March 6, 1646
- Pilgrim Bay Colony issued first patent for any machine in New World to Joseph Jenkes, Mass. with these words:
"The Cort, considering the necessity of raising such
manufactures of engines of mils to go by water, for speedy
dispatch of much worke with few hands, & being sufficiently
informed of the ability of the petions to pforme such workes,
grant his petition (yt no othr pson shall set up or use any such
new invention or trade for fourteen yeares, without the licence
of him, the said Joseph Jenkes.").
1665 - Louis
XIV, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised plan to restore French
economy; private entrepreneurs founded Saint-Gobain to organize
glass production on industrial basis; established near-monopoly
in glassware casting (invented1688) in 17th-century Europe,
ousted Venice as leader in sector; 1857 -
established unit in Germany (acquired Aachener Spiegelmanufaktur
AG in Stolberg); 1889 - established unit in Italy;
1904 - establised unit in Spain; 1970
- merged with Pont-à-Mousson, world leader in cast iron piping,
formed global producer of materials, capital goods; 1996
- acquired, completed its expertise in distribution.
Savery invented steam engine.
- Thomas Newcomen devised first workable steam pumping engine.
July 30, 1739
- Caspar Wistar began glass manufacturing in Allowaystown, NJ;
first successful and enduring large-scale glass factory;
produced bottle, other glassware, window glass.; successful
until the hard times of the Revolutionary War damaged business;
1780 - glassworks
Leopold Riedel (3rd generation) allowed by the local Count in
northern Bohemia to run the family's glassmaking business
independently under lease; first Riedel glassworks was born at
Zenckner in Antoniwald, just at the same time that the Seven
Years War began; 1987 - Georg J. Riedel, tenth
generation, took the helm of the company; eleventh generation
Maximilian Riedel runs the Riedel company in the US.
perfected Thomas Newcomen's steam pumping engine.
- James Watt received a patent for steam engine.
May 18, 1787 -
Glass was engraved for first time in Toulouse, France.
March 11, 1811 -
Luddite riots began in Nottingham, England brought on by
prospect that new inventions (machinery) would do jobs better
and faster than people and intensify existing poverty and
misery; group of laborers attacked a factory, broke 63 stocking
and lace manufacturing frames which they feared would replace
them; next three weeks gangs of upwards of fifty men, armed with
pistols, guns and heavy hammers broke two hundred more frames.
April 16, 1813
- Requirement for standardization in factory production first
became part of federal government contract (specified
interchangeable parts); Colo. Simeon North, of Berlin, CT,
received order for twenty thousand pistols to be made such that
"component parts of the pistols are to correspond so exactly
that any limb or part of one pistol may be fitted to any other
pistol of the 20,000."
1831 - Erastus and Thaddeus S. Fairbanks, of St.
Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for "Weighing Scales" ("new and
Improved Method of Constructing and Weighing by Means of the
Steelyard-Balance...for the purpose of weighing loaded wagons
and other articles of great weight"); a platform scale;
revolutionized weighing methods; E. and T. Fairbanks and Company
(which had until then been produced stoves, plows, forks,
machines) began to specialize in manufacturing scales of all
sizes; business was successful, sold scales worldwide.
1832 - John J. Howe received a patent for a "Pin
Machine" ("improved machine for manufacturing common pins"); pin
manufacturing machine shaped pins in one operation instead of 18
separate steps required for hand production; American pin
industry concentrated in the Naugatuck River Valley because Howe
built plant in Derby, CT.
Charles and Elias
Cooper founded Cooper Industries as a small iron foundry
in Mount Vernon, Ohio; 1960's - diversified from
manufacturing power and compression equipment for the
transmission of natural gas to petroleum and industrial
equipment, electrical products, electrical power equipment,
automotive products, tools, hardware.
- William Hussey started Hussey Plow Company in North Berwick,
ME; 1895 - factory
burned to ground; produced a variety of items (sewer grates,
manhole covers, ladders, ski jumps, chair lifts);
1913 - Philip
Hussey Sr. took over; 1931
- built its first set of outdoor grandstands; broadened to
recoverable seating (chairs instead of bleachers) for civic
centers, convention centers; 1967
- Philip Hussey III took over;
1980s - entered stadium, arena seating business;
moved from small, regional provider of folding bleachers
(cornerstone of high school gymnasia) to national business with
significant international customers (Gillette Stadium, Fenway
Park, many other professional and collegiate stadiums and
arenas; has built bleachers for more than 50% of high school
gymnasia in country; 2003
- honored as Maine's oldest family-owned manufacturing business;
one of America's longest histories of uninterrupted family
ownership (sixth generation).
November 23, 1835
- Henry Burden, of Troy, NY, received first U.S. patent for
"Making Horseshoes"; horseshoe manufacturing machine capable of
making sixty horseshoes a minute, more rapidly and uniformly
than hand production method; made nearly all horseshoes used by
the Union calvary during Civil War.
1836 - Heinrich
Hahn, glazier, established Glasbrau Hahn in Frankfurt am Main,
Germany; 1935 -
introduced ALLGLASS constructions (bonding of glass-to-glass
without use of intermediate framing); one of world's leading
manufacturers of glass cabinets for museums;
2010 - 140
February 25, 1837
of Brandon, VT, received patent for an "Electric Motor" ("an
application of magnetism and electro-magnetism to propelling
machinery"); first practical electrical motor.
September 30, 1841
- Samuel Slocum of Poughkeepsie, NY, received a patent for
"Papering Pins" ("machine for sticking pins into paper";
1839 - formed a company to make what became known as
"Poughkeepsie pins"- one man with two machines could produce
100,000 pins in 11 hours. John Ireland Howe made the first
practical pin-making machine.
- Factory safety regulations enacted in Britain.
- Ten Hours Act shortens factory English work day to ten hours
for women and children.
- George Taylor (19), David Kendall (35, son of founder of
thermometer company, possibly first in US, in 1820, in New
Lebanon, NY) formed Kendall and Taylor in single rented room
above Post Drug Store in Rochester, NY; began making
thermometers, barometers; 1853
- partnership ended; 1855
- Taylor expanded, served process industries with mantel, churn,
distillers’ and brewers’ thermometers;
1871 - merged with Frank Taylor
(brother) thermometer company;
1872 - renamed Taylor Bros.; specialized in
making thermometers used by meteorologists, brewers, later, by
doctors to measure their patients' temperature;
incorporated, became Taylor Bros. Corporation;
consolidated, reorganized into Taylor Instrument Companies; used
trade name Tycos; August 30, 1910
- Taylor Instrument Companies registered "Tycos" trademark first
used May 6, 1908 (hydrometers, pyrometers, thermographs, charts
for recording thermometers, barometers, and
- started R&D department (believed to be first in American
instrument industry); 1932
- Taylor name used; 1941
- employees John Ziegler, Nathanial Nichols developed defined
method for tuning controllers;
January 17, 1956 - registered "Taylor" trademark
first used in December 1932 (charts);
1968 - merged with Ritter Pfaudler
Corp., Rochester-based manufacturer of medical, dental, water
processing equipment and supplies; formed holding company called
Sybron Corp.; 1973
- first to introduce real-time programming to control industry
through adaptation of BASIC known as POL (Process Oriented
Language); 1983 -
acquired from Sybron by Combustion Engineering;
1987 - integrated
with AccuRay, Columbus, OH-based flat-sheet measurement, control
company; 1990 -
Combustion Engineering acquired by ABB (Asea Brown Boveri);
integrated with operations related to Asea Master system in
Vasteras, Sweden; Taylor instrumentation division eventually
merged with instrument, water meter business of Kent from UK.
- Taylor Instruments
November 28, 1851
- Hiram W. Hayden, of Waterbury, CT, received a patent for
"Making Brass Kettles")"Machinery for Making Kettles and
Articles of Like Character from Disks of Metal"); brass
spinning; disc mounted in a chuck that rotated at uniform speed;
tool pressed against metal, shaped it to a die.
- Richard Teller Crane founded
"R.T. Crane Brass & Bell Foundry" in Chicago, a 14x24-foot
foundry specializing in brass castings; 1936 -
- Wallace Barnes established manufacturing business (small
springs, screw machine products, drop forgings) in Bristol, CT;
soon merged with E. L. Dunbar, re named Dunbar and Barnes;
1866 - Barnes acquired Dunbar's interests, renamed
the Wallace Barnes Company; 1893 - Carlyle Barnes
(son) succeeded; 1913 - Fuller Barnes (grandson)
assumed control; 1921 - Barnes-Gibson-Raymond,
Inc. founded in Detroit; 1922 - renamed Associated
Spring Corporation; 1946 - went public; 1951
- Carlyle F. (Hap) Barnes (great grandson) named general
manager; 1953 - sales exceed $50 million;
1962 - springs used in space suit of astronaut John
Glenn in his first orbital flight of earth; 1969 -
springs aboard Apollo 11 flight to moon; 1976 -
name changed to Barnes Group Inc.; 1988 - sales
exceed $500 million; formed Barnes Aerospace; 2007
- international aerospace and industrial components
manufacturing and distribution company, more than 6,100
employees at more than 60 locations worldwide.
November 30, 1858
- John Landis Mason, of New York, NY, received a U.S.
patent for a "Glass Jar" ("Improvement in Screw-Neck Bottles");
known as the Mason jar (shoulder-seal jar with zinc screw
cap, threaded neck which fit with threads in a metal cap to
screw down to the shoulder of the jar and in this way form a
seal); became a common term for the preserved food jar;
1869 - Top seal above the threads and under a glass lid
was introduced to the jar.
October 6, 1868
- William H. Remington, of Boston, MA, received a patent
for "Electro-Plating with Nickel".
July 13, 1869
- Henry Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for
an "Improvement in Automatic Grain-Weighing Scales" ("applicable
also to the weighing of analagous material").
May 10, 1870
- Thaddeus Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent
for an "Improvement in Weighing-Scales" ("to facilitate the
weighing of widely-varying quantities with the same machine,
without necessitating any delay for adjustment or change in
September 13, 1870
- Henry Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for
an "Improvement in Self-Registering Weighing-Scales" ("means
whereby the operation of registering and weighing is mainly
automatic, and the machine may be worked successfully and
reliably by very ignorant and unskilled workmen");
Harvlin Paddock, of St.
Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in
Registering Weighing-Scales" ("registering the amount of the
weight and adding together the several amounts or the amounts of
the surplus over and above that indicated by a poise in a
beam...entirely automatic in its action"); assigned to himself
and Franklin Fairbanks.
14, 1871 - Franklin Fairbanks and Harvlin Paddock, of
St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in
Weighing-Scales" ("especially adapted for use in connection with
railroad-track scales, and with scales for the weighing of loads
of coal, ore, ice or other material in which it is more
important to weigh very rapidly, with a close approximation to
accuracy, than to weigh with absolute accuracy at an expenditure
of more time").
- Factory Act
introduced 56-hour week in England.
