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INDUSTRIES: Business History of High Technology
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December 23, 1947 - Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen (Bell Laboratories) first demonstrated point-contact transistor (vs. Shockley's junction transistor), better understanding of surface properties of semiconductors; microphone, headphones connected to transistor, device spoken over "with no noticeable change in quality"; name, 'transistor' came from its electrical property, 'trans-resistance'; functional replacement for vacuum tube; great savings in space,  electrical power consumption; 1956 - awarded Nobel prize in physics.

April 20, 1949 - Sigurd and Russell Varian incorporated Varian Associates in California; 1953 - became first building of Silicon Valley, in Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, CA (blend of academic, commercial interests, became model for for modern electronics, computer industries).

1951 - Frederick Terman, dean of School of Engineering at Stanford University, allocated 700 acres of unused land on Stanford campus to create Stanford Industrial Park in response to demand for industrial land near university resources (emerging electronics industry tied closely to School), generate income for the university; first university-owned industrial park, nation's first high-tech research park; Varian Associates first lessee (moved into first building in park in 1953); 1974 - renamed Stanford Research Park; 2008 - 162 buildings, 23,000 employees, 140 different companies in electronics, software, biotechnology, other high-tech fields.

Frederick Terman - Stanford Industrial Park  (

July 5, 1951 - Dr. William Shockley, of  Bell Telephone Laboratories, announced invention of junction transistor; three-terminal device used in amplifying or switching applications;  overcame problems of earlier point-contact transistor; transistors much more efficient, used very little power, much quieter (could handle weaker signals than the type-A transistors ever could); September 25, 1951 - received a patent on a" Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Material" (junction transistor); hailed as "invention of the transistor"; September 1955 - Shockley, Arnold Beckman agreed to found Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory as Division of Beckman Instruments; 1956 - opened at 391 San Antonio Road, Mountain View, CA; developed Northern California's first prototype silicon devices; September 1957 - eight scientists resigned, founded Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in Palo Alto, CA.

May 7, 1952 - Geoffrey W.A. Dummer, in Washington DC, first published concept of integrated circuit chip.

September 20, 1954 - First FORTRAN computer program, developed by IBM, ran (dominating language for technical and scientific applications, allowed users to express their problems in commonly understood mathematical formulae). 1958 - language expanded to Fortran II (included subroutines, functions, common blocks); 1962 - IBM introduced extended Fortran IV.

1956 - IBM introduced first commercial hard disk drive, IBM 350 RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control); 24-inch disk drives, 5 megabytes of storage, unit weighed over  ton (delivered by forklift).

1957 - John W. Backus led team of IBM programmers, developed FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation); one of oldest programming languages designed to allow easy translation of math formulas into code (vs. machine/assembly code); first high-level language, used first compiler ever developed.

October 1, 1957 - Fairchild Semiconductor formed in Mountain View, CA to develop, produce silicon diffused transistors, other semiconductor devices; based on work done by Gordon E. Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert N. Noyce, Victor H. Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean A. Hoerni, Jay T. Last, eight scientists who left Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories in Santa Clara Valley (founded 1955) due to management style and disenchantment with pure research of founder William Shockley, co-inventor of transistor (1948); used $3500 of their own money to develop method of mass-producing silicon transistors usin)g a double diffusion technique and a chemical-etching system; Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation invested $1.5 million in return for option to buy company within eight years; profitable in six months.

  Fairchild Semiconductor founders: clockwise from center: Robert Noyce, Jean Hoerni, Julius Blank, Victor Grinich, Eugene Kleiner, Gordon Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts and Jay Last (

September 12, 1958 - Jack S. Kilby (inventor of integrated circuit, Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000) performed successful laboratory demonstration of first simple microchip (he designed) at Texas Instruments.

Jack S. Kilby - inventor of integrated circuit (

April 7, 1959 - Sherman M. Fairchild, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Engraving Machine" ("automatic engraving machines of the type used for the production of relief printing plates or the like automatically from photographic or other originals, and more particularly to a means and method for improving the quality of the reprodcutions obtained from such automatically produded engraved plates"); assigned to Fairchild Instrument and Camera Corporation.

May 27, 1959 - Dr. Bernard Rothlein, seven former engineers of Sperry Rand Corporation founded National Semiconductor in Danbury, CT; 1961 - first profit of $38,222 on $2.97 million in sales.; 289 employees shipped 85% of all transistors to military accounts; 1967 - moved to Santa Clara, CA; 1975 - one of first major electronics companies to enter toy, game market; 1981 - sales totaled $1.1 billion, net earnings of $52.4 million; 1987 - acquired Fairchild Semiconductor; 1993 - sales total $2 billion, earnings of $130.3 million; 1997 - acquired Cyrix, manufacturer of microprocessors, for about $540 million; sold Fairchild; 1999 - sold most of Cyrix's assets for less than $200 million;  2004 - sales of $1.98 billion, income just shy of $283 million.

May 16, 1960 - Theodore Maiman, Hughes Lab researcher, built first working ruby laser; first reported in article entitled "Optical Laser Action in Ruby," Nature, 187, p. 493); 2010 - one of most ubiquitous on planet. Theodore Maiman - Ruby Laser (

April 25, 1961 - Robert Noyce, of Los Altos, CA, received a patent for a "Semiconductor Device-and-Lead Structure" ("electrical circuit structures incorporating semiconductor devices"); integrated circuit; complete electronic circuit inside small silicon chip; assigned to Fairchild Semiconductor Corp.

May 1, 1964 - John George Kemeny, Thomas Eugene Kurtz (Dartmouth College) developed Dartmouth BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; based partly on FORTRAN II, partly on ALGOL 60, with additions to make it suitable for timesharing) to allow students to write programs for Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (intended to address complex issues of older languages with new language design specifically for new class of users of time-sharing systems (less technical users who did not have mathematical background of more traditional users, was not interested in acquiring it); made compiler available free of charge, made it available to high schools in Hanover, NH area, promoted language (became widespread on microcomputers in late 1970s, 1980s); 1975 - Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) Altair 8800 "kit" microcomputer introduced (Albuquerque, NM); made BASIC universal language; released Altair BASIC, developed by Bill Gates, Paul Allen (of Micro-Soft; Gates, Allen, Monte Davidoff wrote first Altair version); 1976 - Dr. Li-Chen Wang introduced Tiny BASIC, simple BASIC implementation, ported onto Altair.

June 23, 1964 - Jack S. Kilby, of Dallas, TX, received a patent for "Miniaturized Electronic Circuits" ("unique integrated electronic circuits fabricated from semiconductor material...components of an entire electronic circuit are integrated into the body of semiconductor material and constitute portions thereof"); assigned to Texas Instruments Inc.

November 10, 1967 - Michael A. McNeilly (28), formerly of Union Carbide's Silicones Division, incorporated Applied Materials Technology, Inc. with $7,500 loan from his father-in-law, idea to  manufacture equipment, silane, high purity chemicals (key to lower temperature deposition of many films); 1 employee; first product was automated SiH 4 gas panel; demonstrated ability to deposit low temperature oxide films safely; 1972 - name changed to Applied Materials, Inc.

July 18, 1968 - Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, Andy Grove incorporated The Intel Corporation (INTegrated ELectronics or 'Intel' for short) to design, manufacture microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits; 1971 - released first commerciallly available microprocessor (4004) designed for  calculator; June 15, 1971 - registered "Intel" trademark first used March 11, 1969 (intergrated circuits, registers, and semiconductor memories); 1972 - 8008 microprocessor; 1974 - introduced 8080, made first personal computers possible.

May 1, 1969 - Jerry Sanders founded Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) as manufacturer of integrated circuits; later became second-largest supplier of x86 compatible processors.

July 1, 1970 - Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)  opened (founded by Dr. George E. Pake); 1971 - world's first laser computer printer demonstrated artificially generated laser raster output scanner (ROS) xerography (basis of Xerox's xerographic printing business,  $1 billion in sales in 1986); 1975 - engineers demonstrated graphical user interface for personal computer, included icons, first use of pop-up menus; 1989 - world leader in development of embedded data schemes; 1993 - PARC's Chief Technologist and his band first musical group to perform live on Internet (beat Rolling Stones by 20 minutes); January 4, 2002 - became independent,  renamed Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated (research, innovation to industry leaders in many fields).

January 11, 1971 - Don Hoefler first used term "Silicon Valley" in series of articles (ran for 3 weeks) titled "Silicon Valley" USA" for Electronic News to describe Santa Clara County (called "The Valley of hearts Delight" in its orchard days); suggested by Ralph Vaerst, one of initial employees of Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), founder of Ion Equipment Corp. in 1970, Chairman of the Board of Borg Instrument ($200 million company in Germany that produces electronic systems, telematics for European auto industry).

1972 - Dietmar Hopp, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, Klaus Tschira, Claus Wellenreuther (former IBM employees) launched Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing (SAP GmbH) in Mannheim, Germany to develop standard application software for real-time business processing; 1973 - completed first financial accounting software; formed basis for continuous development of other software components (came to be known as "R/1 system" - real-time data processing); 1979 - SAP R/2 created; 1980 - 50 of 100 largest German industrial firms already SAP customers; 1985 - revenues of DM 100 million (around $52 million); August 1988 - renamed SAP AG; November 4, 1988 - went public; subsidiaries in Denmark, Sweden, Italy, United States; 1990s - SAP R/3 introduced - client-server concept, uniform appearance of graphical interfaces, consistent use of relational databases, ability to run on computers from different vendors; new generation of enterprise software – from mainframe computing to three-tier architecture of database, application, interface; client-server architecture became standard in business software; 1996 - 1,089 new SAP R/3 customers; installed in more than 9,000 systems worldwide by end of year; 1997 - approximately 12,900 employees; August 3, 1998 -started trading on New York Stock Exchange; new direction for company, product portfolio - state-of-the-art Web technology to link e-commerce solutions to existing ERP applications; 2000s - developed SAP Workplace, paved way for enterprise portal, role-specific access to information; more than 12 million users, 121,000 installations worldwide, more than 1,500 SAP partners, over 25 industry-specific business solutions, more than 75,000 customers in 120 countries; world's third-largest independent software vendor; 2008 - more than 51,800 employees in more than 50 countries, serves more than 76,000 customers in more than 120 countries.

