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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Industrial Equipment
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January 1740 - William Varley established company for manufacture of wide range of agricultural, domestic wire products from number of small factories in Yorkshire, UK; 1884 - acquired by John and Charles Procter; name changed to Procter Bros; began to develop identity as specialist wireworkers; 1897 - began to manufacture mousetrap invented by James Henry Atkinson (Leeds inventor); 1909 - mousetrap named “The Little Nipper” (spring-loaded bar, baited trip to release it); 1913 - acquired patent rights for moustrap for £2,000 (start of comprehensive range of domestic pest control products); First World War - supplied strong woven wire for use as bomb proof guard over roof of Buckingham Palace; 1920s-1930s - offered wide range of products (machine guards, riddles, sieves, fireguards and wire fencing); Second World War - supplied military with parts for Bailey Bridges, parachute frames, special wiremesh suitable for aircraft landing strips in sandy or marshy locations, fencing for virtually all country’s aerodromes; mid-1960s - restructured, concentrated exclusively on specialist fencing, machine guarding sectors of industry, continued to manufacture Little Nipper mouse and rat traps; unrivalled expertise in machinery guarding and security fencing; 2011 - managed by Chris and Jeremy Proctor (great grandsons).

January 16, 1795 - Jacob Perkins, of Boston, MA, received a patent for a "Machine for Cutting Nails".

March 23, 1795 - Josiah G. Pierson, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Machine for Cutting Nails".

March 31, 1796 - Joseph Bramah, of Piccadilly, UK, received a British patent for "Obtaining and Applying Motive Power" (certain new methods of producing and applying a more considerable degree of power in all kinds of mechanical apparatus and other machinery requiring motion and force, than by any means at present practised for the purpose)"; hydraulic (or hydrostatic) press.

November 16, 1796 - Isaac Garretson received a patent for a "Machine for Heading and Cutting Nails".

December 12, 1796 - George Chandlee, of Maryland., received a patent for "Cutting and Heading Nails".

December 14, 1798 - David Wilkinson, of Rhode Island, received a patent for a "Machine for Cutting Screws".

1833 - David Brown, Joseph Brown (son), opened David Brown & Son, shop in Providence, RI, for making, repair of clocks and watches, for light mechanical work of precision; 1840s - partnership dissolved; 1848 - Lucien Sharpe joined business as an apprentice; 1850 - Joseph R. Brown started new lines, to raise standard of accuracy in machine shop operations; built automatic linear dividing engine; 1851 - created pocket vernier caliper (read to thousandths of an inch); applied vernier methods to the protractor; 1853 - Sharpe became full partner in newly created enterprise of J. R. Brown & Sharpe; 1855 - invented precision gear cutter to produce clock gears; 1861 - Brown invented modern universal milling machine for cutting spirals; November 29, 1864 - received patent for it (see below); 1868 - created micrometer caliper (world's first to be mass-produced); February 27, 1877 received patent a "Grinding Machine" (see below); 1868 - Brown & Sharpe incorporated; 1880 - Oscar J. Beale, mechanical designer invented automatic screw machine; 1980s - measuring instruments became chief source of business; principal metrology product was Validator, high-technology, computer-controlled coordinate-measurement robotic system; 1991 - omitted dividend for first time since 1933, announced it would discontinue making machine tools entirely (29% of 1990 sales); January 2001 - substantially all of worldwide metrology business acquired by Hexagon, A.B. (Stockholm Sweden).

June 14, 1834 - Isaac Fisher, Jr., of Springfield, VT, received four patents for "Coating Paper; sand paper.

February 25, 1837 - Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, VT, received patent for an "Electric Motor" ("an application of magnetism and electro-magnetism to propelling machinery"); first practical electrical motor.

May 17, 1839 - Lorenzo Dow Adkins, of Perry Township, OH, received a patent for a "Spiral-Bucket Water-Wheel" ("for Propelling Mills and Other Machinery").

October 1840 - Cullen Whipple, of Providence, RI, one of ten incorporators of The New England Screw Co.; August 18, 1842 - received patent for a "Machine for Cutting the Threads of Wood-Screws"; April 6, 1843 - received a patent for a "Machine for Turning or Shaving the Heads of Blanks for Wood-Screws"; July 6, 1852 - received a patent for "Screw Threading Machinery"; August 10, 1852 - received a patent  for "Machinery for Threading Wood-Screws"; November 30, 1852 - received a patent for "Improvement in Machinery for Shaving the Heads of Screw-Blanks"; December 14, 1852 - received patent for a "Mechanism for Pointing and Threading Screw-Blanks in the Same Machine"; added more cutters to point screws in same machine; credited as inventor of first practical machine for pointing screws (early screws had no point, required a starter hole be drilled before use); assigned to the New England Screw Company; January 1, 1856 - received a patent an "Improvement in Screw Machinery"; assigned to the New England Screw Company; June 3, 1856 - received a patent for "Making Screws"; screw machine (screw-blank feeder mechanism).

