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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Manufacturing
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March 6, 1646 - Pilgrim Bay Colony issued first patent for any machine in New World to Joseph Jenkes, Mass. with these words: "The Cort, considering the necessity of raising such manufactures of engines of mils to go by water, for speedy dispatch of much worke with few hands, & being sufficiently informed of the ability of the petions to pforme such workes, grant his petition (yt no othr pson shall set up or use any such new invention or trade for fourteen yeares, without the licence of him, the said Joseph Jenkes.").

1665 - Louis XIV, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised plan to restore French economy; private entrepreneurs founded Saint-Gobain to organize glass production on industrial basis; established near-monopoly in glassware casting (invented1688) in 17th-century Europe, ousted Venice as leader in sector; 1857 - established unit in Germany (acquired Aachener Spiegelmanufaktur AG in Stolberg); 1889 - established unit in Italy; 1904 - establised unit in Spain; 1970 - merged with Pont-à-Mousson, world leader in cast iron piping, formed global producer of materials, capital goods; 1996 - acquired, completed its expertise in distribution.

1698 - Capt Thomas Savery invented steam engine.

1705 - Thomas Newcomen devised first workable steam pumping engine.

July 30, 1739 - Caspar Wistar began glass manufacturing in Allowaystown, NJ; first successful and enduring large-scale glass factory; produced bottle, other glassware, window glass.; successful until the hard times of the Revolutionary War damaged business; 1780 - glassworks closed.

1756 - Johann Leopold Riedel (3rd generation) allowed by the local Count in northern Bohemia to run the family's glassmaking business independently under lease; first Riedel glassworks was born at Zenckner in Antoniwald, just at the same time that the Seven Years War began; 1987 - Georg J. Riedel, tenth generation, took the helm of the company; eleventh generation Maximilian Riedel runs the Riedel company in the US.

1767 -  James Watt perfected Thomas Newcomen's steam pumping engine.

1782 - James Watt received a patent for steam engine.

May 18, 1787 - Glass was engraved for first time in Toulouse, France.

March 11, 1811 - Luddite riots began in Nottingham, England brought on by prospect that new inventions (machinery) would do jobs better and faster than people and intensify existing poverty and misery; group of laborers attacked a factory, broke 63 stocking and lace manufacturing frames which they feared would replace them; next three weeks gangs of upwards of fifty men, armed with pistols, guns and heavy hammers broke two hundred more frames.

April 16, 1813 - Requirement for standardization in factory production first became part of federal government contract (specified interchangeable parts); Colo. Simeon North, of Berlin, CT, received order for twenty thousand pistols to be made such that "component parts of the pistols are to correspond so exactly that any limb or part of one pistol may be fitted to any other pistol of the 20,000."

June 13, 1831 - Erastus and Thaddeus S. Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for "Weighing Scales" ("new and Improved Method of Constructing and Weighing by Means of the Steelyard-Balance...for the purpose of weighing loaded wagons and  other articles of great weight"); a platform scale; revolutionized weighing methods; E. and T. Fairbanks and Company (which had until then been produced stoves, plows, forks, machines) began to specialize in manufacturing scales of all sizes; business was successful, sold scales worldwide.

June 22, 1832 - John J. Howe received a  patent for a "Pin Machine" ("improved machine for manufacturing common pins"); pin manufacturing machine shaped pins in one operation instead of 18 separate steps required for hand production; American pin industry concentrated in the Naugatuck River Valley because Howe built plant in Derby, CT.

1833 - Charles and Elias Cooper founded Cooper Industries as a  small iron foundry in Mount Vernon, Ohio; 1960's - diversified from manufacturing power and compression equipment for the transmission of natural gas to petroleum and industrial equipment, electrical products, electrical power equipment, automotive products, tools, hardware.

1835 - William Hussey started Hussey Plow Company in North Berwick, ME; 1895 - factory burned to ground; produced a variety of items (sewer grates, manhole covers, ladders, ski jumps, chair lifts); 1913 - Philip Hussey Sr. took over; 1931 - built its first set of outdoor grandstands; broadened to recoverable seating (chairs instead of bleachers) for civic centers, convention centers; 1967 - Philip Hussey III took over; 1980s - entered stadium, arena seating business; moved from small, regional provider of folding bleachers (cornerstone of high school gymnasia) to national business with significant international customers (Gillette Stadium, Fenway Park, many other professional and collegiate stadiums and arenas; has built bleachers for more than 50% of high school gymnasia in country; 2003 - honored as Maine's oldest family-owned manufacturing business; one of America's longest histories of uninterrupted family ownership (sixth generation).

November 23, 1835 - Henry Burden, of Troy, NY, received first U.S. patent for "Making Horseshoes"; horseshoe manufacturing machine capable of making sixty horseshoes a minute, more rapidly and uniformly than hand production method; made nearly all horseshoes used by the Union calvary during Civil War.

1836 - Heinrich Hahn, glazier, established Glasbrau Hahn in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 1935 - introduced ALLGLASS constructions (bonding of glass-to-glass without use of intermediate framing); one of world's leading manufacturers of glass cabinets for museums; 2010 - 140 employees.

February 25, 1837 - Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, VT, received patent for an "Electric Motor" ("an application of magnetism and electro-magnetism to propelling machinery"); first practical electrical motor.

September 30, 1841 - Samuel Slocum of Poughkeepsie, NY, received a patent for "Papering Pins" ("machine for sticking pins into paper"; 1839 - formed a company to make what became known as "Poughkeepsie pins"- one man with two machines could produce 100,000 pins in 11 hours. John Ireland Howe made the first practical pin-making machine.

1843 - Factory safety regulations enacted in Britain.

1847 - Ten Hours Act shortens factory English work day to ten hours for women and children.

1851 - George Taylor (19), David Kendall (35, son of founder of thermometer company, possibly first in US, in 1820, in New Lebanon, NY) formed Kendall and Taylor in single rented room above Post Drug Store in Rochester, NY; began making thermometers, barometers; 1853 - partnership ended; 1855 - Taylor expanded, served process industries with mantel, churn, distillers’ and brewers’ thermometers; 1871 - merged with Frank Taylor (brother) thermometer company; 1872 - renamed Taylor Bros.; specialized in making thermometers used by meteorologists, brewers, later, by doctors to measure their patients' temperature; 1890 - incorporated, became Taylor Bros. Corporation; 1907 - consolidated, reorganized into Taylor Instrument Companies; used trade name Tycos; August 30, 1910 - Taylor Instrument Companies registered "Tycos" trademark first used May 6, 1908 (hydrometers, pyrometers, thermographs, charts for recording thermometers, barometers, and gages...sphygmomanometers); 1911 - started R&D department (believed to be first in American instrument industry); 1932 - Taylor name used; 1941 - employees John Ziegler, Nathanial Nichols developed defined method for tuning controllers; January 17, 1956 - registered "Taylor" trademark first used in December 1932 (charts); 1968 - merged with Ritter Pfaudler Corp., Rochester-based manufacturer of medical, dental, water processing equipment and supplies; formed holding company called Sybron Corp.; 1973 - first to introduce real-time programming to control industry through adaptation of BASIC known as POL (Process Oriented Language); 1983 - acquired from Sybron by Combustion Engineering; 1987 - integrated with AccuRay, Columbus, OH-based flat-sheet measurement, control company; 1990 - Combustion Engineering acquired by ABB (Asea Brown Boveri); integrated with operations related to Asea Master system in Vasteras, Sweden; Taylor instrumentation division eventually merged with instrument, water meter business of Kent from UK.

George Taylor - Taylor Instruments (

November 28, 1851 - Hiram W. Hayden, of Waterbury, CT, received a patent  for "Making Brass Kettles")"Machinery for Making Kettles and Articles of Like Character from Disks of Metal"); brass spinning; disc mounted in a chuck that rotated at uniform speed; tool pressed against metal, shaped it to a die.

1855 - Richard Teller Crane founded "R.T. Crane Brass & Bell Foundry" in Chicago, a 14x24-foot foundry specializing in brass castings; 1936 - went public.

1857 - Wallace Barnes established manufacturing business (small springs, screw machine products, drop forgings) in Bristol, CT; soon merged with E. L. Dunbar, re named Dunbar and Barnes; 1866 - Barnes acquired Dunbar's interests, renamed the Wallace Barnes Company; 1893 - Carlyle Barnes (son) succeeded; 1913 - Fuller Barnes (grandson) assumed control; 1921 - Barnes-Gibson-Raymond, Inc. founded in Detroit; 1922 - renamed Associated Spring Corporation; 1946 - went public; 1951 - Carlyle F. (Hap) Barnes (great grandson) named general manager; 1953 - sales exceed $50 million; 1962 - springs used in space suit of astronaut John Glenn in his first orbital flight of earth; 1969 - springs aboard Apollo 11 flight to moon; 1976 - name changed to Barnes Group Inc.; 1988 - sales exceed $500 million; formed Barnes Aerospace; 2007 - international aerospace and industrial components manufacturing and distribution company, more than 6,100 employees at more than 60 locations worldwide.

November 30, 1858 - John Landis Mason, of New York, NY,  received a U.S. patent for a "Glass Jar" ("Improvement in Screw-Neck Bottles"); known as the Mason jar (shoulder-seal jar with  zinc screw cap, threaded neck which fit with threads in a metal cap to screw down to the shoulder of the jar and in this way form a seal); became a common term for the preserved food jar; 1869 - Top seal above the threads and under a glass lid was introduced to the jar.

October 6, 1868 - William H. Remington, of Boston, MA,  received a patent for "Electro-Plating with Nickel".

July 13, 1869 - Henry Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Automatic Grain-Weighing Scales" ("applicable also to the weighing of analagous material").

May 10, 1870 - Thaddeus Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Weighing-Scales" ("to facilitate the weighing of widely-varying quantities with the same machine, without necessitating any delay for adjustment or change in counterpoise").

September 13, 1870 - Henry Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Self-Registering Weighing-Scales" ("means whereby the operation of registering and weighing is mainly automatic, and the machine may be worked successfully and reliably by very ignorant and unskilled workmen"); Harvlin Paddock, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Registering Weighing-Scales" ("registering the amount of the weight and adding together the several amounts or the amounts of the surplus over and above that indicated by a poise in a beam...entirely automatic in its action"); assigned to himself and Franklin Fairbanks.

February 14, 1871 - Franklin Fairbanks and Harvlin Paddock, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Weighing-Scales" ("especially adapted for use in connection with railroad-track scales, and with scales for the weighing of loads of coal, ore, ice or other material in which it is more important to weigh very rapidly, with a close approximation to accuracy, than to weigh with absolute accuracy at an expenditure of more time").

1874 - Factory Act introduced 56-hour week in England.

1874 - Charles Jeremiah Smith established company in Milwaukee, WI; made parts for baby carriages, other hardware specialties; 1889 - entered bicycle industry, introduced concept of forming steel tubing from sheet metal; 1899 - Arthur Oliver (A. O.) Smith (son) developed world's first press steel automobile frame; 1903 - began supplying frames to Cadillac (supplier relationship lasted nearly 90 years); 1904 - incorporated A. O. Smith Company; 1906 - Henry Ford ordered 10,000 steel automobile frames, prompted company to develop world's first mass production process for assembling frames; 1910 - North America's largest frame manufacturer; 1913 - Lloyd Raymond Smith (grandson) became third generation of family to lead company; 1917 - began manufacturing bomb casings for war effort (largest bomb maker in United States by end of WW I); 1921 - unveiled world's first fully automated automobile frame assembly plant (frame every 8 seconds); 1925 - introduced first arc-welded, high-pressure vessel used to refine oil; 1933 - introduced single-piece glass-lined brewery tank; May 25, 1936 - Louis J. Larson, of Milwaukee, WI, received a patent for a "Method of Fabricating Alloy Line Pressure Vessels"; glass-lined water heater; assigned to A. O. Smith Corporation; made hot water affordable convenience for homeowners; 1939 - began mass-producing residential water heaters (halted during WW II); 1949 - introduced glass-fused-to-steel silo targeted at dairy, livestock operations; 1959 - established glass fiber division to commercialize research in use of fiberglass to replace steel; 1968 - produced 10 millionth residential water heater; 1986 - acquired Westinghouse small motor division; 1997 - Automotive Products Company acquired by Tower Automotive = exit from automotive industry after more than 90 years; world's leading manufacturer of C-frame subfractional horsepower motors; 1998 - acquired General Electric's domestic compressor motor business, became North America' leading manufacturer of hermetic motors; 1999 - acquired world-wide electric motor operations of MagneTek (largest acquisition in its history); 2001 - doubled size of water heater business through acquisitions.