- Charles Jeremiah Smith established company in Milwaukee, WI;
made parts for baby carriages, other hardware specialties;
1889 - entered bicycle industry, introduced concept
of forming steel tubing from sheet metal; 1899 -
Arthur Oliver (A. O.) Smith (son) developed world's first press
steel automobile frame; 1903 - began supplying
frames to Cadillac (supplier relationship lasted nearly 90
years); 1904 - incorporated A. O. Smith Company;
1906 - Henry Ford ordered 10,000 steel automobile
frames, prompted company to develop world's first mass
production process for assembling frames; 1910 -
North America's largest frame manufacturer; 1913 -
Lloyd Raymond Smith (grandson) became third generation of family
to lead company; 1917 - began manufacturing bomb
casings for war effort (largest bomb maker in United States by
end of WW I); 1921 - unveiled world's first fully
automated automobile frame assembly plant (frame every 8
seconds); 1925 - introduced first arc-welded,
high-pressure vessel used to refine oil; 1933 -
introduced single-piece glass-lined brewery tank; May 25,
1936 - Louis J. Larson, of Milwaukee, WI, received a
patent for a "Method of Fabricating Alloy Line Pressure
Vessels"; glass-lined water heater; assigned to A. O. Smith
Corporation; made hot water affordable convenience for
homeowners; 1939 - began mass-producing
residential water heaters (halted during WW II); 1949
- introduced glass-fused-to-steel silo targeted at dairy,
livestock operations; 1959 - established glass
fiber division to commercialize research in use of fiberglass to
replace steel; 1968 - produced 10 millionth
residential water heater; 1986 - acquired
Westinghouse small motor division; 1997 -
Automotive Products Company acquired by Tower Automotive = exit
from automotive industry after more than 90 years; world's
leading manufacturer of C-frame subfractional horsepower motors;
1998 - acquired General Electric's domestic
compressor motor business, became North America' leading
manufacturer of hermetic motors; 1999 - acquired
world-wide electric motor operations of MagneTek (largest
acquisition in its history); 2001 - doubled size
of water heater business through acquisitions.
(right) - A. O. Smith
1875 - Thaddeus Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT,
received a patent for an "Improvement in Weighing-Scales"
("applies to all forms of scales for weighing hay, coal, and the
1877 - Joseph S. Hartmann, Bavarian
Trunkmaker, founded Hartmann Trunk Co. in Milwaukee, WI;
1930s - offered
over 800 models, sizes, colors of steamship trunks, luggage;
1954 - James Bond
carried lightweight Hartmann Skymate suitcase in Ian Fleming's
1954 novel, 'Live and Let Die';
1955 - acquired by Benjamin S. Katz family;
1959 - relocated
to Lebanon, TN; distribution base of about 450 stores;
1983 - acquired by
Lenox Incorporated (acquired by Brown Forman Corporation);
1994 - pioneered
business suiter compartment to meet demands of business
travelers; 1998 -
established parnership with Lambertson Truex, accessories
designers, to update current products and design new,
Joseph S. Hartmann
24, 1878 - Franklin Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT,
received a patent for an "Improvement in Drop-Lever
Weighing-Scales" ("to provide a raising or dropping mechanism
which raise or drop the scale-beam bodily or uniformly from each
end, so as to prevent any injurious movement or wear of the beam
at either of its points of support").
1880 - Ball
brothers founded Wooden Jacket Can Company in Buffalo, NY
(became Ball Corporation);
December 14, 1926 - Ball Brothers Company
(Muncie, IN) registered "Ball" trademark first used in 1894
(glass fruit or preserving jars).
October 1, 1880
- Thomas Edison opened Edison Lamp Works, first electric
incandescent lamp factory in the U.S., in Menlo Park, NJ.
1881 - Glass
factory established in small village of Iittala in southern
Finland, north of Helsinki; modern industrial plant; first
glassblowers came from Sweden, later professionals hired from
Belgium, Germany; 1920s-1930s - breakthrough
occurred in early years of modernism, functionalism; among first
companies to make transition from creating decorative settings
and dinner sets to progressive Scandinavian design; 2004
- acquired by Iittala’s management and ABN AMRO Capital.
October 1, 1882
- Eugene and Victor Villaume opened Villaume Brothers, box-
making business in 30x30 foot floor space on West Side of St.
Paul, MN; made beer boxes, got first order from Theodore Hamm's
brewery; July 3, 1897 - company incorporated; name
changed to Villaume Box and Lumber Company; manufactured
paneling, cabinets, custom wood fixtures for churches,
hospitals, schools; 1950s - box division became
largest consumer of native- grown lumber in Minnesota outside of
home construction; 1957 - added new line of
pallets, skids, custom-designed wood packaging; modem roof
trusses held together by metal connector plates (acquired
Frame-O-Wood) - sped up construction, eliminated on-site
cutting, reduced errors, minimized waste; 1990 -
J. Nicholas "Nick" Linsmayer (great-grandson) took charge
(130,000 roof trusses per year).
- founder Villaume Industries
- John Pitcairn, John B. Ford, Edward and Emory L. Ford (sons)
founded Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in Creighton, PA; first
commercially successful maker of plate glass; 1896
- Fords sold interest to Pitcairn, left company; 1916
- nation's largest plate glass manufacturer; 1925
- began mass-producing sheet glass; 1952 - opened
fiber glass business; 1963 - first U.S. glass manufacturer to
use float process; 1968- name changed to PPG
Industries; sales exceeded $1 billion; 1985 -
Pitcairn heirs sold their remaining stake to company for $530
- Edward Drummond Libbey, made partner in New England Glass
Company in 1880, took over Wm. Libbey & Son; 1888
- moved company to Toledo, OH; hired Michael Owens as glass
blower; 1892 - name changed to Libbey Glass
Company; 1899 - helped finance Owens Bottle
Machine Company; 1903 -Owens
Bottle Machine Company formed (Libbey as president, Owens as
general manager); 1916 - Libbey-Owens Glass
Company formed; 1930 - merged with Edward Ford
Plate Glass Company, formed Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
Libbey - Libbey-Owens-Ford
- Charles Henry Holt, Benjamin Holt established Stockton Wheel
Company in warm, dry Stockton, CA (Charles had formed C.H. Holt
and Co. in 1869 in San Francisco, a West Coast branch of
family’s New Hampshire-based wagon-making business; William
Harrison Holt, Ames Frank Holt joined Charles in 1871, formed
Holt Brothers Manufacturing; produced wagon wheels made from
imported, seasoned Eastern hardwood but climate too cold, damp
for wheel fabrication; William and Ames Holt sold ownership to
brothers); expanded into agricultural, mechanical implements;
1886 - produced
'Link Belt Combined Harvester', first combine (used flexible
chain belts rather than gears to transmit power from ground
wheels to working parts of machine);
1892 - incorporated as Holt
Manufacturing Company; wheel business continued as side line to
caterpillar-style tractor's or crawlers);
1932 - acquired Robert Nephew;
1954 - acquired by
James Barry; 1957
- acquired by Roger Kitto; 1977
- acquired by Frank Mauro, Jr.
- Harvey Hubbell
opened manufacturing facility in Bridgeport, CT; April 1,
1890 - received a patent for a "Roll-Paper Holder and
Cutter" ("used in stores to hold rolls of wrapping paper");
universal in retail stores in early 1900s for use in wrapping
goods; August 11, 1896 - received a patent for a
"Socket for Incandescent Lamps" ("to provide a practical and
inexpensive pull-socket for incandescent lamps"); electric light
bulb socket with on-and-off pull chain; February 2, 1897
- received a patent for an "Automatic Tapping-Machine" ("adapted
for light rapid tapping and which shall be constructed as to be
capable of tapping a hole to any required depth and will stop
automatically the instant the tap has entered to the
predetermined depth"); August 12, 1898 - received
a patent for a "Machine for Slotting Screws" ("durable,
quick-acting, and thoroughly-practicable machine for slotting
the heads of screws"); April 4, 1899 - received a
patent for a "Machine for Threading Screws" ("thread is pressed
into the screw-blanks by means of two externally-threaded
rotating dies"; process and machinery for cold rolled screw
threads, reduced rate of material lost in production by more
than 50%; received a patent for a "Machine for Assembling Screws
and Parts" ("putting screws in articles with or without other
parts as washers"); ventured into electrical equipment
manufacturing; expanded as use of electricity expanded;
1905 - incorporated in State of Connecticut as "Harvey
Hubbell, Incorporated; June 17, 1913 - received a
patent (#1,064,833) for a "Separable Attachment Plug"; May
4, 1920 - registered "Hubbell" trademark first used
October 1, 1904 (toggle snap-switches); December 17, 1927
- Harvey Hubbell III (26, son) succeeded;
1936 - went public;
February 14, 1956 - registered "Hubbellock" trademark
first used April 24, 1933 (cord connectors and flush
receptacles); 1958 - began aggressive acquisition
- Harvey Hubbell Inc. (http://www.hubbell.com/images/harveyHubbell.jpg)
Alexander Meston founded manufacturer of electric motors and
fans in St. Louis, MO; persuaded Wesley Emerson, a former Union
army officer, judge and lawyer, to be their principal investor;
company then named Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co.
September 20, 1892
- Frank Shuman, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a
"Machine for Embedding Wire-Netting in Glass" ("machine for
rolling what I term 'wire-glass' - that is, sheet-glass having
embedded in it wire or wire-gauze"); wire mesh inserted during
plate glass manufacturing process to create a single monolithic
glass (useful for fire safety); December 12, 1893
- received two patents for a "Process of Manufacturing
Group of Cincinnati businessmen, largely composed of members of
Cincinnati and Hamilton County Manufacturers Association,
convened in Oddfellows Hall in Cincinnati, OH (583 association
and manufacturing executives from all corners of the U.S.
attended); founded National Association of Manufacturers; Thomas
Dolan of Philadelphia chosen as non-partisan association's first
president; January 1896 - first annual convention
held in Chicago; name "National Association of Manufacturers of
the United States of America" and constitution adopted;
objectives: 1) retention and supply of home markets with U.S.
products and extension of foreign trade; 2) development of
reciprocal trade relations between the U.S. and foreign
governments; 3) rehabilitation of the U.S. Merchant Marine; 4)
construction of a canal in Central America; 5) improvement and
extension of U.S. waterways.
February 26, 1895
- Michael Joseph Owens, of Toledo, OH, received a patent
for an "Apparatus for Blowing Glass"; glass-blowing machine
capable of producing five pieces at a time by placing five molds
surrounding molten glass in front of a blowing pipe; each piece
was made "without seams or roughness" (used in manufacture of
lamp-chimneys and tumblers);
Owens was a co-founder of the glass industry in Toledo;
1903 - organized Owens Bottle Machine Co. to
capitalize on mechanized glass blowing process; August 2,
1904 - received patent for a "Glass Shaping Machine";
assigned to Toledo Glass Company; May 10, 1904 -
received second patent for a "Method of Blowing Glass";
perfected automatic glass bottle manufacturing machine;
revolution in glass bottle making; November 8, 1904
-received a patent for a "Leer"; automatic glass bottle
manufacturing machine capable of producing four bottles per
second; assigned to Toledo Glass Company; 1929 -
Owens Bottle Company acquired assets of licensee Illinois Glass
Company, formed Owens-Illinois Glass Company;
1965 - name
changed to Owens-Illinois, Inc.
Michael Joseph Owens
- Owens-Illinois, Inc.
February 4, 1896
- Black American inventor, Willie H. Johnson, of Navasota, TX,
received a patent for "A Mechanism for Overcoming Dead Centers";
occur in machines when shaft is driven by a crank; October
1898 - secured a second patent for an improvement to his
November 23, 1897
- Black American inventor Elbert R. Robinson, of Chicago, IL,
received a patent for an improvement in "Casting Composite or
Other Car Wheels"; method in which outer sides are of one metal
and the interior portions are of another metal; enabled casting
a metal of high electrical conductivity (brass) in a groove of
an iron trolley wheel, permitted new construction; 1894
- previous patent awarded for an "electric railway
November 11, 1899
- Edward Ford, former co-founder of Pittsburgh Plate Glass
Company in Creighton, PA, incorporated Edward Ford Plate
Glass Company in Rossford, OH; built largest plate glass
manufacturing plant under one roof in country; 1930
- merged with Libbey-Owens Glass Company, formed
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
March 7, 1899
- Irving W. Colburn, of Toledo, OH, received two patents for a
"Glass-Working Machine" ("novel means or apparatus for
carrying into operation a new mechanical method of forming or
manufacturing articles of glass such as have been heretofore
been made by blowing"); March
25, 1902 -
received a patent for a "Glass-Working Machine" ("novel means or
apparatus for rolling, pressing, and stretching plastic glass
into sheets for the purpose of manufacturing plate and window
glass"); process for fabricating continuous sheets of flat glass
made mass production of glass for windows possible; 1906
- formed Colburn Machine Glass Co. (bankrupt in 1911);
1923 - patents acquired by Toledo Glass Company;
November 25, 1913 - first draw of sheet glass;
1916 - company organized as Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass
- Frank A. Poor became partner in
Merritt Manufacturing Company
in Middleton, MA that relighted burnt-out light bulbs (cut off
glass tip, replace filament, reseal bulb); 1906 -
Novelty Incandescent Lamp Company (NILCO) founded in
Pennsylvania; concentrated on specialty lamps for medical,
budding automotive industries; 1909 - Poor
created Hygrade Lamp Company; 1910 - General
Motors acquired controlling interest in NILCO, appointed Bernard
G. Erskine to run factory; 1922 - NILCO acquired
by Bernard Erskine and two associates, created Nilco Lamp Works;
1924 - Nilco created Sylvania Products Company to
produce radio receiver tubes; 1931 - Hygrade,
Nilco Sylvania merged, formed Hygrade Sylvania Corporation;
made first linear, or tubular, fluorescent
lamp under Sylvania name;
name changed to Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., debuted
"flashing S" logo; 1959 - merged with General
Telephone; 1971 - name changed to GTE Sylvania,
1993 - SYLVANIA lighting and precision materials
businesses in North America acquired by OSRAM GmbH.