1840 - Henry Disston established Disston Saw Works in Philadelphia, PA; 1855 - cast first crucible saw steel made in America (Morrill Tariff Act of 1861 greatly increased cost of imported steel, impossible for other saw makers to compete with Disston - most successful saw manufacturer in the U.S.); supplied steel products to Union Army during Civil War; 1865 - started making files; invested in the factory, mechanized much of the process of saw, tool making, lowered costs, increased production; 1878 - Hamilton (eldest son) became president; 1896 - William (brother) named president; February 4, 1913 - Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. registered "Disston" trademark first used in 1862 (saws, saw handles); 1915 - Frank (grandson) became president; largest selling saw in America during the first half of the 20th-century; 1940 - Time magazine claimed Disston sold 75% of handsaws in U.S.; 1955 - acquired by H.K. Porter, Pittsburgh-based holding company owned by Thomas Mellon Evans; 1956 - moved factory to Virginia.

August 31, 1842 - Micah Rugg, of Southington, CT, received a patent for a "Machine for Dressing Bolt Heads" (a new and useful "Improvement in the Mode and method of trimming the Heads of Bolts and in the Machinery Necessary for Affecting the Same"); 1840 - Rugg and Martin Barnes established first U.S. nuts and bolts factory in Marion, CT; six employees, capacity production was 500 bolts a day.

1850 - Ernst Leybold became opened commission and forwarding business (sold wines, apothecary items); 1854 - expanded to physical, pharmaceutical, chemical appartus; 1867 - set up glass-blowing operation, mechanical workshop; 1870 - company acquired by Emil Schmidt, Otto Ladendorff; who renamed E. Leybold's Nachfolger; 1911 - Dr. Wolfgang Gaede developed molecular air pump; 1948 - interest acquired by Metallgesellschaft AG; 1955 - interest acquired by Degussa AG; January 29, 1963 - Leybold-Hochvakuum-Anlagen G.M.B.H. registered "LEYBOLD CQC" trademark first used October 20, 1960 (freeze-drying apparatus for drying organic substances such as pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, blood plasma and serum, tissue material, and the like; and freezers and driers for use with freezedrying apparatus); 1967 - merged with Heraeus Hochvakuum GmbH, renamed Leybold-Heraeus GmbH (shares divided equally among Degussa, Metallgesellschaft, W.C. Heraeus); 1980 - sales of over 1 billion marks (DM), about 5,600 employees worldwide; October 1, 1987 - renamed Leybold Aktiengesellschaft (Leybold Corporation), or Leybold AG (Metallgesellschaft sold shares, restructured; W.C. Heraeus sold shares; Degussa sole stockholder); 1994 - Degussa interest acquired by Switzerland-based Oerlikon-Bührle Group (founded September 1907 as Swiss Power Tool factory with 150 employees in factory in Zürich-Oerlikon, Switzerland; entered vacuum business in 1957; went public in 1973 as Oerlikon-Bührle Holding; merged Leybold with Balzers AG subsidiary in January 1995 - about 6,500 employees, sales of 1.8 billion German marks; renamed Balzers and Leybold Group); 2011 - creates vacuums for industrial applications.

Ernst Leybold - Balzers and Leybold Group (

1854 - Norris Hubbard Bragg, Sumner Basford founded Bragg & Basford, blacksmith supply business, in Bangor, ME; 1863 - Bragg ran company himself; 1867 - Norris Everett Bragg (son) joined company; name changed to N.H. Bragg & Son; after 1867 - Charles Bragg (son) joined, name changed to N.H. Bragg & Sons; 1905 - incorporated (Charles as president , Franklin Everett Bragg, grandson, as treasurer); expanded to auto parts business; 1950s - began delivering welding cylinders to customers; Charles F. Bragg II (great grandson) named president; 1980 - G. Clifton Eames (nephew) became president; 1992 - John Bragg (fifth generation) became president.  

1858 - Franklin B. Norton, Frederick Hancock (cousin) opened pottery shop in Worcester, MA; supplied Worcester, surrounding towns with variety of jugs, preserve jars, storage, cooking pots, pitchers, spittoons, beer bottles water kegs; 1873 - employee Sven Pulson invented grinding wheel of superior quality which could cut metals, other hard materials better than traditional sandstone wheels; mixed clay with emery, water and kiln fired it; 1879 - Norton expanded business to include manufacture of Pulson's wheels (Pulson left company in 1880); Hancock sold his interests to his cousin, retired; April 10, 1883 - Sven Pulson and Marcus L. Snow, of Sterling, MA, received a patent for "Composition for Amery and Corundum Wheels and Other Tools" ("intended to be formed into articles of the desired form - as wheels, rolls, and other tools - and when dried and burned or baked to be ready for use"); 1885 - wheel business acquired by John Jeppson (Pulson's brother-in-law) and partners for $20,000 and use of Norton name, rights to Pulson's patent; incorporated Norton Emery Wheel Company; February 27, 1900 - Norton Grinding Company established; developed into largest manufacturer of abrasives in world; 1990 - acquired by Compagnie de Saint-Gobain of France.

1859 - Robert Gardner provided first effective speed controls for steam engines; Gardner Governor Company manufactured flyball governors, led to production of steam pumps, high speed vertical air compressors; 1900 - steam pump technology adapted for use in mud pumps (became part of oil, natural gas well drilling process); 1927 - merged with Denver Rock Drill Company, renamed Gardner-Denver; 1959 - acquired CycloBlower Company (manufacturer of helical screw blowers); 1979 - acquired by Cooper Industries; became Gardner Denver Industrial Machinery Division; 1985-1988 - acquired Sutorbilt, DuroFlow blowers, OPI well servicing pumps, Joy compressors; 1994 - spun off as independent company; 2004 - acquired Drum blowers, Emco Wheaton bulk storage and fluid transfer equipment; 2005 - acquired Thomas Industries (Rietschle, Thomas brands, latest line of precision-engineered blowers, pumps, compressors); 2009 - provides compressed air and gas, vacuum and fluid transfer technologies to industries throughout world.