July 8, 1972 - Abhay Brushan (systems architect, Multics expert), chair of Research staff at MIT Project MAC (founded in 1963 as Multiple Access Computer and Machine-Aided Cognition), released original File Transfer Protocol (FTP); allowed efficient, reliable transfer of files between networked computers, convenient use of remote file storage capabilities. 

1973 - Intel's chairman Gordon Moore publicly revealed prophecy that number of transistors on a microchip will double every year and a half (later known as Moore's Law); held true for more than twenty years.

June 28, 1974 - Marcian Edward Hoff, Jr., of Santa Clara, CA, Stanley Mazor, of Sunnyvale, CA, and Federico Faggin of Cupertino, CA, received a patent for a "Memory System for a Multi-Chip Digital Computer".

April 4, 1975 - Bill Gates, Paul Allen formed partnership in Albuquerque, NM (Allen, programmer for Honeywell in Boston, had bought current edition of Popular Electronics from Out of Town News in Cambridge, MA in January 1975, featured article about Altair 8800, early personal computer; felt personal computers would be big, persuaded Bill Gates to drop out of Harvard to start Microsoft; pair completed Altair BASIC on February 1, 1975, sold it to Microsoft’s first customer, MITS of Albuquerque, NM - founded as Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems [MITS] in 1969 by Forrest Mims, Ed Roberts with with Stan Cagle, Robert Zaller in Roberts's garage in Albuquerque, NM to sell radio transmitters, instruments for model rockets); July 1, 1975 - officially shipped BASIC as version 2.0 (4K and 8K editions; first computer language program for personal computer, MITS Altair 8800 microcomputer designed in 1975, based on Intel 8080 CPU, sold as mail-order kit through advertisements in hobbyist magazines); July 22, 1975 - signed licensing agreement with MITS for  Basic Interpreter; July 29, 1975 - Gates referred to partnership with Allen as "Micro-soft", in a letter (earliest known written reference); December 31, 1975 -year-end sales of $16,005 (from Form 1065 U.S. Partnership Return of Income); November 29, 1975- Microsoft, without hyphen, first used in letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen; 1979 - moved to Bellevue, WA; 1980 - released first operating system, Xenix.

1979 - Alan Shugart , Finis Conner founded Seagate Technology as disk drive manufacturer; 1980 - built industry's first 5.25–inch hard drive (same size as floppy disks, more capacity); May 1993 - shipped 50 millionth disc drive; February 1996 - merged with Conner Peripherals, formed world's largest independent storage device manufacturer; March 1998 - produced one billionth magnetic recording heads; April 1999 - shipped 250 millionth disc drive; January 2003 - shipped record 18.3 million disc drives in quarter ended December 2002; March 2005 - shipped 10 millionth 15K RPM disc drive; July 2005 - shipped quarterly record 27.3 million hard disc drives; May 2006 - acquired Maxtor Corporation.

January 2, 1979 - Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston founded Software Arts in rented apartment in Arlington, MA; May 1979 - first advertisement for VisiCalc, first electronic spreadsheet, appeared in BYTE magazine; October 1979 - shipped first "real" release, version 1.37.

December 12, 1980 - Computer Software Act of 1980 defined computer programs, clarified extent of protection afforded computer software.

1981 - Wilfred J. Corrigan founded LSI Logic with $6 million in venture capital, no customers, business model to design custom circuits that would distinguish customer's end product; pioneered ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) industry.

May 26,1981 - Satya Pal Asija, of St. Paul, MN, received a patent for an "Automated Information Input, Storage, and Retrieval System" ("system of full text, free-form, narrative, information input, storage and retrieval"); computer program, Swift-Answer (acronym for "Special Word Indexed Full Text Alpha Numeric Storage With Easy Retrieval"), allowed users with no computer programming skills to retrieve narrative information from computers in human-like manner; responded to user's questions with most likely answer - despite the user's errors in syntax, punctuation, spelling, and grammar; first U.S. computer software patent (seven years after patent filing on December 30, 1974).

Satya Pal Asija - first software patent  (

July 1981 - Microsoft acquired complete rights to Seattle Computer Products's 86-DOS disk operating system (QDOS); named it MS-DOS.

1982 - Jim Clark (38), electrical engineering associate professor at Stanford University, six students founded Silicon Graphics to produce three-dimensional computer graphics programs (high-performance visual computing systems); venture funding from Mayfield Group; 1987 - sold workstations to US military, NASA, British Aerospace, automobile manufacturers, Hollywood film makers; February 28, 1994 - Clark left company to sue applications software opportunities (founded Netscape); 1999 - changed corporate identity to "SGI" in attempt to clarify current market position as more than graphics company; May 8, 2006 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for itself and U.S. subsidiaries as part of plan to reduce debt by $250 million; October 17, 2006 - emerged from bankruptcy.

February 1982 - Former Stanford University students Scott McNealy (27), Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, Bill Joy founded Sun Microsystems in Palo Alto, CA (Sun is acronym for Stanford University Network) to make engineering computer workstations; 1983 - signed $40 million OEM agreement with Computervision; 1988 - $1 billion in revenue (fastest rise ever for computer company with direct sales force); 1992 - shipped more multiprocessing UNIX servers in single year than any other vendor shipped in history; 1993 - one million systems shipped just over 10 years; made its debut on Fortune 500; 1995 - introduced Java technology, first universal software platform, designed from ground up for Internet and corporate intranets; enabled developers to write applications once to run on any computer; 1996 - licensed Java technology to all major hardware and software companies; 1997 - first systems company ever to demonstrate best TPC-C performance on all four leading database platforms; 2001 - $18.25 billion global leader in network computing solutions; 2005 - largest business contributor to global open source community with donation of 1,600 patents. 

July 6, 1982 - Microsoft Partnership registered "Microsoft" trademark first used November 12, 1975 (computer programs).

December 1982 - John Warnock, Charles Geschke founded Adobe Systems (named for Adobe Creek, ran behind house of one of founders); left Xerox PARC in order to further develop, commercialize PostScript page description language; 1985 - Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in LaserWriter printer product line; 1989 - introduced Adobe Photoshop for Macintosh; extremely stable, well-featured, well marketed; soon dominated market; 1994 - acquired Aldus, PageMaker and TIFF file format; 1995 - acquired long-document DTP application FrameMaker from Frame Technologies; December 3, 2005 - acquired Macromedia, former competitor; for about $3.4 billion.

Charles Geschke taught mathematics at JCU and later founded Silicon Valley software firm Adobe Systems Charles Geschke - co-founder Adobe Systems  (

John E. Warnock - Co-founder Adobe Systems   (

1983 - Rob Campbell, Taylor Pohlman founded Forethought, Inc to develop object oriented bit-mapped application software; 1984 - hired Bob Gaskins, former Ph.D. student at University of California, Berkeley, in exchange for large percentage of company's stock; led development, with software developer Dennis Austin, of program called Presenter; later renamed PowerPoint; April 1987 - PowerPoint 1.0 released for Apple Macintosh; black and white overhead transparencies; sold more than $1 million of software in first day of availability; acquired by Microsoft Corporation for $14 million; became Microsoft's graphics business unit; May 1990 - released fro Windows.

1983 - Scott D. Cook, former banking and technology consultant for Bain & Company, founded Intuit Corporation with Quicken personal finance software, simplified balancing of family checkbook; May 6, 1986 - registered "Quicken" trademark first used April 10, 1984 (computer software programs and user documentation supplied therewith).

January 26, 1983 - Lotus Development Corp. released Lotus 1-2-3 software spreadsheet.

October 25, 1983 - Richard Brodie, Microsoft's 77th employee in 1981, authored, released Microsoft Word 1.0 document file format for IBM PC computers running MS-DOS; first word processor for IBM PC that showed typeface markups such as bold, italics directly on screen while editing (vs. simple text-only display with markup codes or alternative colors on screen such as WordStar and WordPerfect).; 1989 - Word for Windows released ($500).

November 10, 1983 - Microsoft released Microsoft Windows,  extension of MS-DOS, with graphical user interface (GUI).

1985 - Mitel cofounder Michael Cowpland founded Corel Corp. in Ottawa, Canada; CorelDraw graphics program became industry standard in desktop publishing.

June 17, 1988 - Microsoft released MS DOS 4.0.

April 10, 1989 - Intel Corp announced shipment of 80-486 chip.

June 11, 1991 - Microsoft released MS DOS 5.0.

October 5, 1991 - First official version of Linux kernel, version 0.02, released.

1992 - Jeff Hawkins, formerly of GRID Computers, founded Palm Computing Inc. as software maker for handhelds; October 1993 - introduced the "Zoomer" (too big, too slow, too expensive, too many features); September 1995 - acquired by U. S. Robotics for $45 million; February 1996 - showed Palm Pilot at DEMO conference; May 1996 - introduced Palm Pilot 1000™ and Pilot 5000™ organizers; June 1996 - acquired by 3Com; October 21, 1997 - Palm Computing Inc. registered "PalmPilot" trademark (handheld computing systems); July 1998 - Hawkins, Dubinsky left company.

April 6, 1992 - Microsoft announced Windows 3.1, upgrading Windows 3.0.

March 22, 1993 - Intel introduced Pentium-processor (80586) 64 bits-60 MHz-100+ MIPS.

April 1993 - Team at University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications released Mosaic, first web browser to integrate images, sound, words (access previously limited to  text, graphics displayed in separate windows)

1994 - Marc Ewing founded Red Hat (named after his grandfather's favorite old red Cornell lacrosse team cap); became one of most popular Linux distributions.

July 15,1994 - U.S. government filed complaint against Microsoft Corporation; charged world's largest software developer with violating Sections 1 and 2 of Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

October 1994 - First version of Netscape navigator released; November 1998 - acquired by AOL for $4.2 billion; February 1, 2008 - support from Time Warner's AOL unit terminated (no more security releases, updates); lost in competition to open-source Firefox, Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

August 24, 1995 - Windows 95 operating system debuted.