May 27, 1901 -
Chapman Jay Root founded Root Glass Works
at Third and Voorhees streets in Terre Haute,
glass bottles, other glass containers that would withstand high
1915 - Alexander Samuelson (plant
superintendent) of Terre Haute, IN received a design patent for
a "Design for a Bottle or Similar Article"; Coca-Cola bottle
design patent assigned to Root Glass Company;
1916 - design team
won contest for design of Coca-Cola bottle at bottlers
convention in Atlanta, GA (beat 11 entries for originality,
exclusiveness of design, ease of handling, production cost,
potential consumer recognition); company received 5 cents
royalty for every 144 bottles made (in addition to cost of
manufacture); November 6,1923
- Chapman J. Root, of Terre Haute, IN, received two successor
design patents for "Design for a Bottle";
1930s - largest glass plant in United
States that manufactured high-pressure glass containers;
1932 - merged with
Owen-Illinois Glass Company (Toledo, OH);
1937 - bottle design rights acquired by
Coca-Cola; 1939 -
formed Associated Coca-Cola Bottling Plants Inc., to consolidate
bottling facilities; became nation’s largest independent Coke
- acquired by American-Wheaton Glass Corporation;
1962 - acquired by
American Can Company; 1968
- acquired by Midland Glass Company;
1982 - Root family 57.5% interest
acquired by Coca-Cola for $417.5 million.
- Alexander H. Kerr established home-canning supplies business,
called Hermetic Fruit Jar Company; earliest Kerr Jars made for
Kerr, a jobbing company, by Illinois Pacific Glass Company and
Hazel Atlas Company; January 1970 - company went
public; 1975 - owned, operated seven glass plants
in various locations throughout United States; 27 sales offices;
May 1992 - name changed to Kerr Group Inc. to
reflect company's having grown to manufacture more than just
glass containers; 1997 - Fremont Acquisition
Company LLC and Kerr Acquisition Corporation (KAC) completed
previously announced merger, converted into private company.
June 9, 1903
- Ewald Goltstein, of Cologne, Germany, received a patent for a
"Jar-Closure" ("preservation of materials, articles or
substances of food...in packages suitable for transportation and
storage, such as packages or receptacles being preferably of the
class which are closed and hermetically sealed by the vacuum
process, in which the air is exhausted from the interior of the
receptacle after it has been filled and the closure applied and
then held solely by the atmospheric pressure and without any
mechanical fastenings"); assigned to Julius A. Landsberger;
June 13, 1903 - Julius A. Landsberger, of Alameda,
CA, received a patent for a "Closure for Receptacles" ("clamp
for holding a cover upon [jars and cans], either temporarily, as
during the operation of the vacuum process of exhausting the
receptacle, permanently after the vacuum process has been
completed, or originally and permanently where the vacuum
process is not employed"); both patents incorporated by Kerr
glass into economy jars.
April 17, 1906
- Deutsche Gasglühlicht-Anstalt (also known as
Auer-Gesellschaft) registered OSRAM name inTrademark Directory
of Imperial Patent Office in Berlin; name derived from two
materials needed at the time to produce filaments - initially
Osmium and later Wolfram (or tungsten as it is now more commonly
known); July 1, 1919 - OSRAM Werke GmbH
Kommanditgesell- schaft formed (joint lamp production venture of
Auer-Gesellschaft, AEG and Siemens & Halske AG); 1925
- Bilux launched, first fully developed car headlight lamp that
offered both high beam and dipped beam from single light source;
1978 - Siemens sole shareholder; February
1993 - OSRAM GmbH acquired Sylvania from GTE;
September 30, 2005 - sales of 4.3 billion euros, 88
percent of which came from outside Germany; 2006 -
one of two leading lighting manufacturers in world.
- Ashland Manufacturing Company founded to develop innovative
ways of using slaughterhouse by-products of meat packing firm
Schwarzchild and Sulzberger (original product line include
surgical sutures, inexpensive tennis racquets, tennis racquet
string, two models of baseball shoes); 1914 -
Thomas E. Wilson (former president of Chicago-based Morris & Co.
packinghouse) named president, company became separate operating
subsidiary to focus on sports oriented products; 1915
- Football jerseys, basketballs and indoor baseballs are added
to the line, and the Star tennis racquet is advertised at $.75;
1916 - Ashland Manufacturing is renamed as Thomas
E. Wilson Co.; 1918 - $1 million in sales;
1925 - name changed to Wilson-Western Sporting Goods
Company; 1931 - name changed to Wilson Sporting
Goods Co.; 1967 - Ling-Temco-Vought buys Wilson meat packing,
Wilson Sporting Goods is restructured as a subsidiary of the
Dallas-based aerospace conglomerate; 1970 -
acquired by Pepsico; 1975 -tennis sales volume
surpasses that of golf sales for first time; 1989
- acquired by Amer Group Ltd. of Helsinki, Finland.
- Queen Stove Works founded in Albert Lea, MN; produced camp
stoves; added oil space heaters, kitchen stoves, other products;
1950 - acquired
American Gas Machine company, manufacturer of lanterns, ice
chests, heaters, one model of commercial ice machine;
December 6, 1955 -
registered "Scotsman" trademark first used July 6, 1951
(machines for making ice cubes and ice chips);
1957 - acquired by
King-Seeley Corporation; 1960 - merged with American Thermos
Products Company; renamed King-Seeley Thermos; focused entirely
on manufacture of ice machines;
1967 - acquired Frimont S.p.A., large Italian
maker of commercial ice machines;
1968 - acquired by Household Finance Corporation
(Household Manufacturing division);
April 1989 - spun off Refrigeration
Products Group; renamed Scotsman Industries, Inc.;
1999 - acquired by
S&W Berisford for $700 million;
2000 - name changed to Enodis plc (Latin for
'solutions'); October 2008
- acquired by Manitowoc Company;
May 15, 2009 - acquired by Warburg Pincus;
renamed Scotsman Industries, Inc.; largest global manufacturer
of commercial ice machines with related products including
storage bins, ice and water dispensers, industrial ice machines,
high-end residential ice machines, blast chillers and commercial
- Otto Henze founded Penn Fishing Tacke Company in Philadelphia,
PA; forefront of modern reel design and production;
February 17, 1959
- Penn Fishing Tackle Mfg. Co. registered "Penn" trademark first
used in July 1931 (fishing reels); forefront of modern reel
- Corning Glass formed joint venture with Owens-Illinois to
produce of glass fiber; November 1, 1938 - spun
off joint venture as separate company, named Owens-Corning
Fiberglas® Corporation; reported sales of $2.5 million, more
than 600 employees.
- Frederick August Krehbiel founded Molex Products Company in
Brookfield, IL (named for plastic material he developed);
manufactured variety of products (clock cases, flowerpots, valve
wheels, salt tablet dispensers); 1940s - added
metal stamping to molding processes, produced first connector
assembly for Hotpoint/GE home appliances; 1953 -
introduced first plug-and-receptacle connector line; 1960
- introduced first nylon plug-and-receptacle line; 1967
- established an international division (2007 - more than
two-thirds of annual revenues from products manufactured, sold
outside United States); 2006 - acquired Woodhead
Industries, increased presence in factory automation, other
industrial, harsh-environment applications.
Frederick August Krehbiel
- founder Molex (http://www.molex.com/images/about/AboutUs_History.gif)
October 11, 1938
- Games Slayter, of Newark, OH (vice-president, Research and
Development of newly formed Owens-Corning Fiberglas
Corporation), received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for
Making Glass Wool" (flexible glass wool - Fiberglas) and a
patent for "Textile Material"; Slayter and John H. Thomas
received patent for "Glass Wool and Method and Apparatus for
Making Same" and another patent for "Glass Fabric"; sought to
make a finer glass fiber material (instead of natural or other
synthetic fibers); assigned patents to Owens-Illinois Glass Co.
June 27, 1939 -
Frederick M. Stone, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent
for a "Ticket Dispensing Machine" ("of primary utility when
employed for the dispensing of tickets".
December 16, 1982
- The Federal Reserve released a report indicating that the
operating capacity of U.S. factories had plummeted to 67.8
percent, the nation's lowest mark since the indicator was
introduced in 1948.
- Utah State University recognized Dr. Shigeo Shingo, one of
world’s leading experts in improving manufacturing processes
(helped create, write about many aspects of revolutionary
manufacturing practices comprising Toyota Production System) for
his lifetime accomplishments with an Honorary Doctorate in
Business; developed Shingo Prize for Operational
Excellence to promote awareness of Lean manufacturing concepts,
recognize companies in United States, Canada, Mexico that
achieve world-class manufacturing status; regarded as premier
manufacturing award recognition program for North America;
intended as "Nobel prize" in business, grounded in lean
enterprise management leading to world-class and globally
competitive business; criteria (practices, techniques that might
achieve world-class level of quality, cost, delivery, business
results) organized into 5 sections: 1) Leadership Culture and
Infrastructure; 2) Manufacturing Strategies and System
Integration; 3) Non-Manufacturing Support Functions; 4) Quality,
Cost and Delivery; 5) Customer Satisfaction and Profitability.
July 21, 2009 - Industrial Production
fell below 12 million jobs for first time since 1941,
manufacturing jobs as percentage of total employment fell below
9%, lowest level since Bureau of Labor Statistics started
collecting data in 1939; annual manufacturing output per worker
at record high: $223,915 (in constant 2000 dollars) = almost 3
times as much output per worker as in early 1970s, twice
as much output per worker compared to mid-1980s.
(Andersen), Kenneth D. Ruble (1978). The
Magic Circle: A Story of the Men and Women Who Made Andersen the
Most Respected Name in Windows. (Bayport, MN: Ruble, 216
p.). Andersen Corporation--History.
(APV Holdings), Harry Miller (1985).
Halls of Dartford, 1785-1985: Founded in the Industrial
Revolution, Pioneer of Refrigeration, Halls of Dartford
Celebrate 200 Years of Progress. (London, UK: Hutchinson
Benhjam, 231 p.). APV Holdings -- History.
(ASV Inc.), Edgar Hetteen, Jay Lemke (1998).
Breaking Trail. (Bemidji, MN: Focus Publishing, 282 p.).
Hetteen, Edgar; snowmobile.
(Ball Corporation), Frederic A. Birmingham
Ball Corporation, The First Century. (Indianapolis, IN:
Curtis Pub. Co., 185 p.). Ball Corporation--History.
- Ball Corporation
(Ball Corporation), John W. Fisher, with E.
Bruce Geelhoed (1986).
Managing Change: How To Grow a Modern Enterprise.