Arthur O. Smith (right) -  A. O. Smith (

May 11, 1875 - Thaddeus Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Weighing-Scales" ("applies to all forms of scales for weighing hay, coal, and the like").

1877 - Joseph S. Hartmann, Bavarian Trunkmaker, founded Hartmann Trunk Co. in Milwaukee, WI; 1930s - offered over 800 models, sizes, colors of steamship trunks, luggage; 1954 - James Bond carried lightweight Hartmann Skymate suitcase in Ian Fleming's 1954 novel, 'Live and Let Die'; 1955 - acquired by Benjamin S. Katz family; 1959 - relocated to Lebanon, TN; distribution base of about 450 stores; 1983 - acquired by Lenox Incorporated (acquired by Brown Forman Corporation); 1994 - pioneered business suiter compartment to meet demands of business travelers; 1998 - established parnership with Lambertson Truex, accessories designers, to update current products and design new, fashionable collections.

  Joseph S. Hartmann - Hartmann Inc. (

September 24, 1878 - Franklin Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, VT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Drop-Lever Weighing-Scales" ("to provide a raising or dropping mechanism which raise or drop the scale-beam bodily or uniformly from each end, so as to prevent any injurious movement or wear of the beam at either of its points of support").

1880 - Ball brothers founded Wooden Jacket Can Company in Buffalo, NY (became Ball Corporation); December 14, 1926 - Ball Brothers Company (Muncie, IN) registered "Ball" trademark first used in 1894 (glass fruit or preserving jars).

October 1, 1880 - Thomas Edison opened Edison Lamp Works, first electric incandescent lamp factory in the U.S., in Menlo Park, NJ.

1881 - Glass factory established in small village of Iittala in southern Finland, north of Helsinki; modern industrial plant; first glassblowers came from Sweden, later professionals hired from Belgium, Germany; 1920s-1930s - breakthrough occurred in early years of modernism, functionalism; among first companies to make transition from creating decorative settings and dinner sets to progressive Scandinavian design; 2004 - acquired by Iittala’s management and ABN AMRO Capital.

October 1, 1882 - Eugene and Victor Villaume opened Villaume Brothers, box- making business in 30x30 foot floor space on West Side of St. Paul, MN; made beer boxes, got first order from Theodore Hamm's brewery; July 3, 1897 - company incorporated; name changed to Villaume Box and Lumber Company; manufactured paneling, cabinets, custom wood fixtures for churches, hospitals, schools; 1950s - box division became largest consumer of native- grown lumber in Minnesota outside of home construction; 1957 - added new line of pallets, skids, custom-designed wood packaging; modem roof trusses held together by metal connector plates (acquired Frame-O-Wood) - sped up construction, eliminated on-site cutting, reduced errors, minimized waste; 1990 - J. Nicholas "Nick" Linsmayer (great-grandson) took charge (130,000 roof trusses per year).

Eugene Villaume - founder Villaume Industries  (

1883 - John Pitcairn, John B. Ford, Edward and Emory L. Ford (sons) founded Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in Creighton, PA; first commercially successful maker of plate glass; 1896 - Fords sold interest to Pitcairn, left company; 1916 - nation's largest plate glass manufacturer; 1925 - began mass-producing sheet glass; 1952 - opened fiber glass business; 1963 - first U.S. glass manufacturer to use float process; 1968- name changed to PPG Industries; sales exceeded $1 billion; 1985 - Pitcairn heirs sold their remaining stake to company for $530 million.

1883 - Edward Drummond Libbey, made partner in New England Glass Company in 1880, took over Wm. Libbey & Son; 1888 - moved company to Toledo, OH; hired Michael Owens as glass blower; 1892 - name changed to Libbey Glass Company; 1899 - helped finance Owens Bottle Machine Company; 1903 -Owens Bottle Machine Company formed (Libbey as president, Owens as general manager); 1916 - Libbey-Owens Glass Company formed; 1930 - merged with Edward Ford Plate Glass Company, formed Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.

Edward Drummond Libbey - Libbey-Owens-Ford  ( AAAAAAAACWM/d_clX0yrm6A/s400/Libbey.jpg)

1883 - Charles Henry Holt, Benjamin Holt established Stockton Wheel Company in warm, dry Stockton, CA (Charles had formed C.H. Holt and Co. in 1869 in San Francisco, a West Coast branch of family’s New Hampshire-based wagon-making business; William Harrison Holt, Ames Frank Holt joined Charles in 1871, formed Holt Brothers Manufacturing; produced wagon wheels made from imported, seasoned Eastern hardwood but climate too cold, damp for wheel fabrication; William and Ames Holt sold ownership to brothers); expanded into agricultural, mechanical implements; 1886 - produced 'Link Belt Combined Harvester', first combine (used flexible chain belts rather than gears to transmit power from ground wheels to working parts of machine); 1892 - incorporated as Holt Manufacturing Company; wheel business continued as side line to caterpillar-style tractor's or crawlers); 1932 - acquired Robert Nephew; 1954 - acquired by James Barry; 1957 - acquired by Roger Kitto; 1977 - acquired by Frank Mauro, Jr.

1888 - Harvey Hubbell opened manufacturing facility in Bridgeport, CT; April 1, 1890 - received a patent for a "Roll-Paper Holder and Cutter" ("used in stores to hold rolls of wrapping paper"); universal in retail stores in early 1900s for use in wrapping goods; August 11, 1896 - received a patent for a "Socket for Incandescent Lamps" ("to provide a practical and inexpensive pull-socket for incandescent lamps"); electric light bulb socket with on-and-off pull chain; February 2, 1897 - received a patent for an "Automatic Tapping-Machine" ("adapted for light rapid tapping and which shall be constructed as to be capable of tapping a hole to any required depth and will stop automatically the instant the tap has entered to the predetermined depth"); August 12, 1898 - received a patent for a "Machine for Slotting Screws" ("durable, quick-acting, and thoroughly-practicable machine for slotting the heads of screws"); April 4, 1899 - received a patent for a "Machine for Threading Screws" ("thread is pressed into the screw-blanks by means of two externally-threaded rotating dies"; process and machinery for cold rolled screw threads, reduced rate of material lost in production by more than 50%; received a patent for a "Machine for Assembling Screws and Parts" ("putting screws in articles with or without other parts as washers"); ventured into electrical equipment manufacturing; expanded as use of electricity expanded; 1905 - incorporated in State of Connecticut as "Harvey Hubbell, Incorporated; June 17, 1913 - received a patent (#1,064,833) for a "Separable Attachment Plug"; May 4, 1920 - registered "Hubbell" trademark first used October 1, 1904 (toggle snap-switches); December 17, 1927 - Harvey Hubbell III (26, son) succeeded; 1936 - went public; February 14, 1956 - registered "Hubbellock" trademark first used April 24, 1933 (cord connectors and flush receptacles); 1958 - began aggressive acquisition program.

Harvey Hubbell - Harvey Hubbell Inc.  (

1890 - Charles and Alexander Meston founded manufacturer of electric motors and fans in St. Louis, MO; persuaded Wesley Emerson, a former Union army officer, judge and lawyer, to be their principal investor; company then named Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co.

September 20, 1892 - Frank Shuman, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Machine for Embedding Wire-Netting in Glass" ("machine for rolling what I term 'wire-glass' - that is, sheet-glass having embedded in it wire or wire-gauze"); wire mesh inserted during plate glass manufacturing process to create a single monolithic glass (useful for fire safety); December 12, 1893 - received two patents for a "Process of Manufacturing Wire-Glass".

January 22-25, 1895 - Group of Cincinnati businessmen, largely composed of members of Cincinnati and Hamilton County Manufacturers Association, convened in Oddfellows Hall in Cincinnati, OH (583 association and manufacturing executives from all corners of the U.S. attended); founded National Association of Manufacturers; Thomas Dolan of Philadelphia chosen as non-partisan association's first president; January 1896 - first annual convention held in Chicago; name "National Association of Manufacturers of the United States of America" and constitution adopted; objectives: 1) retention and supply of home markets with U.S. products and extension of foreign trade; 2) development of reciprocal trade relations between the U.S. and foreign governments; 3) rehabilitation of the U.S. Merchant Marine; 4) construction of a canal in Central America; 5) improvement and extension of U.S. waterways.

February 26, 1895 - Michael Joseph Owens, of Toledo, OH, received a  patent for an "Apparatus for Blowing Glass"; glass-blowing machine capable of producing five pieces at a time by placing five molds surrounding molten glass in front of a blowing pipe; each piece was made "without seams or roughness" (used in manufacture of lamp-chimneys and tumblers); Owens was a co-founder of the glass industry in Toledo; 1903 - organized  Owens Bottle Machine Co. to capitalize on mechanized glass blowing process; August 2, 1904 - received patent for a "Glass Shaping Machine"; assigned to Toledo Glass Company; May 10, 1904 - received second patent for a "Method of Blowing Glass"; perfected automatic glass bottle manufacturing machine; revolution in glass bottle making; November 8, 1904 -received a patent for a "Leer"; automatic glass bottle manufacturing machine capable of producing four bottles per second; assigned to Toledo Glass Company; 1929 - Owens Bottle Company acquired assets of licensee Illinois Glass Company, formed Owens-Illinois Glass Company; 1965 - name changed to Owens-Illinois, Inc.

Michael Joseph Owens - Owens-Illinois, Inc. (

February 4, 1896 - Black American inventor, Willie H. Johnson, of Navasota, TX, received a patent for "A Mechanism for Overcoming Dead Centers"; occur in machines when shaft is driven by a crank; October 1898 - secured a second patent for an improvement to his design.

November 23, 1897 - Black American inventor Elbert R. Robinson, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for an improvement in "Casting Composite or Other Car Wheels"; method in which outer sides are of one metal and the interior portions are of another metal; enabled casting a metal of high electrical conductivity (brass) in a groove of an iron trolley wheel, permitted new construction; 1894 - previous patent awarded for an "electric railway trolley."

November 11, 1899 - Edward Ford, former co-founder of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in Creighton, PA, incorporated  Edward Ford Plate Glass Company in Rossford, OH; built largest plate glass manufacturing plant under one roof in country; 1930 - merged with Libbey-Owens Glass Company, formed Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.

-  Edward Ford Libbey-Owens-Ford  (

March 7, 1899 - Irving W. Colburn, of Toledo, OH, received two patents for a "Glass-Working Machine" ("novel means or  apparatus for carrying into operation a new mechanical method of forming or manufacturing articles of glass such as have been heretofore been made by blowing"); March 25, 1902 - received a patent for a "Glass-Working Machine" ("novel means or apparatus for rolling, pressing, and stretching plastic glass into sheets for the purpose of manufacturing plate and window glass"); process for fabricating continuous sheets of flat glass made mass production of glass for windows possible; 1906 - formed Colburn Machine Glass Co. (bankrupt in 1911); 1923 - patents acquired by Toledo Glass Company; November 25, 1913 - first draw of sheet glass; 1916 - company organized as Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company.