June 10, 1996 - Intel released 200 mhz pentium chip.

August 13, 1996 - Microsoft released Internet Explorer 3.0.

April 8, 1997 - Microsoft Corp released Internet Explorer 4.0.

August 6, 1997 - Apple Computer, Microsoft agreed to share technology; $150 million deal gave Microsoft minority stake in Apple.

February 12, 1998 - Intel unveiled first graphics chip i740.

March 26, 1998 - Andy Grove announced he was stepping down as CEO of Intel Corp. (Time Magazine's "Man of the Year" in 1997); made crucial call not to share Intel's "intellectual rights" with "other suppliers"; succeeded by Intel President and Chief Operating Officer, Craig Barrett.

May 18, 1998 - The United States Department of Justice, 20 states filed antitrust suit against Microsoft.

November 5, 1999 - U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson declared Microsoft Corp. a monopoly, claimed  company's aggressive tactics were ''stifling innovation'', hurting consumers.

January 13, 2000 - Microsoft chairman Bill Gates stepped aside as chief executive; promoted company president Steve Ballmer to the position.

April 3, 2000 - Federal judge in Washington ruled that Microsoft Corp. had violated U.S. antitrust laws by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on competitors during race to link Americans to Internet.

June 7, 2000 - U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson ordered breakup of Microsoft Corp.

October 25, 2001 - Microsoft released Windows XP.

October 31, 2001 - Microsoft, Justice Department reached a tentative agreement to settle the historic antitrust case.

April 24, 2006 - Scott G. McNealy, one of founders of Sun Microsystems, stepped aside after 22 years as CEO.

June 15, 2006 - Microsoft Corp. Chairman Bill Gates said he would make transition from day-to-day responsibilities at  company to concentrate on charitable work of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

October 17, 2006 - IBM released third quarter earnings; software generated $4.4 billion in sales, gross margin of 85%; 37% of IBM's net profit; results indicated IBM was second largest software company (2005 - software sales of $15.8 billion) ahead of Oracle (2006 sales of $14.4 billion), behind Microsoft; since 2001 - spent $10 billion on acquisitions, acquired 39 software companies.

February 1, 2008 - Microsoft made unsolicited $44.7 billion bid for Yahoo in attempt to better compete with Google.


February 27, 2008 - European Union's Competition Commission in Brussels fined Microsoft a record $1.4 billion for failure to comply with demands to end anti-competitive business practices (2004 ruling found Microsoft guilty of abusing its dominant position in market for PC operating systems, required Microsoft to disclose "complete and accurate" technical information that would allow competitors to develop products which would work with Windows); first time EU fined a company for failure to comply with antitrust decision.

April 9, 2008 -

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(Adobe Systems), Pamela Pfiffner (2003). Inside the Publishing Revolution: The Adobe Story. (Berkeley, CA: Adobe Press, 255 p.). Adobe Systems; Desktop publishing.

(Advanced Micro Devices), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1998). The Spirit of AMD: Advanced Micro Devices. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). Advanced Micro Devices (Firm); Semiconductor industry--United States; Microelectronics industry--United States.

(Applied Materials), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2000). Applied Materials: Pioneering the Information Age. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 163 p.). Applied Materials, Inc. 

(ASM Pacific Technology Ltd.), Patrick Lam, Edmund Lam (2006). Soaring like Eagles: ASM's High-Tech Journey in Asia. (Singapore: Wiley (Asia), 244 p.). ASM Pacific Technology Ltd.; Success in business--Asia; Business planning--Asia; Corporations--Asia--Growth. History of ASM's growth, success from differentiated strategies, leadership and culture, innovative practices, technologies, products; management lessons.

(Banner Blue Software), Kenneth L. Hess (2001). Bootstrap: Lessons Learned Building a Successful Company from Scratch. (Carmel, CA: S-Curve Press, 301 p.). Banner Blue Software (Firm)--History; New business enterprises--United States--Management; Entrepreneurship--United States; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Cap Gemini Sogeti), Tristan Gaston-Breton; préface, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1999). La Saga Cap Gemini: L'incroyable Histoire de L'une des Plus Belles Success Stories Françaises de L'informatique. (Paris, FR: Point de Mire, 165 p.). Cap Gemini Sogeti (Firm); Computer service industry--France.

(Chandler Project), Scott Rosenberg (2007). Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 416 p.). Co-Founder of Salon. Computer software--Development. Software equivalent of "Soul of a New Machine". Three years following group developing novel personal information manager to challenge market-leader Microsoft Outlook.

(Cisco Systems), Inder Sidhu (2010). Doing Both: How Cisco Captures Today’s Profit and Drives Tomorrow’s Growth. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 224 p.). Senior Vice President of Strategy and Planning for Worldwide Operations. Cisco Systems, Inc.; Computer industry --United States --Management. Why "doing both" is best strategy; 2003-2009 - Cisco doubled revenue, tripled profits, quadrupled earnings per share; key strategic decisions - avoid false choices, reduced expectations, weak compromises (innovation, new business and core businesses; discipline and flexibility; customers and partners).

(Comcate Inc.), Ben Casnocha; foreword by Marc Benioff (2007). My Start-Up Life: What a (Very) Young CEO Learned on His Journey through Silicon Valley. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 208 p.). Founder, Comcate. Comcate (Firm); Internet software industry--United States; Computer software industry--United States; New business enterprises--United States--Management; Entrepreneurship--United States. Story of his start-up (better way for city governments to communicate with constituents on Web), conversation with mentors, clients, fellow entrepreneurs about how to make a business idea work.

(Fairchild Semiconductor), Charles E. Sporck (2001). Spinoff: A Personal History of the Industry That Changed The World. (Saranac Lake, NY: Saranac Lake Publishing,   p.). Former Vice President and General Manager (Fairchild); Former President, CEO (National Semiconductor). High Technology -- history; Silicon Valley -- history; Fairchild Semiconductor. Story of eight men who employ of William Shockley in 1957, founded Fairchild Semiconductor; personalities, history of Silicon Valley semiconductor industry.

(Foveon), George Gilder (2005). The Silicon Eye: How a Silicon Valley Company Aims to Make All Current Computers, Cameras, and Cell Phones Obsolete. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Publisher (Gilder Technology Report). Mead, Carver; Faggin, Federico, 1941- ; Foveon (Firm); High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Digital electronics; Photography--Digital techniques; Electronic digital computers; Artificial intelligence; Computer vision; Visual perception; Cellular telephones. Two-billion-dollar market for cameras in digital technology revolution.

(Informix Software), Steve W. Martin (2005). The Real Story of Informix Software and Phil White: Lessons in Business and Leadership for the Executive Team. (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA: Sand Hill Publisning, 208 p.). White, Phillip E.; Informix Corporation; Informix software; Computer software industry -- United States -- History; Entrepreneurship -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); High technology industries -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County) -- History.

(Intel), Andrew S. Grove (1983). High Output Management. (New York, NY: Random House, 235 p.). Industrial management. Robert Noyce - Intel (

Gordon Moore






Gordon Moore - Intel ( Images_Assets/Gordon_Moore/GordonMoore_1_2005.jpg)

Andy Grove - Intel (

--- (1996). Only the Paranoid Survive: How To Exploit the Crisis Points That Challenge Every Company and Career. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 210 p.). CEO (Intel). Organizational change; Strategic planning; Technological innovations--Economic aspects.

(Intel), Tim Jackson (1997). Inside Intel: Andy Grove and the Rise of the World's Most Powerful Chip Company. (New York, NY: Dutton, 424 p.). Grove, Andrew S.; Intel Corporation; Semiconductor industry--United States; High technology industries--United States--Management; Technological innovations--Economic aspects--United States; Corporations--United States; Chief executive officers--United States. Intel plays hardball; Grove not Mr. Nice Guy.

(Intel), Albert Yu (1998). Creating the Digital Future: The Secrets of Consistent Innovation at Intel. (New York, NY: Free Press, 214 p.). Senior Vice President (Intel). Intel Corporation; Semiconductor industry--United States; Intel microprocessors--United States; High technology industries--United States--Management; Corporations--United States; Success in business--United States.

(Intel), Andrew S. Grove (2001). Swimming Across: A Memoir. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 290 p.). CEO, Intel. Grove, Andrew S.; Intel Corporation; Electronics engineers--United States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography; Holocaust survivors--Hungary--Biography; Semiconductors.

(Intel), Leslie Berlin (2005). The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 480 p.). Visiting Scholar at the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology Program of Stanford University. Noyce, Robert N., 1927- ; Electronics engineers--United States--Biography; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--History. One of most important inventors, entrepreneurs: 1) biography of Robert Noyce; 2) entrepreneurialism told as business history; 3) history of technology (integrated circuit, microelectronics and semiconductor industry, their contextual location: Silicon Valley).

(Intel), Robert P. Colwell (2006). The Pentium Chronicles: The People, Passion, and Politics Behind Intel's Landmark Chips. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 187 p.). Intel Project Manager. Intel Corporation; Intel microprocessors--Design and construction. Lessons learned directing team that designed, produced most successful microprocessor in history.

(Intel), Richard S. Tedlow (2006). Andy Grove: The Life and Times of an American. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 576 p.). Class of 1949 Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Grove, Andrew S.; Intel Corporation; Chief executive officers--United States; United States--Biography. Fled to America at age twenty, studied engineering, became third employee of Intel; became talented manager; taught himself to lead major company through some of toughest challenges in business history.

(Intel), Bob Coleman, Logan Shrine (2007). Losing Faith: How the (Andy) Grove Survivors Led the Decline of Intel's Corporate Culture, 223 p.). 15 Years at Intel. Intel Corporation; Corporate culture. Post-Andy Grove Intel, cultural anomalies, why company has not successfully diversified beyond Grove-led dominance in microprocessors; became sluggish, ineffectual bureaucracy dominated by cronyism; gap between management behaviors and published values.

