridesburg; Chemical workers--Diseases--Pennsylvania--Bridesburg.

Dr. Otto Rohm (

Otto Haas ( Portraits/images/haas2c.jpg)

(Rohm and Haas), Sheldon Hochheiser (1986). Rohm and Haas: History of a Chemical Company. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 231 p.). Rohm and Haas Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.

(Rohm and Haas), Regina Lee Blaszczy (2009). Rohm & Haas: Innovation Through Collaboration. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 184 p.). Visiting scholar in the Department of the History and Sociology of Science (University of Pennsylvania). Rohm and Haas Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History. 100-year history of Philadelphia-based chemical company; long stressed importance of connecting with customer; how company developed commitment to customer service, grew from family firm with transatlantic connections into one of world's leading specialty chemical companies; from founding, interactions with different types of customers facilitated innovation, generated products that improved everyday life, led to global growth.

(Skilbeck Brothers Ltd.), Donovan Dawe (1950). Skilbecks: Drysalters, 1650-1950. (London, UK: Skilbeck Bros., 116 p.). Skilbeck Brothers, ltd., London.

(Storey Brothers and Company), Guy Christie (1964). Storeys of Lancaster, 1848-1964. (London, UK: Collins, 256 p.). Storey Brothers and Company.

(Union Carbide), Larry Everest (1986). Behind the Poison Cloud: Union Carbide's Bhopal Massacre. (Chicago, IL: Banner Press, 192 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India); Union Carbide Corporation; Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984; Industrial toxicology--India--Bhopal; Pesticides industry--Accidents--India--Bhopal; Methyl isocyanate--Environmental aspects--India--Bhopal.

(Union Carbide - merged into Dow Chemical Company in 2001), Dan Kurzman (1987). A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 297 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India); Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984; Pesticides industry--Accidents--India--Bhopal; Methyl isocyanate--Environmental aspects--India--Bhopal.

(Union Carbide), David Dembo, Ward Morehouse, and Lucinda Wykle (1990). Abuse of Power: Social Performance of Multinational Corporations: The Case of Union Carbide. (New York, NY: New Horizons Press, 161 p.). Union Carbide Corporation; Chemical industry--Environmental aspects--Case studies; International business enterprises--Social aspects--Case studies.

(Union Carbide), Dominique Lapierre, Javier Moro ; translated form the French by Kathryn Spink (2002). Five Past Midnight in Bhopal: The Epic Story of the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 403 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India); Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984; Pesticides industry--Accidents--India--Bhopal.

(Witco Chemical), Alan S. Brown (1995). The Witco Story: Hard Work and Integrity. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 107 p.). Witco Chemical Corporation--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.

(Ziegler Chemical & Mineral Corp.), Gordon Sterling Ziegler, Sr. as told to Suzanne Barnett (1992). "--And So It Happened--". (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Abbott-Sterling Pub., 286 p.). Ziegler, Gordon Sterling; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (2005). Shaping the Industrial Century: The Remarkable Story of the Modern Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 384 p.). Isidor Straus Professor of Business History, Emeritus (Harvard Business School). Chemical industry--United States--History; Chemical industry--Europe--History; Pharmaceutical industry--United States--History; Pharmaceutical industry--Europe--History; Biotechnology industries--United States. 

J. Harry DuBois (1972). Plastics History U.S.A. (Boston, MA: Cahners Books, 447 p.). Plastics industry and trade--United States--History.

Kenne Fant; translated from the Swedish by Marianne Ruth (1993). Alfred Nobel: A Biography. (New York, NY: Arcade, 342 p.). Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1833-1896; Chemical engineers--Sweden--Biography.

Stephen Fenichell (1996). Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 356 p.). Plastics.

Susan Freinkel. (2011). Plastic: A Toxic Love Story. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 336 p.). Plastics. As much plastic produced in past decade as in entire 20th century; impact of plastic; 8 familiar plastic objects: comb, chair, Frisbee, IV bag, disposable lighter, grocery bag, soda bottle, credit card; factories in China for Frisbees (women work 60-hour weeks for $175 a month), preemie wards (lifesaving vinyl tubes that deliver food and oxygen to premature babies may cause altered thyroid function, allergies, liver problem); new creative partnership with material.

Robert Friedel (1983). Pioneer Plastic: The Making and Selling of Celluloid. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 153 p.). Historian (University of Maryland). Celluloid.