Robert Gardner - Gardner Denver (

November 29, 1864 - Joseph R. Brown, of Providence, RI, received patent for an "Improved Cutter for Cutting Gear-Wheels"; assigned to himself and Lucien Sharpe; February 21, 1865 -Joseph R. Brown, of Providence, RI, received a patent for "Screw-Threading Machine" ("Improved Milling Machine"); four-speed, 1,800-lb machine could quickly make any size twist drill, replace previously tedious handwork in spiral milling or gear-cutting operations; ; assigned to J. R. Brown & Sharpe;  November 28, 1865 - received a patent for an "Improvement in Screw-Cutting Machines", assigned to Joseph R. Browne & Sharpe.

1871 - Simon Ingersoll received patent for steam-powered rock drill; Ingersoll Rock Drill Company formed; 1872 - first Rand air compressor introduced; Rand & Waring Drill & Compressor Company formed; 1879 - name changed to Rand Drill Company; 1888 - Ingersoll Rock Drill Company merged with Seargeant Drill Company, formed Ingersoll-Seargeant Drill Company; 1894 - W.R. Grace named President of Ingersoll-Seargeant; 1904 - Panama Canal begun using Ingersoll-Seargeant drills; 1905 - Ingersoll-Seargeant Drill Company merged with Rand Drill Company, formed Ingersoll-Rand Company.

  Simon Ingersoll - Ingersoll-Rand  (

February 27, 1877 - Joseph R. Brown (deceased, of Providence, RI) received a patent for a "Grinding Machine" ("adapted to a great variety of work"); universal grinding machine to fabricate accurate cylindrical work.

1878 - James P. Tolman founded Samson Cordage Works in Massachusetts; May 27, 1884 - registered "Samson" trademark, design of man and lion (cords, lines, [twines], and ropes); 1888 - incorporated; developing unique concept of incorporating reinforcement cores in braided ropes, significantly improved product performance; 1957 - developed first synthetic double-braided rope; 1993 - Samson Ocean Systems, Herzog Rope, AMCO (American Manufacturing Co., founded 1889) merged, combined their talents, resources, technical expertise, formed The American Group, world-wide leader in performance cordage; 2001 - renamed Samson Rope Technologies.

1879 - Hans Renold established Hans Renold Co. (had acquired Chain Making Company, founded in 1864 by James Slater); oldest established transmission chain company in world; 1880 - introduced patented feature of solid bush (origin of bush roller chain, design still in use); 1906 - began manufacture of chain wheels; 1912 - supplied chain for The Great Clock at Palace of Westminster ('Big Ben', built in 1856); 1925 - acquired Brampton Brothers Limited; 1930 - merged, formed Renold and Coventry Chain Co. Ltd.; 1954 - renamed Renold Chains Ltd.; 1964 - acquired John Holroyd and Co Ltd, start of transition from purely chain manufacture to manufacture, supply of complete range of power transmission products, precision machine tools; 1967 - renamed Renold Ltd.; 2005 - 2000 people in more than 23 countries.

Hans Renold - Renold Ltd. (

1880 - Daniel P. Eells founded Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company in Bucyrus, OH; June 3, 1882 - first railroad style (non-rotating) excavating steam shovel shipped to Northern Pacific Railroad; 1883 - shipped first dipper dredge; 1896 - reorganized, renamed The Bucyrus Company; 1894 - had sold 171 shovels (24 used to dig Chicago Drainage Canal); 1910 - entered dragline market; 1925 - leading manufacturer of excavation equipment in U.S.; 1911 - merged with Atlantic Equipment Co. and Vulcan Steam Shovel Co. to form Bucyrus Company (no longer family corporation); 1927 - merged with Erie Steam Shovel Company, company renamed Bucyrus-Erie; 1996 - name changed to Bucyrus International, Inc.(75% of sales, service performed internationally).

December 1, 1884 - Alonzo Pawling, former wood patternmaker in the Whitehill Sewing Machine Company, Henry Harnischfeger, tool department foreman at Whitehill Sewing Machine Company, formed Pawling & Harnischfeger Machine and Pattern Shop to craft, support high-quality components, assemblies for brick-making, beer-brewing, industrial sewing,  other industrial equipment manufactured in, around Milwaukee, WI; 1887 - rebuilt, improved upon  failed overhead traveling crane for E.P. Allis Company; other customers approached "P&H" for cranes offering increased performance, reliability; 1912 - designed, manufactured earth-moving equipment (back-fillers, wheel trenchers, shovels, backhoes, draglines).

Alonzo Pawling, Henry  Harnischfeger (

1893 - Peter DeWitt and two sons (Peter, William) founded DeWitt Barrels in Chicago, IL; made, repaired wooden kegs, barrels; 1937 - Peter DeWitt Sr. (grandson) opened location in Grand Rapids, MI; 1940s - steel drums introduced; fiber drums introduced (replaced slack barrels); 1993 - Peter, Michael, Tim DeWitt (fifth generation) took over; specializes in reconditioning of steel drums, fiber drums, plastic barrels, totes.