(Intuit), Suzanne Taylor, Kathy Schroeder (2003). Inside Intuit: How the Makers of Quicken Beat Microsoft and Revolutionized an Entire Industry. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 318 p.). Marketing Consultant (Intuit for eight years); Marketing Executive (Ford). Intuit (Firm) History; Microsoft Corporation; Quicken (Computer file); Computer software industry United States; Competition United States. 

(Kulicke and Soffa Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002). 50 Years of Innovation: Kulicke & Soffa, 1951-2001. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 192 p.). Kulicke and Soffa Industries--History; Semiconductor production equipment industry--United States--History.

(LSI Logic), Rob Walker, Nancy Tersini (1992). Silicon Destiny: The Story of Application Specific Integrated Circuits and LSI Logic Corporation. (Milpitas, CA: C.M.C. Publications. Founder, LSI Logic. Integrated circuits industry; LSI Logic.

(MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation), Richard H. MacNeal (1988). The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation: The First Twenty Years. (Santa Ana, CA: R.H. MacNeal, 202 p.). MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microchip Technology), Steve Sanghi, Michael J. Jones (2006). Driving Excellence: How the Aggregate System Turned Microchip Technology, from a Failing Company to a Market Leader. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 253 p.). President, CEO and Chairman of the Board of Microchip Technology Inc.; Former VP of Human Resources, Microchip Technology Inc. Microchip Technology--Management; Semiconductor industry--United States--Management; Organizational effectiveness; Corporate culture; Industrial management. From dire straits to leader in semiconductor industry.

(Microsoft), Daniel Ichbiah and Susan L. Knepper (1991). The Making of Microsoft: How Bill Gates and His Team Created the World's Most Successful Software Company. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 304 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History.

Bill Gates - Microsoft(

Paul Allen Paul Allen - Microsoft (


Bill Gates, 1978

Microsoft's first 11 employees - 1978 (

(Microsoft), James Wallace, Jim Erickson (1992). Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. (New York, NY: Wiley, 426 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microsoft), Stephen Manes and Paul Andrews (1993). Gates: How Microsoft's Mogul Reinvented an Industry--and Made Himself the Richest Man in America. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 534 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History. 

(Microsoft), G. Paschal Zachary (1994). Show-Stopper!: The Breakneck Race to Create Windows NT and the Next Generation at Microsoft. (New York, NY: Free Press, 312 p.). Microsoft Corporation; Microsoft Windows NT; Operating systems (Computers); Computer software--Development--History.

(Microsoft), Michael A. Cusumano and Richard W. Selby (1995). Microsoft Secrets: How the World's Most Powerful Software Company Creates Technology, Shapes Markets and Manages People. (New York, NY: Free Press, 512 p.). Computer Software Industry, Microsoft Corporation. 

(Microsoft), Fred Moody (1995). I Sing the Body Electronic: A Year with Microsoft on the Multimedia Frontier. (New York, NY: Viking, 311 p.). Reporter (The Seattle Weekly). Microsoft Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History. A

(Microsoft), Bill Gates, with Nathan Myhrvold and Peter Rinearson (1995). The Road Ahead. (New York, NY: Viking, 286 p.). Founder, CEO (Microsoft). Information superhighway--United States; Information technology--United States; Computer networks--United States;Telecommunication--United States; Computer industry--United States. 

(Microsoft), Randall E. Stross (1996). The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 318 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955-; Microsoft Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Competition--United States. 

(Microsoft), James Wallace (1997). Overdrive: Bill Gates and the Race to Control Cyberspace. (New York, NY: Wiley, 307 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microsoft), Jennifer Edstrom and Marlin Eller (1998). Barbarians Led by Bill Gates: Microsoft from the Inside, How the World's Richest Corporation Wields Its Power. (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 256 p.). Estranged Daughter of Microsofts's PR Guru; Former Lead Developer on Original Windows Software. Microsoft Corporation, Computer Software Industry. 

(Microsoft), Wendy Goldman Rohm (1998). The Microsoft File : The Secret Case Against Bill Gates. (New York, NY: Times Business, 313 p.). Computer Software Industry, Bill Gates, Microsoft Corporation. 

(Microsoft), Janet Lowe (1998). Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Entrepreneur. (New York, NY: Wiley, 253 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microsoft), Paul Andrews (1999). How the Web Was Won: Microsoft From Windows to the Web: The Inside Story of How Bill Gates and His Band of Internet Idealists Transformed a Software Empire. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 352 p.). Journalist (columnist, Seattle Times). Microsoft, Internet. 

(Microsoft), Jonathan Gatlin (1999). Bill Gates: The Path to the Future. (New York, NY: Avon Books, 213 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microsoft), Michael Drummond (1999). Renegades of the Empire: How Three Software Warriors Started a Revolution Behind the Walls of Fortress Microsoft. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 297 p.). St. John, Alex, 1967- ; Eisler, Craig; Engstrom, Eric, 1965- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States.

(Microsoft), Gary Rivlin (1999). The Plot to Get Bill Gates: An Irreverent Investigation of the World's Richest Man-- And the People Who Hate Him. (New York, NY: Times Business, 360 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation; Computer software industry--United States; Competition--United States.

(Microsoft), Stan J. Liebowitz, Stephen E. Margolis; foreword by Jack Hirshleifer. (1999). Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology. (Oakland, CA: Independent Institute, 288 p.). Economists. Microsoft Corporation; Computer software industry--United States; Competition--Government policy--United States; Antitrust investigations--United States. 

(Microsoft), Ted G. Lewis. (1999). Microsoft Rising--And Other Tales of Silicon Valley. (Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 324 p.). Microsoft Corporation--History; Internet software industry--United States--History; Computer software industry--United States--History.

(Microsoft), Cheryl D. Tsang (2000). Microsoft First Generation: The Success Secrets of the Visionaries Who Launched a Technology Empire. (New York, NY: Wiley, 253 p.). Microsoft Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History. 

(Microsoft), Richard B. McKenzie (2000). Trust on Trial: How the Microsoft Case Is Reframing the Rules of Competition. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 281 p.). United States--Trials, litigation, etc.; Microsoft Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Antitrust law--United States; Restraint of trade--United States; Computer software industry--Law and legislation--United States.

(Microsoft), Ken Auletta (2001). World War 3.0: Microsoft and Its Enemies. (New York, NY: Random House, 436 p.). United States--Trials, litigation, etc.; Microsoft Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Antitrust law--United States; Computer software industry--Law and legislation--United States; Monopolies--United States.

(Microsoft), David Bank (2001). Breaking Windows: How Bill Gates Fumbled the Future of Microsoft. (New York, NY: Free Press, 287 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Microsoft Corporation; Computer software industry--United States.

(Microsoft), John Heilemann (2001). Pride Before the Fall: The Trials of Bill Gates and the End of the Microsoft Era. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 246 p.). United States--Trials, litigation, etc.; Microsoft Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Antitrust law--United States; Restraint of trade--United States; Computer software industry--Law and legislation--United States.

(Microsoft), Dean Takahashi (2002). Opening the XBox: Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unleash an Entertainment Revolution. (Roseville, CA: Prima, 370 p.). Senior Writer (Red Herring magazine). Microsoft Corporation; Electronic games industry--United States; Video games--Equipment and supplies.

(Microsoft), Fredric Alan Maxwell (2002). Bad Boy Ballmer: The Man Who Now Rules Microsoft. (New York, NY: Morrow, 278 p.). Ballmer, Steven Anthony; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Microsoft Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History. 

(Microsoft), Laura Rich (2002). The Accidental Zillionaire: Demystifying Paul Allen. (New York, NY: Wiley, 250 p.). Former Writer for the Industry Standard, Adweek, and Inside Media. Allen, Paul, 1953- ; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Microsoft), Karin Carter (2003). Microsoft in the Mirror: Nineteen Insiders Reflect on the Experience. (Redmond, WA: Pennington Books, 246 p.). 14-year Veteran. Microsoft Corporation--Employees--Biography; Computer software industry--United States. 

(Microsoft), Soraya Bittencourt with Paulaartinac (2003). My Road to Microsoft: One Woman's Success Story. (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation, 217 p.). Bittencourt, Saroya; Microsoft Corporation; Expedia. 

(Microsoft), Robert Slater (2004). Microsoft Rebooted: How Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer Reinvented Their Company. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 288 p.). Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Ballmer, Steven Anthony; Microsoft Corporation; Computer software industry--United States. 

(Microsoft), Robert Buderi and Gregory T. Huang (2006). Guanxi (The Art of Relationships): Microsoft, China, and Bill Gates's Plan to Win the Road Ahead. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 320 p.). Microsoft Corporation--Management; Computer software industry--United States--Management--Case studies; United States--Commerce--China; China--Commerce--United States. Microsoft Research Asia (MSRA) was center of Microsoft's competitive battle with Google, Nokia, Sony; key to relationship building in China.

(Microsoft), Samantha Shiau-Ping Lee (2006). Unfinished Business: Challenging Microsoft in Taiwan. (Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest / UMI, 230 p.). JSD Candidate (Stanford Law School). Microsoft Corporation--Antitrust. Global antitrust concerns of Microsoft; similarities and differences in cases in U.S., European Union, Taiwan.

(Microsoft), William H. Page and John E. Lopatka (2007). The Microsoft Case: Antitrust, High Technology, and Consumer Welfare. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 317 p.). Marshall M. Criser Eminent Scholar at the University of Florida’s Levin School of Law; A. Robert Noll Distinguished Professor of Law at the Pennsylvania State University’s Dickinson School of Law. United States--Trials, litigation, etc.; Microsoft Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Antitrust law--United States; Restraint of trade--United States. Interaction of technology, economics, antitrust law in digital age;  implications of 1988 antitrust litigation against Microsoft from perspective of consumer welfare; at critical points, legal system failed consumers, overrated government’s ability to influence outcomes in dynamic market.  

(Microsoft), Mary Jo Foley (2008). Microsoft 2.0: How Microsoft Plans To Stay Relevant in the Post-Gates Era. (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Technology Pub., 285 p.). Microsoft Corporation --Management; Microsoft software. July 1, 2008 - Microsoft founder, Chairman Bill Gates will no longer be involved; key people, products, strategies for next-gen Microsoft.