1901 - Frank A. Poor became partner in Merritt Manufacturing Company in Middleton, MA that relighted burnt-out light bulbs (cut off glass tip, replace filament, reseal bulb); 1906 - Novelty Incandescent Lamp Company (NILCO) founded in Pennsylvania; concentrated on specialty lamps for medical, budding automotive industries;  1909 - Poor created Hygrade Lamp Company; 1910 - General Motors acquired controlling interest in NILCO, appointed Bernard G. Erskine to run factory; 1922 - NILCO acquired by Bernard Erskine and two associates, created Nilco Lamp Works; 1924 - Nilco created Sylvania Products Company to produce radio receiver tubes; 1931 - Hygrade, Nilco Sylvania merged, formed Hygrade Sylvania Corporation; 1939 - made first linear, or tubular, fluorescent lamp under Sylvania name; 1942 - name changed to Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., debuted "flashing S" logo; 1959 - merged with General Telephone; 1971 - name changed to GTE Sylvania, Incorporated; January 1993 - SYLVANIA lighting and precision materials businesses in North America acquired by OSRAM GmbH.

May 27, 1901 - Chapman Jay Root founded Root Glass Works at Third and Voorhees streets in Terre Haute, IN; manufactured glass bottles, other glass containers that would withstand high internal pressures; November 16, 1915 - Alexander Samuelson (plant superintendent) of Terre Haute, IN received a design patent for a "Design for a Bottle or Similar Article"; Coca-Cola bottle design patent assigned to Root Glass Company; 1916 - design team won contest for design of Coca-Cola bottle at bottlers convention in Atlanta, GA (beat 11 entries for originality, exclusiveness of design, ease of handling, production cost, potential consumer recognition); company received 5 cents royalty for every 144 bottles made (in addition to cost of manufacture); November 6,1923 - Chapman J. Root, of Terre Haute, IN, received two successor design patents for "Design for a Bottle"; 1930s - largest glass plant in United States that manufactured high-pressure glass containers; 1932 - merged with Owen-Illinois Glass Company (Toledo, OH); 1937 - bottle design rights acquired by Coca-Cola; 1939 - formed Associated Coca-Cola Bottling Plants Inc., to consolidate bottling facilities; became nation’s largest independent Coke bottler; 1960 - acquired by American-Wheaton Glass Corporation; 1962 - acquired by American Can Company; 1968 - acquired by Midland Glass Company; 1982 - Root family 57.5% interest acquired by Coca-Cola for $417.5 million.

1903 - Alexander H. Kerr established home-canning supplies business, called Hermetic Fruit Jar Company; earliest Kerr Jars made for Kerr, a jobbing company, by Illinois Pacific Glass Company and Hazel Atlas Company; January 1970 - company went public; 1975 - owned, operated seven glass plants in various locations throughout United States; 27 sales offices; May 1992 - name changed to Kerr Group Inc. to reflect company's having grown to manufacture more than just glass containers; 1997 - Fremont Acquisition Company LLC and Kerr Acquisition Corporation (KAC) completed previously announced merger, converted into private company.

June 9, 1903 - Ewald Goltstein, of Cologne, Germany, received a patent for a "Jar-Closure" ("preservation of materials, articles or substances of packages suitable for transportation and storage, such as packages or receptacles being preferably of the class which are closed and hermetically sealed by the vacuum process, in which the air is exhausted from the interior of the receptacle after it has been filled and the closure applied and then held solely by the atmospheric pressure and without any mechanical fastenings"); assigned to Julius A. Landsberger; June 13, 1903 - Julius A. Landsberger, of Alameda, CA, received a patent for a "Closure for Receptacles" ("clamp for holding a cover upon [jars and cans], either temporarily, as during the operation of the vacuum process of exhausting the receptacle, permanently after the vacuum process has been completed, or originally and permanently where the vacuum process is not employed"); both patents incorporated by Kerr glass into economy jars.

April 17, 1906 - Deutsche Gasglühlicht-Anstalt (also known as Auer-Gesellschaft) registered OSRAM name inTrademark Directory of Imperial Patent Office in Berlin; name derived from two materials needed at the time to produce filaments - initially Osmium and later Wolfram (or tungsten as it is now more commonly known); July 1, 1919 - OSRAM Werke GmbH Kommanditgesell- schaft formed (joint lamp production venture of Auer-Gesellschaft, AEG and Siemens & Halske AG); 1925 - Bilux launched, first fully developed car headlight lamp that offered both high beam and dipped beam from single light source; 1978 - Siemens sole shareholder; February 1993 - OSRAM GmbH acquired Sylvania from GTE; September 30, 2005 - sales of 4.3 billion euros, 88 percent of which came from outside Germany; 2006 - one of two leading lighting manufacturers in world.

1913 - Ashland Manufacturing Company founded to develop innovative ways of using slaughterhouse by-products of meat packing firm Schwarzchild and Sulzberger (original product line include surgical sutures, inexpensive tennis racquets, tennis racquet string, two models of baseball shoes); 1914 - Thomas E. Wilson (former president of Chicago-based Morris & Co. packinghouse) named president, company became separate operating subsidiary to focus on sports oriented products; 1915 - Football jerseys, basketballs and indoor baseballs are added to the line, and the Star tennis racquet is advertised at $.75; 1916 - Ashland Manufacturing is renamed as Thomas E. Wilson Co.; 1918 - $1 million in sales; 1925 - name changed to Wilson-Western Sporting Goods Company; 1931 - name changed to Wilson Sporting Goods Co.; 1967 - Ling-Temco-Vought buys Wilson meat packing, Wilson Sporting Goods is restructured as a subsidiary of the Dallas-based aerospace conglomerate; 1970 - acquired by Pepsico; 1975 -tennis sales volume surpasses that of golf sales for first time; 1989 - acquired by Amer Group Ltd. of Helsinki, Finland.

1921 - Queen Stove Works founded in Albert Lea, MN; produced camp stoves; added oil space heaters, kitchen stoves, other products; 1950 - acquired American Gas Machine company, manufacturer of lanterns, ice chests, heaters, one model of commercial ice machine; December 6, 1955 - registered "Scotsman" trademark first used July 6, 1951 (machines for making ice cubes and ice chips); 1957 - acquired by King-Seeley Corporation; 1960 - merged with American Thermos Products Company; renamed King-Seeley Thermos; focused entirely on manufacture of ice machines; 1967 - acquired Frimont S.p.A., large Italian maker of commercial ice machines; 1968 - acquired by Household Finance Corporation (Household Manufacturing division); April 1989 - spun off Refrigeration Products Group; renamed Scotsman Industries, Inc.; 1999 - acquired by S&W Berisford for $700 million; 2000 - name changed to Enodis plc (Latin for 'solutions'); October 2008 - acquired by Manitowoc Company; May 15, 2009 - acquired by Warburg Pincus; renamed Scotsman Industries, Inc.; largest global manufacturer of commercial ice machines with related products including storage bins, ice and water dispensers, industrial ice machines, high-end residential ice machines, blast chillers and commercial refrigeration units.

1932 - Otto Henze founded Penn Fishing Tacke Company in Philadelphia, PA; forefront of modern reel design and production; February 17, 1959 - Penn Fishing Tackle Mfg. Co. registered "Penn" trademark first used in July 1931 (fishing reels); forefront of modern reel design, production.

1935 - Corning Glass formed joint venture with Owens-Illinois to produce of glass fiber; November 1, 1938 - spun off joint venture as separate company, named Owens-Corning Fiberglas® Corporation; reported sales of $2.5 million, more than 600 employees.

1938 - Frederick August Krehbiel founded Molex Products Company in Brookfield, IL (named for plastic material he developed); manufactured variety of products (clock cases, flowerpots, valve wheels, salt tablet dispensers); 1940s - added metal stamping to molding processes, produced first connector assembly for Hotpoint/GE home appliances; 1953 - introduced first plug-and-receptacle connector line; 1960 - introduced first nylon plug-and-receptacle line; 1967 - established an international division (2007 - more than two-thirds of annual revenues from products manufactured, sold outside United States); 2006 - acquired Woodhead Industries, increased presence in factory automation, other industrial, harsh-environment applications.

Frederick August Krehbiel - founder Molex  (

October 11, 1938 - Games Slayter, of Newark, OH (vice-president, Research and Development of newly formed Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation), received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for Making Glass Wool" (flexible glass wool -  Fiberglas) and a patent for "Textile Material"; Slayter and John H. Thomas received patent for "Glass Wool and Method and Apparatus for Making Same" and another patent for "Glass Fabric"; sought to make a finer glass fiber material (instead of natural or other synthetic fibers); assigned patents to Owens-Illinois Glass Co.

June 27, 1939 - Frederick M. Stone, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent  for a "Ticket Dispensing Machine" ("of primary utility when employed for the dispensing of tickets".

December 16, 1982 - The Federal Reserve released a report indicating that the operating capacity of U.S. factories had plummeted to 67.8 percent, the nation's lowest mark since the indicator was introduced in 1948.

1988 - Utah State University recognized Dr. Shigeo Shingo, one of world’s leading experts in improving manufacturing processes (helped create, write about many aspects of revolutionary manufacturing practices comprising Toyota Production System) for his lifetime accomplishments with an Honorary Doctorate in Business; developed  Shingo Prize for Operational Excellence to promote awareness of Lean manufacturing concepts, recognize companies in United States, Canada, Mexico that achieve world-class manufacturing status; regarded as premier manufacturing award recognition program for North America; intended as "Nobel prize" in business, grounded in lean enterprise management leading to world-class and globally competitive business; criteria (practices, techniques that might achieve world-class level of quality, cost, delivery, business results) organized into 5 sections: 1) Leadership Culture and Infrastructure; 2) Manufacturing Strategies and System Integration; 3) Non-Manufacturing Support Functions; 4) Quality, Cost and Delivery; 5) Customer Satisfaction and Profitability.

July 21, 2009 - Industrial Production (1920-2009)


2009 - Manufacturing employment fell below 12 million jobs for first time since 1941, manufacturing jobs as percentage of total employment fell below 9%, lowest level since Bureau of Labor Statistics started collecting data in 1939; annual manufacturing output per worker at record high: $223,915 (in constant 2000 dollars) = almost 3 times as much output per worker as in  early 1970s, twice as much output per worker compared to mid-1980s.

( 20100909_MANUFACTURE_graphic/ 20100909_MANUFACTURE_graphic-articleInline.jpg)

(Andersen), Kenneth D. Ruble (1978). The Magic Circle: A Story of the Men and Women Who Made Andersen the Most Respected Name in Windows. (Bayport, MN: Ruble, 216 p.). Andersen Corporation--History.

(APV Holdings), Harry Miller (1985). Halls of Dartford, 1785-1985: Founded in the Industrial Revolution, Pioneer of Refrigeration, Halls of Dartford Celebrate 200 Years of Progress. (London, UK: Hutchinson Benhjam, 231 p.). APV Holdings -- History. 

(ASV Inc.), Edgar Hetteen, Jay Lemke (1998). Breaking Trail. (Bemidji, MN: Focus Publishing, 282 p.). Hetteen, Edgar; snowmobile. 

(Ball Corporation), Frederic A. Birmingham (1980). Ball Corporation, The First Century. (Indianapolis, IN: Curtis Pub. Co., 185 p.). Ball Corporation--History.


Ball Brothers

Ball Brothers - Ball Corporation (

(Ball Corporation), John W. Fisher, with E. Bruce Geelhoed (1986). Managing Change: How To Grow a Modern Enterprise. (Muncie, IN: Ball State University, 184 p.). Ball Corporation--History; Glass manufacture--United States--History--Case studies; Industrial management--United States--History--Case studies.