(Muncie, IN: Ball State University, 184 p.). Ball
Corporation--History; Glass manufacture--United
States--History--Case studies; Industrial management--United
(Barnes Group), Ogden Tanner (1991).
Barnes: An American Enterprise. (Bristol, CT: Barnes
Group, 108 p.). Barnes Group Inc.--History; Manufacturing
(W. H. Brady Co.), John Gurda (1989).
Sticking To It: A History of the W.H. Brady Co., 1914-1989.
(Milwaukee, WI: The Company, 148 p.). Brady Co., W. H.
(Budd Company), Paul Clemens (2011).
Punching Out: One Year in a Closing Auto Plant. (New
York, NY: Doubleday, 271 p.). Automobile industry and trade --
Michigan -- Detroit; Automobile industry workers -- Michigan --
Detroit; Plant shutdowns -- Michigan -- Detroit.
2006 closing of
Budd Company stamping plant on Detroit’s East Side (made roofs,
doors, other body parts of cars, trucks, sports utility
vehicles; built in 1919, one of oldest active auto plants in
America’s foremost industrial city, peak employment of 10,000);
character of country in new era; what happens to people,
manufacturing town when plant closes; lament for working-class
culture that once defined prosperous America.
(Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company),
M.J.G. Cattermole, A.F. Wolfe (1987).
Horace Darwin's Shop: A History of the Cambridge Scientific
Instrument Company, 1878 to 1968. (Boston, MA: A.
Hilger, 285 p.). Darwin, Horace, 1851-1928; Cambridge Scientific
Instrument Company--History; Scientific apparatus and
(Cook Group), Bob Hammel (2008).
The Bill Cook Story: Ready, Fire, Aim! (Bloomington, IN:
Indiana University Press, 411 p.). Sports Editor, Columnist for
30 years (Bloomington Herald-Times). Cook, Bill, 1931-;
Billionaires -- Middle West -- Biography; Businessmen -- Middle
West -- Biography. Epitome of American success story; from spare bedroom of Bloomington, IN apartment, $1,500
investment, built global multi-billion-dollar Cook Group (medical devices, pharmaceuticals, genetics,
real estate, retail management, travel services);
modern, multidimensional Horatio Alger; exceptional self-made
(Cooper - founded 1833 by Charles and Elias
Cooper), David N. Keller (1983).
Cooper Industries, 1833-1983. (Athens, OH: Ohio
University Press, 387 p.). Cooper Industries--History; Machinery
industry -- History; Electric machinery industry -- History.
Manufacturing industries--United States--History.
(Crown Equipment Corporation - founded 1945),
Pat McNees (1997).
By Design: The Story of Crown Equipment Corporation.
(Wilmington, OH: Orange Frazer Press, 151 p.). Crown Equipment
Corporation--History. Fifth largest lift truck manufacturer in
(Deere), Rod Beemer and Chester Peterson, Jr.
Inside John Deere: A Factory History. (Osceola, WI: MBI
Publishing, 128 p.). Deere & Co., Manufacturing Processes, John
Deere Tractors - Design and Construction.
(Dings Dynamics Group), Robert L. Manegold
Granbob's Memories. (South Strafford, VT: Alger Brook
Press, 285 p.). Manegold family; Manegold, Robert L. (Robert
Louis), 1916- --Family; German Americans--Biography;
(Henry Disston & Sons Inc.), Harry C. Silcox
A Place To Live and Work: The Henry Disston Saw Works and the
Tacony Community of Philadelphia. (University Park, Pa:
Pennsylvania State University Press, 231 p.). Henry Disston &
Sons, Inc. (Philadelphia, Pa.) -- History; Saw industry --
Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History; Tacony (Philadelphia,
(Dover Corp.), George David Smith and Robert
Dover Corporation: A History, 1955-1989. (Cambridge, MA:
Winthrop Group, 168 p.). Dover Corporation--History;
Manufactures--United States--History; Manufacturing
(Emerson Electric), Charles F. Knight with
Davis Dyer (2005).
Performance Without Compromise: How Emerson Consistently
Achieves Winning Results. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business
School Press, 304 p.). Chairman Emeritus of Emerson. Emerson
Electric (Firm)--Management; Electric industries--United
States--Management--Case studies; Electronic industries--United
States--Management--Case studies; Corporations--United
States--Case studies. Leadership, management, and
competitiveness. 115-year-old global manufacturing, technology leader.
(Erdle Perforating Company), Edwin G. Sayers
(1995). The Erdle Story: 1870-1995. (Rochester, NY: E.G.
Sayers, 77 p.). Erdle Perforating Company--History;
Manufacturing industries--United States--History; Manufacturing
industries--Canada--History; Metal-work--United States--History;
Metal-work--Canada--History. Celebrates the 125th year of the
(Eriez Manufacturing), Michael J. McQuillen
Eriez Magnetics: From Pioneer to World Leader: A History of the
Company. (Erie, PA: Eriez Manufacturing Co., 117 p.).
Eriez Manufacturing Company (Erie, Pa.)--History.
(Eveready Battery Company), Billy T. Utley
Flashlights: Early Flashlight Makers & the 1st 100 Years of
Eveready. (Tustin, CA: ArrowPoint Press, 320 p.).
Eveready Battery Company; Flashlights--Collectors and
(Fansteel. Inc.), Jon R. Tennyson (1982).
$2500 and a Dream: The Fansteel Story. (North Chicago,
IL: Fansteel, Inc., 117 p.). Fansteel, Inc.--History.
(Ferranti-Packard), J.F. Wilson (1988).
Ferranti and the British Electrical Industry, 1864-1930.
(New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 165 p.). Ferranti,
Sebastian Ziani de, 1864-1930; Industrialists -- Great Britain
-- Biography; Electric engineers -- Great Britain -- Biography;
Statesmen -- Great Britain -- Biography; Electric utilities --
Great Britain -- History.
(Ferranti-Packard), Norman R. Ball and John N.
Ferranti-Packard: Pioneers in Canadian Electrical
Manufacturing. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University
Press, 336 p.). Ferranti, Sebastian Ziani de, 1864-1930;
Ferranti-Packard Transformers--History; Electronic transformer
industry--Canada--History; Electric engineers--Great
(Ford), Detroit Institute of Arts (1978).
The Rouge, The Image of Industry in the Art of Charles Sheeler
and Diego Rivera. (Detroit, MI: Detroit Institute of
Arts, 96 p.). Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965 --Exhibitions; Rivera,
Diego, 1886-1957 --Exhibitions; Ford Motor Company. Rouge River
(Ford), Michael Kenna (1996).
The Rouge (photographs by Michael Kenna). (Santa Monica,
CA: Ram Publications, 50 photographs). Photographer. Ford Motor
Company; Rouge Plant; Automobile production.
(Ford), Joseph P. Cabadas (2004).
River Rouge: Ford's Industrial Colossus. (St. Paul, MN:
Motorbooks International, 192 p.). Former Reporter (News Herald
Newspapers) and Auto Reporter (U.S. Auto Scene and Used Car
News). Ford Motor Company. Rouge River Plant; Automobile
factories--Dearborn--Michigan; Ford automobile--Design and
construction--History; Automobile industry and trade--United
(Ford), Graham Robson (2004).
Boreham: The 40-Year Story of Ford's Motorsport Dream Factory.
(Newbury Park, CA: Haynes North America, 256 p.). Automobile
Racing--England--History; Ford automobile--History.
(Ford), Miriam Nyhan (2008).
Are You Still Below?: The Ford Marina Plant, Cork, 1917-1984.
(Doughcloyne, Wilton, Cork: Collins, 158 p.). Ford Motor
Company. Cork Plant--History; Automobile industry and
(Great Western Railway), Alfred Williams
Life in a Railway Factory. (Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton
Publishing, 320 p. [orig. pub. 1915]). Worked in Great Western
Railway's Works at Swindon, locomotive capital of the west, for
23 years. Great Western Railway Works; Railroad manufacturing;
Locomotive industry--Great Britain. Appalling working conditions in
foundries, blast furnaces, blacksmith's shops, engine sheds
which made up this vast industrial complex.
(J. & E. Hall), Harry Miller (1985).
Halls of Dartford, 1785-1985. (London, UK: Hutchinson
Benham, 231 p.). J. & E. Hall--History; APV Holdings--History;
Refrigerator industry--Great Britain--History; Machinery
industry--Great Britain--History; Manufacturing
(Harman International), Sidney Harm an (2003).
Mind Your Own Business: A Maverick's Guide to Business,
Leadership and Life. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 208 p.).
Executive Chairman, Harman International Industries; U.S. Deputy
Secretary of Commerce (1977-1978). Harman, Sidney, 1918- ;
Harman International--History; Audio equipment industry--United
States; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.
(Hemingray Glass), H.G. "Bea" Hyve (1998).
The Hemingray Glass Co.: A Most Colorful History. (San
Diego, CA: Clarice Gordon, 481 p.). Hemingray Glass
Co.--History; Glass trade--United States--History. Company
operated from 1848-1972, then became division of Owens-Illinois.
(Hussey), Philip W. Hussey, Jr. (1960).
The Hussey Manufacturers, 1835-1960. (North Berwick, ME:
Hussey, 72 p.). Metal fabrication; seating.
(Iittala Group), Eds. Marianne Aav & Eeva
Viljanen; translation: John Arnold (2007).
Iittala: 125 Years of Finnish Glass; Complete History with All
Designers. (Stuttgart, Germany: Arnoldsche, 270 p.).
Design Historian, Director of the Finnish Museum of Art and
Design, Helsinki. Iittala Group; Glass; Design-homeware;
Design-Scandinavia. History of Iittala Group's glass production, role of company in
panorama of 20th century.
(Inglis Limited), David Sobel and Susan Meurer
Working at Inglis: The Life and Death of a Canadian Factory.
(Toronto, ON: J. Lorimer, 192 p.). Inglis Limited -- Employees
-- History; United Steel Workers of America. Local 290 (Toronto,
Ont.) -- History; Electric household appliances industry --
Ontario -- Toronto -- Employees -- History.
(Kawneer Company), Thomas Stritch (1956).
The Kawneer Story. (Niles, MI: Kawneer Co, 123 p.).
Plym, Francis John; Kawneer Company.
(Knorr-Bremse-GmbH), Manfred Barthel (1980).
Kraft und Sicherheit: 75 Jahre Knorr-Bremse 1905-1980.
(Dusseldorf; Germany: Econ, 192 p.). Knorr-Bremse-GmbH;
(Lannom Manufacturing Company), Neil A.
Visions of Worth: The Life of G.S. Lannom, Jr., Independent
Entrepreneur. (Solon, IA: Preservation Pub. Co., 242
p.). Lannom, G. S. (George Sharp), 1885-1953; Lannom
Manufacturing Company; Businesspeople--United States--Biography;
Sporting goods industry--United States--History.
(Lever Brothers Ltd.), David Roberts (1995).
Life at Levers: Memories of Making Soaps at Port Sunlight.
(Wirral, UK: Avid, 159 p.). Lever Brothers Ltd. -- History --
Anecdotes; Lever Brothers -- Employees -- Anecdotes; Soap
factories -- England -- Wirral Peninsula -- History --
Anecdotes; Soaps Production Merseyside (England).
(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), William
Earl Aiken (1957).
The Roots Grow Deep; A Story of Captain Ford, His Son Edward and
Their Contribution to America’s Glass Industry, and a Picture of
People and Events That Helped To Build Our Land.
(Cleveland, OH: Lezius-Hiles, 92 p.). Ford, John Baptiste,
1811-1903; Ford, Edward, 1843-1920; Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass
Company; Glass; Rossford (Ohio)--History. Sponsored by
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), E. William
Fire & Sand; The History of the Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company.