(Microsoft), Paul Allen (2011). Idea Man: A Memoir by the Cofounder of Microsoft. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 368 p.). Cofounded Microsoft with Bill Gates. Allen, Paul, 1953-; Businesspeople --United States --Biography. How he has solved problems, what he learned from many endeavors (triumphs, failures), vision for future; previously untold stories about true origins of Microsoft, role in dawn of private space travel (SpaceShipOne), discoveries at frontiers of brain science.

(National Semiconductor), Gil Amelio, William L. Simon (1996). Profit from Experience: The National Semiconductor Story of Transformation Management. (New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 312 p.). Former CEO (National Semiconductor). Amelio, Gil; National Semiconductor Corporation--Management; Semiconductor industry--United States--History. 

(National Semiconductor), Robert H. Miles; foreword by Gil melio (1997). Corporate Comeback: The Story of Renewal and Transformation at National Semiconductor. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 388 p.). National Semiconductor Corporation--Management; Semiconductor industry--United States--Management; Corporate turnarounds--United States--Case studies.

(Network Appliance), David Hitz (2009). How To Castrate a Bull: Everything is Broken, Your Customers Are Liars, Everyone Wants to Kill You, and Other Fun Problems. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 208 p.). Founder of NetApp. Business planning; Success in business; Risk. How to increase business skills; 1992 - high school dropout, two partners founded NetApp as idea scribbled on placemat; one of fastest-growing computer companies ever ($4 billion in sales/year), went through every major cycle in business; why companies succeed, fail; how powerful lessons come from strange, unexpected places.

(Oracle), Mike Wilson (1997). The Difference Between God and Larry Ellison: Inside Oracle Corporation. (New York, NY: Morrow, 385 p.). Ellison, Larry; Oracle Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

Larry Ellison - Oracle  (

(Oracle), Stuart Read (2000). The Oracle Edge: How Oracle Corporation's Take No Prisoners Strategy Has Created an $8 billion Software Powerhouse. (Holbrook, MA: Adams Media, 242 p.). Elison, Larry; Oracle Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Oracle), Florence Stone (2002). The Oracle of Oracle: The Story of Volatile CEO Ellison and the Strategies Behind His Company's Phenomenal Success. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 224 p.). Ellison, Larry; Oracle Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. 

(Oracle), Mathew Symonds with commentary by Larry Ellison (2003). Softwar: An Intimate Portrait of Larry Ellison and Oracle. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 528 p.). Technology Editor (Economist). Ellison, Larry; Oracle Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography. 

(Oracle), Karen Southwick (2003). Everyone Else Must Fail: The Unvarnished Truth about Oracle and Larry Ellison. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 320 p.). Executive Editor (CNET Ellison, Larry; Oracle Corporation--History; Computer software industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography. 

(Orbital Sciences), Gary Dorsey (1999). Silicon Sky: How One Small Start-Up Went Over the Top To Beat the Big Boys into Satellite Heaven. (Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 332 p.). Orbital Sciences Corporation, Aerospace Industries, Satellites in Telecommunications. 

(Palm), Andrea Butter & David Pogue (2002). Piloting Palm: The Inside Story of Palm, Handspring, and the Birth of the Billion-Dollar Handheld Industry. (New York, NY: Wiley, 353 p.). Former Marketing Director Palm), Contributor (New York Times). PalmPilot (Computer); Handspring Visor (Computer); Pocket computers; Computer industry--United States. 

Jeff Hawkins - Palm  (

(Poulsen), Cyril Frank (1923). The Poulsen Arc Generator. (New York, NY: Van Nostrand Company, 192 p.). Poulsen, Valdemar, 1869-; Telegraph, Wireless; Radio; Electric arc; Electric waves.

(Red Hat), Robert Young and Wendy G. Rohm (1999). Under the Radar: How Red Hat Changed the Software Business-- And Took Microsoft by Surprise. (Scottsdale, AZ: Coriolis Group Books, 197 p.). Red Hat, Inc.; Linux; Microsoft Corporation; Computer software industry--United States. 

(SAIC), J. Robert, Beyster and Peter Economy (2007). The SAIC Solution: How We Built an $8 Billion Employee-Owned Technology Company. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 222 p.). Founder of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC); Associate Editor of Leader to Leader Science Applications International Corporation. High technology industries --Management; High technology industries --United States; Employee ownership --United States; Engineering firms --United States --History. 1969 - company founded with vision of creating employee-owned organization run according to 12 principles of success that encourage entrepreneurship and accountability; from handful of scientists to over 43,000 employees, more than $8 billion in annual revenue, top rankings as contractor to government, business organizations.

(, Marc R. Benioff, Carlye Adler (2009). Behind the Cloud: The Untold Story of how Went from Idea to Billion-Dollar Company--and Revolutionized an Industry. (San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass, 304 p.). Founder, Chairman, CEO of (Firm); Customer relations --Management; Sales management. From start-up in rented apartment into world's fastest growing software company in less than  decade; pioneer of software-as-a-service business model; ads declared that software is dead; how he, team created and used new business, technology, philanthropic models; how survived dot-com implosion of 2001, defined itself as leader of cloud computing revolution, sparked $46 billion industry.

(SAP AG), Neil Pollock and Robin Williams (2008). Software and Organizations: The Biography of the Enterprise-Wide System or How SAP Conquered the World. (New York, NY: Routledge, 348 p.). University of Edinburgh; University of Edinburgh - Research Centre for Social Sciences. Computer software industry; Management information systems. Sociological study of development, use, evolution of standardized computer systems, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software packages; how SAP conquered world with its ERP system.

(Sematech), Larry D. Browning and Judy C. Shetler (2000). Sematech: Saving the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. (College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 279 p.). SEMATECH (Organization)--History; Semiconductor industry--Government policy--States. 

(SnapTrack Inc.), Steve Poizner (2010). Mount Pleasant: My Journey from Creating a Billion-Dollar Company to Teaching at a Struggling Public High School. (New York, NY, Portfolio, 256 p.). Founder of Strategic Mapping Inc., SnapTrack Inc. Poizner, Steve, 1957-; Mount Pleasant High School (San Jose, Calif.); Businessmen --California --Biography; Politicians --California --Biography; Volunteer workers in education --California --San Jose --Biography; Educational change --California; San Jose (Calif.) --Social conditions; California --Social policy; California --Politics and government --1951-.Spent year teaching twelfth graders at San Jose's Mt. Pleasant High School; won Rookie Teacher of the Year honors;  ensured all his students graduated. 

(Sun Microsystems), Mark Hall and John Barry; foreword by Tom Peters (1990). Sunburst: The Ascent of Sun Microsystems. (Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books,, 297 p.). Sun Microsystems; Computer industry--United States.

Scott McNealy - Sun Microsystems  (

(Sun Microsystems), Karen Southwick (1999). High Noon: The Inside Story of Scott McNealy and the Rise of Sun Microsystems. (New York, NY: Wiley, 242 p.). Executive Editor, CNET McNealy, Scott; Sun Microsystems; Computer scientists--Biography.

(Varian Associates), Dorothy Varian (1983). The Inventor and the Pilot: Russell and Sigurd Varian. (Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 314 p.). Varian, Russell Harrison, 1898-1959; Varian, Sigurd Fergus, 1901-1961; Electronic industries--United States--Biography.

(Varian Associates), Ward Winslow (1998). Varian 50 Years: Fifty Years of Innovative Excellence: A History of Varian Associates, Inc., from 1948 to 1998. (Santa Clara, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, 96 p.). Varian, Russell Harrison, 1898-1959; Varian Associates--history; Silicon Valley -- History.

(WordPerfect Corp.), W.E. Pete Peterson (1994). Almost Perfect: How a Bunch of Regular Guys Built WordPerfect Corporation. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 236 p.). WordPerfect Corporation--History; Word processing equipment industry--Utah--History.

David P. Angel (1994). Restructuring for Innovation: The Remaking of the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 216 p.). Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Geography (Clark University). Semiconductor industry --United States. U. S.  rapidly lost market share to Japan during 1980s; how United States responded successfully to challenge of global competition, completely restructured semiconductor industry.

Ashish Arora, Andrea Fosfuri, Alfonso Gambardella (2002). Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 338 p.). High technology industries--Management; Technology--Marketing; License agreements; Technology transfer--Economic aspects; Technological innovations--Economic aspects; Globalization--Economic aspects; Employees--Effect of technological innovations on.

Eds. Ashish Arora and Alfonso Gambardella (2005). From Underdogs to Tigers: The Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Brazil, China, India, Ireland, and Israel. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 313 p.). Computer software industry; Globalization. Spectacular growth of software industry in countries where high-tech industries would not seem likely to develop.

Ken Auletta (1998). Highwaymen: Warriors of the Information Superhighway. (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace, 1st edition: Random House, 1997; 358 p.). High-Technology, Telecommunications.

Ross Knox Bassett (2002). To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-Up Companies, and the Rise of MOS Technology. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 421 p.). Assistant Professor of History (North Carolina State University). Metal oxide semiconductors--History; Electronics--Social aspects.  

Monica R. Biradavolu (2008). Indian Entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley: The Making of a Transnational Techno-Capitalist Class. (Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 237 p.). Sociologist (Yale). Alien labor, East India -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); East Indian business enterprises -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); East Indians -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County) Businesspeople -- India; High technology industries -- India; High technology industries -- California -- Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County). Emergence, growing power of  new group of immigrant Indians to United States: transnational techno-capitalist class of entrepreneurs operating at upper echelons of hi-tech industry in Silicon Valley, Bangalore.

Po Bronson (1999). The Nudist on the Late Shift and Other True Tales of Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: Random House, 248 p.). Contributor to Wired Magazine. Computer industry--California--Santa Clara County; High technology industries--California--Santa Clara County; Entrepreneurship--California--Santa Clara County; Success in business--California--Santa Clara County; Wealth--California--Santa Clara County. 