(Barnes Group), Ogden Tanner (1991). Barnes: An American Enterprise. (Bristol, CT: Barnes Group, 108 p.). Barnes Group Inc.--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History.

(W. H. Brady Co.), John Gurda (1989). Sticking To It: A History of the W.H. Brady Co., 1914-1989. (Milwaukee, WI: The Company, 148 p.). Brady Co., W. H.

(Budd Company),  Paul Clemens (2011). Punching Out: One Year in a Closing Auto Plant. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 271 p.). Automobile industry and trade -- Michigan -- Detroit; Automobile industry workers -- Michigan -- Detroit; Plant shutdowns -- Michigan -- Detroit. 2006 closing of Budd Company stamping plant on Detroit’s East Side (made roofs, doors, other body parts of cars, trucks, sports utility vehicles; built in 1919, one of oldest active auto plants in America’s foremost industrial city, peak employment of 10,000); character of country in new era; what happens to people, manufacturing town when plant closes; lament for working-class culture that once defined prosperous America.

(Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company), M.J.G. Cattermole, A.F. Wolfe (1987). Horace Darwin's Shop: A History of the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, 1878 to 1968. (Boston, MA: A. Hilger, 285 p.). Darwin, Horace, 1851-1928; Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company--History; Scientific apparatus and instruments--England--Cambridge (Cambridgeshire)--History; Engineers--Great Britain--Biography.

(Cook Group), Bob Hammel (2008). The Bill Cook Story: Ready, Fire, Aim! (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 411 p.). Sports Editor, Columnist for 30 years (Bloomington Herald-Times). Cook, Bill, 1931-; Billionaires -- Middle West -- Biography; Businessmen -- Middle West -- Biography. Epitome of American success story; from spare bedroom of Bloomington, IN apartment, $1,500 investment, built global multi-billion-dollar Cook Group (medical devices, pharmaceuticals, genetics, real estate, retail management, travel services); modern, multidimensional Horatio Alger; exceptional self-made individual.

(Cooper - founded 1833 by Charles and Elias Cooper), David N. Keller (1983). Cooper Industries, 1833-1983. (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 387 p.). Cooper Industries--History; Machinery industry -- History; Electric machinery industry -- History.   Manufacturing industries--United States--History.

(Crown Equipment Corporation - founded 1945), Pat McNees (1997). By Design: The Story of Crown Equipment Corporation. (Wilmington, OH: Orange Frazer Press, 151 p.). Crown Equipment Corporation--History. Fifth largest lift truck manufacturer in the world.

(Deere), Rod Beemer and Chester Peterson, Jr. (1999). Inside John Deere: A Factory History. (Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing, 128 p.). Deere & Co., Manufacturing Processes, John Deere Tractors - Design and Construction.

(Dings Dynamics Group), Robert L. Manegold (1995). Granbob's Memories. (South Strafford, VT: Alger Brook Press, 285 p.). Manegold family; Manegold, Robert L. (Robert Louis), 1916- --Family; German Americans--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(Henry Disston & Sons Inc.), Harry C. Silcox (1994). A Place To Live and Work: The Henry Disston Saw Works and the Tacony Community of Philadelphia. (University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 231 p.). Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. (Philadelphia, Pa.) -- History; Saw industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History; Tacony (Philadelphia, Pa.).

(Dover Corp.), George David Smith and Robert Sobel (1991). Dover Corporation: A History, 1955-1989. (Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Group, 168 p.). Dover Corporation--History; Manufactures--United States--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History.

(Emerson Electric), Charles F. Knight with Davis Dyer (2005). Performance Without Compromise: How Emerson Consistently Achieves Winning Results. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 304 p.). Chairman Emeritus of Emerson. Emerson Electric (Firm)--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies; Electronic industries--United States--Management--Case studies; Corporations--United States--Case studies. Leadership, management, and competitiveness. 115-year-old global manufacturing, technology leader.

(Erdle Perforating Company), Edwin G. Sayers (1995). The Erdle Story: 1870-1995. (Rochester, NY: E.G. Sayers, 77 p.). Erdle Perforating Company--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History; Manufacturing industries--Canada--History; Metal-work--United States--History; Metal-work--Canada--History. Celebrates the 125th year of the company.

(Eriez Manufacturing), Michael J. McQuillen (1991). Eriez Magnetics: From Pioneer to World Leader: A History of the Company. (Erie, PA: Eriez Manufacturing Co., 117 p.). Eriez Manufacturing Company (Erie, Pa.)--History.

(Eveready Battery Company), Billy T. Utley (2001). Flashlights: Early Flashlight Makers & the 1st 100 Years of Eveready. (Tustin, CA: ArrowPoint Press, 320 p.). Eveready Battery Company; Flashlights--Collectors and collecting; Flashlights--History.

(Fansteel. Inc.), Jon R. Tennyson (1982). $2500 and a Dream: The Fansteel Story. (North Chicago, IL: Fansteel, Inc., 117 p.). Fansteel, Inc.--History.

(Ferranti-Packard), J.F. Wilson (1988). Ferranti and the British Electrical Industry, 1864-1930. (New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 165 p.). Ferranti, Sebastian Ziani de, 1864-1930; Industrialists -- Great Britain -- Biography; Electric engineers -- Great Britain -- Biography; Statesmen -- Great Britain -- Biography; Electric utilities -- Great Britain -- History.

(Ferranti-Packard), Norman R. Ball and John N. Vardalas (1994). Ferranti-Packard: Pioneers in Canadian Electrical Manufacturing. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University Press, 336 p.). Ferranti, Sebastian Ziani de, 1864-1930; Ferranti-Packard Transformers--History; Electronic transformer industry--Canada--History; Electric engineers--Great Britain--Biography.

(Ford), Detroit Institute of Arts (1978). The Rouge, The Image of Industry in the Art of Charles Sheeler and Diego Rivera. (Detroit, MI: Detroit Institute of Arts, 96 p.). Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965 --Exhibitions; Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957 --Exhibitions; Ford Motor Company. Rouge River Plant--In art--Exhibitions.

(Ford), Michael Kenna (1996). The Rouge (photographs by Michael Kenna). (Santa Monica, CA: Ram Publications, 50 photographs). Photographer. Ford Motor Company; Rouge Plant; Automobile production.  

(Ford), Joseph P. Cabadas (2004). River Rouge: Ford's Industrial Colossus. (St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks International, 192 p.). Former Reporter (News Herald Newspapers) and Auto Reporter (U.S. Auto Scene and Used Car News). Ford Motor Company. Rouge River Plant; Automobile factories--Dearborn--Michigan; Ford automobile--Design and construction--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History.  

(Ford), Graham Robson (2004). Boreham: The 40-Year Story of Ford's Motorsport Dream Factory. (Newbury Park, CA: Haynes North America, 256 p.). Automobile racing--History; Automobile factories--England--Boreham--History; Automobiles, Racing--England--History; Ford automobile--History.

(Ford), Miriam Nyhan (2008). Are You Still Below?: The Ford Marina Plant, Cork, 1917-1984. (Doughcloyne, Wilton, Cork: Collins, 158 p.). Ford Motor Company. Cork Plant--History; Automobile industry and trade--Ireland--Cork--History.

(Great Western Railway), Alfred Williams (2007). Life in a Railway Factory. (Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 320 p. [orig. pub. 1915]). Worked in Great Western Railway's Works at Swindon, locomotive capital of the west, for 23 years. Great Western Railway Works; Railroad manufacturing; Locomotive industry--Great Britain. Appalling working conditions in foundries, blast furnaces, blacksmith's shops, engine sheds which made up this vast industrial complex.

(J. & E. Hall), Harry Miller (1985). Halls of Dartford, 1785-1985. (London, UK: Hutchinson Benham, 231 p.). J. & E. Hall--History; APV Holdings--History; Refrigerator industry--Great Britain--History; Machinery industry--Great Britain--History; Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History.

(Harman International), Sidney Harm an (2003). Mind Your Own Business: A Maverick's Guide to Business, Leadership and Life. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 208 p.). Executive Chairman, Harman International Industries; U.S. Deputy Secretary of Commerce (1977-1978). Harman, Sidney, 1918- ; Harman International--History; Audio equipment industry--United States; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(Hemingray Glass), H.G. "Bea" Hyve (1998). The Hemingray Glass Co.: A Most Colorful History. (San Diego, CA: Clarice Gordon, 481 p.). Hemingray Glass Co.--History; Glass trade--United States--History. Company operated from 1848-1972, then became division of Owens-Illinois.

(Hussey), Philip W. Hussey, Jr. (1960). The Hussey Manufacturers, 1835-1960. (North Berwick, ME: Hussey, 72 p.). Metal fabrication; seating.

(Iittala Group), Eds. Marianne Aav & Eeva Viljanen; translation: John Arnold (2007). Iittala: 125 Years of Finnish Glass; Complete History with All Designers. (Stuttgart, Germany: Arnoldsche, 270 p.). Design Historian, Director of the Finnish Museum of Art and Design, Helsinki. Iittala Group; Glass; Design-homeware; Design-Scandinavia. History of Iittala Group's glass production, role of company in panorama of 20th century.

(Inglis Limited), David Sobel and Susan Meurer (1994). Working at Inglis: The Life and Death of a Canadian Factory. (Toronto, ON: J. Lorimer, 192 p.). Inglis Limited -- Employees -- History; United Steel Workers of America. Local 290 (Toronto, Ont.) -- History; Electric household appliances industry -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Employees -- History.

(Kawneer Company), Thomas Stritch (1956). The Kawneer Story. (Niles, MI: Kawneer Co, 123 p.). Plym, Francis John; Kawneer Company.

(Knorr-Bremse-GmbH), Manfred Barthel (1980). Kraft und Sicherheit: 75 Jahre Knorr-Bremse 1905-1980. (Dusseldorf; Germany: Econ, 192 p.). Knorr-Bremse-GmbH; Machinery industry--Germany--History.

(Lannom Manufacturing Company), Neil A. Hamilton (1988). Visions of Worth: The Life of G.S. Lannom, Jr., Independent Entrepreneur. (Solon, IA: Preservation Pub. Co., 242 p.). Lannom, G. S. (George Sharp), 1885-1953; Lannom Manufacturing Company; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Sporting goods industry--United States--History.

(Lever Brothers Ltd.), David Roberts (1995). Life at Levers: Memories of Making Soaps at Port Sunlight. (Wirral, UK: Avid, 159 p.). Lever Brothers Ltd. -- History -- Anecdotes; Lever Brothers -- Employees -- Anecdotes; Soap factories -- England -- Wirral Peninsula -- History -- Anecdotes; Soaps Production Merseyside (England).

(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), William Earl Aiken (1957). The Roots Grow Deep; A Story of Captain Ford, His Son Edward and Their Contribution to America’s Glass Industry, and a Picture of People and Events That Helped To Build Our Land. (Cleveland, OH: Lezius-Hiles, 92 p.). Ford, John Baptiste, 1811-1903; Ford, Edward, 1843-1920; Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company; Glass; Rossford (Ohio)--History. Sponsored by Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.

(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), E. William Fairfield (1960). Fire & Sand; The History of the Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company. (Cleveland, OH: Lezius-Hiles Co., 128 p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company. 

(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), Frederick C. Fox (1982). The Rossford Plant of Libbey-Owens-Ford, 1930-1975. (Toledo, OH: F.C. Fox, 165 p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company--History; Glass trade--Ohio--Rossford--History.

(Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company), Quentin R. Skrabec Jr. (2007). Glass in Northwest Ohio. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 127 p.). Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company--History; Glass manufacture--Ohio--History; Glass trade--Ohio--History; Glass manufacture--Ohio--Pictorial works. 1930 - over 85% of world’s glass produced on machines of Michael Owens, bestowed title of "Glass Capital of the World" on northwest Ohio.