(Cleveland, OH: Lezius-Hiles Co., 128 p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford
(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), Frederick
C. Fox (1982). The Rossford Plant of Libbey-Owens-Ford,
1930-1975. (Toledo, OH: F.C. Fox, 165 p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford
Glass Company--History; Glass trade--Ohio--Rossford--History.
(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), Quentin R.
Skrabec Jr. (2007).
Glass in Northwest Ohio. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 127
p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company--History; Glass
manufacture--Ohio--History; Glass trade--Ohio--History; Glass
manufacture--Ohio--Pictorial works. 1930 - over 85% of world’s
glass produced on machines of Michael Owens, bestowed title of
"Glass Capital of the World" on northwest Ohio.
(Lincoln Electric), James Finney Lincoln
Lincoln's Incentive System. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
192 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--History.
(Lincoln Electric), Raymond Moley (1962).
The American Century of John C. Lincoln. (New York, NY:
Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 209 p.). Lincoln, John C.; Lincoln
(Lincoln Electric), Virginia P. Dawson (1999).
Lincoln Electric: A History. (Cleveland, OH: Lincoln
Electric Co., 162 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--History;
Welding equipment industry--Ohio--History.
(Lincoln Electric), Joseph A. Maciariello
Lasting Value: Lessons from a Century of Agility at Lincoln
Electric. (New York, NY: Wiley, 240 p.). Horton
Professor of Management (Claremont Graduate University). Lincoln
Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United
(Lister R. A.), David E. Evans (1979).
Lister's: The First Hundred Years. (Gloucester, UK: Alan
Sutton Publishing Ltd., 256 p.). Lister -- History.;
Gloucestershire Dursley Mechanical engineering industries;
Lister (R.A.) and Company to 1978.
(Longaberger Company), Dave Longaberger with
Robert L. Shook (2001).
Longaberger: An American Success Story. (New York, NY:
HarperBusiness, 234 p.). Longaberger, Dave; Longaberger
Company--History; Basket making--Ohio--History; Basket
(Marmon Group), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002).
The Marmon Group: The First Fifty Years. (Ft.
Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, Inc., 160 p.). Marmon
Group--History; Manufacturing industries--United
(Carl Miele & Cie.), Marion Steinhart (2000).
Carl Miele. (Munchen, Germany: Ullstein, 158 p.). Miele,
Carl, 1869-1938; Zinkann, Reinhard, 1869-1939; Carl Miele &
(Milgard Manufacturing), Russ Banham (204).
The Milgard Story: Building Success Through a Commitment to
People. (Bainbridge Island, WA: Fenwick Publishing
Group, Inc.). Milgard Windows; Manufacturing
industries--Washington--History. Milgard Windows from small
beginnings in Tacoma, WA to one of nation's premier
(Miller Company), Marguerite T. Scheips
(1995). The Miller Company, The First 150 Years: The Story of
a Successful American Business, 1844-1994. (Connecticut: The
Company, 175 p.). Miller Company--History; Manufacturing
(Naval Aircraft Factory), William F. Trimble
Wings for the Navy: A History of the Naval Aircraft Factory,
1917-1956. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 413
p.). Naval Aircraft Factory (Philadelphia, Pa.)--History; United
(Owens-Illinois), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr.
Michael Owens and the Glass Industry. (Gretna, LA:
Pelican Pub., 320 p.). Owens, Michael Joseph, 1859-1923;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Inventors--United
States--Biography; Glass trade--United States--Biography.
Nine companies, 49 patents bear
his name; became known as father of project management.
(Phoenix Glass Co.), Jack D. Wilson (1989).
Phoenix & Consolidated Art Glass, 1926-1980. (Marietta,
OH: Antique Publications, 202 p.). Phoenix Glass Co.--History;
Consolidated Lamp and Glass Company--History; Art
glass--Pennsylvania--Monaca--History--20th century; Art
(Pilkington Brothers), T.C. Barker (1977).
The Glassmakers: Pilkington: The Rise of an International
Company, 1826-1976. (London, UK: Weidenfeld and
Nicolson, 557 p.). Pilkington Brothers, ltd.
(Pilot Pen Corporation of America), Ron Shaw
with Richard Krevolin and Phil Ehrenkranz (2005).
Pilot Your Life: How To Create the Career You Want.
(Cincinnati, OH: Emmis Books, 240 p.). President and CEO of
Pilot Pen Corporation of America; Professor of Screenwriting
(University of Southern California Cinema/TV School); Former
Litigator. Career development--Handbooks, manuals, etc.;
Vocational guidance--Handbooks, manuals, etc.
(Platt Brothers), Matthew W. Roth (1994).
Platt Brothers and Company: Small Business in American
Manufacturing. (Hanover, CT: University Press of New
England, University of Connecticut, 256 p.). Platt Brothers and
Company--History; Manufactures--United States--History;
Manufacturing industries--United States--History.
(RAYOVAC), Kenneth D. Ruble (1981).
The RAYOVAC Story-- The First 75 Years. (Madison, WI:
RAY-O-VAC, 207 p.). RAYOVAC (Firm)--History.
(Rolls-Royce), Martin Bennett (1999).
Rolls-Royce and Bentley: The Crewe Years. (Sparkford,
UK: Haynes, 368 p. [2nd ed.]). Rolls-Royce automobile;
Rolls-Royce automobile -- History; Bentley automobile; Bentley
automobile -- History.
(Ruston and Hornsby, Ltd.), Bernard Newman
One Hundred Years of Good Company. (Lincoln, UK: The
Company, 280 p.). Ruston and Hornsby, Ltd. Published on the
occasion of the Ruston centenary, 1857-1957.
(Saint-Gobain), Jean Choffel (1960).
Saint-Gobain; du Miroir a L’atome. (Paris, FR: Plon, 145
p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.
(Saint-Gobain), Bernard Hartemann, Richard
Ducousset et l’equipe d’Edition speciale (1969). B.S.N.
Contre Saint Gobain. (Paris, FR: Editions et publications
premieres, 223 p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.; Boussois Souchon
Neuvesel, s.a.; Tender offers (Securities)--Case studies.
(Saint-Gobain), Michel Gabrysiak (1969).
Saint-Gobain--B. S. N., Comment L’audace Vient au Capitalisme.
(Paris, FR: Fayard, 205 p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.; Boussois
Souchon Neuvesel, s.a.; Tender offers (Securities)--Case
(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Corbel ; preface de
Roger Pascre (1982).
Les "Boulangers" de la Chimie: Chronique de L’usine et des
Travailleurs de Saint-Gobain a Saint-Fons, 1937-1944.
(Lyon, FR: Federop: Libr. Nouvelle, 219 p.). Chemical
Saint-Gobain, s.a.--History--20th century.
(Saint-Gobain), Roger Martin (1984).
Patron de Droit Divin--.
(Paris, FR: Gallimard, 568 p.). Martin, Roger, 1915-;
(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon (1988).
Du Soleil a la Terre: Une Histoire de Saint-Gobain.
(Paris, FR: J.-C. Lattes, 211 p.). Manufacture royale des glaces
de France (Saint-Gobain)--History; Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson
(Firm)--History; Glass manufacture--France--History.
(Saint-Gobain), Bertrand Badre, Philippe
Colombet (1990). Entreprises en Revolution. (Paris, FR:
J.-C. Lattes, 287 p.). Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History--18th
century; Forges de Dietrich--History--18th century; Manufacture
des toiles de Jouy--History--18th century; Business
(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon, Dominique
Perrin (1993). Au Coeur du XVIIIe Siecle Industriel:
Condition Ouvriere et Tradition Villageoise a Saint-Gobain.
(Paris, FR: Editions P.A.U., 756 p.).
Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson (Firm)--History; Glass
(Saint-Gobain), Horst Moller; unter Mitwirkung
von Hildegard Moller (2001). Saint-Gobain in Deutschland: von
1853 Bis Zur Gegenwart: Geschichte Eines Europaischen
Unternehmens. (Munchen, Germany: Beck, 248 p.). Manufactures
des glaces & produits chimiques de Saint-Gobain, Chauny &
Cirey--History; Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History;
(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon (2003).
Saint-Gobain, Histoire de Logos: Signes, Symboles & Messages:
[elabore a l’occasion de la presentation de l’exposition sur
l’histoire de l’image institutionnelle a Saint-Gobain, en juin
2003]. (Paris, FR: Somogy; Blois: Saint-Gobain archives, 111
p.). Saint-Gobain-Pont-a?-Mousson (Firm)--Exhibitions;
Saint-Gobain-Pont-a?-Mousson (Firm)--History--Exhibitions; Glass
(Saint-Gobain), Sous la Direction de Maurice
Hamon et Caroline Mathieu (2006). Saint-Gobain, 1665-1937:
Une Entreprise Devant L’histoire. (Paris, FR: Fayard: Musee
d’Orsay, 223 p.). Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History; Glassware
(Scaife Company), William T Schoyer (1952).
Scaife Company and the Scaife family, 1802-1952; A History of
the Oldest Manufacturing Company West of the Alleghenies under
Five Generations. (Pittsburgh: The Company, 181 p.).
Scaife Company, Pittsburgh.
(Shanghai-Volkswagen Automotive Company),
Martin Posth (2008).
1,000 Days in Shanghai: The Story of Volkswagen: The First
Chinese-German Car Factory. (Singapore: Wiley, 195 p.
[orig. publ. 2006: Munich: Hanser]). Former Commercial Executive
& Deputy Managing Director of Shanghai-Volkswagen Automotive
Company in China. Volkswagen Shanghai; Automobile industry and
trade --Germany --Foreign ownership --Case studies; Automobile
industry and trade --China --Shanghai --Case studies;
International business enterprises --Germany --Case studies;
International business enterprises --China --Shanghai --Case
studies; Germany --Foreign economic relations --China --Case
studies; China --Foreign economic relations --Germany --Case
studies. 1980s - led first Chinese-German
automobile factory - unclear political power structures,
irritating entrepreneurial rules, obscure mix of planned
economy, business-driven requirements; how gain foothold in
completely alien world? how lead employees whose language you
don’t understand? how win the trust of Chinese partner that you
are totally dependent on? inviting, fractious, dynamic,
backward, totally exhausting, incredibly exciting.
(SRC Holdings), Jack Stack and Bo Burlingham
A Stake in the Outcome: Building a Culture of Ownership for the
Long-Term Success of Your Business. (New York, NY:
Currency, 272 p.). CEO (Springfield Remanufacturing
Corporation). Success in business.
(Taco, Inc.), Robert Mayoh (2003). Wind on
the Sail: The Life and Times of John Hazen White. (Cranston,
RI: John and Happy White Foundation, 96 p.). White, John Hazen,
1913-2001; Taco, Inc.--History; Businessmen--Rhode
(Timken), Bettye H. Pruitt (1998).
Timken: From Missouri to Mars--A Century of Leadership in
Manufacturing. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Press, 514 p.). Timken Company--History; International business
enterprises--United States--History; Bearings industry--United
States--History; Machine parts industry--United States--History;
Steel alloy industry--United States--History; Roller
(Toyota), Satoshi Kamata; translated by
Tatsuru Akimoto; introduction by Ronald Dore (1983).
Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider’s Account of Life in a
Japanese Auto Factory. (New York, NY: Pantheon Books,
211 p.). Kamata, Satoshi, 1938- ; Toyota Jido¯sha Ko¯gyo¯
Kabushiki Kaisha; Automobile industry workers--Japan; Seasonal
(Toyota), Shigeo Shingo; newly translated by
Andrew P. Dillon; with a foreword by Norman Bodek (1989).
A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial
Engineering Viewpoint. (Cambridge, MA: Productivity
Press, 257 p.). Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha;
Production control; Just-in-time systems (JIT).
First book in English on JIT;
classic industrial engineering rationale for priority of
process-based over operational improvements in manufacturing;
basic mechanisms of Toyota production system, production as
functional network of processes, operations, mechanism necessary
to make JIT possible in any manufacturing plant.