Clair Brown and Greg Linden (2009). Chips and Change: How Crisis Reshapes the Semiconductor Industry. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 256 p.). Professor of Economics and Director, Center for Work, Technology, and Society (University of California, Berkeley); Senior Researcher at CWTS, Consultant (specializing in the economics of the global electronics industry). Semiconductor industry over more than 20 years; 8 technical, competitive crises that forced it to adapt in order to continue exponential rate of improved chip performance; changes shifted basis on which firms held,  gained global competitive advantage; how industries transform in response to powerful forces (technological change, shifting product markets, globalization); how chip firms developed, defended, lost global competitive advantage.

Carolyn Caddes; with a foreword by John Bardeen (1986). Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers. (Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Pub. Co., 138 p.). Microelectronics industry -- California -- Santa Clara County -- History; Semiconductor industry -- California -- Santa Clara County -- History; Computer industry -- California -- Santa Clara County -- History; Executives -- California -- Santa Clara County -- Biography; Success in business -- California -- Santa Clara County -- Case studies.

Martin Campbell-Kelly (2003). From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.). Instructor of Computer Science (U of Warwick). Computer software industry--History.

Merrill R. Chapman (2003). In Search of Stupidity: Over 20 Years of High-Tech Marketing Disasters. (Berkeley, CA: Apress, 252 p.). Computer software industry--Management--Case studies; Computer industry--Management--Case studies; Business failures--Case studies.

Robert X. Cringely (1996). Accidental Empires: How the Boys of Silicon Valley Make Their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition and Still Can't Get a Date. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, Revised and expanded; 370 p.). Computer Industry.

Michael A. Cusumano (1991). Japan's Software Factories: A Challenge to U.S. Management. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 513 p.). Computer software industry--Japan.

Gordon B. Dodds, Craig E. Wollner (1990). The Silicon Forest: High Tech in the Portland Area 1945 to 1986. (Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society, 226 p.). High technology industries--Oregon--Portland Region--History.

Nick Dyer-Witheford (1999). Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 344 p.). High technology industries; Technological innovations--Economic aspects; Capitalism; Information technology--Economic aspects; Socialism; Business cycles. Contents: Differences -- Revolutions -- Marxisms -- Cycles -- Circuits -- Planets -- Postmodernists -- Alternatives -- Intellects.

Alan R. Earls (2002). Route 128 and the Birth of the Age of High Tech. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). High technology industries--Massachusetts--Boston Metropolitan Area; Computer industry--Massachusetts--Boston Metropolitan Area. Intertwining stories of construction of nation's first circumferential beltway,  burgeoning high-tech industries of Massachusetts (spawned modern age of personal computers, Internet, biotechnology).

June A. English-Lueck (2002). Cultures@Silicon Valley. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 201 p.). Ethnology--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Pluralism (Social sciences)--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Technological innovations--Social aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Computers--Social aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Civilization--20th century; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Ethnic relations; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social conditions--20th century; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social life and customs--20th century.

David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu, and Richard Schmalensee (2006). Invisible Engines: How Software Platforms Drive Innovation and Transform Industries. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 400 p.). Managing Director of the Global Competition Policy Practice at LECG LLC; Assistant Professor of Strategy (Harvard Business School); John C. Head III Dean and Professor of Management and Economics at Sloan School of Management (MIT). Application program interfaces (Computer software); Industries--Data processing. Technological meeting ground where application developers and end users converge, profits result.

Rebecca A. Fannin (2008). Silicon Dragon: How China Is Winning the Tech Race. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 183 p.). International Editor of the Hong Kong weekly Asian Venture Capital Journal. Internet industry--China; High technology industries--China; Information technology--China. World's largest number of mobile phone users (500 million); three times as many engineering students as United States?; dozen more billion-dollar tech firms than United States?; fastest growing venture capital market in  world?; new breed of entrepreneur is leading China through second Industrial Revolution.

Charles H. Ferguson (1999). High Stakes, No Prisoners: How I Won My David-and-Goliath Battle in Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: Times Business, 400 p.). High Technology Industries, Computer Industry, Entrepreneurship. What it takes to achieve success in Silicon Valley - from "cool idea" to market-dominating product.

Christine Finn (2001). Artifacts: An Archaeologist's Year in Silicon Valley. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.). Archaeology Research Associate (Oxford University). Finn, Christine--Journeys--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Material culture--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Technological innovations--Social aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Computers--Social aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Technology and civilization; Archaeologists--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--Biography; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Civilization--20th century; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Description and travel; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social life and customs--20th century. Impact of technology's boom, bust cycle on society and culture.

Kevin P. Gallagher and Lyuba Zarsky (2007). The Enclave Economy: Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development in Mexico’s Silicon Valley. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 214 p.). Assistant Professor of International Relations (Boston University), Senior Researcher at the Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University); Associate Professor of International Environmental Policy (Monterey Institute for International Studies), Senior Research Fellow at the Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). High technology industries--Mexico--Guadalajara; Information technology--Mexico--Guadalajara; Investments, Foreign--Mexico--Guadalajara; Sustainable development--Mexico--Guadalajara; Guadalajara (Mexico)--Economic conditions. Foreign investment for sustainable development; Mexico's post-NAFTA experience of foreign direct investment in its information technology sector, particularly in Guadalajara region, did not result in expected benefits. 

George Gilder (1989). Microcosm: The Quantum Revolution in Economics and Technology. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 426 p.). Microelectronics industry; Microelectronics--Social aspects.

C. Stewart Gillmor (2004). Fred Terman at Stanford: Building a Discipline, a University, and Silicon Valley. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 642 p.). Professor of History and Science (Wesleyan University). Terman, Frederick Emmons, 1900-1982; Stanford University. Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Radio engineers --California --Stanford --Biography. Electrical engineering professor, engineering manager, university administrator; widely hailed as magnet that drew talent together into what became known as Silicon Valley.

Neil Gregory, Stanley Nollen, Stoyan Tenev (2009). New Industries from New Places: The Emergence of the Software and Hardware Industries in China and India. (Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 255 p.). Adviser to the Vice President for Financial and Private Sector Development, World Bank Group; Professor of International Business at McDonough School of Business (Georgetown University); Head of the Independent Evaluation Group of the International Finance Corporation. Computer software industry -- China; Computer software industry -- India; Computer industry -- China; Computer industry -- India. India has become software services powerhouse; China produces much of world's IT hardware; first rigorous comparison of growth performance of hardware manufacturing, software services sectors in China and India; economic context, business environment for private enterprise in China and India; how far differences in economic policies, business environment can go in explaining observed distinctions between the two.

Dirk Hanson (1982). The New Alchemists: Silicon Valley and the Microelectronics Revolution. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 364 p.). Microelectronics industry--California--History.

Tom Hayes (2008). Jump Point: How Network Culture is Revolutionizing Business. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 240 p.). Web 2.0; internet--social aspects; consumers; new media; technology -- prospects. How new economy, virulent market trends, will arrive at single jump point by 2011.

Jennifer A. Howard-Grenville (2007). Corporate Culture and Environmental Practice: Managing Change at a High-Technology Manufacturer. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 165 p.). Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior (Boston University School of Management). Industrial management--Environmental aspects; Corporate culture. Environmental decisions, actions of one of world's largest manufacturers of microprocessor 'chips' used in computers; how company's culture guided action on environmental issues.

Jessica Johnston (2008). Technological Turf Wars: A Case Study of the Computer Antivirus Industry. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 232 p.). Senior Lecturer and Head of the American Studies Program (University of Canterbury, New Zealand). Computer software industry -- Social aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Computer software industry -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Computer security -- Social aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Computer security -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Organizational behavior -- United States -- Case studies; Business ethics -- United States -- Case studies. How production of computer security technology fraught with social issues; motivations, contradictions, negotiations of antivirus professionals; tensions between service ethics, profit motives; dynamics within companies.

David A. Kaplan (1999). The Silicon Boys and Their Valley of Dreams. (New York, NY: Morrow, 358 p.). Writer (Newsweek). Microelectronics industry -- California -- Santa Clara County; High technology industries -- California -- Santa Clara County; Businessmen -- California -- Santa Clara County; Santa Clara County (Calif.) -- Economic conditions. 

Jon Katz (2000). Geeks: How Two Lost Boys Rode the Internet out of Idaho. (New York, NY: Villard Books. Computer technicians--United States--Case studies; Electronic data processing personnel--United States--Case studies.

Ed. Martin Kenney (2000). Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 285 p.). Professor of Human and Community Development (University of California, Davis). High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Business enterprises--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Economic conditions; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social conditions. Development of electronics industry in Silicon Valley (from founding of Federal telegraph in 1908); role played by defense spending, relationship with Stanford University; institutions which specialize in new firm formation (law firms, venture capitalists), labor mobility, close inter-firm relationships responsible for Silicon Valley's unique ability to foster technological advances; ecosystem of interacting institutions, individuals, culture that encourages, nurtures entrepreneurship, environment characterized by development of trust based on performance (uniquely permeable to new ideas, talented individuals).

Dan M. Khanna (1997). The Rise, Decline, and Renewal of Silicon Valley’s High Technology Industry. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 181 p.). Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--Management; Competition, International.

Ed. David Lampe (1988). The Massachusetts Miracle: High Technology and Economic Revitalization. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 367 p.). High technology industries--Massachusetts; Massachusetts--Economic policy; Massachusetts--Economic conditions.

Christian Lecuyer (2005). Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 424 p.). Historian at the Chemical Heritage Foundation. High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History--20th century; Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History--20th century; Entrepreneurship--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Military-industrial complex--California--History--20th century; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--History--20th century. Silicon Valley's emergence, growth made possible by development in manufacturing, product engineering, management.

Ed. Chong-Moon Lee ... [et al.] (2000). The Silicon Valley Edge: A Habitat for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 424 p.). High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); New business enterprises--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Entrepreneurship--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Economic conditions; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social conditions.

Mark Leibovich (2002). The New Imperialists. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 244 p.). Ellison, Larry; Bezos, Jeffrey; Chambers, John, 1949- ; Gates, Bill, 1955- ; Case, Stephen McConnell; Businessmen--United States; Executives--United States; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case studies; Computer software industry--United States--Case studies.

Michael Lewis (2000). The New New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story. (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 268 p.). Journalist. Clark, Jim, 1944-; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--History. 