January 30, 1894 - Charles B. King, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a "Pneumatic Tool" ('new and useful tool in reciprocating motors and belongs in that class of motors designed to be used in caulking tools, cutting stones, etc."); pneumatic hammer. 

June 8, 1895 - John C. Lincoln founded The Lincoln Electric Company with capital investment of $200.00; produced electric motors of his own design; 1907 - James F. Lincoln (younger brother) joined company as salesman; 1911 - introduced first variable voltage, single operator, portable welding machine in world; 1914 - James F. Lincoln took over; established the Employee Advisory Board; 1915 - employees covered by group life insurance; 1922 - production of welders surpassed that of motors; 1927 - introduced Fleetweld 5 coated electrode, produced welds with 20-50% higher tensile strength, 100% greater ductility than those made with bare electrodes; 1923 - employees earned paid vacations, among first in nation; 1925 - initiated employee stock ownership plan, one of first in country; July 30, 1929 - John C. Lincoln received a patent for a "Flux Holder" ("...for carrying and positioning a charge of suitable fluxing material for welding operations..."; made weld as flexible as steel; 1934 - employees received first annual Incentive Bonus; 1942 - electrodes sold for less than $0.06/lb (vs. $0.16/lb in 1929); 1995 - annual sales reached $1 billion; 1998 - distributed 65th consecutive bonus to employees.

April 9, 1895 - Black American inventor, Robert H. Gray, of Lexington, KY, received patent for a Cistern Cleaner".

June 28, 1898 - Henry Timken, carriage maker, and Reginald Heinzelman, of St. Louis, MO, received a patent for a "Roller-Bearing for Vehicles"; tapered bearing helped heavy freight wagons make sharp turns (Timken received first patent in 1877 for "Improvement in Carriage Springs" for buggies and wagons); 1899 - Timken, H.H. and William Timken (sons) incorporated Timken Roller Bearing Axle Co. to make carriage axles mounting patented bearings; 1909 - moved axle division to Detroit, launched Timken-Detroit Axle Company; Canton bearings division renamed The Timken Roller Bearing Company; 1911 - Marmon Wasp, equipped with Timken bearings, won inaugural Indianapolis 500; 1917 - opened  first steel plant; first bearing manufacturer to act as own supplier of steel for its products; 1919 - organized Industrial Division; June 21, 1921 - registered "Timken" trademark first used in 1899 (roller-bearings and parts thereof); 1922 - went public; 1925 - first used in railroad cars; 1954 - introduced "AP" bearing for railroad industry (pre-assembled, pre-lubricated, self-contained, inexpensive bearing for nearly any type of railroad car); 1978 - $1 billion in sales; 1995 - $2 billion in sales; 2003 - acquired The Torrington Company, significantly expanded  company's product range, global presence; 2005 - $5 billion in sales.

May 25, 1900 - Alfred Willard French founded The French Oil Mill Machinery Co. to produce superior vegetable oil mill machinery (vegetable oil hydraulic press technology); applied to other processes (metal forming, rubber curing); 1925 - Grace Albers French (wife) took over; 1926 - Alfred Willard French Jr. joined company; late 1930s - began manufacturing solvent extraction machinery for vegetable oil industry; 1962 - French Jr. named President; expanded product lines to vegetable oil mills (mechanical screw presses, other products); pioneered use of screw presses in synthetic and natural rubber, wood pulp, cane sugar industries; Daniel Phelps French (grandson) took over.

Alfred Willard French - The French Oil Mill Machinery Co. (

December 28, 1900 - Charles E. Thompson established Cleveland Cap Screw Company to make screws, bolts, studs; 1904 - adapted cap-screw manufacturing methods to production of automobile-engine valve stems; 1905 - acquired by Alexander Winton (Winton Motor Carriage Company), Thompson as general manager; 1908 - name changed to Electric Welding Company; 1909 - country's dominant manufacturer of automobile valves; 1915 - Thompson took over company from Winton, incorporated as Steel Products Company; 1921 - introduced advanced valve-making technology with Silcrome valve, permitted long-distance aviation; 1926 - renamed Thompson Products Inc.; September 16, 1953 - Simon Ramo, Dean Wooldridge formed Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation; 1958 - merged with Thompson Products; named Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Inc.; 1965 - shortened to TRW Inc.

Dean Woolridge, Simon Ramo - TRW (

1904 - Edward E. Johnson established Johnson Screens (had invented world’s first continuous slot wire wrapped well screen (provided more open area per square foot of screen than other conventional methods, allowed more water into well with more efficiency); 1930 - invented all welded continuous slot wire wrapped well screen; world leader in water well screening industry.

1907 - Sven Wingquist, young Swedish engineer, founded of Svenska Kullagerfabriken (SKF); produced world's first self-aligning ball bearing; first year - 15 employees, loss of 5 371 SEK, only 2 200 bearings produced; 1910 - one factory, 325 employees (15% worked outside Sweden); 1926 - AB Volvo, a subsidiary of SKF, started production of experimental cars; 1930 - 12 factories, 21,000 employees (66% worked outside Sweden); 1935 - AB Volvo became independent of SKF; 1950 - 18 factories, 31, 000 employees (66% worked outside Sweden); 1970 - 68 factories, 67 000 employees (78% worked outside Sweden). One of the world's leading ball and roller bearing makers.