(Toyota), Yasuhiro Monden (1998).
Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to Just-in-Time.
(Norcross, GA: Engineering & Management Press, 480 p. [3rd
ed.]). Toyota Jid¯osha Kabushiki Kaisha; Automobile industry and
trade--Production control--Japan; Just-in-time systems;
(Trinity Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Trinity Industries. (Fort Lauderdale, FL:
Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). Trinity Industries--History;
Manufacturing industries--United States--History--20th century;
Railroad equipment industry--United States--History--20th
century; Tank industry--United States--History--20th century;
Transportation equipment industry--United States--History--20th
century; Concrete products industry--United
(Vauxhall Motors), Richard Hart (2002).
The Vauxhall Story: A Pictorial History of Vauxhall Plant, Cars
and Commercial Vehicles. (Leighton Buzzard, UK: Farnon,
176 p.). Vauxhall Plant (Luton, England) -- History; Vauxhall
Plant (Luton, England) -- History -- Pictorial works; Vauxhall
Motors -- History; Vauxhall Motors -- History -- Pictorial
works; Vauxhall automobile -- History; Vauxhall automobile --
History -- Pictorial works.
(Warwick Manufacturing Group), Andrew Lorenz
Kumar Bhattacharyya: The Unsung Guru. (London, UK:
Random House Business, 228 p.). Bhattacharyya, Kumar, 1940- ;
Warwick Manufacturing Group; Manufacturing industries--Great
Britain; Business consultants--Great Britain--Biography; College
(Thomas Webb & Sons), H. W. Woodward (1978).
Art, Feat and Mystery: The Story of Thomas Webb & Sons,
Glassmakers. (Stourbridge, UK: Mark + Moody Ltd., 61
p.). Thomas Webb & Sons; Glassware--England--History--19th
century; Glassware--England--History--20th century.
(Western Electric), Richard Balzer (1976).
Clockwork: Life In and Outside an American Factory.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 333 p.). Western Electric Company;
Electric industry workers--Massachusetts--North Andover;
Industrial sociology--Massachusetts--North Andover.
(Western Electric), Stephen B. Adams, Orville
R. Butler (1999).
Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 270 p.). Western
Electric Company--History; Telephone supplies industry--United
States--History; Electronic industries--United States--History.
(Wetherill and Brother), Miriam Hussey (1956).
From Merchants to "Colour Men"; Five Generations of Samuel
Wetherill’s White Lead Business. (Philadelphia, PA:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 149 p.). Wetherill and
(White Furniture), Bill Bamberger, Cathy N.
Closing: The Life and Death of an American Factory. (New
York, NY: Norton, 223 p.). Photographer, Professor of English
(Duke), respectively. White Furniture Company; Furniture
industry and trade--United States; Downsizing of
organizations--United States--Case studies; Plant
(Whitehall Laboratories), Julia C. Abedian
Exposing Federal Sponsorship of Job Loss: The Whitehall Plant
Closing Campaign and "Runaway Plant" Reform. (New York,
NY: Garland Pub., 173 p.). Whitehall Laboratories; Plant
industry--Employees--Labor unions--Indiana--Elkhart; Industrial
policy--United States; Corporations--Taxation--United States;
(Whittier, Fuller & Co.), Marjorie G. January,
Elmer E. Simmons (1939).
Ninety Years; The Story of William Parmer Fuller. (San
Francisco, CA: Privately Printed, 144 p.). Fuller, William
Parmer, 1827-1890; Fuller, W.P. & Co. (San Francisco).
Contributors to this volume: Marjorie G. January, Elmer E.
Simmons, W.P. Fuller, Jr., Mary Louise O’Brien.
(Whittier, Fuller & Co.), Mary E. Whitney
Whittier, Fuller & Company. (Hemet, CA: Hemet Area
Museum Association, 82 p.). Fuller, William Parmer, 1827-1890;
Whittier, William F.; Whittier, Fuller & Co.;
Businessmen--California--San Francisco--Biography; Glass
trade--California--History; Paint industry and
(Williamson Company), George J. Gore (1990).
Williamson: The Name Endures. (Cincinnati, OH:
Williamson Co., 256 p.). Williamson Company (Cincinnati, Ohio).
(Wiremold Company), Jim H. Smith (2000).
The Wiremold Company: A Century of Solutions. (Lyme, CT:
Greenwich Pub. Group, 160 p.). Wiremold Company; Electric wire
and cable industry--United States--Connecticut.
Frederick H. Abernathy et al. (1999).
A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of
Manufacturing--Lessons from the Apparel and Textile Industries
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 368 p.). Clothing
trade--United States--Management; Manufacturing
industries--United States--Management--Data processing; Retail
Margaret Ackrill (1987).
Manufacturing Industry Since 1870 (Deddington, Oxford:
P. Allan, 250 p.). Manufacturing industries--Great
Britain--History; Industries--Great Britain--History.
Rolf Achilles (1993).
Made in Illinois: A Story of Illinois Manufacturing.
(Chicago, IL: Illinois Manufacturers' Association, 256 p.).
Industries--Illinois--History. "Published in honor of the
Illinois Manufacturers' Association Centennial."
Solly Angel (2004).
The Tale of the Scale: An Odyssey of Invention. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 304 p.). Angel, Solly; Scales
(Weighing instruments); Inventions; Design, Industrial.
Karen Axelrod, Bruce Brumberg (2006).
Watch It Made in the U.S.A.: A Visitor's Guide to the Best
Factory Tours and Company Museums. (Berkeley, CA: Avalon
Travel Publishing, 400 p. [4th ed.]). Industrial tours.
Experience, firsthand, products,
companies, technology, workers that fuel the economy; more than
300 ordinary, extraordinary products often taken for granted.
Gillian Bardsley (2006).
Making Cars at Longbridge: 100 Years in the Life of a Factory.
(Stroud, UK: Tempus, 191 p.). Automobile industry and trade --
England -- Longbridge -- History -- Pictorial works.
Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1993).
The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Atglen, PA: Schiffer
Publishing, Volume 1, 219 p.). Over Thirty Years of Appraising
for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector; Thirty-Seven Years
Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade --Massachusetts
--Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture --Massachusetts
--Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich
--History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --Collectors and
collecting. Examples, history of glass company on
Massachusetts's Cape Cod, made name "Sandwich" famous.
Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1983).
The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Windham,
NH, Barlow-Kaiser Pub. Co., Volume 4). Over Thirty Years of
Appraising for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector;
Thirty-Seven Years Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade
--Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture
--Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts
--Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich
--Collectors and collecting.
Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1993).
The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Windham,
NH, Barlow-Kaiser Pub. Co., 4 Vols.). Over Thirty Years of
Appraising for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector;
Thirty-Seven Years Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade
--Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture
--Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts
--Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich
--Collectors and collecting. Volume 1 (1997); Examples, history
of glass company on Massachusetts's Cape Cod which made name
"Sandwich" famous; Volume 3 (1987) - Boston and Sandwich Glass
Company between 1858 and 1882, Cape Cod Glass Works 1858-1864,
Cape Cod Glass Company 1864-1869; Volume 4 (1983).
Maxine Berg (1994).
The Age of Manufactures, 1700-1820: Industry, Innovation and
Work in Britain. (New York, NY: Routledge, 304 p. [2nd
ed.]). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History--18th
Rosalind J. Beiler (2008).
Immigrant and Entrepreneur: The Atlantic World of Caspar Wistar,
1650-1750. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 208 p.). Department of History (University of
Central Florida). Wistar, Caspar, 1696-1752; Germans
--Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Immigrants
--Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Merchants
--Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Immigrants
--Pennsylvania --History --18th century; Philadelphia Region
(Pa.) --Biography; Palatinate (Germany) --Biography;
Pennsylvania --Emigration and immigration --History --18th
century. Life of 18th century German immigrant, businessman
(glassmaker) Caspar Wistar; from family's German influences
to reasons behind desire to emigrate; networks he used to
establish himself; reevaluation of modern understanding of
entrepreneurial ideal, immigrant experience in colonial era.
Lindy Biggs (1996).
The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in
America's Age of Mass Production. (Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 202 p.). Plant layout; Mass
production--United States; Production engineering; Industrial
Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison (1982).
The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community
Abandonment and the Dismantling of Basic Industry (New
York, NY: Basic Books, 323 p.). Plant shutdowns--United States;
Capital movements--United States; Industries--United States.
David Bowen (1990).
Shaking the Iron Universe: British Industry in the 1980s.
(London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 324 p.). Manufacturing
industries--Great Britain--History--20th century;
Industries--Great Britain--History--20th century.
Betsy Hunter Bradley (1999).
The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States.
(New York : Oxford University Press: New York : Oxford
University Press, 347 p.). Former Teacher in the Historic
Preservation Program (Youngstown State University).
Architecture, Industrial --United States. Study of factory
buildings - how factories were designed to meet multifarious
demands of industry; industrial aesthetic ideals were derived
from functional engineering principles; contrast between factory designs of engineers,
S. N. Broadberry (1997).
The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International
Perspective 1850-1990. (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 451 p.). Professor of Economics (University of
Warwick). Industrial productivity--Great Britain--History--19th
century; Industrial productivity--Great Britain--History--20th
century; Industrial productivity--United States--History--19th
century; Industrial productivity--United States--History--20th
century; Industrial productivity--Germany--History--19th
century; Industrial productivity--Germany--History--20th
century; Competition, International--History.
Brian Carroll (1987).
Australian Made: Success Stories in Australian Manufacturing
Since 1937. (Parkville, Vic.: Institution of Production
Engineers, Australian Council, 230 p.). Institution of
Production Engineers (Great Britain). Australian
Council--History--20th century; Manufacturing
Leslie T. Chang (2008).
Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China.
(New York : Spiegel & Grau: New York : Spiegel & Grau, 420 p.).
former correspondent for the Wall Street Journal in Beijing.
Manufacturing industries --Employees --China; Women migrant
labor --China; Young women --Employment --China.
of migrant factory population in China (130 million migrant
workers); lives of two young
women, over three years, as they attempt to rise from assembly
lines of Dongguan, industrial city in China’s Pearl River Delta;
how mass movement from rural villages to cities is remaking
individual lives, transforming Chinese society.
Victor S. Clark; with an introductory note by
Henry W. Farnam (1929).
History of Manufactures in the United States. (New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill, 3 vols.). Manufactures--United States--History;
Industries--United States--History; Manufacturing
industries--United States--History. Contents: [v. 1]
1607-1860.--[v. 2] 1860-1914.
Stephen S. Cohen, John Zysman (1987).
Manufacturing Matters: The Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy.
(New York, NY: Basic Books, 297 p.). Manufacturing
Carolyn C. Cooper (1991).
Shaping Invention: Thomas Blanchard’s Machinery and Patent
Management in Nineteenth-Century America. (New York, NY:
Columbia University Press, 326 p.). Blanchard, Thomas,
1788-1864; Woodworking machinery--United
States--Patents--History--19th century; Inventors--United
Robin Cooper (1995).
When Lean Enterprises Collide: Competing Through Confrontation.
(Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 379 p.). Costs,
Industrial--Japan--Case studies; Manufacturing
industries--Japan--Costs; Production management--Japan; Cost
Eds. Jefferson Cowie and Joseph Heathcott;
foreword by Barry Bluestone (2003).
Beyond the Ruins: The Meanings of Deindustrialization.
(Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 372 p.). Deindustrialization--United
States; Plant shutdowns--United States; Industries--United
States; Industrial policy--United States; Working class--United
States--Economic conditions; Globalization--Economic
aspects--United States; United States--Economic
conditions--2001- ; United States--Social conditions--20th
Robert W. Crandall (1993).
Manufacturing on the Move. (Washington, DC: Brookings
Institution Press, 111 p.). Manufacturing industries--United
States; Manufacturing industries--Lake States; Industrial
productivity--United States--Regional disparities; United
States--Economic conditions--1981- --Regional
Evan Davis (2011).