Eds. Louis Galambos, Takashi Hikino, Vera Zamagni (2006). The Global Chemical Industry in the Age of the Petrochemical Revolution. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 529 p.). Professor of History (Johns Hopkins University); Associate Professor of Industrial Organization (Kyoto University); Professor of Economic History (University of Bologna). Chemical industry; Petroleum chemicals industry. Evolution of global chemical industry from end of World War II until most recent period.

L. F. Haber (1971). The Chemical Industry, 1900-1930: International Growth and Technological Change. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 452 p.). Chemical industry--History.

William Haynes (1942). This Chemical Age; The Miracle of Man-Made Materials. (New York, NY: Knopf, 385 p.). Chemistry, Technical -- History; Synthetic products.

--- (1970). Chemical Pioneers; The Founders of the American Chemical Industry. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 288 p.). Chemists; Chemical engineers; Chemical industry -- United States.

Eds. Ernst Homburg, Anthony S. Travis, and Harm G. Schroter (1998). Chemical Industry in Europe, 1850-1914: Industrial Growth, Pollution, and Professionalization. (Boston, MA:: Kluwer Academic, 344 p.). Chemical industry --Europe --History; Chemical industry --Environmental aspects --Europe --History. Development of chemical industry during Second Industrial Revolution in large number of European countries; importance of environmental issues, role of chemical profession in industrial, environmental matters.

Jeffrey L. Meikle (1995). American Plastic: A Cultural History. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 403 p.). Plastics--History. Plastics industry and trade--United States--History.

A. Cressy Morrison (1937). Man in a Chemical World; The Service of Chemical Industry. (New York, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons, 292 p.). Chemistry, Technical--History.

Robert Snetsinger (1983). The Ratcatcher’s Child: The History of the Pest Control Industry. (Cleveland, OH: Franzak & Foster Co., 294 p.). Professor Emeritus of Entomology (Penn State University). Pests --Control industry --History.

Anthony S. Travis (1993). The Rainbow Makers: The Origins of the Synthetic Dyestuffs Industry in Western Europe. (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 335 p.). Deputy Director of the Sidney M. Edelstein Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and of the Jacques Loeb Centre for the History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences (Ben Gurion University of the Negev). Dye industry --Europe --History.

Eds. Anthony S. Travis (1998). Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical Industry, 1900-1936: New Technologies, Political Frameworks, Markets, and Companies. (Boston, MA: Kluwer, 393 p.). Chemical industry --Europe --History --20th century. Ways in which chemical industry developed throughout much of Europe prior to, during, World War II (innovations based on availability of raw materials, needs of new user industries); emphasis on fertiliser production; close examination of technologies (chemical engineering, control of processes, research in industry); mergers led to formation of IG Farben, Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI); dependendence on coal, coal tar products; strong moves towards foundation of science-based biochemical industries


BBusiness History Links

American Chemical Society-ListServ                                 

Bakelite Museum                                                                     

Largest collection of vintage plastics in Britain

Chemical Heritage Foundation (Othmer Library)                                             

1982 - Center for the History of Chemistry (CHOC) was launched as a pilot project of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Chemical Society (ACS). In 1984 the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) became the third sponsor. 1987 - Center was incorporated as a not-for-profit organization, now named the National Foundation for the History of Chemistry. 1992 - Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) assumed its present name to better reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences and industries it serves and the widening public scope of its activities. CHF maintains a world-class collection of materials that document the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and industries; encourages research in CHF collections; and carries out a program of outreach and interpretation in order to advance an understanding of the role of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and industries in shaping society

Museo della Plastica
Located at Pont Canavese, close to Turin, in northern Italy, first Italian Museum of Plastics.
Housed inside a Sandretto plant (founded in 1946, leader in design, manufacture, sale of machines for thermoplastic injection), museum holds one of richest collections of ancient artifacts of plastic, celluloid by EBAN, casein, bakelite, materials of today.                                                                                           

Information about inventors, plastic materials, and companies involved with the discovery and production of polymer materials. Includes images of items made from materials such as celluloid, casein, melamine, vulcanite, and xylonite. Also includes an online museum "devoted to the story of viscose artificial silk [rayon]." From the Plastics Historical Society, a British society affiliated with the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


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