1908 - Stephen Foster Briggs (inventor), Harold M. Stratton (investor) began informal relationship, formed company to compete in auto parts industry; 1909 - introduced an igniter switch; Steve Briggs received patent for gas engine igniters; 1910 - incorporated; ignition switches mainstay of business; 1920 - introduced  stationary "Type P" engine, revolutionized 4-cycle gasoline engine industry, power source for many machinery applications; 1928 - acquired Evinrude Motors; 1946-1952 - produced 500,00 engines per year; 1953 - developed aluminum engine, revolutionized lawn and garden industry; 1954 - built 1.3 million engines; 1950s - produced average of over 2 million engines per year; world's largest producer of small, 4-cycle engines; 1978 - 25,000 worldwide service dealers; 2007 - world's largest producer of air-cooled gasoline engines for outdoor power equipment.

Stephen Foster Briggs, Harold M. Stratton - founders Briggs & Stratton ( userpics/10002/Briggs_Stratton_Flyer.jpg)

1909 - Edward George Mueller, one of earliest pioneers in commercial oxygen business, organized Pittsburgh Reinforced Brazing & Machine Company (treasurer until 1920, named president); 1914 - developed valves for high pressure compressed gases; 1917 - introduced first American manufactured cast steel gate valve for oil industry; 1921 - introduced testing of high-pressure valves with Kerosene, became industry standard; 1927 - name changed to "Kerotest Manufacturing Company" ("Kerosene Tested"); 1963 - entered gas distribution industry with "Model 1 (first steel gate valve designed specifically for natural gas service); 1971 - introduced first Packless Metal-Diaphragm valve for nuclear service, became leading valve supplier to over 100 nuclear power plants worldwide; 1983 - created ESOP, became "employee owned company"; 1999 - honored as "Pennsylvania ESOP Company of the Year" by ESOP Association at ceremony in Washington DC; 2009 - leading supplier of valves and related equipment for worldwide energy markets, including natural gas distribution, oil & gas drilling, nuclear fuel.

Edward George Mueller - Kerotest (

October 25, 1924 - Akira Yamada founded Osaka Kinzoku Kogyosho Limited Partnership (Daikin Industries) for production of aircraft radiator tubes, other products; February 11, 1934 - Osaka Kinzoku Kogyo Co., Ltd. incorporated; 1951 - began production of packaged air conditioners; 1963 - renamed Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd.; 1982 - renamed Daikin Industries, Ltd.; 1984 - first in world to produce cumulative total of 1 million packaged air  conditioners.

March 1927 - William W. (Bill) Grainger founded wholesale electric motor sales and distribution business in Chicago to provide an efficient solution for customers to access a consistent supply of electric motors; 1928 - incorporated as W. W. Grainger, Inc.; December 1942 - 24 branches and 24 territory sales reps; December 1952 - 46 branches, 54 territory sales reps; December 1972 - 123 branches in 40 states, 218 territory sales reps; December 1984 - broke $1 billion in annual sales.

1933 - Kazuma Tateisi established Tateisi Electric Manufacturing Co. in Osaka, Japan (had developed trouser press in 1930); May 1948 - name changed to Tateisi Electronics Co.; January 1959 - registered 'OMRON' trademark; February 1960 - developed world's first non-contact (solid state) switch; April 1964 - developed world's first automated traffic signal; March 1967 - developed world's first unmanned train station; June 1971 - developed world's first online automated cash dispenser; January 1990 - name changed to OMRON Corporation.  

1935 - Phillips acquired rights to Thompson patent, filed patent application that modified Thompson patent in order to make cruciform drive system more adaptable to mass production; improved cruciform recess fastener patent issues and quickly becomes known as the "Phillips® Screw".

July 7, 1936 - Henry F. Phillips (Portland, OR) received several patents: for a "Screw" ("tool-receiving recess which may be formed in the head of a screw by a simple punching operation...means for self-centering said driver with respect to the screw"); recessed, self-centering screw; for a "Means of Uniting a Screw with a Driver"; assigned to Phillips Screw Company; for a "Screw Driver " ("improvements in screws and more especially to a type of screw particularly adapted to be actuated by the type of screwdriver"; for a "Screw" ("provision of a recess in the head of a screw which is particularly adapted to firm engagement with a correspondingly shaped driver tool or screw driver, and in such a way that there will be no tendency of the driver to cam out of the recess when united in operative engagement with each other"); for a "Screw Driver"; Phillips-head screw and screwdriver; founded the Phillips Screw Company (Wilmington, DE) to license patent(s); January 5, 1937 - received a patent for a "Screw" ("improvements in tool receiving recesses formed in the heads of screws"); 1939 - American Screw Company spent approximately $500,000 to produce the Phillips screw, obtained patents on the manufacturing methods, sole licenser of the process; 1940 - virtually every American automaker had switched to Phillips screws.

May 28, 1945 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "Two-Cycle Gas Engine"; assigned to Thermo Control Corporation.

1949 - Ed Seymour, owner of paint company in Sycamore, IL, mixed paint, aerosol in can with spray head to demonstrate aluminum coating for painting radiators = spray paint; December 25, 1951 - Edward H. Seymour, of Sycamore, IL, received a patent for a "Hermetically Sealed Package for Mixing and Discharging Paint" ("...hermetically sealed container having therein a suspension of finely divided solid material dispersed in a solution under pressure in which means are provided for redispersing the solid material which may settle out and collect on the base of the container"); 2011 - spray-paint manufacturers produced 412 million cans (source: Consumer Specialty Products Association).

1953 - Dr. Vernon Krieble, Trinity College chemistry professor, and son (chemist in General Electric Company's chemical business) founded The American Sealants Company in a basement in Hartford, CT; July 26, 1956 - official public debut of adhesives company's one product, unique liquid bonding resin that hardened in absence of air; year's sales of $7,000; August 25, 1959 - received a patent for "Packaged Metal Fasteners and Bonding Agent" ("novel packaging arrangement for providing metal fasteners with a relatively quick setting resin coating"); liquid product became known as "Loctite"; 1963 - name changed to Loctite Corporation; 1965 - sales reached $2.8 million, net income of $260,000; 1980 - went public, merged with International Sealants Corporation; January 1997 - acquired by Dusseldorf-based Henkel KGaA for more than $1 billion.

about_vkrieble Dr. Vernon Krieble - founder Loctite  (

(Allen-Bradley Company), John Gurda (1992). The Bradley Legacy: Lynde and Harry Bradley, Their Company, and Their Foundation. (Milwaukee, WI: Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, 170 p.). Bradley family; Allen-Bradley Company--History; Electric industries--United States--History.

(Ansaldo), Erminio Bagnasco ... [et al.] (1994-2003). Storia Dell’Ansaldo. (Roma, ITa: Laterza, 9 vols.). Ansaldo (Firm)--History; Machinery industry--Italy--History; Conglomerate corporations--Italy--History; Industrialization--Italy--History. Incomplete Contents:

(Briggs & Stratton), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1995). The Legend of Briggs & Stratton. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 208 p.). Briggs & Stratton Corporation--History; Motor industry--United States--History; Internal combustion engine industry--United States--History. 

(Bucyrus-Erie), Kenneth H. Myers and Harold F. Williamson (1955). Designed for Digging. (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 384 p.). Bucyrus-Erie Company; excavating industry.

(Bucyrus-Erie), K. H. Myers, II (1976). Marketing Policy Determination by a Major Firm in a Capital Goods Industry: A Case Study of Bucyrus-Erie Company, 1880-1954. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 510 p.). Bucyrus-Erie Company; Machinery industry--Case studies.

(Bucyrus-Erie), George B. Anderson (1980). One Hundred Booming Years: A History of Bucyrus-Erie Company, 1880-1980. (South Milwaukee, WI: Bucyrus-Erie Company, 303 p.). Bucyrus-Erie Company--History.

(J. I. Case), Stewart H. Holbrook (1976). Machines of Plenty: Chronicle of an Innovator in Construction and Agricultural Equipment. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 269 p. [Reprint of 1955 ed.]). J.I. Case Company; Agricultural machinery--United States--History; Agriculture--United States--History.

(CR Industries), Norman Mark (1978). The CR Century: Images of an American Business. (Elgin, IL: CR Industries, 190 p.). CR Industries--History; Hides and skins industry--Illinois--Chicago--History. 1990 - SKF acquired Chicago Rawhide (CR), a U.S. manufacturer of oil seals (SKF Group - leading global supplier of products, customer solutions, and services in the business of rolling bearings and seals).

(Crown Equipment), Pat McNees (1997). By Design: The Story of Crown Equipment Corporation. (Wilmington, OH: Orange Frazer Press, 151 p.). Crown Equipment Corporation--History.

(Daikin Industries), Mariko Tatsuki and translated by Thomas I. Elliott (2006). The 80-Year History of Daikin Industries 1924-2004: Building Way for Global Future. (Osaka, Japan: Daikin Industries, 342 p.). Daikin K¯ogy¯o Kabushiki Kaisha -- History; Industries -- Japan -- History.

(Henry Disston & Sons), Harry C. Silcox (1994). A Place To Live and Work: The Henry Disston Saw Works and the Tacony Community of Philadelphia. (University Park, PA Pennsylvania State University Press 231 p.). Director of the Pennsylvania Institute for Environmental and Community Service Learning (Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science). Henry Disston & Sons, Inc. (Philadelphia, Pa.) --History; Saw industry --Pennsylvania --Philadelphia --History; Tacony (Philadelphia, Pa.). Saw manufacturing company, factory town he built; rise of one of America's largest, most powerful family-owned businesses from modest beginnings in 1840 to 1940s (products known worldwide), to sale and demise of the company in postwar years; company's interdependence with community, life-style that grew out of Disston's paternalistic blueprint for Tacony; highly sophisticated distribution,  marketing, management system; factory system, its impact on urban communities and family life.

(Dover), George D. Smith and Robert Sobel (1991). Dover Corporation: A History, 1955-1989. (Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Group, 168 p.). Academics (NYU, Hofstra). Dover Corp.

(Falk Corporation), John Gurda (1991). The Making of a Good Name in Industry: A History of the Falk Corporation, 1892-1992. (Milwaukee, WI: Falk Corp., 192 p.). Falk Corporation--History; Gear industry--United States--History.

(John Fowler), Michael R. Lane; with a foreword by Isabel A. Pelly (1980). The Story of the Steam Plough Works: Fowlers of Leeds (London, UK: Northgate Pub. Co., 410 p.). Fowler, John, 1826-1864; John Fowler & Co.; Traction-engines -- History; Steam-engines -- History; Plows -- History; Mechanical engineers -- Great Britain -- Biography.

(Gardner Denver), Bill Beck (2009). Gardner Denver : 150 Years of Industrial Innovation.  (Virginia Beach, VA Donning Co., 130 p.). Corporate historian. Gardner-Denver Company --History; Industries --United States --Illinois; Electric apparatus and appliances --United States --Illinois. 150-year history -company's leaders, employees, facilities, products and applications;  company has weathered world wars, economic depressions, natural disasters; global position in industrial markets.

(W. W. Grainger), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002). The Legend of Grainger. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 174 p.). W.W. Grainger, Inc.; Machinery industry--United States--History; Industrial equipment--Maintenance and repair--Equipment and supplies; Machinery--Equipment and supplies.

(Ingersoll-Rand Company), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1995). The Legend of Ingersoll-Rand. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 219 p.). Ingersoll-Rand Company--History; Machinery industry--United States--History; Construction equipment industry--United States--History; Industrial equipment industry--United States--History.

(Joyce Dayton), Pat McNees (1995). An American Biography: An Industrialist Remembers the Twentieth Century (Washington, DC: Farragut Pub. Co., 341 p.). Webster, Warren, 1901-1994; Joyce Dayton Corporation--History; Industrialists--Ohio--Dayton--Biography; Hydraulic engineers--Ohio--Dayton--Biography; Hydraulic machinery industry--United States--History.

(Legris), Reynald Secher (1997). Legris: Histoire d’Une Saga Industrielle. (Liguge, Poitiers: Editions R.S.E., 249 p.). Legris family; Legris (Firm); Pipe fittings industry--France--History.

(Lincoln Electric), Virginia P. Dawson (1990). Lincoln Electric: A History. (Cleveland, OH: Lincoln Electric Company, 162 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--History; Welding equipment industry--Ohio--History.

(Lincoln Electric), Joseph A. Maciariello (2000). Lasting Value: Lessons from a Century of Agility at Lincoln Electric. (New York, NY: Wiley, 240 p.). Lincoln Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies.

Lincoln Electric - 1895







(Lincoln Electric), Frank Koller (2010). Spark: How Old-Fashioned Values Drive a Twenty-First-Century Corporation: Lessons from Lincoln Electric's Unique Guaranteed Employment Program. (New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 272 p.).  Former Foreign Correspondent (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Lincoln Electric Company --Management; Welding equipment industry --Ohio --Management. Healthy bottom line, satisfied, dedicated employees of Cleveland arc-welding equipment manufacturer (1895): promised that no permanent employee, who met firm's performance standards, would ever be laid off due to lack of work (in employee handbook, in annual report); profit-sharing bonuses paid since 1934 (bonuses almost always exceed 60% of employee's basic earnings); from days of Carnegie and Rockefeller, recessions in 1950s, present crisis - remarkable yet, in many ways, ordinary organization, which survived, even thrived, in sunset industry.

(Loctite), Ellsworth S. Grant (1983). Drop by Drop: The Loctite Story, 1953-1980. (Rocky Hill, CT: Loctite Corp., 156 p.). Loctite Corporation--History--20th century; Adhesives industry--United States--History--20th century.

(Herbert Morris Limited), David Wainwright (1974). Cranes and Craftsmen: The Story of Herbert Morris Limited. (London, UK: Hutchinson Berham, 88 p.).; Cranes--manufacture.

(Norton), Mildred M. Tymeson (1953). The Norton Story. (Worcester, MA: Norton Co., 312 p.). Norton Company.

(Norton), Charles W. Cheape (1985). Family Firm to Modern Multinational: Norton Company, a New England Enterprise. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 424 p.). Norton Company--History.

(OMRON), The Company (1985). Fifty Years of OMRON: A Pictorial History. (Kyoto, Japan, OMRON). Electric machinery industry -- Japan -- History; Tateishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha -- History -- Pictorial works.

(PACCAR), Alex Groner with Barry Provorse (1998). PACCAR: The Pursuit of Quality. (Seattle, WA: Documentary Book Publishers, 280 p.). PACCAR--History; Railroad equipment industry--United States--History; Truck industry--United States--History.

(Henry A. Petter Supply Company), Barron White (2003). Memories of Petter Supply. (Haverford, PA: Infinity Pub., 170 p.). White, Barron; Henry A. Petter Supply Company--History; Industrial supply houses--Kentucky--Paducah--History.

(Plymouth Cordage), Samuel Eliot Morison (1976). The Ropemakers of Plymouth: A History of the Plymouth Cordage Company, 1824-1949. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 177 p. [Reprint of 1950 ed.]). Plymouth Cordage Company.

(Renold Ltd.), Basil H. Tripp; with a preface by Lord Bowden of Chesterfield (1969). Renold Limited 1956-1967. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 188 p.). Renold Ltd.; driving chains.

(Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2001). The Legend of Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 143 p.). Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers--History; Auctioneers--United States; Industrial equipment industry agents--United States.

(Rockwell), H. Kogan (1985). Proud of the Past-- Committed to the Future. (Chicago, IL: Mobium Press, 171 p.). Goss family. Rockwell International. Graphic Systems Division; Printing machinery industry--Illinois--Chicago--History; Newspaper presses--History.

(Saco-Lowell), George S. Gibb (1950). The Saco-Lowell Shops; Textile Machinery Building in New England, 1813-1949. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 835 p.). Saco-Lowell Shops; Textile machinery--New England.

(Safety-Kleen), Jim Bowman (1989). Waste Not...: The Story of Safety-Kleen. (Chicago, IL: J,G. Ferguson Pub. Co., 152 p.). Machine Parts Cleaning Machinery Industry, Safety-Kleen.

(Semco S/A), Ricardo Semler (1993). Maverick: The Success Story Behind the World's Most Unusual Workplace. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 335 p.). CEO (Semco). Semler, Ricardo, 1959- ; Businesspeople--Brazil--Biography. Author's successful 'quest' to run his company in the interest of all it's stakeholders.

--- (2004). The Seven-Day Weekend: Changing the Way Work Works. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 256 p.). CEO (Semco). Semco (Firm)--Management; Employee empowerment; Industrial management--Employee participation; Organizational change; Industrial equipment industry--Brazil--Management--Case studies. 

(Siddons Ramset), John Siddons; written with the assistance of Russ Gleeson (1990). A Spanner in the Works. (South Melbourne, AU: Macmillan, 247 p.). Siddons, John, 1927- ; Siddons Ramset (Firm)--Personnel management; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography; Legislators--Australia--Biography; Industrial management--Employee participation--Australia.

(SKF), Birger Steckzen (1957). SKF, Svenska Kullagerfabriken: en Svensk Exportindustris Historia, 1907-1957. (Goteborg, Sweden: Svenska Kullagerfabriken, 884 p.). SKF (Firm); Ball-bearings--Sweden.

Sven Wingquist - SKF ( cmimages/057313.jpg)

(SKF), Folke Lindskog (1976). Att Leda ett Multinationellt Foretag. (Stockholm, Sweden: Askild & Karnekull, 188 P.). SKF (Firm); Businesspeople--Sweden--Case studies; Sweden--International economic relations--Case studies.

(Southern Saw Service), Edmund D. Brown (1983). 1594 Evans Drive, S.W.: A History of Southern Saw Service, Inc., and the Atlanta Saw Company. (Atlanta, GA, Southern Saw Service.213 p.). Atlanta Saw Company History 20th century; Southern Saw Service History 20th century; Saw industry United States History 20th century; Saw filing industry United States History 20th century.

(Stanadyne - founded 1876 as Hartford Machine Screw Company), Ellsworth S. Grant (1985). Stanadyne: A History. (Windsor, CT: Stanadyne, 128 p.). Stanadyne.

(Timken), Bettye H. Pruitt. (1998). Timken: From Missouri to Mars--A Century of Leadership in Manufacturing. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 514 p.). Timken Company--History; International business enterprises--United States--History; Bearings industry--United States--History; Machine parts industry--United States--History; Steel alloy industry--United States--History; Roller bearings--United States--History.

Henry Timken - Timken Manufacturing (

(Transco), Ellen V. Fuller (2009). Going Global: Culture, Gender and Authority in the Japanese Subsidiary of an American Corporation. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 232 p.). Assistant Professor of East Asian Languages, Literatures and Cultures and Studies in Women and Gender (University of Virginia). Corporations, American --Japan --Social aspects; International business enterprises --Japan --Employees; Corporate culture --Japan; Management --Japan. How globalized corporate culture addresses issues of gender, identity, as they relate to authority; behind office politics, turf wars, day-to-day workings of transnational American company in Japan in late 1990s as employees try to establish comfortable place within company.

(TRW), Davis Dyer (1998). TRW: Pioneering Technology and Innovation Since 1900. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 503 p.). TRW Inc., Industrial Equipment, Automobile Supplies, Electronic and Aerospace Industries.

(Whitin Machine), Thomas R. Navin (1950). The Whitin Machine Works Since 1831; A Textile Machinery Company in an Industrial Village. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 654 p.). Whitin Machine Works, Whitinsville, Mass.

(Wyman-Gordon Company - founded 1883), Mildred M. Tymeson (1959). The Wyman-Gordon Way, 1883-1958. (Worcester, MA: Wyman-Gordon Co., 136 p.). Wyman-Gordon Company.

John William Lozier (1986). Taunton and Mason: Cotton Machinery and Locomotive Manufacture in Taunton, Massachusetts, 1811-1861 (New York, NY: Garland, 549 p.). Mason, William, b. ca. 1808; Cotton machinery industry--Massachusetts--Taunton--History--19th century; Locomotive industry--Massachusetts--Taunton--History--19th century; Taunton (Mass.)--History. Series: American business history.

Witold Rybczynski (2000). One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw. (New York, NY: Scribner, 173 p.). Professor of Architecture (University of Pennsylvania). Screwdrivers--History; Screws--History. 


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