(Lincoln Electric), James Finney Lincoln (1946). Lincoln's Incentive System. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 192 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--History.

(Lincoln Electric), Raymond Moley (1962). The American Century of John C. Lincoln. (New York, NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 209 p.). Lincoln, John C.; Lincoln Electric Company--History.

(Lincoln Electric), Virginia P. Dawson (1999). Lincoln Electric: A History. (Cleveland, OH: Lincoln Electric Co., 162 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--History; Welding equipment industry--Ohio--History.

(Lincoln Electric), Joseph A. Maciariello (2000). Lasting Value: Lessons from a Century of Agility at Lincoln Electric. (New York, NY: Wiley, 240 p.). Horton Professor of Management (Claremont Graduate University). Lincoln Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies.

(Lister R. A.), David E. Evans (1979). Lister's: The First Hundred Years. (Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd., 256 p.). Lister -- History.; Gloucestershire Dursley Mechanical engineering industries; Lister (R.A.) and Company to 1978.

(Longaberger Company), Dave Longaberger with Robert L. Shook (2001). Longaberger: An American Success Story. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 234 p.). Longaberger, Dave; Longaberger Company--History; Basket making--Ohio--History; Basket makers--Ohio--Biography. 

(Marmon Group), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002). The Marmon Group: The First Fifty Years. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, Inc., 160 p.). Marmon Group--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History. 

(Carl Miele & Cie.), Marion Steinhart (2000). Carl Miele. (Munchen, Germany: Ullstein, 158 p.). Miele, Carl, 1869-1938; Zinkann, Reinhard, 1869-1939; Carl Miele & Cie.--History; Manufacturing industries--Germany--Gu¨tersloh--History; Industrialists--Germany--Gu¨tersloh--Biography.

(Milgard Manufacturing), Russ Banham (204). The Milgard Story: Building Success Through a Commitment to People. (Bainbridge Island, WA: Fenwick Publishing Group, Inc.). Milgard Windows; Manufacturing industries--Washington--History. Milgard Windows from small beginnings in Tacoma, WA to one of nation's premier manufacturers.

(Miller Company), Marguerite T. Scheips (1995). The Miller Company, The First 150 Years: The Story of a Successful American Business, 1844-1994. (Connecticut: The Company, 175 p.). Miller Company--History; Manufacturing industries--United states--History.

(Naval Aircraft Factory), William F. Trimble (1990). Wings for the Navy: A History of the Naval Aircraft Factory, 1917-1956. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 413 p.). Naval Aircraft Factory (Philadelphia, Pa.)--History; United States. Navy--Aviation--History.

(Owens-Illinois), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2006). Michael Owens and the Glass Industry. (Gretna, LA: Pelican Pub., 320 p.). Owens, Michael Joseph, 1859-1923; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Inventors--United States--Biography; Glass trade--United States--Biography. Nine companies, 49 patents bear his name; became known as father of project management.

(Phoenix Glass Co.), Jack D. Wilson (1989). Phoenix & Consolidated Art Glass, 1926-1980. (Marietta, OH: Antique Publications, 202 p.). Phoenix Glass Co.--History; Consolidated Lamp and Glass Company--History; Art glass--Pennsylvania--Monaca--History--20th century; Art glass--Pennsylvania--Corapolis--History--20th century.

(Pilkington Brothers), T.C. Barker (1977). The Glassmakers: Pilkington: The Rise of an International Company, 1826-1976. (London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 557 p.). Pilkington Brothers, ltd.

(Pilot Pen Corporation of America), Ron Shaw with Richard Krevolin and Phil Ehrenkranz (2005). Pilot Your Life: How To Create the Career You Want. (Cincinnati, OH: Emmis Books, 240 p.). President and CEO of Pilot Pen Corporation of America; Professor of Screenwriting (University of Southern California Cinema/TV School); Former Litigator. Career development--Handbooks, manuals, etc.; Vocational guidance--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 

(Platt Brothers), Matthew W. Roth (1994). Platt Brothers and Company: Small Business in American Manufacturing. (Hanover, CT: University Press of New England, University of Connecticut, 256 p.). Platt Brothers and Company--History; Manufactures--United States--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History.

(RAYOVAC), Kenneth D. Ruble (1981). The RAYOVAC Story-- The First 75 Years. (Madison, WI: RAY-O-VAC, 207 p.). RAYOVAC (Firm)--History.

(Rolls-Royce), Martin Bennett (1999). Rolls-Royce and Bentley: The Crewe Years. (Sparkford, UK: Haynes, 368 p. [2nd ed.]). Rolls-Royce automobile; Rolls-Royce automobile -- History; Bentley automobile; Bentley automobile -- History. 

(Ruston and Hornsby, Ltd.), Bernard Newman (1957). One Hundred Years of Good Company. (Lincoln, UK: The Company, 280 p.). Ruston and Hornsby, Ltd. Published on the occasion of the Ruston centenary, 1857-1957.

(Saint-Gobain), Jean Choffel (1960). Saint-Gobain; du Miroir a L’atome. (Paris, FR: Plon, 145 p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.

(Saint-Gobain), Bernard Hartemann, Richard Ducousset et l’equipe d’Edition speciale (1969). B.S.N. Contre Saint Gobain. (Paris, FR: Editions et publications premieres, 223 p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.; Boussois Souchon Neuvesel, s.a.; Tender offers (Securities)--Case studies.

(Saint-Gobain), Michel Gabrysiak (1969). Saint-Gobain--B. S. N., Comment L’audace Vient au Capitalisme. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 205 p.). Saint-Gobain, s.a.; Boussois Souchon Neuvesel, s.a.; Tender offers (Securities)--Case studies.

(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Corbel ; preface de Roger Pascre (1982). Les "Boulangers" de la Chimie: Chronique de L’usine et des Travailleurs de Saint-Gobain a Saint-Fons, 1937-1944. (Lyon, FR: Federop: Libr. Nouvelle, 219 p.). Chemical workers--France--Saint-Fons--History--20th century; Saint-Gobain, s.a.--History--20th century.

(Saint-Gobain), Roger Martin (1984). Patron de Droit Divin--. (Paris, FR: Gallimard, 568 p.). Martin, Roger, 1915-; Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson (Firm); Industrialists--France--Biography.

(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon (1988). Du Soleil a la Terre: Une Histoire de Saint-Gobain. (Paris, FR: J.-C. Lattes, 211 p.). Manufacture royale des glaces de France (Saint-Gobain)--History; Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson (Firm)--History; Glass manufacture--France--History.

(Saint-Gobain), Bertrand Badre, Philippe Colombet (1990). Entreprises en Revolution. (Paris, FR: J.-C. Lattes, 287 p.). Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History--18th century; Forges de Dietrich--History--18th century; Manufacture des toiles de Jouy--History--18th century; Business enterprises--France--History--18th century.

(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon, Dominique Perrin (1993). Au Coeur du XVIIIe Siecle Industriel: Condition Ouvriere et Tradition Villageoise a Saint-Gobain. (Paris, FR: Editions P.A.U., 756 p.). Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson (Firm)--History; Glass trade--France--Saint-Gobain--History; Glass manufacture--France--Saint-Gobain--History; Saint-Gobain (France)--History.

(Saint-Gobain), Horst Moller; unter Mitwirkung von Hildegard Moller (2001). Saint-Gobain in Deutschland: von 1853 Bis Zur Gegenwart: Geschichte Eines Europaischen Unternehmens. (Munchen, Germany: Beck, 248 p.). Manufactures des glaces & produits chimiques de Saint-Gobain, Chauny & Cirey--History; Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History; Saint-Gobain-Pont-a-Mousson (Firm)--History.

(Saint-Gobain), Maurice Hamon (2003). Saint-Gobain, Histoire de Logos: Signes, Symboles & Messages: [elabore a l’occasion de la presentation de l’exposition sur l’histoire de l’image institutionnelle a Saint-Gobain, en juin 2003]. (Paris, FR: Somogy; Blois: Saint-Gobain archives, 111 p.). Saint-Gobain-Pont-a?-Mousson (Firm)--Exhibitions; Saint-Gobain-Pont-a?-Mousson (Firm)--History--Exhibitions; Glass manufacture--France--Saint-Gobain--History--Exhibitions; Glass manufacture--France--Saint-Gobain--Trademarks--Exhibitions; Advertising--France--Saint-Gobain--Exhibitions.

(Saint-Gobain), Sous la Direction de Maurice Hamon et Caroline Mathieu (2006). Saint-Gobain, 1665-1937: Une Entreprise Devant L’histoire. (Paris, FR: Fayard: Musee d’Orsay, 223 p.). Compagnie de Saint-Gobain--History; Glassware industry--France--History--Exhibitions; Glass manufacture--France--History--Exhibitions.

(Scaife Company), William T Schoyer (1952). Scaife Company and the Scaife family, 1802-1952; A History of the Oldest Manufacturing Company West of the Alleghenies under Five Generations. (Pittsburgh: The Company, 181 p.). Scaife Company, Pittsburgh.

(Shanghai-Volkswagen Automotive Company), Martin Posth (2008). 1,000 Days in Shanghai: The Story of Volkswagen: The First Chinese-German Car Factory. (Singapore: Wiley, 195 p. [orig. publ. 2006: Munich: Hanser]). Former Commercial Executive & Deputy Managing Director of Shanghai-Volkswagen Automotive Company in China. Volkswagen Shanghai; Automobile industry and trade --Germany --Foreign ownership --Case studies; Automobile industry and trade --China --Shanghai --Case studies; International business enterprises --Germany --Case studies; International business enterprises --China --Shanghai --Case studies; Germany --Foreign economic relations --China --Case studies; China --Foreign economic relations --Germany --Case studies. 1980s - led first Chinese-German automobile factory - unclear political power structures, irritating entrepreneurial rules, obscure mix of planned economy, business-driven requirements; how gain foothold in completely alien world? how lead employees whose language you don’t understand? how win the trust of Chinese partner that you are totally dependent on? inviting, fractious, dynamic, backward, totally exhausting, incredibly exciting.

(SRC Holdings), Jack Stack and Bo Burlingham (2002). A Stake in the Outcome: Building a Culture of Ownership for the Long-Term Success of Your Business. (New York, NY: Currency, 272 p.). CEO (Springfield Remanufacturing Corporation). Success in business.

(Taco, Inc.), Robert Mayoh (2003). Wind on the Sail: The Life and Times of John Hazen White. (Cranston, RI: John and Happy White Foundation, 96 p.). White, John Hazen, 1913-2001; Taco, Inc.--History; Businessmen--Rhode Island--Biography.

(Timken), Bettye H. Pruitt (1998). Timken: From Missouri to Mars--A Century of Leadership in Manufacturing. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 514 p.). Timken Company--History; International business enterprises--United States--History; Bearings industry--United States--History; Machine parts industry--United States--History; Steel alloy industry--United States--History; Roller bearings--United States--History.

(Toyota), Satoshi Kamata; translated by Tatsuru Akimoto; introduction by Ronald Dore (1983). Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider’s Account of Life in a Japanese Auto Factory. (New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 211 p.). Kamata, Satoshi, 1938- ; Toyota Jido¯sha Ko¯gyo¯ Kabushiki Kaisha; Automobile industry workers--Japan; Seasonal labor--Japan.

(Toyota), Shigeo Shingo; newly translated by Andrew P. Dillon; with a foreword by Norman Bodek (1989). A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint. (Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press, 257 p.). Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha; Production control; Just-in-time systems (JIT). First book in English on JIT; classic industrial engineering rationale for priority of process-based over operational improvements in manufacturing; basic mechanisms of Toyota production system, production as functional network of processes, operations, mechanism necessary to make JIT possible in any manufacturing plant.

(Toyota), Yasuhiro Monden (1998). Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to Just-in-Time. (Norcross, GA: Engineering & Management Press, 480 p. [3rd ed.]). Toyota Jid¯osha Kabushiki Kaisha; Automobile industry and trade--Production control--Japan; Just-in-time systems; Production management--Japan.

(Trinity Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2000). The Legend of Trinity Industries. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). Trinity Industries--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History--20th century; Railroad equipment industry--United States--History--20th century; Tank industry--United States--History--20th century; Transportation equipment industry--United States--History--20th century; Concrete products industry--United States--History--20th century.

(Vauxhall Motors), Richard Hart (2002). The Vauxhall Story: A Pictorial History of Vauxhall Plant, Cars and Commercial Vehicles. (Leighton Buzzard, UK: Farnon, 176 p.). Vauxhall Plant (Luton, England) -- History; Vauxhall Plant (Luton, England) -- History -- Pictorial works; Vauxhall Motors -- History; Vauxhall Motors -- History -- Pictorial works; Vauxhall automobile -- History; Vauxhall automobile -- History -- Pictorial works.

(Warwick Manufacturing Group), Andrew Lorenz (2002). Kumar Bhattacharyya: The Unsung Guru. (London, UK: Random House Business, 228 p.). Bhattacharyya, Kumar, 1940- ; Warwick Manufacturing Group; Manufacturing industries--Great Britain; Business consultants--Great Britain--Biography; College teachers--Great Britain--Biography.

(Thomas Webb & Sons), H. W. Woodward (1978). Art, Feat and Mystery: The Story of Thomas Webb & Sons, Glassmakers. (Stourbridge, UK: Mark + Moody Ltd., 61 p.). Thomas Webb & Sons; Glassware--England--History--19th century; Glassware--England--History--20th century.

(Western Electric), Richard Balzer (1976). Clockwork: Life In and Outside an American Factory. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 333 p.). Western Electric Company; Electric industry workers--Massachusetts--North Andover; Industrial sociology--Massachusetts--North Andover.

(Western Electric), Stephen B. Adams, Orville R. Butler (1999). Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 270 p.). Western Electric Company--History; Telephone supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic industries--United States--History.

(Wetherill and Brother), Miriam Hussey (1956). From Merchants to "Colour Men"; Five Generations of Samuel Wetherill’s White Lead Business. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 149 p.). Wetherill and Brother.

(White Furniture), Bill Bamberger, Cathy N. Davidson (1998). Closing: The Life and Death of an American Factory. (New York, NY: Norton, 223 p.). Photographer, Professor of English (Duke), respectively. White Furniture Company; Furniture industry and trade--United States; Downsizing of organizations--United States--Case studies; Plant shutdowns--North Carolina--Mebane.

(Whitehall Laboratories), Julia C. Abedian (1995). Exposing Federal Sponsorship of Job Loss: The Whitehall Plant Closing Campaign and "Runaway Plant" Reform. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 173 p.). Whitehall Laboratories; Plant shutdowns--Indiana--Elkhart; Pharmaceutical industry--Indiana--Elkhart--Employees; Pharmaceutical industry--Employees--Labor unions--Indiana--Elkhart; Industrial policy--United States; Corporations--Taxation--United States; Corporations--Taxation--Puerto Rico.

(Whittier, Fuller & Co.), Marjorie G. January, Elmer E. Simmons (1939). Ninety Years; The Story of William Parmer Fuller. (San Francisco, CA: Privately Printed, 144 p.). Fuller, William Parmer, 1827-1890; Fuller, W.P. & Co. (San Francisco). Contributors to this volume: Marjorie G. January, Elmer E. Simmons, W.P. Fuller, Jr., Mary Louise O’Brien.

(Whittier, Fuller & Co.), Mary E. Whitney (2000). Whittier, Fuller & Company. (Hemet, CA: Hemet Area Museum Association, 82 p.). Fuller, William Parmer, 1827-1890; Whittier, William F.; Whittier, Fuller & Co.; Businessmen--California--Sacramento--Biography; Businessmen--California--San Francisco--Biography; Glass trade--California--History; Paint industry and trade--California--History; California--History--1850-1950.

(Williamson Company), George J. Gore (1990). Williamson: The Name Endures. (Cincinnati, OH: Williamson Co., 256 p.). Williamson Company (Cincinnati, Ohio).

(Wiremold Company), Jim H. Smith (2000). The Wiremold Company: A Century of Solutions. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 160 p.). Wiremold Company; Electric wire and cable industry--United States--Connecticut.

Frederick H. Abernathy et al. (1999). A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of Manufacturing--Lessons from the Apparel and Textile Industries (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 368 p.). Clothing trade--United States--Management; Manufacturing industries--United States--Management--Data processing; Retail trade--United States--Management.

Margaret Ackrill (1987). Manufacturing Industry Since 1870 (Deddington, Oxford: P. Allan, 250 p.). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History; Industries--Great Britain--History.

Rolf Achilles (1993). Made in Illinois: A Story of Illinois Manufacturing. (Chicago, IL: Illinois Manufacturers' Association, 256 p.). Manufacturing industries--Illinois--History; Industries--Illinois--History. "Published in honor of the Illinois Manufacturers' Association Centennial."

Solly Angel (2004). The Tale of the Scale: An Odyssey of Invention. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 304 p.). Angel, Solly; Scales (Weighing instruments); Inventions; Design, Industrial.

Karen Axelrod, Bruce Brumberg (2006). Watch It Made in the U.S.A.: A Visitor's Guide to the Best Factory Tours and Company Museums. (Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing, 400 p. [4th ed.]). Industrial tours. Experience, firsthand, products, companies, technology, workers that fuel the economy; more than 300 ordinary, extraordinary products often taken for granted.

Gillian Bardsley (2006). Making Cars at Longbridge: 100 Years in the Life of a Factory. (Stroud, UK: Tempus, 191 p.). Automobile industry and trade -- England -- Longbridge -- History -- Pictorial works.

Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1993). The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Volume 1, 219 p.). Over Thirty Years of Appraising for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector; Thirty-Seven Years Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --Collectors and collecting. Examples, history of glass company on Massachusetts's Cape Cod, made name "Sandwich" famous.

Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1983). The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Windham, NH, Barlow-Kaiser Pub. Co.,  Volume 4). Over Thirty Years of Appraising for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector; Thirty-Seven Years Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --Collectors and collecting. 

Raymond E. Barlow, Joan E. Kaiser (1993). The Glass Industry in Sandwich. (Windham, NH, Barlow-Kaiser Pub. Co., 4 Vols.). Over Thirty Years of Appraising for Estates, Over Fifty Years as a Collector; Thirty-Seven Years Collecting Early American Glass. Glass trade --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glass manufacture --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --Sandwich --Collectors and collecting. Volume 1 (1997); Examples, history of glass company on Massachusetts's Cape Cod which made name "Sandwich" famous; Volume 3 (1987) - Boston and Sandwich Glass Company between 1858 and 1882, Cape Cod Glass Works 1858-1864, Cape Cod Glass Company 1864-1869; Volume 4 (1983).

Maxine Berg (1994). The Age of Manufactures, 1700-1820: Industry, Innovation and Work in Britain. (New York, NY: Routledge, 304 p. [2nd ed.]). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History--18th century. 

Rosalind J. Beiler (2008). Immigrant and Entrepreneur: The Atlantic World of Caspar Wistar, 1650-1750. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 208 p.). Department of History (University of Central Florida). Wistar, Caspar, 1696-1752; Germans --Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Immigrants --Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Merchants --Pennsylvania --Philadelphia Region --Biography; Immigrants --Pennsylvania --History --18th century; Philadelphia Region (Pa.) --Biography; Palatinate (Germany) --Biography; Pennsylvania --Emigration and immigration --History --18th century. Life of 18th century German immigrant, businessman (glassmaker) Caspar Wistar; from family's German influences to reasons behind desire to emigrate; networks he used to establish himself; reevaluation of modern understanding of entrepreneurial ideal, immigrant experience in colonial era.

Lindy Biggs (1996). The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 202 p.). Plant layout; Mass production--United States; Production engineering; Industrial efficiency--United States.

Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison (1982). The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment and the Dismantling of Basic Industry (New York, NY: Basic Books, 323 p.). Plant shutdowns--United States; Capital movements--United States; Industries--United States.

David Bowen (1990). Shaking the Iron Universe: British Industry in the 1980s. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 324 p.). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History--20th century; Industries--Great Britain--History--20th century.

Betsy Hunter Bradley (1999). The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. (New York : Oxford University Press: New York : Oxford University Press, 347 p.). Former Teacher in the Historic Preservation Program (Youngstown State University). Architecture, Industrial --United States. Study of factory buildings - how factories were designed to meet multifarious demands of industry; industrial aesthetic ideals were derived from functional engineering principles; contrast between factory designs of engineers, architects.

S. N. Broadberry (1997). The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International Perspective 1850-1990. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 451 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Warwick). Industrial productivity--Great Britain--History--19th century; Industrial productivity--Great Britain--History--20th century; Industrial productivity--United States--History--19th century; Industrial productivity--United States--History--20th century; Industrial productivity--Germany--History--19th century; Industrial productivity--Germany--History--20th century; Competition, International--History.

Brian Carroll (1987). Australian Made: Success Stories in Australian Manufacturing Since 1937. (Parkville, Vic.: Institution of Production Engineers, Australian Council, 230 p.). Institution of Production Engineers (Great Britain). Australian Council--History--20th century; Manufacturing industries--Australia--History--20th century. 

Leslie T. Chang (2008). Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China. (New York : Spiegel & Grau: New York : Spiegel & Grau, 420 p.). former correspondent for the Wall Street Journal in Beijing. Manufacturing industries --Employees --China; Women migrant labor --China; Young women --Employment --China. Everyday lives of migrant factory population in China (130 million migrant workers); lives of two young women, over three years, as they attempt to rise from assembly lines of Dongguan, industrial city in China’s Pearl River Delta; how mass movement from rural villages to cities is remaking individual lives, transforming Chinese society.

Victor S. Clark; with an introductory note by Henry W. Farnam (1929). History of Manufactures in the United States. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 3 vols.). Manufactures--United States--History; Industries--United States--History; Manufacturing industries--United States--History. Contents: [v. 1] 1607-1860.--[v. 2] 1860-1914.

Stephen S. Cohen, John Zysman (1987). Manufacturing Matters: The Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 297 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States.

Carolyn C. Cooper (1991). Shaping Invention: Thomas Blanchard’s Machinery and Patent Management in Nineteenth-Century America. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 326 p.). Blanchard, Thomas, 1788-1864; Woodworking machinery--United States--Patents--History--19th century; Inventors--United States--Biography.

Robin Cooper (1995). When Lean Enterprises Collide: Competing Through Confrontation. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 379 p.). Costs, Industrial--Japan--Case studies; Manufacturing industries--Japan--Costs; Production management--Japan; Cost control--Japan; Competition--Japan. 

Eds. Jefferson Cowie and Joseph Heathcott; foreword by Barry Bluestone (2003). Beyond the Ruins: The Meanings of Deindustrialization. (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 372 p.). Deindustrialization--United States; Plant shutdowns--United States; Industries--United States; Industrial policy--United States; Working class--United States--Economic conditions; Globalization--Economic aspects--United States; United States--Economic conditions--2001- ; United States--Social conditions--20th century.

Robert W. Crandall (1993). Manufacturing on the Move. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 111 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States; Manufacturing industries--Lake States; Industrial productivity--United States--Regional disparities; United States--Economic conditions--1981- --Regional disparities.

Evan Davis (2011). Made in Britain: How the Nation Earns Its Living. (London, UK: Little, Brown, 274 p.). Presenter of the BBC Radio 4 Today. British manufacturing -- history; British economy -- history. Things Britain produces to pay its way in world: manufactured goods, intellectual property and services; what Britain makes, why it matters; 1970s - huge anxiety as strike-prone industries lost ground to Japan and continental Europe; late 1990s - British got smug about postindustrial smartness: saw Anglo-American model as prevailing over Rhineland (Germany and Japan had stagnated); UK manufacturing accounts for 12.8% of output (dynamic and productive - BAE Systems, aerospace giant; Brompton, fold-up bicycle maker; McLaren, sports car company); UK benefits as open trading nation, consumer view has usually prevailed producer.  

Rick Delbridge (1998). Life on the Line in Contemporary Manufacturing : The Workplace Experience O Lean Production and the "Japanese" Model. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 232 p.). Industrial Sociology.

Solange de Santis (1999). Life on the Line: One Woman's Tale of Work, Sweat and Survival. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 272 p.). Journalist. Manufacturing-Labor.  

Kathryn Marie Dudley (1994). The End of the Line: Lost Jobs, New Lives in Postindustrial America. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 224 p.). Chrysler Corporation, Plant Shutdowns, Automobile Workers. Plant shutdown in Kenosha, WI.

John H. Dunning (1976). American Investment in British Manufacturing Industry. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 365 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain; Investments, American--Great Britain.

Ed. Richard Feldman and Michael Betzold (1990). End of the Line: Autoworkers and the American Dream. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 297 p., Orig. pub. in 1988). Ford Motor Company, Automobile Industry Workers.

Wayne Flynt (1987). Mine, Mill & Microchip: A Chronicle of Alabama Enterprise. (Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications, 376 p.). Industries--Alabama--History; Manufacturing industries--Alabama--History; Industrial policy--Alabama--History.

Henry Ford in collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1930). Moving Forward. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 310 p.). Machinery in industry; United States--Industries.

Lee Friedlander (1982). Factory Valleys: Ohio & Pennsylvania. (New York, NY: Callaway Editions, 60 p.). Friedlander, Lee; Photography, Artistic; Photography, Industrial.

Bill Geist (1994). Monster Trucks & Hair-in-a-Can: Who Says America Doesn't Make Anything Anymore? (New York, NY: Putnam, 223 p.). CBS Correspondent. Industries -- United States; Occupations -- United States.

Ed. with an introduction by James H. Gilmore and B. Joseph Pine II (2000). Markets of One: Creating Customer-Unique Value through Mass Customization. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 210 p.). Flexible manufacturing systems; Product management; Relationship marketing.

Amy K. Glasmeier (2000). Manufacturing Time: Global Competition in the Watch Industry, 1795-2000. (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 311 p.). Clock and watch industry--History.

Ellsworth S. Grant (1996). Yankee Dreamers and Doers: The Story of Connecticut Manufacturing. (Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical Society & Fenwick Productions, 358 p. [2nd ed.]). Industries--Connecticut--History; Manufacturing industries--Connecticut--History; Connecticut--History--1775-1865.

Norman S.B. Gras (1969). Industrial Evolution. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 259 p. [orig. pub. 1930]). Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School). Manufacturing industries--History.

Photographs by Serge Hambourg; Essays by Noel Perrin and Kenneth Breisch; Captions by Kenneth Breisch (1988). Mills and Factories of New England. (New York, NY: H.N. Abrams in association with Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, 108 p.). Architecture, Industrial --New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions; Factories --New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions; Mills and mill-work --New England --Pictorial works --Exhibitions. Exhibition at Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, March 26-May 22, 1988.

Ben Hamper (1991). Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 234 p.). Automobile Industry Workers, Blue Collar Workers, General Motors Corporation. 

Alexandra Harney (2008). The China Price: The True Cost of Chinese Competitive Advantage. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 352 p.). Reporter and Editor (Financial Times). Manufacturing industries--China--Social aspects; Costs, Industrial--China--Social aspects; China--Commerce--Social aspects. Intense pricing pressure from Western companies combines with ubiquitous corruption, lack of transparency to exact unseen, unconscionable toll in human misery , environmental damage; outsiders have no idea of conditions under which goods from China are made. 

Robert H. Hayes, Steven C. Wheelwright (1984). Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing. (New York, NY: Wiley, 427 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--Management; Industrial management--United States; Production planning; Manufacturing processes--Technological innovations; Competition, International.

Robert H. Hayes, Steven C. Wheelwright, Kim B. Clark (1988). Dynamic Manufacturing: Creating the Learning Organization. (New York, NY: Free Press, 429 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--Management.

Steven High (2003). Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America’s Rust Belt, 1969-1984. (Toronto,ON: University of Toronto Press, 306 p.). Assistant Professor of History (Nipissing University). Deindustrialization--Lake States--History; Deindustrialization--Ontario--History; Displaced workers--Lakes States--Social conditions--20th century; Displaced workers--Ontario--Social conditions--20th century; Desindustrialisation--Etats des Grands Lacs (E´tats-Unis)--Histoire; Desindustrialisation--Ontario--Histoire; Travailleurs licencies--E´tats des Grands Lacs (Etats-Unis)--Conditions sociales--20e siecle; Travailleurs licencies--Ontario--Conditions sociales--20e siecle. Comparative regional analysis of economic, cultural devastation caused by plant shutdowns in Canada, United States from 1969 to 1984; led to ongoing, ravaging industrial decline of Great Lakes Region. 

Steven High and David W. Lewis (2007). Corporate Wasteland: The Landscape and Memory of Deindustrialization. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 192 p.). Canada Research Chair in Public History (Concordia University in Montreal); Photographer. Deindustrialization--United States; Deindustrialization--Canada; Plant shutdowns--United States; Plant shutdowns--Canada; Industrial sites--United States; Industrial sites--Canada; Industrial buildings--United States; Industrial buildings--Canada. How ritualized demolition of landmark industrial structures served as dramatic punctuations between changing eras; focus on Youngstown, OH, where residents, former steelworkers still live amid reminders of more prosperous times.

Theodore B. Hodges (1994). Erastus Hodges, 1781-1847: Connecticut Manufacturer, Merchant & Entrepreneur. (Kennebunk, ME: Phoenix Pub., 360 p.). Hodges, Erastus, 1781-1847; Businesspeople--Connecticut--Torrington--Biography; Industrialists--Connecticut--Torrington--Biography; Merchants--Connecticut--Torrington--Biography; Manufacturing industries--Connecticut--Torrington--History--19th century; Torrington (Conn.)--Commerce--History--19th century. Published for the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors and the Torrington Historical Society.

Donald R. Hoke (1990). Ingenious Yankees: The Rise of the American System of Manufactures in the Private Sector. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 345 p.). Clocks and watches--United States--History; Axe industry--United States--History; Typewriter industry--United States--History; Manufacturing processes--United States--History; Manufactures--United States--History--Case studies; Manufacturing industries--United States--History--Case studies.

Eric Hopkins (1989). Birmingham: The First Manufacturing Town in the World, 1760-1840. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 222 p.). Industries--England--Birmingham--History.; Birmingham (England)--Economic conditions; Birmingham (England)--Social conditions.

David A. Hounshell (1984). From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 411 p.). Mass production--United States--History. 

Jerry Jasinowski and Robert Hamrin (1995). Making It in America: Proven Paths to Success from Fifty Top Companies. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 350 p.). Success in business--United States--Case studies; Manufacturing industries--United States--Case studies; Total quality management--United States--Case studies.

Joan E. Kaiser (2009). The Glass Industry in South Boston. (Hanover, NH, University Press of New England, 284 p.). Forty Years Collecting, Writing, Lecturing About Glassware. Glass trade --Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glass manufacture --Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --South Boston --History; Glassware --Massachusetts --South Boston --Collectors and collecting. History, output of more than 25  flint glass, bottle glass, window glass companies of South Boston from 1811 to end of century (many business records destroyed in Boston fire of 1872).

Satoshi Kamata, translated by Tatsuru Akimoto witrh an introduction by Ronald Dore (1982). Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider's Account of Life in a Japanese Auto Factory. (New York, NY: Pantheon, 211 p.). Kamata, Satoshi, 1938-; Toyota Jid¯osha K¯ogy¯o Kabushiki Kaisha; Automobile industry workers--Japan; Seasonal labor--Japan.

Theodore B. Kinni (1996). America's Best: IndustryWeek's Guide to World-Class Manufacturing Plants. (New York, NY: Wiley, 429 p.). Formerly Director of Books for IndustryWeek Magazine. Manufactures--United States--Case studies.

Edward M. Knod, Richard J. Schonberger (2001). Operations Management: Meeting Customers' Demands. (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 714 p. [7th ed.]). Production management.

Samuel Kydd (1966). The History of the Factory Movement. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 2 vols. [orig. pub. 1857]). Factory system--Great Britain; Child labor--Great Britain.

Ed. Robert Lewis (2004). Manufacturing Suburbs: Building Work and Home on the Metropolitan Fringe. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 294 p.). Associate Professor of Geography (University of Toronto). Suburbs --United States --History; Suburbs --Canada --History; Manufacturing industries --United States --History; Manufacturing industries --Canada --History; Working class --United States --History; Working class --Canada --History; Urbanization --United States --History; Urbanization --Canada --History. Development of industrial suburbs in United States, Canada between 1850 and 1950 - in large part because of location of manufacturing beyond city limits, building of housing for workers in those factories. 

G. J. R. Linge (1979). Industrial Awakening: A Geography of Australian Manufacturing 1788 to 1890. (Norwalk, CT: Australian National University Press, 845 p.). Manufacturing industries--Australia--History; Industries--Australia--History.

David or Daniele Linhart (1981). The Assembly Line or L'appel De La Sirene, Ou, L'accoutumance Au Travail. (Paris: Sycomore, 199 p.). Academic. Assembly Line Job Satisfaction Surveys, Employee Motivation, Absenteeism. French academician and radical takes job in a Citroen plant.

John William Lozier (1986). Taunton and Mason: Cotton Machinery and Locomotive Manufacture in Taunton, Massachusetts, 1811-1861. (New York, NY: Garland, 549 p.). Mason, William, b. ca. 1808; Cotton machinery industry--Massachusetts--Taunton--History--19th century; Locomotive industry--Massachusetts--Taunton--History--19th century; Taunton (Mass.)--History.

Richard T. Lubben (1988). Just-in-Time Manufacturing: An Aggressive Manufacturing Strategy. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 246 p.). Manufacturing industries--Management; Manufacturing industries--Quality control; Manufacturing processes; Competition, International; Just-in-time systems.

Theodore F. Marburg (1956). Small Business in Brass Fabricating. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 116 p.). Smith and Griggs Manufacturing Company, Waterbury, Conn.

Eds. Preston Maynard and Marjorie B. Noyes (2004). Carriages and Clocks, Corsets and Locks: The Rise and Fall of an Industrial City--New Haven, Connecticut. (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 223 p.). Former Executive Director of the New Haven Preservation Trust; Member of the Board of Directors of the New Haven Preservation Trust. Industrial archaeology--Connecticut--New Haven; Historic sites--Connecticut--New Haven; Historic preservation--Connecticut--New Haven; Industries--Connecticut--New Haven--History; Manufacturing industries--Connecticut--New Haven--History; New Haven (Conn.)--Antiquities; New Haven (Conn.)--History; New Haven (Conn.)--Economic conditions. 

Eds. Otto Mayr and Robert C. Post (1981). Yankee Enterprise, The Rise of the American System of Manufactures: A Symposium. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 236 p.). Industries--United States--History--Congresses; Industrial arts--United States--History--Congresses; Industrial management--United States--History--Congresses; Interchangeable mechanisms--Congresses.

Anita McConnell (2007). Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800): London’s Leading Scientific Instrument Maker. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 318 p.). Ramsden, J. (Jesse), 1735-1800; Instrument manufacture --Great Britain --Biography; Optical engineering --Great Britain --Biography; Machinists --Great Britain --Biography; Scientific apparatus and instruments --England --London --History --18th century.

Paul Midler (2009). Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 256 p.). Manufactures --China; Work environment --China; China --Economic conditions --2000-. China's export manufacturing sector; rough-and-tumble environment in which many of consumer products are made; modern-day gold rush, its consequences; extent to which culture affects business dealings.

Tuija Mikkonen (2005). Corporate Architecture in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s: Factory Building as Architecture, Investment and Image. (Helsinki, Finland: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 269 p.). Researcher (Lappeenranta University of Technology). Architecture, Industrial --Finland; Factories --Design and construction --History; Architecture --Finland --History --20th century.

Claudio Morrison (2007). A Russian Factory Enters the Market Economy. (New York, NY: Routledge, 234 p.). Industrial management -- Russia (Federation) -- Case studies; Industrial relations -- Russia (Federation) -- Case studies; Free enterprise -- Russia (Federation) -- Case studies. Experiences of textile enterprise in Russia during the 1990s; post-Soviet management, managerial practices illuminate content, nature, direction of industrial restructuring in Russian privatized sector during years of economic transition.

Daniel Nelson (1995). Managers and Workers: Origins of the Twentieth-Century Factory System in the United States, 1880-1920. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 250 p.). Factory system--United States--History; Personnel management--United States--History; Industrial sociology--United States--History.

Albert W. Niemi, Jr. (1974). State and Regional Patterns in American Manufacturing, 1860-1900. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 209 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--History; Industrial location--United States--History.

Byron Olsen and Joseph Cabadas; foreword by Ben Hamper (2002). The American Auto Factory. (St. Paul, MN: MBI Pub., 192 p.). Automobiles --United States --Design and construction --History; Automobile industry and trade --United States --History. Evolution of American auto factory, from  hand-built assembly of cars in earliest part of 20th century, through age of assembly line, to today's robotically-operated lines; workers, tools, methods, machines; significant automotive industry events of past combined with today's technological advances.

Lawrence A. Peskin (2003). Manufacturing Revolution: The Intellectual Origins of Early American Industry. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--History; Industrialization--United States--History; Industrial relations--United States--History; Entrepreneurship--United States--History.

B. Joseph Pine II with a foreword by Stan Davis (1992). Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 333 p.). Technological innovations--Management; Manufactures--Technological innovations--Management; Service industries--Technological innovations--Management; New products--Management; Competition; Mass production.

Edited with an introduction by Gary P. Pisano and Robert H. Hayes (1995). Manufacturing Renaissance. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 346 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--Management; Industrial management--United States.

Edited with an introduction by Sidney Pollard (1994). The Metal Fabrication and Engineering Industries. (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 490 p.). Metal trade--Great Britain--History; Metalworking industries--Great Britain--History; Manufacturing industries--Great Britain--History; Engineering--Great Britain--History.

Jonathan Prude (1999). The Coming of Industrial Order: Town and Factory Life in Rural Massachusetts, 1810-1860. (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 364 p.). Industries--Massachusetts--History--19th century.

Joel Rast (1999). Remaking Chicago: The Political Origins of Urban Industrial Change. (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 201 p.). Manufacturing industries--Illinois--Chigaco--History--20th century; Urban economics--Case studies; Chicago (Ill.)--Economic conditions; Chicago (Ill.)--Politics and government--1951-.

Paul E. Rivard (2007). Made in Maine: From Home and Workshop, to Mill and Factory. (Charleston, SC: History Press, 160 p.). Former Director of the Maine State Museum, Former Director of the American Textile History Museum. Manufacturing industries--Maine. Industrial epoch in forming Maine; ingenious ways products developed as nature of industry changed (homespun textiles of wool and flax, custom-made pine and mahogany cabinetry, furnace-fired iron works, redware pottery).

Chaim M. Rosenberg (2007). Goods for Sale: Products and Advertising in the Massachusetts Industrial Age. (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 248 p.). Associate Professor of Psychiatry (Boston University). Manufacturing industries--Massachusetts--History--19th century. Massachusetts businesses in Gilded Age: 1865-1920; from fishing, farming economy into highly urbanized industrial state.  

Eds. Thomas Safley and Leonard N. Rosenband (1993). The Workplace Before the Factory: Artisans and Proletarians, 1500-1800. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 252 p.). Associate Professor of History (University of Pennsylvania). Work --History --Congresses; Work environment --History --Congresses; Artisans --History --Congresses; Proletariat --History --Congresses; Industries --History --Congresses. "The proceedings of a colloquium held at the University of Pennsylvania on October 11 and 12, 1990".

Warren Candler Scoville (1948). Revolution in Glassmaking; Entrepreneurship and Technological Change in the American Industry, 1880-1920. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 398 p.). Glass manufacture--United States.

Philip Scranton (1997). Endless Novelty: Specialty Production and American Industrialization, 1865-1925. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 415 p.). Manufacturing industries--United States--History; Specialty stores--United States--History.

Wickham Skinner (1985). Manufacturing, The Formidable Competitive Weapon. (New York, NY: Wiley, 330 p.). Production management.

ed. Steven Tolliday (1998). The Rise and Fall of Mass Production. (Northampton, MA: E. Elgar Pub. Production management; Assembly-line methods; Motor vehicle industry--Automation.

Polly Toynbee (1971). A Working Life. (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 153 p.). British Journalist. Manufacturing-Labor. British journalist takes job in a cake factory.

Barbara Tucker, Kenneth H. Tucker, Jr. (2008). Industrializing Antebellum America: The Rise of Manufacturing Entrepreneurs in the Early Republic. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 272 p.). Professor of History and Director of the Center for Connecticut Studies (Eastern Connecticut State University); Professor of Sociology (Mount Holyoke College). Businesspeople --United States --Biography; Industrialists --United States --Biography; Entrepreneurship --United States --History --19th century. Rise of manufacturing through beliefs, practices of Samuel Colt, John Fox Slater, Horatio Nelson Slater, Amos Adams Lawrence, their families - dominated firearms, textile industries, influence beyond respective enterprises.

John E. Ullmann (1988). The Anatomy of Industrial Decline: Productivity, Investment, and Location in U.S. Manufacturing. (New York, NY: Quorum Books, 201 p.). Manufacturing industries--Capital productivity--United States; Manufacturing industries--United States--Finance; Manufacturing industries--Location--United States.

Margaret Walsh (1972). The Manufacturing Frontier; Pioneer Industry in Antebellum Wisconsin, 1830-1860. (Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 263 p.). Manufacturing industries--Wisconsin--History--19th century; Industries--Wisconsin--History--19th century; Frontier and pioneer life--Wisconsin; Wisconsin--Economic conditions.

Mary Walton (1997). Car: A Drama of the American Workplace. (New York: NY: W.W. Norton, 360 p.). Journalist. Ford Taurus, Automobile Design and Construction. Story of development and manufacturing of 1996 Ford Taurus - in all of its complexities.

Josh Whitford (2006). The New Old Economy: Networks, Institutions, and the Organizational Transformation of American Manufacturing. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 240 p.). Assistant Professor of Sociology (Columbia University). Manufacturing industries--United States; Manufacturing industries--Government policy--United States. Ways to adjust  American economic development to better meet the challenges of outsourcing (highly decentralized production).

Edmund S. Whitman [and] W. James Schmidt (1966). Plant Relocation; A Case History of a Move. (New York, NY: American Management Association, 158 p.). General Foods Corporation. Jell-O Division; Industrial location -- Case studies. J

Karel Williams, John Williams, and Dennis Thomas (1983). Why Are the British Bad at Manufacturing? (Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 288 p.). Manufacturing industries--Great Britain; Industrial policy--Great Britain; Industrial management--Great Britain; Financial institutions--Great Britain.

Harold S. Wilson (2002). Confederate Industry: Manufacturers and Quartermasters in the Civil War. (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 412 P.). Manufacturing industries--United States--History--19th century; Quartermasters; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865. 

Thomas R. Winpenny (1982). Industrial Progress and Human Welfare: The Rise of the Factory System in 19th Century Lancaster. (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 132 p.). Factory system--Pennsylvania--Lancaster--History--19th century; Cotton manufacture--Pennsylvania--Lancaster--History--19th century; Working class--Pennsylvania--Lancaster--History--19th century; Lancaster (Pa.)--History.

Martha & Murray Zimiles (1973). Early American Mills. (New York, NY: C. N. Potter, 290 p.). Factories --New England --History; New England --History.


Business History Links

California Foundry History Institute                                                                     

Dedicated to the collection and preservation of historical records pertaining to the history of the foundry industry in California.

Corning Museum of Glass [Flash Player]                                                                        

The website of the Corning Museum contains images from part of its 45,000 item historical and art glass collection (spans 3,500 years, and includes "The Origins of Glassmaking", "Asian Glass", "Glass in America", and "Glass After 1960"). Visitors can search or browse the collection by the name of the artist or maker, the date made, location made, or the name of the object. Visitors interested in seeing images and reading about the history behind medieval glass, should click on the "Medieval Glass Story". Visitors who would like to hear an audio tour of the exhibit should click on "Audio Tour" to listen to any of the 20 short segments explaining the exhibit.

Factory Tours USA                                                                               

Celebrating American Imagination and Industry!

How Products Are Made                                                                

Details of the manufacturing process of a wide variety of products, from daily household items to complicated electronic equipment and heavy machinery. Step descriptions of the assembly and the manufacturing process (complemented with illustrations and diagrams). Each product also has related information such as the background, how the item works, who invented the product, raw materials that were used, product applications, by-products that are generated, possible future developments, quality control procedures, etc. Descriptions of: Air Bag, Air Conditioner, Artificial Snow, Automobile, Battery, Blue Jeans, Chewing Gum, Coin, Compact Disc, Credit Card, DVD Player, Fireworks, Hologram, Jet Engine, Laser Pointer, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Nuclear Submarine, Paint, Popcorn, Refrigerator, Telephone, Television, Temporary Tattoo, Vaccine, Vacuum Cleaner or Watch.

Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works, 1904          

The Westinghouse Works Collection contains 21 actuality films showing various views of Westinghouse companies. Most prominently featured are the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, and the Westinghouse Machine Company. The films were intended to showcase the company's operations. Exterior and interior shots of the factories are shown along with scenes of male and female workers performing their duties at the plants.

LOST LABOR: Images of Vanished American Workers 1900- 1980                                         

Selection of 155 photographs excerpted from a collection of more than 1100 company histories, pamphlets, and technical brochures documenting America's business and corporate industrial history. Images document factories, machinery, and jobs that no longer exist, LOST LABOR provides an unusual visual and historical record of work in 20th century America.

National Bottle Museum                                                                     

The museum's mission is to preserve the history of our nation's first major industry: bottle making. Millions of glass bottles per year were manufactured by hand for the mineral waters of Saratoga County alone, enabling the area to participate in world commerce during the early 1800s. A glassworks set in the wilderness above the nearby town of Greenfield employed hundreds of workers and glassblowers from the 1840s to the 1860s. In that era, all bottles were manufactured exclusively with hand tools and lung power. Machine made bottles were not manufactured until after Michael Owens patented his inventions in 1903.

Researching the History of Factories (Britain)                                           

By Jean Manco, building historian; from 'Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles'; 'Sources for Building History' first appeared online in December 1998; November 2004 - name changed; 2007 - online.

Shanghai Museum of Glass                                             
Initiated, sponsored by the Shanghai Glass Company Ltd to preserve and record 100 years of glass history and culture; transformed the once hot and stuffy glass factory into a space for artistic creation.

Western Electric History                                  

Created in 1997 to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth. This website also provides some technical and corporate historical information relating to Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies.


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