Stan J. Liebowitz and Stephen E. Margolis (1999). Winners, Losers & Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology. (Oakland, CA: Independent Institute, 287 p.). Economics Professors: UT, Dallas and NC State. Microsoft, Competition. 

Steve Lohr (2001). Go To: The Story of the Math Majors, Bridge Players, Engineers, Chess Wizards, Maverick Scientists and Iconoclasts, the Programmers Who Created the Software Revolution. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 250 p.). Reporter (New York Times). Computer programming; Computer programmers; Software engineering; Computer software--Development.

Thomas Mahon (1985). Charged Bodies: People, Power, and Paradox in Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: New American Library, 339 p.). Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--Biography; Computer industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--Biography; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Biography; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Economic conditions; Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County, Calif.)--Social conditions.

Michael S. Malone (1985). The Big Score: The Billion-Dollar Story of Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 442 p.). Microelectronics industry -- California -- Santa Clara County.

--- (1995). The Microprocessor: A Biography. (Santa Clara, Ca: TELOS, 333 p.). Microprocessors--United States--History.

--- (2002). The Valley of Heart's Delight: A Silicon Valley Notebook, 1963-2001. (New York, NY: Wiley, 276 p.). Malone, Michael S. (Michael Shawn), 1954- ; High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History; Entrepreneurship--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County).

--- (2002). Betting It All: The Entrepreneurs of Technology. (New York, NY: Wiley, 272 p.). Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Interviews; Computer industry--United States--Biography; Computer software industry--United States--Biography; Microelectronics industry--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship--United States--Case studies; Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara County--History; Risk; Santa Clara County (Calif.)--Biography.

Edited with an Introduction by Robert Mankoff in association with (2000). The New Yorker Book of Technology Cartoons. (Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 110 p.). Technology--Caricature and cartoons; American wit and humor, Pictorial.

Ann Markusen, Peter Hall, Amy Glasmeier (1986). High Tech America: The What, How, Where, and Why of the Sunrise Industries. (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 227 p.). High technology industries--United States.

R. C. Mascarenhas (2010). India's Silicon Plateau: Development of Information and Communication Technology in Bangalore. (New Delhi, India: Orient Blackswan Pvt Ltd, 296 p.). Computer software industry -- Government policy -- India -- Bangalore; Information technology -- India -- Bangalore.

Glenna Matthews (2003). Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream; Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 313 p.). Institute of Urban and Regional Development (University of California, Berkeley). Women computer industry employees -- California -- Santa Clara Valley. History of women in Silicon Valley in 20th century; once world’s largest concentration of fruit-processing plants, now renowned for electronics; production workers in both have been preponderantly immigrant women; both industries, both work forces, changing nature of local power structure; many sources of vitality, ferment that have undergirded region’s economic might; its wealth has not been equally distributed.

John A. Mathews, Dong-Sung Cho (2000). Tiger Technology: The Creation of a Semiconductor Industry in East Asia. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 389 p.). Semiconductor industry--East Asia; High technology industries--East Asia.

David G. McKendrick, Richard F. Doner, Stephan Haggard (2000). From Silicon Valley to Singapore: Location and Competitive Advantage in the Hard Disk Drive Industry. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 351 p.). Data disk drives industry--Asia, Southeastern--Case studies; Data disk drives industry--United States; Industrial location--Case studies; Comparative advantage (International trade)--Case studies; Competition, International--Case studies.

John R. McLaughlin, Carol Whiteley (2002). Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Silicon Valley. (Santa Clara, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Assn, 127 p.). President of the Institute for the History of Technology; Professional Writer. Silicon Valley -- History; Microelectronics industry; High technology industries. Impact of technology throughout history (for non-technical audience); comparisons with windmills, electricity, computers, steel, printing press, television; through boom and bust.

John McLaughlin, Ward Winslow (1996). The Making of Silicon Valley: A One Hundred Year Renaissance. (Santa Clara, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Assn. Former magazine editor and publisher; Former newspaper reporter and editor for 34 years covering Silicon Valley. Silicon Valley -- History; Microelectronics industry; High technology industries. 100 year history of Silicon Valley; stages of development from establishment of Stanford University to present technological powerhouse; transition of business environments, companies within Valley.

John R. McLaughlin, Leigh A. Weimers, Wardell V. Winslow (2008). Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance. (Santa Clara, CA: Santa Clara Valley Historical Association, 196 p. [2nd ed.]). Historian, Entrepreneur, Former Magazine Publisher; Former Columnist (San Jose Mercury News); Editing for Palo Alto's daily newspapers. Silicon Valley--History; High technology industries. How Silicon Valley came to be; found roots more than 110 years ago; perspective from dozens of high technology founders, inventors; profiles of 50 of most important high technology companies.

Glyn Moody (2001). Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution. (New York, NY: Allen Lane, 334 p.). Linux; Operating systems (Computers); Open source software.

Jane Morgan (1967). Electronics in the West: The First Fifty Years. (Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books, 194 p.). Electronic industries--California--San Francisco Bay Area.

Ed. David C. Mowery (1996). The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 324 p.). Computer software--Development; Computer software industry.

Ed. Yoshitaka Okada (2006). Struggles for Survival: Institutional and Organizational Changes in Japan’s High-Tech Industries. (New York, NY: Springer, 360 p.). High technology industries--Japan; Organizational change--Japan. Revival of Japanese high-tech industries in 1990s.

John W. Oliver (1956). History of American Technology. (New York, NY: Rodale Press, 676 p.). Technology--United States.

David Naguib Pellow and Lisa Sun-Hee Park (2002). The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the high-Tech Global Economy. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 303 p.). Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies and Director, California Cultures in Comparative Perspective (University of California, San Diego); Assistant Professor of Ethnic Studies and Urban Studies and Planning (University of California, San Diego). High technology industries--Environmental aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Agriculture--Environmental aspects--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)' Alien labor--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Minorities--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Environmental justice--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County). 

Stuart Peters (2006). National Systems of Innovation: Creating High-Technology Industries. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 267 p.). Lecturer in Technology and Innovation Management at the School of Business and Management (Brunel University). Semiconductor industry--Government policy--United States; semiconductor industry--Government policy--East Asia; Semiconductor industry--Government policy--Europe; Liquid crystal display industry--United States; Liquid crystal display industry--East Asia; Liquid crystal display industry--Europe. Critical issue in semiconductors,  liquid crystal displays - firm's national base at sectoral level in era of globalization.

Dennis Posadas (2007). Rice & Chips: Technopreneurship and Innovation in Asia. (New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall, 109 p.). Technology Columnist for Philippine newspaper BusinessWorld. Technological innovations --Asia; New business enterprises --Asia; Entrepreneurship --Asia. Unwritten rules of innovation that have worked in Silicon Valley since 1930s; similarities between Silicon Valley, Asian countries; how they have used Silicon Valley model to develop technology startups.

T. R. Reid (1984). The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 243 p.). Kilby, Jack S., 1923- ; Noyce, Robert N., 1927- ; Microelectronics--History.

Everett M. Rogers & Judith K. Larsen (1984). Silicon Valley Fever: Growth of High-Technology Culture. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 302 p.). Microelectronics industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History; Semiconductor industry--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History; High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History.

Susan Rosegrant and David R. Lampe (1992). Route 128: Lessons from Boston's High-Tech Community. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 240 p.). High technology industries--Massachusetts--Boston Metropolitan Area; Computer industry--Massachusetts--Boston Metropolitan Area.

Eds. Henry S. Rowen, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and William F. Miller (2006). Making IT: The Rise of Asia in High Tech. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 388 p.). Director Emeritus of the Shorenstein Asia/Pacific Research Center (Stanford University); Associate Director of Stanford University's Project on Regions of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; Co-director, SPRIE, Herbert Hoover Professor of Public and Private Management Emeritus at the Graduate School of Business, Professor of Computer Science Emeritus, and former Provost (Stanford University). High technology industries--Asia; Information technology--Economic aspects--Asia. Causes, consequences of Asia's dramatic rise in IT industry; analyze each country's policies and results, on national level, in innovation regions that have developed.  

Mohan Sawhney, Ranjay Gulati, Anthony Paoni, Kellogg TechVenture Team (2001). TechVenture: New Rules on Value and Profit from Silicon Valley. (New York, NY: Wiley, 368 p.). Professors, Kellogg Graduate School of Management (Morwestern University). Electronic commerce; Electronic commerce--Finance; Business enterprises--Computer networks--Management; Venture capital; Electronic commerce--California.

AnnaLee Saxenian (1994). Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 226 p.). High technology industries--California, Northern; High technology industries--Massachusetts; United States--Economic conditions--1981---Regional disparities.

--- (2006). The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 432 p.). Dean of the School of Information (University of California, Berkeley). High technology industries--Developing countries; Immigrants--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County); Cooperative industrial research--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County). Entrepreneurs build regional advantage to compete in global markets.

Allen J. Scott (1993). Technopolis: High-Technology Industry and Regional Development in Southern California. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 322 p.). Director of the Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies and Professor of Geography (University of California, Los Angeles). High technology industries--California, Southern; Regional planning--California, Southern; Industrial location--California, Southern. 

David Sheff (2002). China Dawn: The Story of a Technology and Business Revolution. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 301 p.). Businessmen--China; Capitalists and financiers--China; Technological innovations--China; China--Economic conditions--2000-.

Charles G. Sigismund (2000). Champions of Silicon Valley: Visionary Thinking from Today's Technology Pioneers. (New York, NY: Wiley, 294 p.). High technology industries--Management; Computer industry--Management; Computer software industry--Management; Leadership.

Karen Southwick (1999). Silicon Gold Rush : The Next Generation of High-tech Stars Rewrites the Rules of Business. (New York, NY: Wiley, 248 p.). Executive Editor, CNET Computer Industry, Computer Software Industry, High-Technology Industries.

John Sterne (2004). Adventures in Code: The Story of the Irish Software Industry. (Dublin, IR: Liffey Press, 334 p.). Ireland -- Industry -- Technology; Computer software -- Development -- Ireland -- 20th century.

Soo-Hung Terence Tsai, Borshiuan Cheng (2006). Silicon Dragon: High Tech Industry in Taiwan. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub., 236 p.). Associate Director, MBA Programmes, Department of Management, Faculty of Business Administration (The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Senior Research Associate (Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, UK); Professor in Organisational Psychology and Chairperson, Department of Psychology (College of Science, National Taiwan University). High technology industries--Taiwan. Success story of microelectronics industry in Taiwan; government policies that acted as catalysts to growth, roles of high-tech `incubators', government-administered science parks.

Eds. Jan Ulijn, Dominique Drillon, Frank Lasch (2007). Entrepreneurship, Cooperation and the Firm: The Emergence and Survival of High-Technology Ventures in Europe. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 431 p.). Jean Monnet Professor of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands); Associate Professor of Management and Director, Research Department (GSCM-Montpellier Business School, France); Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship and Assistant Director, Research Department (GSCM-Montpellier Business School, France). High technology industries--Europe; High technology industries--Europe--Management; Entrepreneurship--Europe; Technological innovations--Europe. Focus on new business development in science and technology; role, challenge of European cooperation to create new techno-ventures, encourage them to survive, flourish.

Fred Warshofsky (1989). The Chip War: The Battle for the World of Tomorrow. (New York, NY: Scribner, 434 p.). Integrated circuits industry; Competition, International.

Bernard P. Wong (2005). The Chinese in Silicon Valley: Globalization, Social Networks, and Ethnic Identity. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 267 p.). High technology industries--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History; Chinese--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--History; Chinese Americans--California--Santa Clara Valley (Santa Clara County)--Social conditions. 

Yu Zhou (2008). The Inside Story of China’s High-Tech Industry: Making Silicon Valley in Beijing. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 201 p.). Associate Professor of Geography (Vassar). High technology industries--China--Beijing. Emergence, growth of information, communications technology industry through analysis of China's leading science park, Beijing's Zhongguancun; conjunction of export, domestic markets provided main impetus to technological learning, development of industry competitiveness.

Jeffrey Zygmont (2003). Microchip: An Idea, Its Genesis, and the Revolution It Created. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 245 p.). Integrated circuits--History; Computer industry--United States--History; Computer engineering--United States--History.


Business History Links

Business Plan Archive                                                                                                            

The Internet boom and bust of 1996 to 2002 was the most important business phenomenon of the past several decades. In the wake of this historic period...we are creating the Business Plan Archive (BPA) to collect business plans and related documents from the dot com era. These plans – the "blueprints" that lay out the assumptions and strategies of Internet entrepreneurs – will enable entrepreneurs and researchers to conduct both qualitative and quantitative research.

Center for Work, Technology, and Society                                                                         

Founded in 1997 at UC Berkeley (as part of the Institute of Industrial Relations) to support research and education in the areas of work, technology and society: 1) technological change is creating important changes in the workplace-- how work is done, how work and technology are managed, and the skills and knowledge required for work; 2) technology is affecting society in how we live as well as how we work. WTS will explore these relationships between work and technology and society in order to help business and government leaders develop sound practices and policies.

Charles River Museum of Industry                                                                                                       

The mission of the Charles River Museum of Industry is to be a center for exploration of the history of industry and technology and to study the dynamic process of innovation in order to encourage and inspire future innovation in America.

The Evolution of the PDA 1975-1995                                                           

Comprehensive timeline of the evolution of personal digital assistants. Specifically, my intention is to clarify which companies premiered each of the primary front-end features that are considered standard in modern devices, from the technology's invention to its acceptance as a mainstream product category in the mid-1990s. This is not a discussion of back-end technologies such as architectures, chips, programming interfaces, and speeds. By "premiered," I mean "first to actually include the technology in a relevant product," not necessarily the actual inventors of each technology.

FAQ: Forty Years of Moore's Law                                                                                                        

"This FAQ explains the impact and consequences of the principles set down" in Intel co-founder Gordon Moore's April 19, 1965, article in which he observed that "the number of transistors ...on a chip can be doubled in a short period of time." This observation is known as Moore's Law. Includes photos, diagrams, and links to related articles. From CNET Subjects: Transistors; Computers; Electronic industries.

Institute for the History of Technology (formerly Santa Clara Valley Historical Association)                                                                                                                      

One of the primary organizations dedicated to recording the history of high technology inventors and entrepreneurs.

Intel Museum                                                                                                                    

At the Intel Museum in Santa Clara, you can experience the power of computer chips first hand, and the evolution of their development. Learn also about how microprocessors work, how transistors work, about memory technology and about the history of the microprocessor.

Intel: Silicon: Moore's Law                                                                   

Information about the observation made in 1965 by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, that the number of transistors on integrated circuits would double "every couple of years. ... Intel expects that it will continue at least through the end of this decade." Includes Moore's original paper, a comparison of transistors on Intel processors from 1971 through 2003, and related material. From Intel Corporation. Subjects: Transistors; Computers; Electronic industries.

Microsoft Antitrust Case Document                                                                       

Filings, opinions, motions, briefs, affidavits, and more related to the Microsoft Antitrust Case. Subjects: United States -- Trials, litigation, etc. | Microsoft Corporation -- Trials, litigation, etc. | Antitrust law -- United States | Computer software industry -- Law and legislation -- United States | Restraint of trade -- United States.

Programming Languages: A Brief History                                                                           

This timeline covers innovations in languages used for programming computers from 1946-1995. Entries include the development of FORTRAN (mathematical FORmula TRANslating system) in 1957, COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) created in 1959, Bill Gates and Paul Allen's version of BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1975, and more. From

Route 128 Timeline                                                 

Route 128: Where High Tech Began                                                                                     

Route 128, the beltway that first encircled Boston more than half a century ago, was the first home to what eventually came to be known as high tech. With the strong industrial base in the communities through which it passes and close proximity to schools such as MIT and Harvard, Route 128 was more than just the first modern beltway; became the blueprint for economic development in the second half of the 20th century. The companies that clustered around it and around Greater Boston put in place many of the technologies as well as the business sytems that have been emulated globally ever since. This site is intended to provide access to some of the history associated with this famous highway.

Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley                                                          

This National Park Service (NPS) itinerary "highlights 28 places listed in the National Register of Historic Places that illustrate how this fertile valley blossomed from a series of small agricultural towns ... into the center of the technology revolution." It features "a wide variety of historic buildings, from adobe pueblos to the Art Deco De Anza Hotel, from the eclectic Victorian architecture of the ... Winchester House to the ... home of President Herbert Hoover."

Silicon Genesis                                                                                                                 

Collection of oral history interviews with pioneers of the semiconductor industry.

Silicon Valley Cultures Project Website: What We A Finding                              

The Silicon Valley Cultures Project from the Anthropology Department at San Jose State University (last mentioned in the June 1, 2000 issue of the Scout Report for Business & Economics) has recently published a book excerpt, along with three newly released reports and articles, on their Web site. The book excerpt is from _Cultures@SiliconValley_ by J.A. English-Lueck, and it provides a 16-page abstract of the book. The first new report "Creating Culture in Dual Career Families" by C. N. Darrah, J. A. English-Lueck, and J. M. Freeman (all from the Department of Anthropology at San Jose State University) is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted with fourteen different families between 1998-2000. The second report, "Success and Survival in Silicon Valley: An Ethnography of Learning Networks" by J.A. English-Lueck, Sabrina Valade, Sheri Swiger, and Guillermo Narvaez, was presented to the Center for Educational Planning's Santa Clara County Office of Education on March 21, 2002. This report takes an ethnographic look at the lives of students, teachers, and workers as they find their way through the maze of de facto education. The last newly released report, "Students, Technology and Everyday Life" by Dr. Chuck Darrah, was prepared for the Junior Achievement of Santa Clara County and the Institute for the Future, and explores how the incorporation of information technology in the lives of middle and high school students can best prepare them for careers in the Silicon Valley region. This paper elicits potential questions for further investigation and, therefore, does not provide definitive answers to complex and emerging issues. 

Silicon Valley History                                                              

Silicon Valley History Online                                                               

Gateway to the major historical resources of California's Santa Clara Valley - photographs, maps, letters, postcards, manuscripts, scrapbooks, menus, programs from events, and many other materials from local libraries, archives, and museums. As described on this website, Silicon Valley is "a bellwether beast, pursuing the newest technologies on the drawing board and in the hand". This compelling online digital archive was created by a consortium of organizations and institutions located in the Silicon Valley, including the History San Jose Research Library and the Santa Clara University Archives. Appropriately enough, visitors entering through the site's homepage will be greeted by a number of context-specific images, including a couple of peaches, a microchip processor, and a historical photograph of two scientists at work. From there, visitors can delve into the documents collected here by clicking on one of the general headings, such as education, people, technology, agriculture, and urban life. Currently, the archive contains close to 1000 images, and users are free to browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can also create customized searches and save their favorite images to a "My Favorites" area.


September 2004 - Silicon Valley Watcher—Reporting on the business and culture of Silicon Valley is published by Tom Foremski, former news reporter and Silicon Valley columnist for the Financial Times.

Smithsonian: The Chip Collection                                                            

National Museum of American History's Chip Collection consists of individual donations of objects, images and documentation that traces the history of integrated circuits.

Stanford Silicon Valley Archives                                                              

Housed in the Special Collections of Stanford University Libraries, Stanford’s Silicon Valley Archives identify, preserve, and make documentary record of science and technology, and related business and cultural activities in Silicon Valley, available to students, scholars, and the general public; provides access to professional correspondence, research notes, diaries, journals, project files, technical reports, organization charts and other corporate records, patent applications, blueprints, company brochures, product documentation, photographs, and transcripts or recordings of speeches and interviews.

The Tech Museum of Innovation                                                                                                    

The Tech is a cosmopolitan museum singularly focused on technology -- how it works and the way that it is changing every aspect of the way we work, live, play and learn. Its people-and-technology focus and the integration of advanced technologies into visitor experiences and infrastructure, distinguishes it from other science centers.

Valley Wag                                                                                                                                       

Silicon Valley's Tech Gossip Rag.

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