Made in Britain: How the Nation Earns Its Living.
(London, UK: Little, Brown, 274 p.). Presenter of the BBC Radio
4 Today. British manufacturing -- history; British economy --
history. Things Britain produces to pay its way in
world: manufactured goods, intellectual property and services;
what Britain makes, why it matters; 1970s - huge anxiety as
strike-prone industries lost ground to Japan and continental
Europe; late 1990s - British got smug about postindustrial
smartness: saw Anglo-American model as prevailing over Rhineland
(Germany and Japan had stagnated); UK manufacturing accounts for
12.8% of output (dynamic and productive - BAE Systems, aerospace
giant; Brompton, fold-up bicycle maker; McLaren, sports car
company); UK benefits as open trading nation, consumer view has
usually prevailed producer.
Rick Delbridge (1998).
Life on the Line in Contemporary Manufacturing : The Workplace
Experience O Lean Production and the "Japanese" Model.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 232 p.). Industrial
Solange de Santis (1999).
Life on the Line: One Woman's Tale of Work, Sweat and Survival.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 272 p.). Journalist.
Kathryn Marie Dudley (1994).
The End of the Line: Lost Jobs, New Lives in Postindustrial
America. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 224
p.). Chrysler Corporation, Plant Shutdowns, Automobile Workers.
Plant shutdown in Kenosha,
John H. Dunning (1976).
American Investment in British Manufacturing Industry.
(New York, NY: Arno Press, 365 p. [orig. pub. 1958]).
Manufacturing industries--Great Britain; Investments,
Ed. Richard Feldman and Michael Betzold
End of the Line: Autoworkers and the American Dream.
(Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 297 p., Orig. pub. in
1988). Ford Motor Company, Automobile Industry Workers.
Wayne Flynt (1987).
Mine, Mill & Microchip: A Chronicle of Alabama Enterprise.
(Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications, 376 p.).
Henry Ford in collaboration with Samuel
Moving Forward. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 310 p.).
Machinery in industry; United States--Industries.
Lee Friedlander (1982).
Factory Valleys: Ohio & Pennsylvania. (New York, NY:
Callaway Editions, 60 p.). Friedlander, Lee; Photography,
Artistic; Photography, Industrial.
Bill Geist (1994).
Monster Trucks & Hair-in-a-Can: Who Says America Doesn't Make
Anything Anymore? (New York, NY: Putnam, 223 p.). CBS
Correspondent. Industries -- United States; Occupations --
Ed. with an introduction by James H. Gilmore
and B. Joseph Pine II (2000).
Markets of One: Creating Customer-Unique Value through Mass
Customization. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Press, 210 p.). Flexible manufacturing systems; Product
management; Relationship marketing.
Amy K. Glasmeier (2000).
Manufacturing Time: Global Competition in the Watch Industry,
1795-2000. (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 311 p.). Clock
and watch industry--History.
Ellsworth S. Grant (1996).
Yankee Dreamers and Doers: The Story of Connecticut
Manufacturing. (Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical
Society & Fenwick Productions, 358 p. [2nd ed.]).
Norman S.B. Gras (1969). Industrial
Evolution. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 259 p. [orig. pub.
1930]). Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School).
Photographs by Serge Hambourg; Essays
by Noel Perrin and Kenneth Breisch; Captions by Kenneth
Mills and Factories of New England. (New York,
NY: H.N. Abrams in association with Hood Museum of Art,
Dartmouth College, 108 p.). Architecture, Industrial
--New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions; Factories
--New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions; Mills and
mill-work --New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions.
Exhibition at Hood Museum of Art,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, March 26-May
Ben Hamper (1991).
Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line. (New York, NY:
Warner Books, 234 p.). Automobile Industry Workers, Blue Collar
Workers, General Motors Corporation.
Alexandra Harney (2008).
The China Price: The True Cost of Chinese Competitive Advantage.
(New York, NY: Penguin Press, 352 p.). Reporter and Editor
(Financial Times). Manufacturing industries--China--Social
aspects; Costs, Industrial--China--Social aspects;
China--Commerce--Social aspects. Intense pricing pressure from
Western companies combines with ubiquitous corruption, lack of
transparency to exact unseen, unconscionable toll in human
misery , environmental damage; outsiders have no idea of
conditions under which goods from China are made.
Robert H. Hayes, Steven C. Wheelwright (1984).
Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 427 p.). Manufacturing industries--United
States--Management; Industrial management--United States;
Production planning; Manufacturing processes--Technological
innovations; Competition, International.
Robert H. Hayes, Steven C. Wheelwright, Kim B.
Dynamic Manufacturing: Creating the Learning Organization.
(New York, NY: Free Press, 429 p.). Manufacturing
Steven High (2003).
Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America’s Rust Belt,
1969-1984. (Toronto,ON: University of Toronto Press, 306
p.). Assistant Professor of History (Nipissing University).
Deindustrialization--Ontario--History; Displaced workers--Lakes
States--Social conditions--20th century; Displaced
workers--Ontario--Social conditions--20th century;
Desindustrialisation--Etats des Grands Lacs
licencies--E´tats des Grands Lacs (Etats-Unis)--Conditions
sociales--20e siecle; Travailleurs
licencies--Ontario--Conditions sociales--20e siecle. Comparative regional analysis of
economic, cultural devastation caused by plant shutdowns in
Canada, United States from 1969 to 1984; led to ongoing,
ravaging industrial decline of Great Lakes Region.
Steven High and David W. Lewis (2007).
Corporate Wasteland: The Landscape and Memory of
Deindustrialization. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press, 192 p.). Canada Research Chair in Public History
(Concordia University in Montreal); Photographer.
Deindustrialization--United States; Deindustrialization--Canada;
Plant shutdowns--United States; Plant shutdowns--Canada;
Industrial sites--United States; Industrial sites--Canada;
Industrial buildings--United States; Industrial
ritualized demolition of landmark industrial structures served
as dramatic punctuations between changing eras; focus on
Youngstown, OH, where residents, former steelworkers still live
amid reminders of more prosperous times.
Theodore B. Hodges (1994).
Erastus Hodges, 1781-1847: Connecticut Manufacturer, Merchant &
Entrepreneur. (Kennebunk, ME: Phoenix Pub., 360 p.).
Hodges, Erastus, 1781-1847;
Torrington (Conn.)--Commerce--History--19th century. Published
for the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors and
the Torrington Historical Society.
Donald R. Hoke (1990).
Ingenious Yankees: The Rise of the American System of
Manufactures in the Private Sector. (New York, NY:
Columbia University Press, 345 p.). Clocks and watches--United
States--History; Axe industry--United States--History;
Typewriter industry--United States--History; Manufacturing
processes--United States--History; Manufactures--United
States--History--Case studies; Manufacturing industries--United
Eric Hopkins (1989).
Birmingham: The First Manufacturing Town in the World, 1760-1840.
(London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 222 p.).
(England)--Economic conditions; Birmingham (England)--Social
David A. Hounshell (1984).
From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The
Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 411 p.). Mass
Jerry Jasinowski and Robert Hamrin (1995).
Making It in America: Proven Paths to Success from Fifty Top
Companies. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 350 p.).
Success in business--United States--Case studies; Manufacturing
industries--United States--Case studies; Total quality
management--United States--Case studies.
Joan E. Kaiser
The Glass Industry in South Boston. (Hanover, NH,
University Press of New England, 284 p.). Forty Years
Collecting, Writing, Lecturing About Glassware. Glass
trade --Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glass
manufacture --Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glassware
--Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glassware
--Massachusetts --South Boston --Collectors and collecting. History, output of more than 25 flint glass, bottle glass, window
glass companies of South Boston
from 1811 to end of century (many
business records destroyed in Boston fire of 1872).
Satoshi Kamata, translated by Tatsuru Akimoto
witrh an introduction by Ronald Dore (1982).
Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider's Account of Life in a
Japanese Auto Factory. (New York, NY: Pantheon, 211 p.).
Kamata, Satoshi, 1938-; Toyota Jid¯osha K¯ogy¯o Kabushiki
Kaisha; Automobile industry workers--Japan; Seasonal
Theodore B. Kinni (1996).
America's Best: IndustryWeek's Guide to World-Class
Manufacturing Plants. (New York, NY: Wiley, 429 p.).
Formerly Director of Books for IndustryWeek Magazine.
Manufactures--United States--Case studies.
Edward M. Knod, Richard J. Schonberger (2001).
Operations Management: Meeting Customers' Demands.
(Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 714 p. [7th ed.]). Production
Samuel Kydd (1966). The History of the
Factory Movement. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 2 vols.
[orig. pub. 1857]). Factory system--Great Britain; Child
Ed. Robert Lewis (2004).
Manufacturing Suburbs: Building Work and Home on the
Metropolitan Fringe. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple
University Press, 294 p.). Associate Professor of Geography
(University of Toronto). Suburbs --United States --History;
Suburbs --Canada --History; Manufacturing industries --United
States --History; Manufacturing industries --Canada --History;
Working class --United States --History; Working class --Canada
--History; Urbanization --United States --History; Urbanization
Development of industrial suburbs in United States, Canada
between 1850 and 1950 - in large part because of location of
manufacturing beyond city limits, building of housing for
workers in those factories.
G. J. R. Linge (1979).
Industrial Awakening: A Geography of Australian Manufacturing
1788 to 1890. (Norwalk, CT: Australian National
University Press, 845 p.). Manufacturing
David or Daniele Linhart (1981). The
Assembly Line or L'appel De La Sirene, Ou, L'accoutumance Au
Travail. (Paris: Sycomore, 199 p.). Academic. Assembly Line
Job Satisfaction Surveys, Employee Motivation, Absenteeism.
French academician and radical takes job in a Citroen plant.
John William Lozier (1986). Taunton and
Mason: Cotton Machinery and Locomotive Manufacture in Taunton,
Massachusetts, 1811-1861. (New York, NY: Garland, 549 p.).
Mason, William, b. ca. 1808; Cotton machinery
century; Taunton (Mass.)--History.
Richard T. Lubben (1988).
Just-in-Time Manufacturing: An Aggressive Manufacturing Strategy.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 246 p.). Manufacturing
industries--Management; Manufacturing industries--Quality
control; Manufacturing processes; Competition, International;
Theodore F. Marburg (1956). Small Business
in Brass Fabricating. (New York, NY: New York University
Press, 116 p.). Smith and Griggs Manufacturing Company,
Eds. Preston Maynard and Marjorie B. Noyes
Carriages and Clocks, Corsets and Locks: The Rise and Fall of an
Industrial City--New Haven, Connecticut. (Hanover, NH:
University Press of New England, 223 p.). Former Executive
Director of the New Haven Preservation Trust; Member of the
Board of Directors of the New Haven Preservation Trust.
Industrial archaeology--Connecticut--New Haven; Historic
sites--Connecticut--New Haven; Historic
Industries--Connecticut--New Haven--History; Manufacturing
industries--Connecticut--New Haven--History; New Haven
(Conn.)--Antiquities; New Haven (Conn.)--History; New Haven
Eds. Otto Mayr and Robert C. Post (1981).
Yankee Enterprise, The Rise of the American System of
Manufactures: A Symposium. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian
Institution Press, 236 p.). Industries--United
States--History--Congresses; Industrial arts--United
States--History--Congresses; Industrial management--United
Anita McConnell (2007).
Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800): London’s Leading Scientific
Instrument Maker. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 318 p.).
Ramsden, J. (Jesse), 1735-1800; Instrument manufacture --Great
Britain --Biography; Optical engineering --Great Britain
--Biography; Machinists --Great Britain --Biography; Scientific
apparatus and instruments --England --London --History --18th
Paul Midler (2009).
Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind
China's Production Game. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 256 p.).
Manufactures --China; Work environment --China; China --Economic
conditions --2000-. China's export manufacturing sector;
rough-and-tumble environment in which many of consumer
products are made; modern-day gold rush, its consequences;
extent to which culture affects business dealings.
Tuija Mikkonen (2005). Corporate
Architecture in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s: Factory Building
as Architecture, Investment and Image. (Helsinki, Finland:
Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 269 p.). Researcher (Lappeenranta
University of Technology). Architecture, Industrial --Finland;
Factories --Design and construction --History; Architecture
--Finland --History --20th century.
Claudio Morrison (2007).
A Russian Factory Enters the Market Economy. (New York,
NY: Routledge, 234 p.). Industrial management -- Russia
(Federation) -- Case studies; Industrial relations -- Russia
(Federation) -- Case studies; Free enterprise -- Russia
(Federation) -- Case studies. Experiences of textile enterprise
in Russia during the 1990s; post-Soviet management, managerial
practices illuminate content, nature, direction of industrial
restructuring in Russian privatized sector during years of
Daniel Nelson (1995).
Managers and Workers: Origins of the Twentieth-Century Factory
System in the United States, 1880-1920. (Madison, WI:
University of Wisconsin Press, 250 p.). Factory system--United
States--History; Personnel management--United States--History;
Industrial sociology--United States--History.
Albert W. Niemi, Jr. (1974).
State and Regional Patterns in American Manufacturing, 1860-1900.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 209 p.). Manufacturing
industries--United States--History; Industrial location--United
Byron Olsen and Joseph Cabadas; foreword by
Ben Hamper (2002).
The American Auto Factory. (St. Paul, MN: MBI Pub., 192
p.). Automobiles --United States --Design and construction
--History; Automobile industry and trade --United States
--History. Evolution of American auto factory,
from hand-built assembly of cars in earliest part of
20th century, through age of assembly line, to today's
robotically-operated lines; workers, tools, methods, machines;
significant automotive industry events of past combined with
today's technological advances.
Lawrence A. Peskin (2003).
Manufacturing Revolution: The Intellectual Origins of Early
American Industry. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, p.). Manufacturing industries--United
States--History; Industrialization--United States--History;
Industrial relations--United States--History;
B. Joseph Pine II with a foreword by Stan
Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition.
(Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 333 p.).
Manufactures--Technological innovations--Management; Service
industries--Technological innovations--Management; New
products--Management; Competition; Mass production.
Edited with an introduction by Gary P. Pisano
and Robert H. Hayes (1995).
Manufacturing Renaissance. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business
School Press, 346 p.). Manufacturing industries--United
States--Management; Industrial management--United States.
Edited with an introduction by Sidney Pollard
The Metal Fabrication and Engineering Industries.
(Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 490 p.). Metal
trade--Great Britain--History; Metalworking industries--Great
Britain--History; Manufacturing industries--Great
Britain--History; Engineering--Great Britain--History.
Jonathan Prude (1999).
The Coming of Industrial Order: Town and Factory Life in Rural
(Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 364 p.).
Joel Rast (1999).
Remaking Chicago: The Political Origins of Urban Industrial
Change. (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press,
201 p.). Manufacturing
industries--Illinois--Chigaco--History--20th century; Urban
economics--Case studies; Chicago (Ill.)--Economic conditions;
Chicago (Ill.)--Politics and government--1951-.
Paul E. Rivard (2007).
Made in Maine: From Home and Workshop, to Mill and Factory.
(Charleston, SC: History Press, 160 p.). Former Director of the
Maine State Museum, Former Director of the American Textile
History Museum. Manufacturing industries--Maine.
Industrial epoch in forming
Maine; ingenious ways products developed as nature of industry
changed (homespun textiles of wool and flax, custom-made pine
and mahogany cabinetry, furnace-fired iron works, redware
Chaim M. Rosenberg (2007).
Goods for Sale: Products and Advertising in the Massachusetts
Industrial Age. (Amherst, MA: University of
Massachusetts Press, 248 p.). Associate Professor of Psychiatry
(Boston University). Manufacturing
industries--Massachusetts--History--19th century. Massachusetts businesses in
Gilded Age: 1865-1920; from fishing, farming economy into highly
urbanized industrial state.
Eds. Thomas Safley and Leonard N. Rosenband
The Workplace Before the Factory: Artisans and Proletarians,
1500-1800. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 252
p.). Associate Professor of History (University of
Pennsylvania). Work --History --Congresses; Work environment
--History --Congresses; Artisans --History --Congresses;
Proletariat --History --Congresses; Industries --History
--Congresses. "The proceedings of a colloquium held at the
University of Pennsylvania on October 11 and 12, 1990".
Warren Candler Scoville (1948).
Revolution in Glassmaking; Entrepreneurship and Technological
Change in the American Industry, 1880-1920. (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 398 p.). Glass manufacture--United
Philip Scranton (1997).
Endless Novelty: Specialty Production and American
Industrialization, 1865-1925. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 415 p.). Manufacturing industries--United
States--History; Specialty stores--United States--History.
Wickham Skinner (1985).
Manufacturing, The Formidable Competitive Weapon. (New
York, NY: Wiley, 330 p.). Production management.
ed. Steven Tolliday (1998).
The Rise and Fall of Mass Production. (Northampton, MA:
E. Elgar Pub. Production management; Assembly-line methods;
Motor vehicle industry--Automation.
Polly Toynbee (1971). A Working Life.
(Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 153 p.). British Journalist.
Manufacturing-Labor. British journalist takes job in a cake
Barbara Tucker, Kenneth H. Tucker, Jr. (2008).
Industrializing Antebellum America: The Rise of Manufacturing
Entrepreneurs in the Early Republic. (New York, NY:
Palgrave Macmillan, 272 p.). Professor of History and Director
of the Center for Connecticut Studies (Eastern Connecticut State
University); Professor of Sociology (Mount Holyoke College).
Businesspeople --United States --Biography; Industrialists
--United States --Biography; Entrepreneurship --United States
--History --19th century.
Rise of manufacturing
through beliefs, practices of Samuel Colt, John Fox Slater,
Horatio Nelson Slater, Amos Adams Lawrence, their families -
dominated firearms, textile industries, influence beyond
John E. Ullmann (1988).
The Anatomy of Industrial Decline: Productivity, Investment, and
Location in U.S. Manufacturing. (New York, NY: Quorum
Books, 201 p.). Manufacturing industries--Capital
productivity--United States; Manufacturing industries--United
States--Finance; Manufacturing industries--Location--United
Margaret Walsh (1972).
The Manufacturing Frontier; Pioneer Industry in Antebellum
Wisconsin, 1830-1860. (Madison, WI: State Historical
Society of Wisconsin, 263 p.). Manufacturing
Industries--Wisconsin--History--19th century; Frontier and
pioneer life--Wisconsin; Wisconsin--Economic conditions.
Mary Walton (1997).
Car: A Drama of the American Workplace. (New York: NY:
W.W. Norton, 360 p.). Journalist. Ford Taurus, Automobile Design
and Construction. Story of development and manufacturing of 1996
Ford Taurus - in all of its complexities.
Josh Whitford (2006).
The New Old Economy: Networks, Institutions, and the
Organizational Transformation of American Manufacturing.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 240 p.). Assistant
Professor of Sociology (Columbia University). Manufacturing
industries--United States; Manufacturing industries--Government
policy--United States. Ways to adjust American economic development to better
meet the challenges of outsourcing (highly decentralized
Edmund S. Whitman [and] W. James Schmidt
Plant Relocation; A Case History of a Move. (New York,
NY: American Management Association, 158 p.). General Foods
Corporation. Jell-O Division; Industrial location -- Case
Karel Williams, John Williams, and Dennis
Why Are the British Bad at Manufacturing? (Boston, MA:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 288 p.). Manufacturing industries--Great
Britain; Industrial policy--Great Britain; Industrial
management--Great Britain; Financial institutions--Great
Harold S. Wilson (2002).
Confederate Industry: Manufacturers and Quartermasters in the
Civil War. (Jackson, MS: University Press of
Mississippi, 412 P.). Manufacturing industries--United
States--History--19th century; Quartermasters; United
States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
Thomas R. Winpenny (1982).
Industrial Progress and Human Welfare: The Rise of the Factory
System in 19th Century Lancaster. (Washington, DC:
University Press of America, 132 p.). Factory
system--Pennsylvania--Lancaster--History--19th century; Cotton
Working class--Pennsylvania--Lancaster--History--19th century;
Martha & Murray Zimiles (1973).
Early American Mills. (New York, NY: C. N. Potter,
290 p.). Factories --New England --History; New England
Business History Links
California Foundry History Institute
Dedicated to the collection and preservation of historical
records pertaining to the history of the foundry industry in
Corning Museum of Glass
The website of the Corning Museum contains images from part of
its 45,000 item historical and art glass collection (spans 3,500
years, and includes "The Origins of Glassmaking", "Asian Glass",
"Glass in America", and "Glass After 1960"). Visitors can search
or browse the collection by the name of the artist or maker, the
date made, location made, or the name of the object. Visitors
interested in seeing images and reading about the history behind
medieval glass, should click on the "Medieval Glass Story".
Visitors who would like to hear an audio tour of the exhibit
should click on "Audio Tour" to listen to any of the 20 short
segments explaining the exhibit.
Factory Tours USA
Celebrating American Imagination and Industry!
How Products Are Made
Details of the manufacturing process of a wide variety of
products, from daily household items to complicated electronic
equipment and heavy machinery. Step descriptions of the assembly
and the manufacturing process (complemented with illustrations
and diagrams). Each product also has related information such as
the background, how the item works, who invented the product,
raw materials that were used, product applications, by-products
that are generated, possible future developments, quality
control procedures, etc. Descriptions of: Air Bag, Air
Conditioner, Artificial Snow, Automobile, Battery, Blue Jeans,
Chewing Gum, Coin, Compact Disc, Credit Card, DVD Player,
Fireworks, Hologram, Jet Engine, Laser Pointer, Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD), Nuclear Submarine, Paint, Popcorn, Refrigerator,
Telephone, Television, Temporary Tattoo, Vaccine, Vacuum Cleaner
Inside an American Factory: Films of the
Westinghouse Works, 1904
The Westinghouse Works Collection contains 21 actuality films
showing various views of Westinghouse companies. Most
prominently featured are the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, the
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, and the
Westinghouse Machine Company. The films were intended to
showcase the company's operations. Exterior and interior shots
of the factories are shown along with scenes of male and female
workers performing their duties at the plants.
LOST LABOR: Images of Vanished American
Workers 1900- 1980
Selection of 155 photographs excerpted from a collection of more
than 1100 company histories, pamphlets, and technical brochures
documenting America's business and corporate industrial history.
Images document factories, machinery, and jobs that no longer
exist, LOST LABOR provides an unusual visual and historical
record of work in 20th century America.
National Bottle Museum
The museum's mission is to preserve the history of our nation's
first major industry: bottle making. Millions of glass bottles
per year were manufactured by hand for the mineral waters of
Saratoga County alone, enabling the area to participate in world
commerce during the early 1800s. A glassworks set in the
wilderness above the nearby town of Greenfield employed hundreds
of workers and glassblowers from the 1840s to the 1860s. In that
era, all bottles were manufactured exclusively with hand tools
and lung power. Machine made bottles were not manufactured until
after Michael Owens patented his inventions in 1903.
Researching the History of
By Jean Manco, building historian; from 'Researching Historic
Buildings in the British Isles'; 'Sources for Building History'
first appeared online in December 1998; November 2004 - name
changed; 2007 - online.
Shanghai Museum of Glass
Initiated, sponsored by the
Shanghai Glass Company Ltd to preserve and record 100 years of
glass history and culture; transformed the once hot and stuffy
glass factory into a space for artistic creation.
Western Electric History
Created in 1997 to help keep the memories of the Bell System
alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest
telecommunications system on earth. This website also provides
some technical and corporate historical information relating to
Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph
(AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies.