Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Food Service
business biographies  

1582 - Rourteau, great French chef, opened L'Hostellerie de La Tour d'Argent (La Tour d'Argent), elegant inn, in Paris (named for silvery reflection of its original 16th-century walls in river Seine); catered to aristocrats; March 4, 1582 - Henri, King of Poland and France, introduced the 'fork'; 1600 - Rourteau as proprietor; 1720 - introduced theater suppers; 1890 - acquired by Frederic Delair; introduced signature dish, specialty of the restaurant: 'Caneton Tour D'Argent', pressed duck ("Canard au Sang"); numbered each duck (number 328 served to King Edward VII in 1890, number 14,312 served to King Alfonso XIII in 1914, number 112,151 served to Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1929, number 938,451 served to President Mikhail Gorbachev in 2001); 1912 - acquired by Andre Terrail; 1918 -  reopened after end of WW I; 1925 - Terrail built Hotel George V; May 6, 1929 - served 100,00th 'Caneton Tour D'Argent'; 1947 - Claude Terrail (son) took over; 1984 - opened La Tour d'Argent Tokyo; 1990 - 100th anniversary of 'numbered duck';  2003 - served 1 millionth duck; June 1, 2006 - Andre Terrail (grandson) took over.

Frederic Delair - La Tour D'Argent (http://www.linternaute.com/sortir/sorties/resto/dossier/06/la-tour-dargent/images/02ter.jpg)

December 13, 1827 - Giovanni Del-Monico, Swiss wine merchant, Pietro (older brother) opened Delmonico & Brother, café, pastry shop at 23 William St. in lower Manhattan; March, 1830 - opened restaurant at 25 William Street (first restaurant or public dining room  opened in United States); December 16, 1835 - destroyed by fire; August 1837 - Delmonico's restaurant re-opened at corner of Beaver, William and South William.

1840 - Antoine Alciatore (27) opened pension, boarding house, restaurant on St. Louis Street in New Orleans, LA; 1868 - moved to spot on St. Louis Street where restaurant stands today; 1887 - Jules (son) took over; invented Oysters Rockefeller, named for richness of  sauce; 1932 - Roy Louis (son) took over, headed restaurant for almost 40 years until his death in 1972; Marie Louise (Roy's daughter) married William Guste; Alciatore-Guste family members have guided restaurant to present day.

1849 - Nikola Budrovich, Antonio Gasparich, Frank Kosta (Croatian immigrants) opened New World Coffee Saloon on Commercial Street in San Francisco, CA; 1876 - John Tadich (Croatian immigrant) began working at Saloon; 1882 - owners Samuel Becir, Eugene Masounette changed name to "Cold Day Restaurant" (Alexander Badlam Jr. defeated in 1882 Assessors Election, "It's a cold day when I get left" slogan); 1883 - Becir interest acquired by Gaspar Pavica; 1887 - Masounette's interest acquired by Tadich; 1888 - bought out Pavica, assumed full ownership of restaurant; August 26, 1912 - renamed Tadich's Grill, located at 525 Clay St.; 1928 - acquired by three Buich brothers (employees since 1913); 1961 - full ownership acquired by Louie Buich (last brother employed under Tadich, in 1922); 1967 - redeveloped, moved to current location at 240 California Street; 1993 - interest passed to Steve Buich (third generation); oldest restaurant in State of California.

February 1855 - El Nivel ( the "level", previously building where water level in Mexico City was measured) in Mexico City received first cantina license after the U.S.-Mexican war (holds liquor license #1); prior to 1968 - acquired by Jesus Aguirre; around 30 presidents from Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada in 1872 to Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000) had visited for a drink while in office; January 2, 2008 - closed, lost long legal battle against owners of building, National Autonomous University of Mexico.

1863 - Senator John Buckley and C. C. Butler built Cliff House in San Francisco, CA; 1868 - remodeled by Captain Junius Foster; 1883 - acquired Adolph Sutro; 1885 - leased to J. M. Wilkins; 1887 - severely damaged when schooner Parallel, abandoned and loaded with dynamite, ran aground on rocks below; February 1896 - second Cliff House opened (furnished in grandiose style at cost of $75,000; fashioned after French chateau, eight stories, four spires, observation tower 200 feet above sea level); June 1907  - leased to John Tait (Tait’s at the Beach), and seven partners; September 7, 1907 - burned to ground (after extensive remodeling, just prior to reopening); July 1, 1909 - third version of the Cliff House opened; rebuilt by Dr. Emma Merritt, daughter of Adolph Sutro, John Tait, group of investors, on behalf of Sutro estate, at cost of $75,000 (neoclassical in design, built with steel reinforcing bar, poured concrete); 1918 - shut down due to military orders signed by President of the United States; December 1920 - leased from Charles Sutro by Shorty Roberts (Roberts-at-the-Beach restaurant); 1925 - closed (due to Prohibition); December 1937 - acquired by George and Leo Whitney, owners of Playland; August 1938 - reopened after extensive remodeling; 1977 - acquired by Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

Adolph Sutro - Cliff House (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ thumb/f/fe/Adolph_Sutro_by_Brady.jpg/225px-Adolph_Sutro_by_Brady.jpg)

1864 - Frenchman George Voges opened Jack's in San Francisco; acquired by Jacques Monique; acquired by Edward Blanque; 1907 - acquired by Michel Redinger, became part owner after putting in money to rebuild after the 1906 earthquake; Paul Redinger (brother) bought out Edward Blanque's share; eventually Jack Redinger (son) became owner; 1930 - made famous in Maltese Falcon, written by Dashiell Hammett; December 1996 - acquired by John Konstin (including the building), owner of John's Grill, for $132 million.

1872 - Walter Scott's business selling sandwiches became so lucrative, quit his printing work (part-time pressman, type compositor in Providence, RI), began to sell food at night from horse-drawn covered express wagon parked outside Providence Journal newspaper office; inspired birth of "the diner".

1875 - Luis Ober filed an application to remodel numbers 3 and 4 Winter Place (Boston, MA) into café and dwelling; Eben Jordan, co-founder of Jordan Marsh Company, supposedly advanced funds needed to purchase, remodel the buildings; restaurant opened as Ober’s Restaurant Parisien; 1892 - Frank Locke’s Wine Rooms opened for business at Nos. 1 and 2 Winter Place as competition for Ober; 1894 - Ober sold business to Wood and Pollard, firm of wholesale liquor dealers; May 1894 - acquired Wine Rooms from Locke's estate (died at 46); buildings combined by breaking through wall separating Locke’s from Ober’s; renamed Winter Place Tavern; 1898 - acquired by John Merrow, renamed The Winter Place Hotel; went bankrupt; April 27, 1901 - Emil Camus formed The Locke-Ober Company; secured services of Mr. J.B. Bailhe, Ober's famous French chef for many years; 1981 - restaurant finally recovered original Locke’s location in full; 2001 - acquired by Winter Place LLC; operated in same configuration as in 1910 under Camus; second oldest restaurant in Boston.

1877 - Café Brasilero opened in Montevideo, Uraguay; longest operating cafe; essential cultural legacy of Montevideo’s Old City.

1883 - Johnny Heinold opened J.M. Heinold's Saloon at foot of Webster Street in Oakland, CA; paid $100 for former bunk house for men working nearby oyster beds; built from timbers of an old whaling ship;1920's - ferry between Alameda (dry town) and Oakland stopped next to Heinold's (commuter's First and Last Chance for refreshment); name changed to Heinold's First and Last Chance; referenced seventeen times in Jack London's novel John Barleycorn.

September 4, 1885 - Exchange Buffet opened at 7 New Street, New York City; served men only; first self-serve restaurant in U.S.

May 1, 1886 - Angelo Del Monte, 'Papa' Marianetti opened Ristorante Fior d'Italia, America's oldest Italian restaurant, in heart of San Francisco's North Beach to serve clients of nearby bordello; 1893 - original gold rush era building burned; restaurant grew to size that could seat 750, serve 1500 meals a day; Frank and George Marianetti (sons) took over; sold to group (Sergio and Larry Nibbi, Charles Ramorino, Achille Pantaleoni, Armanino); 1990 - acquired by Bob and Jinx Larive, Hamish and Rosi Fordwood; February 15, 2005 - fire destroyed restaurant; 2005 - moved to new location in San Remo Hotel on Mason Street; Bob and Jinx Larive bought out other partners.

1887 - Peter Luger, German immigrant, opened steak house in Brooklyn; 1941 - Luger died, succeeded by son; 1950 - acquired at auction (for price of the real estate) by Sol Forman, owner of metalware business across street.

September 1, 1887 - Saugus Train Station dedicated; named for birthplace of Henry M. Newhall in Massachusetts (Narragansett Indian term means sandy spit of land); Joseph Herbert Tolfree started Saugus Eating House in north end of depot; April 25, 1891 - President Benjamin Harrison had a meal  while on whistle stop re-election campaign; January 18, 1899 - acquired by Richard R. Wood, Southern Pacific Railroad employee, and Martin Wood (brother), name changed to Saugus Café; May 1903 - President Theodore Roosevelt had dinner; 1926 - Helen Wood married Bryon Cone, took over; 1936 - Fielding S. Wood took over management; 1974 - Fred Kane took over; 1979 - acquired by Steve Hwang; November 1983 - closed due to financial difficulties; rescued by Fred Kane; February 1, 1994 - acquired by Karen and David Nardiello.

December 22, 1888 - Joseph V. Horn, Frank Hardart founded Horn & Hardart, 15-stool lunchroom, in Philadelphia, PA; 1898  - incorporated as Horn & Hardart Baking Co.; 1902 - opened first Automat ('waiterless') restaurant; grew  to 84 stores in New York, Philadelphia; 1971 - filed for bankruptcy; 1972 - acquired Hanover House Industries, mail-order company in Hanover, PA; 1977 -  acquired by Barry Florescue, Burger King franchisee from Florida; October 1991 - acquired by North American Resources, international investment group; 1993 - name changed to Hanover Direct (15 retail catalogs).

1889 - William and Samuel Chillds opened Childs Restaurant on Cortland Street in Manhattan (had $1600, second-hand furniture); 1898 - opened self-service cafeteria at 130 Broadway; introduced tray, tray line to customers (carry their meals to tables); 1899 - 10 restaurants; 1902 - incorporated; 1925 - 107 restaurants in 33 cities; 1939 - awarded food service contract for New York World's Fair; 1950s - acquired by Lucky Stores; 1961 - acquired by Reise Brothers.

1889 - Former Tempe, AZ residence of Charles Trumbull Hayden (settled in Arizona in 1871 to establish flourmill, ferry service for crossing Salt River) run as restaurant, as convenience to those who had traveled great distance to use flourmill or ferry service; 1924 - major renovation by Hayden sisters; 1930 - financial difficulties forced sale of property; 1943-1947 - operated by Lucille and Eugene Payne; 1954 - acquired by Leonard F. Monti, Sr. (had operated 13-stool diner in Chandler, AZ since 1946); April 1956 - opened for business; March 28, 1972 - Monti's La Casa Vieja Restaurant, Inc. registered "La Casa Vieja" ("The Old House in Spanish) trademark first used February 22, 1956 (restaurant services); 2010 - serves approximately 500,000 customers annually.

1890 - Johan Spenger, hook and line fisherman on Lake Merritt, California, opened clam stand at 1919 Fourth St., Berkeley, CA; sold day's catch from one-room lean-to gabled house in mud flats in Ocean View community; 1933 - Frank Spenger Sr. (son), also fisherman, added restaurant and tavern (turned little fish shack into bar "with four stools nailed to the floor"); named Spenger’s Fresh Fish Grotto; 1940-1998 - managed by Frank “Buddy” Spenger Jr. (grandson); 1950s - claimed to serve roughly 3,500 pounds of fish daily, more than any restaurant west of Mississippi; 1998 - closed temporarily (competition from 'California cuisine'); acquired by McCormick & Schmick Seafood Restaurants (Portland, OR).

1894 - Frank Duarte brought barrel of whiskey from Santa Cruz to establishment in Pescadero, CA; price was ten cents for one whiskey, two bits for three; business thrived until prohibition; 1934 - second generation reopened bar; 1950s - third generation joined; 1961 - widow took over; mid-1980s - fourth generation arrived; May 2003 - James Beard Foundation awarded Duarte's honorary award as American Classic (one of five restaurants in United States honored); 2007 - serve average of 13,000 people a month; have grown from two employees in the fifties to sixty-five; extensive menu focused on artichoke dishes, fresh fish, wine list of over two hundred different labels.

1893 - Henry Schroeder opened Schroeder's Restaurant on the south side of Market between First and Second Streets in San Francisco; 1921 - his widow took over; January 10, 1922 - acquired, sight unseen, by Max Kniesche with gold pieces; 1935 - began serving dinner, opened to ladies after 1:30 p.m.; 1959 - moved to present locale at 240 Front Street; October 7, 1970 - opened to ladies for lunch; April 1997 - acquired by Jana and Stefan Filipclk, immigrants from Reichenberg, Czech Republic; oldest, largest German restaurant on West Coast.

1898 - Herman Joseph Berghoff opened Berghoff Cafe, at corner of State and Adams Streets (Chicago, IL), to showcase celebrated Dortmunder-style beer; sold beer for nickel, sandwiches for free; 1933 - Prohibition repealed, city issued liquor license No. 1 to Berghoff (done so each year since); 1969 - separate men's only bar ended; seven members of National Organization for Women sat at bar, demanded service; got it; December 28, 2005 - third-generation announced Berghoff would close on February 28, 2006. 

June 19, 1902 - Horn & Hardart Automat Restaurant opened at 818 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia; first restaurant with vending machine service; cavernous, waiterless establishment - combination of fast-food, vending, cafeteria; 1912 - expanded to Manhattan; first major fast-food chain with uniform recipes, centralized commissary system of supplying their restaurants; customers put nickels into slots, turned knob, food revolved into place in compartment next to slot for customer to receive through small glass door.

1904 - Robert Cascarelli opened fruit, vegetable, candy shop at 109 N. Superior St., Albion, MI; January 7, 1908 - moved to 116 S. Superior St.; 1929 - Louis Cascarelli (son) took over business; 1930s - became tavern; 1970 - Jim Cascarelli (grandson) took over family business; January 7, 2009 - anniversary celebration (by invitation only - 300 family, friends, vendors); Bell's Brewery of Kalamazoo crafted Cascarelli's 100th Anniversary Ale just occasion.

1905 - City of New York issued mercantile license to Genaro Lombardi, baker and pizziolo from Naples, Italy; opened Lombardi's, nation's first licensed pizzeria, on Spring St., in lower Manhattan (opened as grocery store in 1897); 1984 - closed; 1994 - reopened by friend of grandson.

1907 - Harley Hudson opened the Missouri Kitchen, a "quick-eats" lunch stand in tent on Sherman Avenue in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho's main street; five generations of Hudsons have continuously operated Hudson's Hamburgers Restaurant; January 24, 2007 - Idaho state legislature issued Proclamation "to recognize and honor an Idaho business and the Hudson family for 100 years of business in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho".

Harley Hudson - Hudson's - Coeur d'Alene (http://www.spokesmanreview.com/blogs/video/thumbs/031007_hudsons.jpg)

1908 - Philippe Mathieu established Philippe The Original in Southern California; 1918 - claimed distinction of having created "French Dipped Sandwich"; 1927 - acquired by Harry, Dave, Frank Martin for about $5,000; 1977 - price of cup of coffee increased 100%, to a dime.

1911 - Harry Luby founded New England Dairy Lunch cafeterias in Springfield, MO; 1920 - opened restaurant in Waco, TX; 1934 - Robert M. Luby (son) established his first Luby's Cafeteria at Dallas; 1959 - company incorporated as Cafeterias, Incorporated, operated nine cafeterias in Texas; 1981 - name changed to Luby's Cafeterias, Incorporated; 1982 -operated sixty-three cafeterias, mostly in Texas; 1990 - employed 9,500 workers at 175 locations in ten states; 1991 - George Hennard killed twenty-three people, injured numerous others at Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen, TX; 1987-1996 - over-expansion more than doubled company's size, 226 restaurants in 11 states; pushed into bankruptcy; March 1997 - president and CEO, John Edward Curtis Jr. (49), committed suicide.

1916 - Nathan Handwerker opened nickel hot dog stand on corner of Surf and Stillwell Avenues in Coney Island, New York; served Coca Cola (Coca Cola's longest running chain customer); July 4, 1916 - hosted first Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest (Irish immigrant James Mullen ate13 hot dogs in buns in 12 minutes; 2007 winner, Joey Chestnut of San Jose, CA, ate 66 hot dogs and buns in 12 minutes); May 8, 1951 - registered "Nathan's Famous from a HOT-DOG to a national HABIT" trademark first used January 1, 1915 (potato chips); July 6, 1955 - stand sold one millionth hot dog; 1956 - opened second restaurant in Oceanside, Long Island; 1965 - opened third restaurant in Yonkers, NY; 1970 - went public; fourth restaurant in Times Square, New York City; 1975 - acquired Wetsons hamburger chain; 1991 - opened first outlet in airport (Host Marriott operated newly designed Nathan's kiosk concept at John F. Kennedy International Airport; now 52 airports served); 1998 - initiated hot dog branded-product program (food service operators serve Nathan's hot dogs as branded product on menus - now in more than 900 locations); 1999 - acquired Kenny Rogers Roasters; 2000 -named official hot dog of New York Yankees.

June 1919 - Roy Allen first brewed root beer in Lodi, CA (based on formula purchased from pharmacist in Arizona); served it for $.05 at parade honoring returning World War I veterans; 1922 - took on partner, Frank Wright, employee from original Lodi location; formally named beverage, A&W Root Beer; started A&W Restaurants; 1923 - developed, opened nation’s first car hop service restaurant; 1924 - Allen bought out Wright, began franchising (America's first franchised restaurant chain); 1950 - over 450 A&W restaurants operated nationwide; acquired by Gene Hurtz; formed the A&W Root Beer Company; one of few nationally established drive-in restaurant chains; 1960 - over 2,000 A&W restaurants; 1963 - acquired by J. Hungerford Smith Company (manufactured A&W Root Beer concentrate since 1921); 1966 - acquired by United Fruit (renamed United Brands); 1971 - wholly owned subsidiary, A&W Beverages, Inc., began selling A&W Root Beer at supermarkets (previously only found at A&W restaurants); 1982 - A&W Restaurants, Inc. acquired by A. Alfred Taubman, developer of shopping centers and real estate; October 1993 - A&W brands, excluding the restaurants, acquired by Cadbury Beverages Inc.; December 1994 - restaurants acquired by Sagittarius Acquisitions, Incorporated (headed by former Executive Vice President of Marketing for Burger King Corporation); March 1995 - Dr Pepper/Seven-Up Companies, Inc. acquired by Cadbury Schweppes plc, of London; A&W root beer became part of renamed Dr Pepper/Seven Up, Inc. 1999 - A&W Restaurants, Inc. acquired Long John Silver's, Inc.; 2000 - Yorkshire Global Restaurants, Inc., became parent company; 2002 - acquired by Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc., renamed Yum! Brands, Inc.

Roy Allen - A&W Root Beer, Restaurants (http://www.debbieschlussel.com/archives/royallen.jpg)

1921 - Edgar W. "Billy" Ingram, real estate and insurance agent, borrowed $700, with partner/cook J. Walter Anderson, opened first White Castle in Wichita, KS; offered hamburgers at $.05 a piece; 1933 - bought Anderson out; 2005 - more than 500,000,000 burgers sold; 2006 - more than 380 restaurants.

1922 - Cousins Jack Kriendler and Charlie Berns opened speakeasy, The Red Head, in NYC's Greenwich Village to earn tuition for night school (Jack was a pharmacy student at Fordham; Charlie studied at NYU's School of Commerce); 1923 - opened second speakeasy, Club Fronton; 1928 - acquired house on West 52nd Street (previously a bordello owned by Hildegarde Adler), spent next year converting it to a speakeasy and restaurant; December 31, 1929/January 1, 1930 - opened "Jack and Charlie's '21' Club" opened at 21 West 52nd Street in Manhattan; 1931 - model of British Airways "flying boat" was first corporate toy hung from the '21' ceiling; late 1930s - Jay Van Urk donated first jockey (2004 - 33 jockeys; most recent from Sackatoga Stables representing, Funny Cide, winner of 2003 Kentucky Derby and Preakness races); 1944 - Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall get engaged at Table 30; 1985 - acquired by financier Marshall Cogan; 1995 - acquired by Orient-Express Hotels.

Jack Kriendler (top) and Charlie Berns - founded 21 Club (http://static.orient-express.com/onyc/images/250images/onyc_250_archive7.jpg)

1925 - Howard Dearing Johnson (25) inherited small patent medicine store in Wollaston, MA, and its debts, from his father; bought ice cream recipe with 2x normal amount of butterfat = sales soared; 1928 - opened first restaurant; 1929 - opened another restaurant, in downtown Quincy, MA; 1935 - 25 Howard Johnson's roadside ice cream, sandwich stands in Massachusetts (through franchising); became leading tollroad restaurant operator in country; 1954 - 400 restaurants, entered lodging industry; opened first franchised motor lodge in Savannah, GA; 1959 - Howard B. Johnson (son) assumed control; 1961 - went public; 1965 - sales exceeded combined sales of McDonald's, Burger King,  Kentucky Fried Chicken; second largest food feeder in U.S., second only to U.S. Army; late 1970s - over 1,000 restaurants, more than 500 motor lodges; 1980 - acquired by British conglomerate Imperial Group for more than $630 million dollars; 1985 - acquired for its real estate by Marriott Corporation (except "Ground Round" restaurant division); sold motel/hotel/motor lodge system to Prime Motor Inns (today owned by Cendant Corporation); 2005 - rights to Howard Johnson name sold to newly-formed La Mancha Group, LLC.

Howard Dearing Johnson (http://www.miltonhistoricalsociety.org/images/HowardDearingJohnson1948.jpg)

1926 - John E. Saxe, Thomas E. Saxe (son) started White Tower Hamburgers in Milwaukee, WI; considered an imitator of White Castle (similar white fortress-like structure); mid-1950s - 230 stores; 1970 - Brock Saxe (grandson) took over as president of White Tower Management Corporation; 1976 - name changed to Tobrock Corporation.

November 1927 - Ernest Bewley opened Bewley's Cafe in Grafton Street, Dublin, Ireland (cost £60,000 to build); commissioned renowned artist Harry Clarke to complete six magnificent stained glass windows (completed in 1931); largest café and restaurant in Ireland (over 400 seats, 18,000 square feet).

1933 - Harry and Pasquale (Pat) Olivieri (brothers) made first version of Philadelphia cheese steak in corner hot dog stand they founded in 1930 near Italian market in South Philadelphia (renamed Pat's King of Steaks); piled sliced, grilled beef with onions on rolls; decades later - Cheez Whiz added to steak and onions; provalone, American cheese, pizza sauce became options.

December 6, 1933 - Coq d'Or opened, on day Prohibition ended, on first floor of Drake Hotel (opened in 1920; named for brothers Tracy Drake, John Drake, developers and proprietors of Blackstone Hotel, Drake Hotel; acquired property for Drake Hotel from estate of Potter Palmer in 1916; John Drake [father] had been business partner of Timothy Blackstone), at the top of Michigan Avenue on the Magnificent Mile in Chicago, IL; only second bar in town to obtain liquor license from City of Chicago (first was Berghoff Restaurant); whiskey at 40 cents a glass.

1934 - Victor Jules Bergeron, Jr., son of waiter at San Francisco's Fairmont Hotel, owner of grocery store on San Pablo Avenue in Oakland, CA, used nest egg of $700, carpentry help from his wife's brothers, his mother's pot-bellied stove and oven, built small pub across street from store, named Hinky Dink's; served potent tropical cocktail concoctions, Americanized adaptations of Polynesian food; create the world’s first mai tai (short for "mai tai roa ae!" – Tahitian for "out of this world") - jig of rum, a squeeze of lime, dash of sugar syrup, splashes of orange Curaçao and French orgeat); became one of most popular watering holes in Northern California's Bay Area; 1936 - Herb Caen, columnist for San Francisco Chronicle, wrote "best restaurant in San Francisco is in Oakland"; Vic had become "The Trader", Hinky Dink's became "Trader Vic's", complete with showpiece Chinese oven; January 7, 1941 - Esther O. Bergeron registered "Trader Vic's" trademark first used March 1, 1938 (rums); 1944 - created original Mai Tai, refreshing rum cocktail; 1951 - Trader Vic's San Francisco opened; eventually opened 25 Polynesian-style restaurants around world; Lynn Bergeron (son) took over restaurant operation.

May 1934 - Thomas Andreas Carvelas suffered flat tire on single vending trailer of frozen custard in Hartsdale, NY, sold out inventory; first year gross of $3,500; 1936 - developed secret ice-cream formula, freezer model (batch freezer) - no-air-pump, super-low-temperature ice-cream machine; introduced the "Buy One Get One Free" offer; 1937 - converted trailer into frozen custard stand; 1939 - grossed $6,000; 1946 - established two companies: Carvel Corp. (to make, sell freezers), Carvel Dari-Freeze Stores, Inc. (to run franchise operation); 1947 - started chain of stores; first retail ice cream shop to franchise brand; nation’s first retail ice cream franchise; sold 71 freezers at $2,900 each under "Custard King" brand; December 20, 1949 - Thomas Carvel of Hartsdale, NY, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Agitating Dispensing Frozen Foods" ("...for cold treatment of such foods [frozen custards, ice creams and the like foods] and for extruding same in semi-solid condition [soft foods]"); 1951 - 100th store opened; 1952 - 200 Carvel stores, grossed nearly $3 million, operating income of $538,000; November 2, 1954 - registered "Carvel" trademark first used in July 1949 (containers made of cardboard or plastic for the reception of congealed of frozen foods); 1956 - more than 500 stores; one of Big Three of soft-serve ice cream; 1964 - won Federal Trade Commission, Supreme Court case against franchisees; 1969 - went public; 1973 - revenues of $27 million; 1978 - acquired by Tom/Agnes Carvel (went private); late 1981 - gross revenues of $180 million, more than 8,000 employees; 1985 - 865 franchise stores, revenues of $300 million; 1989 - 90% Carvel interest acquired by Investcorp (Bahrain) for about $80 million; 700 stores, third-largest ice-cream operation in United States; 1998 - sales of about $200 million ($95 million from supermarkets); 1999 - franchise stores down to 400, retail presence in 4,500 supermarkets; 2001 - acquired by Roark Capital (Atlanta, GA).

Thomas Andreas Carvelas (Tom Carvel) - Carvel Ice Cream (http://www.carvel90210.com/images/tomcarvel.gif?nxg_versionuid=published)

Mid 1930s - Howard D. Johnson acquired Wayland Red Coach Grill Restaurant; created chain of upscale luxury dining facilities based on pre-Revolutionary American post house theme; featured red-shingled roof, log siding exterior, two massive fieldstone fireplaces, accurate reproduction Colonial fixtures and furnishings inside; August 28, 1962 - Tally Ho Grill of Boston, Inc. registered "Red Coach Grill" trademark first used in 1934 (restaurant services); early 1980s - Imperial Group Ltd. (Howard Johnson Company parent) closed chain.

1935 - Prestley Blake (20) and Curtis Blake (18) co-founded Friendly Ice Cream shop in Springfield, MA with $547 borrowed from their parents; double dip cones for $0.05; 1940 - added food to ice cream menu (hamburger); 1951 - operated 10 Friendly Restaurants in Western Massachusetts, Connecticut; October 19, 1954 - Friendly Ice Cream Corporation registered "Friendly Ice Cream" trademark first used July 18, 1935 (ice cream); 1974 - chain of 500 restaurants concentrated in Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern U.S.; 1979 - acquired by Hershey Foods Corporation; September 1988 - acquired by Donald N. Smith (Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of The Restaurant Company); 1989 - added "s" to name ("Friendly’s"); 2001 - Blake began 7-year, $11 million dollar successful legal fight for control of company with Donald N. Smith (former Friendly’s CEO; didn’t like debt Friendly’s had incurred, Smith’s strategy of closing, selling restaurants to pay down debt; didn’t like relationship between Friendly’s and Perkins, another restaurant company Smith controlled, Smith’s use of corporate jet); August 2007 - Friendly’s acquired by affiliate of Sun Capital partners, Inc. leading private investment firm; 2011 - more than 500 Friendly’s restaurants, sales of $700 million, distribution through more than 6,500 retail locations; October 5, 2011 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection (roughly 10,000 employees, more than 400 restaurants known for sundaes and hamburgers).

Curtis and Prestley Blake - Friendly's (http://www.boston.com/business/ticker/PrestleyBlake.jpg)

1936 - Bob Wian sold his car for $350.00, opened small restaurant in Glendale, CA called called Bob’s Pantry; 1938 - name changed to Bob's Big Boy; 1940s - franchised the concept; May 19, 1953 - Robert C. Wian Enterprises, Inc. registered "Big Boy" trademark first used in December 1947 (hamburger sandwiches); "double-deck" hamburger named for happy, chubby youngster (about 6) who came into restaurant; 1967 - acquired by Marriott Corp. for $7 million; 1987 - acquired by Fred, Louis, John Elias, one of larger franchise operators (since 1951); 2000 - declared bankruptcy; 2001 - acquired by Robert Liggett Jr., former radio station operator (Liggett Broadcast Group); formed "Big Boy Restaurants, LLC".

July 13, 1937 - Vernon Carver Rudolph made, sold first Krispy Kreme doughnuts at shop in Winston-Salem, NC (based on secret yeast-raised doughnut recipe acquired in 1933 from French chef from New Orleans); March 13, 1951 - Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company registered "Krispy Kreme" trademark first used in August 1934 (doughnuts and the mix for making same); 1962 - developed method to extrude by air pressure from dough hopper to trays of continuous proof box to form perfect doughnut shape; May 28, 1976 - acquired by Beatrice Foods Company; February 28, 1982 - acquired by group of franchisees; April 2000 - went public; 2003 - stock price near $50 (adjusted for splits), nearly 400 Krispy Kreme stores produced nearly 3 billion doughnuts/year.

August 4, 1938 - Sherb Noble ran "All the Ice Cream You Can Eat for 10 Cents'' special" at Herb's, walk-in ice cream store in Kankakee, IL; featured soft frozen dairy product (soft-serve ice cream) created by J. F. ``Grandpa'' McCullough (67) and Alex (40, son) in ice-cream mix plant business in Green River, IL; dished out more than 1,600 servings of new dessert in 2 hours; June 22, 1940 - Noble opened first Dairy Queen store  in Joliet, IL; triple-decker cone was a nickel, sundae sold for 8 cents; 1941 - McCulloughs opened second store in Moline, IL; December 1941 - fewer than 10 Dairy Queen stores; 1947 - 100 stores; 1950 - 1,446 stores; 1955 - 2,600 stores; March 13, 1962 - McCullough's Dairy Queen registered "Dairy Queen" trademark first used June 1940 (Machine for Freezing and Dispensing a Semi-Frozen Dairy Product); 1962 - group of territory operators formed International Dairy Queen Inc.; Hugh McCullough (Alex's son) sold stake for $1.5 million; January 1998 - acquired by Berkshire Hathaway Inc.; 2007 - more than 5,900 restaurants in United States, Canada, 20 foreign countries.

1940 - Colonel Harlan Sanders created Original Kentucky Fried Chicken Recipe (made honorary Colonel by Kentucky Governor Ruby Laffoon in 1936 in recognition of his contributions to state's cuisine); 1952 - awarded Pete Harman of Salt Lake City with first KFC franchise; handshake agreement stipulated payment of nickel to Sanders for each chicken sold; 1957 - Kentucky Fried Chicken first sold in buckets; 1960 - 190 KFC franchisees, 400 franchise units in U.S. and Canada; 1964 - Sanders sold his interest in U.S. company for $2 million to a group of investors headed by John Y. Brown Jr., future governor of Kentucky; remained public spokesman for company; August 23, 1966 - Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation registered "Colonel Sanders' Recipe Kentucky Fried Chicken" trademark first used December 1950 (fresh prepared chicken and gravy, packaged and sole in retail trade, prepared potatoes, chicken parts, biscuits, baked beans, barbecue, and salads);  1971 - more than 3,500 franchised, company-owned restaurants worldwide; acquired by Heublein Inc.

January 16, 1945 - Carl (28) and Margaret Karcher opened full-service restaurant, Carl’s Drive-In Barbeque, in Anaheim, CA (had owned, operated hot dog carts since 1941); 1946 - added hamburgers to menu; 1956 - opened first two Carl’s Jr.® restaurants (junior versions of Carl’s original drive-in restaurant) in Anaheim, nearby Brea; 1966 - incorporated Carl Karcher Enterprises, Inc.; October 20, 1970 - Carl Karcher Enterprises, Inc.  registered "Carl's Jr." trademark first used February 1964 (restaurant services); 1975 - more than 100 Carl’s Jr. locations in Southern California; America's fourth largest burger chain; 1977 - first quick-service chain to offer salad bars in all 200 locations; 1979 - sales exceeded the $100 million; 1981 - 300 restaurants in operation, went public; 1989 - sales topped $480 million at 534 restaurants; 1994 - became wholly-owned subsidiary of CKE Restaurants, Inc.; 1997 - acquired Hardee's Food Systems; 2006 -sales of $1.52 billion, 29,000 employees.

Carl Karcher - CKE Restaurants, Inc. (http://www.nndb.com/people/691/000025616/carlkarcherbig.jpg)

1945 - Irvine Robbins opened the Snowbird Ice Cream Store in Glendale, CA; 1946 - Burton Baskin, brother-in-law, joined Robbins to found Baskin-Robbins; 1953 - big "31" sign made its debut at all Baskin-Robbins stores, offered customers a different ice cream for every day of the month; March 14, 1961 - Huntington Ice Cream Company (doing business as Baskin-Robbins Ice Cream Corporation) registered "Baskin-Robbins 31 Ice Cream" trademark first used September 23, 1953 (confections, namely ice cream); 1973 - acquired by J. Lyons & Co.; 1978 - acquired by Allied Domecq. 

Irvine Robbins - co-founder Baskin-Robbins (http://www.glendalehistorical.org/images/robbins.gif)

1946 - Dave Barham opened first Hot Dog on a Stick at Muscle Beach, Santa Monica, CA; 1990 - 60 stores operating in 12 states; 2006 - 105 company-owned U.S. locations plus 25 franchised units; 100% owned and operated by its employees.

1946 - Arthur J. Preston opened Preston's Candy & Ice Cream in Burlingame, CA; winner of many international awards, including Grand Champion Medallion of International Truffle Competition for three years in a row, numerous awards in the Retail Confectioners International competition.

1948 - Esther and Harry Snyder founded In-N-Out Burgers, West Coast drive-through chain, in Baldwin park, CA (same year as McDonald brothers opened first limited-menu fast-food restaurant in San Bernadino, CA, 43 miles away); strategy: limited menu choices, fresh food, deliberately slow growth (202 restaurants, $350 million annual sales vs. 31,886 restaurants, $20.4 billion annual sales for McDonalds); October 21, 1975 - In-N-Out Burgers Corporation registered "In-N-Out Burgers" trademark first used February 1960 (restaurant services and carry-out restaurant services).

December 12, 1948 - Richard and Maurice McDonald opened drive -in restaurant in San Bernardino, CA; featured hamburgers (15 cents), french fries (10 cents), fast service (Speedee Service System); 1955 - exclusive McDonald's franchising acquired by Ray Kroc.

1950 - William Rosenberg changed name of "Open Kettle" restaurant in Quincy, MA (founded 1948) to Dunkin' Donuts; 1955 - first franchise established in Worcester, MA; February 2, 1960 - Dunkin' Donuts of America, Inc. registered "Dunkin' Donuts" trademark first used in May 1952 (doughnuts and doughnut flour, fruit fillings for doughnuts, cookies, cakes and pies, vegetable oil shortening and coffee); 1963 - 100th opened; 1979 - 1000th opened; 1982 - Fred the Baker, "Time to Make the Donuts" television campaign began; 1990 - acquired by Allied Domecq PLC; 1995 - 1000th international shop opened; 2000 - opened 2000th shop worldwide; 2005 - Pernod Ricard, Fortune Brands acquired Allied Domecq $14.2 billion; December 14, 2005 - Thomas H. Lee Partners, Carlyle Group, Bain Capital announced definitive agreement to acquire Dunkin' Brands Inc. from Pernod Ricard SA $2.425 billion (12.8 times cash flow); number one retailer of coffee-by-the-cup in America (nearly one billion cups a year); largest coffee, baked goods chain in world (more than 6,500 shops in 29 countries); 2006 -  worldwide system sales - $6.4 billion.

William Rosenberg - Dunkin' Donuts (http://www.dunkindonuts.com/content/dunkindonuts/en/company/ founder/_jcr_content/centerPar/feature/image.img.jpg/1292018897289.jpg)

October 1950 - Marilyn and Harry Lewis opened Sunset Strip cafe; evolved into Hamburger Hamlet, string of show-biz-themed, carpet-and-chandelier grills in upper-midscale market; 1969 - went public; 1988 - 24-unit chain (1987 sales of sales of $44.8 million) acquired by Weatherly Private Capital Inc. for $33 million; December 6, 1995 - filed for bankruptcy protection; 1997 - 14 restaurants acquired by Koo Koo Roo, Inc. for$11.45 million; 1998 - Koo Koo Roo Enterprises, Family Restaurant Group, Restaurant Enterprises Group Inc. merged, formed Prandium Inc.; May 2002 - filed for bankruptcy protection; July 2002 - emerged from bankruptcy; October 8, 2003 - filed for bankruptcy; 2004 - 12-unit Hamlet Group chain acquired by Andrew Tavakoli for $10 million.

1951 - Robert O. Peterson founded Jack In The Box; hamburgers with speed, convenience of the automobile; American Drive-Through; first modern, fast-food, limited menu, cash-only restaurant.

1953 - Bob Evans formed Bob Evans Farms Inc. with five friends, relatives; 1962 - first restaurant, The Sausage Shop, 12-stool diner in Gallipolis, OH; September 2, 1969 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc. registered "Bob Evans Farms" trademark first used September 15, 1964 (smoked sausage and smoke pork sausage); 2006 - sales of $1.7 billion, 579 restaurants in 18 states.

Bob Evans - Bob Evans Farms (hhttp://www.bobevans.com/resources/uploaded/Our%20Company/History%20and%20Legacy/Bob%20Evans.jpg)

1953 - Troy Smith, partner opened Top Hat root beer stand (profit margins were four times greater), Log House Restaurant in  Shawnee, OK; 1955 - Smith ended partnership, got out of Log House Restaurant; focused on turning Top Hat root beer stand into successful drive-in concept; pioneered use of angled, covered parking, intercom speaker system that allowed customers to place orders from their cars; “Service With the Speed of Sound” - tagline for Top Hat; concept took off; drive-in located in Stillwater, OK first Top Hat to adopt fledgling chain’s new name of Sonic ('speed of sound'); 2009 - nearly 3,600 Sonic Drive-Ins located in 42 states.

1953 - Harold Butler opened Danny's Donuts in Lakewood, CA; 1954 - renamed Danny's Coffee Shops; 1959 - renamed Denny’s Restaurants (sued by Coffee Dan's chain over brand-name similarity), with 20 Denny’s serving customers by year’s end.

1954 - James McLamore, David Edgerton founded Burger King Corporation in Miami, FL; hamburger cost 18¢; 1957 - WHOPPER® sandwich introduced, cost 37¢; 1961 - operated 45 restaurants throughout Florida, Southeast;  McLamore and Edgerton acquired national franchise rights for the Company; October 3, 1961 - Burger King of Florida, Inc. registered "Burger King: trademark first used July 28, 1953 (drive-in restaurant services).

April 15, 1955 - Ray Kroc opened first franchised McDonald's in Des Plaines, IL after having bought exclusive franchising rights from Richard and Maurice McDonald of San Bernadino, CA (first day's sales: $366.12); 1961 - 228 McDonald's franchises, generated $37 million in gross profits; bought out McDonald brothers for $2.7 million; 1963 - Ronald McDonald made debut as corporate spokesclown;  January 8, 1963 - McDonald's Self-Service System registered "McDonald's" trademark first used December 1948 (drive-in restaurant services); 1965 - went public at $22.50 a share; split 12 times in next 35 years; 1975 - first drive-through window; 2000 -  sales in U.S. peaked at average of $1.6 million/year/per rfestaurant.

1957 - Dan Carney read article from Saturday Evening Post about pizza fad on college campuses, shown to him by landlady of Carney family's grocery store and small beer bar next door (she wanted to get out of bar business); June 15, 1958 - Dan and Frank Carney borrowed $600 from their mother, remodeled tavern next door to family market, opened first Pizza Hut in Wichita, KS; first sign had room for only nine letters, including "pizza"; chose "hut" because facility shaped like one; 1959 - five stores, 310 stores in first decade; April 10, 1962 - Pizza Hut, Inc. registered "Pizza Hut" trademark first used September 1, 1958 (restaurant services); 1964 - basic free-standing design of standardized Pizza Hut restaurants opened; 1977 - 3,400 domestic and international stores; acquired by PepsiCo. for $300 million; 1997 - spun off into Tricon; May 16, 2002 - Tricon officially became YUM! Brands.

Frank and Dan Carney - Co-Founders Pizza Hut (http://webs.wichita.edu/depttools/depttoolsmemberfiles/shockermag/18/carneys.jpg)

July 7, 1958 - Al and Jerome Lapin, early investors Albert and Trudy Kallis opened first International House of Pancakes in Toluca Lake, CA; 1960 - began expansion through franchising; 1961 - went public; 1963 - adopted name International Industries; March 23, 1965 - International Industries, Inc. registered "International House of Pancakes" trademark first used February 26, 1960 (restaurant services); 1973 - introduced IHOP acronym; July 16, 1974 - International Industries, Inc. registered "IHOP" trademark first used November 1972 (restaurant services); 1992 - 500th IHOP opened; 1993 - average sales per IHOP exceeded $1 million; 1998 - system wide sales exceeded $1 billion; 2001 - 1,000th IHOP opened; July 16, 2007 - said it would pay $1.9 billion for Applebee's International, casual dining chain of restaurants.

Al Lapin - Founder of IHOP Al Lapin - founder IHOP (http://image2.findagrave.com/photos250/photos/2006/309/8960296_116285644612.jpg)

1958 - David Tallichet opened The Reef, South Seas-inspired waterfront restaurant, on edge of harbor in Long Beach, CA; pioneered theme restaurants, founded multi-concept restaurant company, Specialty Restaurants Corp.; 1968 - went public; 1980 - sales peaked at $180 million; went private; 1993 - filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy (operated 50 restaurants); 2007 - operated 25 restaurants.

August 22, 1958 - Ben and Virginia Ali opened Ben's Chili Bowl on U St. ("Black Broadway") in Washington, DC; used $5,000, renovated 1909 building (former Minnehaha Theater); frequented by Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, Bessie Smith, Ella Fitzgerald, Cab Calloway, Nat King Cole, Redd Foxx, Dick Gregory, Martin Luther King Jr., Bill Cosby; May 2001 - Ben and Virginia inducted into DC Hall of Fame.

Ben Ali - Ben's Chili Bowl (http://www.roadfood.com/photos/3216.JPG)

July 1959 - Jerry Brody, CEO of Restaurant Associates, Joseph Baum, head of Restaurant Associates Industries's specialty restaurant division, opened Four Seasons Restaurant (named after a haiku collection) in Seagram's Building; $4.5 million project in the Seagram Building with interior design by Philip Johnson, artworks by Miro and Picasso; five dining rooms seated 400, employed 20 captains, 50 waiters, 15 busboys; 1972 - acquired for $230,000 by Tom Margittai, Restaurant Associates Vice President, and Paul Kovi, Four Seasons director (1973 sales of $2 million); 1984 - $12 million annual sales; October 1989 - first Manhattan restaurant to achieve landmark status; 1995 - acquired by Joseph W. Seagram Company.

1960 - Tom and James Monaghan borrowed $500, bought "Domi-Nick's," pizza store in Ypsilanti, MI; 1961 - James traded his half of business to Tom for Volkswagen Beetle; 1965 - Tom Monaghan sole owner of company, renamed "Domino's Pizza, Inc." 1967 - opened first Domino's Pizza franchise store in Ypsilanti, MI; 1968 - opened first Domino's store outside of Michigan, in Burlington, VT; 1978 - opened 200th Domino's store; August 25, 1981 - Domino's Pizza, Inc. registered "Domino's Pizza" trademark first used February 1965 (Rendering Technical Assistance in the Establishment and Operation of Stores Exclusively Engaged in the Baking and Delivering of Hot Pizza Pies Made to Order for Consumption Off the Premises); 1983 - 1,000th Domino's store opened; 1985 - opened 954 units, total of 2,841; fastest-growing pizza company in country; 1989 - opened 5,000th store; 1990 - signed 1,000th franchise; 1998 - Monaghan retired, sold 93% of Company to Bain Capital, Inc.; 1999 - worldwide sales exceeded $3.36 billion; 2012 - opened 10,000 store in Istanbul, Turkey.

September 3, 1960 - Wilbur Hardee founded Hardee's restaurant chain with drive-in hamburger stand near East Carolina University campus in Greenville, NC; no tables, no waiters, 15-cent fresh-ground, lean beef burger made to order on custom-build charcoal broiler; May 5, 1961 - Jim Gardner, Leonard Rawl to opened first Hardee's franchise restaurant in Rocky Mount, NC; November 20, 1962 - Hardee's Food Systems, Inc. registered "Hardee's" trademark first used October 21, 1961 (restaurant services); 1963 - went public; introduced pagoda-style building; Hardee lost 51% controlling interest in company in card game with Gardener, Rawl; sold remaining stake for $37,000; March 8, 1966 - Hardee's food Systems, Inc. registered "Hardee's L'il Chef" trademark first used April 7, 1963 (restaurant services); 1981 - acquired by Imasco Ltd. (Canadaian conglomerate); became nation's fourth-largest burger quick-service restaurant chain; 1997 - acquired by Carl's, Jr. (became CKE Restaurants, Inc.); 2008 - 1,900 Hardee's across Midwest, Southeast, 200 international locations.

Wilbur Hardee - Hardee's Food Systems (http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/j/msnbc/components/photo_storylevel/080623/080623-obit-hardee-vsmall5p.rp98x98.jpg)

April 21, 1962 - President John F. Kennedy opened "Top of the Needle" in  Seattle, WA, by remote control from Palm Beach, FL; first revolving restasurant in U.S. (originally called "Eye of the Needle", on top of "The Space Cage"); unmatched in its 360° panoramic view of Seattle skyline, Puget Sound; 2000 - re-opened as SkyCity, larger restaurant, rotated 360 degrees in exactly 47 minutes.  

 1964 - Tim Horton, legend in National Hockey League, sold first Tim Hortons franchise, on Ottawa Street in Hamilton, ON, to Ron Joyce, former police officer; offered only two products – coffee, donuts; 1967 - Joyce became full partner; 1975 - Joyce became sole owner (Horton died in traffic accident); 40 stores; 1976 - introduced Timbit (bite-sized donut hole); grew into largest quick service restaurant chain in Canada; January 4, 1983 - Tim Donut Limited registered "Tim Horton" trademark (restaurant and take-out services); February 1987 - opened 300th store in Calgary, AB; 1995 - merged with Wendy’s International, Inc.; 95% franchise owned, operated; 1997 - 1500th store opened in Pickerington, OH; December 2000 - 2000th store opened in Toronto, ON; September 29, 2006 - spun off as a separate company; December 2006 - 3000th store opened in Orchard Park, NY.

Ron Joyce, Tim Horton - Tim Hortons (http://www.timhortons.com/ca/images/general/history1967.jpg)

January 15, 1964 - Elmer Valentine, former Chicago police officer, invested $20,000 of partnership profits from P.J.'s nightclub, opened Whiskey a Go Go in a bank building on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Clark Street in West Hollywood, CA; patterned after Whiskey a Go Go discotheque in Paris, became musical legend of 1960s; introduced go-go girl suspended in cage; Doors (with Jim Morrison) were house band; signed Johnny Rivers (21) to one-year contract; opened satellite branches in San Francisco, Atlanta; 1990s - sold his interest.

July 23, 1964 - Leroy and Forrest Raffel opened Arby's (R.B., initials of Raffel Brothers) Roast Beef Restaurant in Boardman, OH; January 4, 1966 - Arby's Inc. registered "Arby's Roast beef sandwich Is Delicious" trademark first used November 20, 1961 (restaurant services); 1970s - added average of 50 restaurants a year; 1981 - opened 1,000th restaurant; 1993 - acquired by Triarc Companies, Inc.; July 25, 2005 - Triarc acquired RTM Restaurant Group, Arby's largest franchisee, formed Arby's Restaurant Group, Inc. (more than 3,500 restaurants.

Leroy and Forrest Raffel - founders Arby's (http://arbys.com/desktop/images/about/company-history/photos/1964.jpg)

1965 - Ruth Fertel, divorced mother raising two sons, mortgaged her New Orleans home for $22,000, bought Chris's Steak House; renamed it Ruth's Chris Steak House; 1976 - original Ruth's Chris Steak House destroyed in a fire; 1977 - opened second restaurant in Metairie, LA; granted first franchise for a Ruth's Chris Steak House in Baton Rouge; July 31, 1979 - Ruth's Chris Steak House, Inc. registered "Ruth's Chris" trademark first used in 1973 (restaurant and lounge servcies); 1999 - acquired for $160 million by private equity firm; August 9, 2005 - IPO gave company market capitalization of $400 million.

August 14, 1956 - Federal Nut Co., Inc. registered "Chock Full O' Nuts-The Heavenly Coffee" trademark first used July 1, 1953 (coffee).

1966 - Norm Brinker founded Steak & Ale restaurants; 1976 - acquired by Pillsbury; 1983 - bought Chili's; 1990 - renamed Brinker International.

1967 - Jim Delligatti, Uniontown, PA McDonald's franchisee (one of Ray Kroc's earliest franchisees) introduced Big Mac; added lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions, and most important, the "special sauce," to create one of world's best-known hamburgers; 1968 - offered throughout McDonald's system; July 30, 1974 - registered "Big Mac" trademark January 1, 1971 (specially prepared carry-out type foods).

1968 - Bill Darden opened first Red Lobster in Lakeland, FL; 1995 - together with Olive Garden, Bahama Breeze became part of Darden Restaurants; 2007 - close to 700 Red Lobster locations in United States, Canada.

November 15, 1969 - Dave Thomas opened first Wendy's Old-Fashioned Hamburgers outlet in downtown Columbus, OH; named for 8-year-olld daughter, Melinda Lo, nicknamed, Wendy; April 6, 1971 - Wendy's Old Fashioned Foods, Inc. registered "Wendy's" trademark first used November 15, 1969 (restaurant services and carryout restaurant services); August 1972 - first franchise sold; March 2, 2007 - original restaurant closed.

August 28, 1971 - Alice Waters opened Chez Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, CA; started an organic food movement.

1973 - McDonald's introduced Egg McMuffin; created by Herb Peterson (operated Santa Barbara McDonald's); used teflon-coated ring to make round eggs.

1979 - McDonald's introduced Happy Meal; created by Bob Charles, Colorado franchisee); added toy to children's orders.

1979 - Tim and Nina Zagat published 2-page typed list of New York restaurants compiled from reviews from friends; delivered to bookstores which would stock it; 2000 - third of company acquired by investment group led by General Atlantic Partners (valued company qt $100 million); 2007 - sold 5.5 million guides in more than 100 countries, 1.5 million registered web site users.

February 1982 - Austrian-born Wolfgang Puck opened Spago (Italian for string) on Sunset Strip in West Hollywood to serve simple, fresh, innovative food by skilled, friendly staff in casually sophisticated yet comfortable environment (former part owner of Ma Maison, magnet for Hollywood's rich and famous); first signature dish, gourmet pizza topped with smoked salmon and caviar, put restaurant Los Angeles foodie map; 1986 - regularly featured guest on ABC's "Good Morning America"; 1990 - Spgao grossing $6 million per year; 1997 - Spago Beverly Hills opened; 2000 - Emmy-winning television series, "Wolfgang Puck," debuted on Food Network (aired for five seasons).

Wolfgang Puck Wolfgang Puck - Spago (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/ Oscar_Official_Chef_Wolfgang_Puck.jpg/220px-Oscar_Official_Chef_Wolfgang_Puck.jpg)

March 2, 1984 - first McDonald's franchise closed -- in Des Plaines, IL.

June 6, 1986 - Ronn Teitelbaum opened first Johnny Rockets on Melrose Avenue, Los Angeles; June 3, 2005 - 175th restaurant opened in Hicksville, New York.

January 31, 1990  - McDonald's Corp. opened first fast-food restaurant in Moscow; throngs lined up to pay equivalent of several days' wages for Big Macs, shakes, french fries.

April 10, 1991 - Last automat (coin operated cafeteria) closes (3rd and 42nd St, New York City).

April 23, 1992 - McDonald's opened its first restaurant in Beijing.

December 7, 2006 - Rank Group PLC agreed to sell Hard Rock cafes, including massive collection of rock 'n' roll memorabilia, for $965 million to Seminole Tribe of Florida (124 Hard Rock Cafes, four Hard Rock Hotels, two Hard Rock Casino Hotels, two Hard Rock Live! concert venues, stakes in three unbranded hotels); Seminoles own, operate five other casinos in Florida;  90 percent of the tribe's budget comes from gaming revenue.

March 30, 2008 - Restaurant traffic does not always fall during a recession (NPD Group):

(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/03/30/business/ 20080330_COUNT_GRAPHIC.jpg)

April 24, 2008 - Wendy's International Inc. signed $2.3 billion merger agreement with Triarc Companies Inc., franchisers of Arby's restaurant system; created third largest quick-service restaurant chain in U.S., with approximately $12.5 billion in annual sales, more than 10,000 units; Triarc changed name to incorporate Wendy's.

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  James W. McLamore (left) - co-founder Burger King (http://www.uvag.de/_data/burgerking.jpg)

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Alice Alice Waters - Chez Panisse (http://www.edutopia.org/images/graphics/alice-waters.jpg)

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(Chick-Fil-A), S. Truett Cathy (2002). Eat Mor Chikin: Inspire More People. (Decatur, GA: Looking Glass Books, 200 p.). Cathy, S. Truett; Chick-Fil-A Corporation--History; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Fast food restaurants--United States--History.

(Chocolate Chocolate), Frances Park and Ginger Park. (2011). Chocolate Chocolate: The True Story of Two Sisters, Tons of Treats, and the Little Shop That Could. (New York, NY: St. Martin's/Dunne, 288 p.). Sisters, Founders of Chocolate Chocolate. Park, Frances, 1955-; Park, Ginger; Chocolate Chocolate (Firm); Chocolate industry --United States --History; Candy industry --United States --History; Chocolate candy --United States --History. January 1984 - Sisters opened Chocolate Chocolate in downtown Washington, DC; transformed no name shop into nationally celebrated boutique.

(CKE Restaurants, Inc.), Carl N. Karcher with B. Carolyn Knight Karcher (1991). Never Stop Dreaming: Fifty Years of Making it Happen. (San Marcos, CA: Robert Erdmann Publ. Karcher, Carl Nicholas; CKE Restaurants, Inc. 

(Coach & Horses ), Norman Balon with Spencer Bright (1991). You're Barred, You Bastards! (London, UK: Sidgwick & Jackson, 184 p.). Balon, Norman, 1927- ; Coach & Horses (Bar)--History; Restaurateurs--England--London--Biography.

(Coffee Republic), Sahar and Bobby Hashemi (2004). Anyone Can Do It: Building Coffee Republic from Our Kitchen Table: 57 Real-Life Laws on Entrepreneurship. (Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Capstone, 198 p. [orig. pub. 2002]). Coffee Republic (Firm) History; Coffeehouses Great Britain History; Coffeehouses Great Britain Management; New business enterprises Great Britain. 

(Copacabana), Kristin Baggelaar (2006). The Copacabana. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Copacabana (Night club : New York, N.Y.)--Pictorial works; Entertainers--United States--Portraits.  Manhattan's best-known night club, most popular nightspot in America. 

(Copacabana), Mickey Podell-Raber with Charles Pignone (10/1/2007). The Copa: Jules Podell and the Hottest Club North of Havana. (New York, NY: Collins, 256 p.). Daughter of longtime Copacabana owner Jules Podell. Copacabana (Night club : New York, NY); Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.)--New York (State)--New York--History--20th century. History of Jules Podell's legendary club Copacabana; Russian immigrant dropped out of fourth grade to make money for his family, created number one destination for rich, famous, dangerous of New York.

(D & E Restaurant), Erlinda Enriquez Panlilio (2000). Teacher to Tycoon: The Life and Times of Trinidad Diaz Enriquez. (Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Pub., 309 p.). Enriquez, Trinidad Diaz, 1908- ; Hotelkeepers--Philippines--Biography; Restaurateurs--Philippines--Biography.

(Dairy Queen), Caroline H. Otis (1990). The Cone with the Curl on Top: Celebrating Fifty Years 1940-1990. (Minneapolis, MN: International Dairy Queen, 160 p.). International Dairy Queen, Inc.--History; Ice cream industry--United States--History.

(Dairy Queen), Bob Miglani (2006). Treat Your Customers: Thirty Lessons on Service and Sales that I Learned at My Family’s Dairy Queen Store (New York, N.Y. : Hyperion, 152 p.). International Dairy Queen, Inc.; Customer relations; Customer services. Winning strategies for sales, service using anecdotes, analogies from 21-years of experience working at family’s Dairy Queen® store; coping with angry customers, minimizing stress, making customer service providers feel great about doing their jobs.

(Daniel), Leslie Brenner (2002). The Fourth Star: Dispatches from Inside Daniel Boulud's Celebrated New York Restaurant. (New York, NY: Clarkson Potter, 314 p.). Food Writer. Boulud, Daniel; Daniel (Restaurant). 

(Delmonico's), Robert V.P. Steele (1967). Delmonico's. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 374 p.). Delmonico's.

(Delmonico's), Judith Choate, James Canora photographs by Stev Pool (2008). Dining at Delmonico's: A Trip Through Time at New York's Oldest Restaurant. (New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 224 p.). Award-winning author and coauthor of more than 20 cookbooks; Corporate Chef of Delmonico’s; New York–based photographer. Delmonico’s Restaurant (New York, N.Y.) --History; Cookery. Country’s first real restaurant (opened in Manhattan’s Financial District in 1837); first American restaurant to use tablecloths, to offer private dining rooms, to furnish a separate wine list, to admit women diners, to re-envision haute cuisine for American palate; tradition of exquisite food served in luxurious setting.

(Denny's), Jim Adamson with Rosemary Bray McNatt and Robert McNatt (2000). The Denny's Story: How a Company in Crisis Resurrected Its Good Name and Reputation (New York, NY: Wiley, 205 p.). Denny's, Inc.

(Domino's Pizza), Tom Monaghan with Robert Anderson (1986). Pizza Tiger. (New York, NY: Random House, 346 p.). Monaghan, Tom, 1937- ; Domino's Pizza (Firm); Restaurateurs--United States--Biography.

Thomas S. Monaghan - Domino's Pizza (http://blog.mlive.com/businessreview/annarbor_impact/2008/12/ large_webp1monaghan.jpg)

(Dunkin' Donuts), William Rosenberg with Jessica Brilliant Keener (2001). Time To Make the Donuts. (New York, NY: Lebhar-Friedman Books, 255 p.). Founder, Dunkin' Donuts. Rosenberg, William, 1916- ; Dunkin' Donuts (Firm) Biography; Dunkin' Donuts (Firm) History; Restaurateurs United States Biography.; Businesspeople United States Biography; Entrepreneurship United States; Franchises (Retail trade) United States History.

(Elaine's), A.E. Hotchner (2004). Everyone Comes to Elaine's: Forty Years of Neighborhood Regulars, Movie Stars, All-Stars, Literary Lions, Financial Scions, Top Cops, Politicians, and Power Brokers at the Legendary Hot Spot. (New York, NY: Harper Entertainment, 256 p.). A Regular at Elaine's. Kaufman, Elaine; Elaine's Restaurant (New York, N.Y.). 

(El Bulli), Colman Andrews (2010). Ferran: The Inside Story of El Bulli and the Man Who Reinvented Food. (New York, NY: Gotham Books, 320 p.). Cofounder and a Former Editor in Chief of Saveur. Adrià, Ferran; elBulli (Restaurant) --History; Restaurateurs --Spain --Biography; Avant-garde (Aesthetics). Ferran Adrià - arguably today's greatest culinary revolutionary; reservation harder than 50-yardline tickets to Super Bowl; rise from resort-hotel dishwasher to culinary deity; evolution of El Bulli from German-owned beach bar to establishment voted annually by international jury as "the world's best restaurant"; Franco-era childhood near Barcelona, El Bulli's creative "disco-beach" days, modern-day creative wonderland of restaurant kitchen; original techniques: deconstruction, spherification, creation of culinary foams and airs; profoundly reimagined basic characteristics of food's forms, celebrated, intensified natural flavors of raw materials; creativity, imagination - genius that transcends chef's métier, can inspire, enlighten; ways in which Adrià has changed world, altered understanding, appreciation of food and cooking.

Ferran Adria - El Bulli (http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/OB-FJ539_ferran_G_20100127123922.jpg)

(Falls), David Blum (1992). Flash in the Pan: The Life and Death of an American Restaurant. (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 302 p.). Falls (Restaurant). 

(Fior d'Italia), Francine Brevetti; Foreword by John T. Lescroart (2005). The Fabulous Fior - Over 100 Years in an Italian Kitchen. (Nevada City, CA: San Francisco Bay Books, 170 p.). Granddaughter of Waiter (Alberto Puccetti) at the Fior d'Italia a Century Ago. Fior d'Italia; Italian cookery; San Francisco--restaurants. 

(Four Seasons), John Mariani with Alex Von Bidder (1994). The Four Seasons: A History of America's Premier Restaurant (New York, NY: Crown, 205 p.). Four Seasons (Restaurant)--history.

(Friendly's), S. Prestley Blake, Alan Farnham (2011). A Friendly Life. (St. Johnsbury, VT: Raphel Marketing, 132 p.). Co-Founder; Former Senior Editor (Forbes). Blake, S. Priestly; Friendly Ice Cream Corp. -- history. 

(Fuddrucker's), Phil Romano with Steve McLinden (2005). Food for Thought: How the Creator of Fuddrucker's, Romano's Macaroni Grill, and Eatzi's Built a $10 Billion Empire One Concept at a Time. (Chicago, IL: Dearborn Financial Pub., 224 p.). Restaurateur. Romano, Phil; Restaurateurs--Biography. 

Phil Romano - Fuddrucker's (http://www.heroesforhumanity.com/myhero/img/Phil%2BRomano.jpg)

(Galatoire’s Restaurant), Marda Burton & Kenneth Holditch (2004). Galatoire’s: Biography of a Bistro. (Athens, GA: Hill Street Press, 229 p.). Freelance Travel Journalist; Professor Emeritus (University of New Orleans). Galatoire’s Restaurant. 

(Golden Ball Tavern), Howard Gambrill, Jr., and Charles Hambrick-Stowe; introd. by Marley Brown (1977). The Tavern and the Tory: The Story of the Golden Ball Tavern (Weston, MA: Golden Ball Tavern Trust, 103 p.). Jones, Isaac, 1728-1813; Weston, Mass. Golden Ball Tavern; Merchants--Massachusetts--Weston--Biography; Weston (Mass.)--Biography.

(Great Race Pizza Shoppe), Robert P. Welsh (1993). 3 Pies Hot!: A Race to Nowhere (Columbus, OH: Glass Onion Publications, 272 p.). Great Race Pizza Shoppe, Inc.; Restaurant management--Ohio; Pizza--Ohio.

(Green & Black’s), Craig Sams and Josephine Fairley (2008). Sweet Dreams: The Story of Green & Black’s. (London, UK: Random House Business Books, 260 p.). Founders (husband, wife). 1991 - Craig Sams, Jo Fairley launched organic chocolate bar; created name in 10 minutes ("Green" for organic button, "Black" for darkness created by high cocoa content); became $100 million brand; 2003 - new investors, 5% stake acquired by Cadbury; 2005 - full control acquired by Cadbury.

(Green Papaya), Lien Yeomans (2001). Green Papaya: New Fruit from Old Seeds: How I Seduced Australia with My Food. (Milsons Point, NSW: Random House Australia, 222 p.). Yeomans, Lien; Green Papaya (Restaurant); Restaurateurs--Australia--Biography; Women cooks--Australia--Biography; Cookery, Vietnamese.

(Hamburger Hamlets Inc.), Marilyn Lewis (2000). "Marilyn, Are You Sure You Can Cook?" He Asked: A Memoir. (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 224 p.). Lewis, Marilyn, 1929- ; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Cookery, American. 

(Hardee's), Wilber Hardee (2000). Life and Times of Wilber Hardee: Founder of Hardee's. (Omaha, NE: iUniverse, 148 p.). Hardee, Wilber; Hardee's; fast food restaurants--United States. 

(Harry’s Bar), Arrigo Cipriani (1996). Harry’s Bar: The Life and Times of the Legendary Venice Landmark. (New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 188 p.). Harry’s Bar (Venice, Italy)--History; Cookery, Italian; Celebrities--Social life and customs. Founded 1931, located just off the Palazzo San Marco.

(Fred Harvey), Lesley Poling-Kempes (1989). The Harvey Girls: Women Who Opened the West. (New York, NY: Paragon House, 252 p.). Fred Harvey (Firm)--History; Waitresses--Southwest, New--History; Women--Southwest, New--History; Tourism--Southwest, New--History; Southwest, New--History--1848-; Southwest, New--Social conditions.

Fashionable Fred Harvey wears a frock coat, vest and pocket watch.






Fred Harvey (http://www.kshs.org/publicat/kaleidoscope/graphics/2002april_harvey.jpg)

(Fred Harvey), Kathleen L. Howard and Diana F. Pardue; in cooperation with the Heard Museum; foreword by Martin Sullivan (1996). Inventing the Southwest: The Fred Harvey Company and Native American Art. (Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Pub., 150 p.). Fred Harvey (Firm)--History; Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company--History; Indian art--Southwest, New--History; Pueblo art--History; Tourism--Southwest, New--History.

(Fred Harvey), Edited by Marta Weigle and Barbara A. Babcock (1996). The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company and the Santa Fe Railway. (Phoenix, AZ: Heard Museum, 254 p.). Fred Harvey (Firm) --History; Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company --History; Pueblo art --History; Pueblo Indians --Industries; Indian art --Southwest, New --History; Tourism --Southwest, New --History; Indian Art --Collectors and collecting --Southwest, New; Southwest, New --History --1848-. Produced in connection with  exhibit ’Inventing the Southwest: The Fred Harvey Company and Native American Art,’ curated by Diana Pardue and Kathleen Howard".  

(Fred Harvey), Stephen Fried (2010). Appetite for America: How Visionary Businessman Fred Harvey Built a Railroad Hospitality Empire that Civilized the Wild West (New York, NY, Bantam Books, 544 p.). Investigative Journalist and Essayist. Harvey, Fred; Fred Harvey (Firm); Restaurateurs --United States --Biography; Cookery, American. Founding father of nation’s service industry; family business civilized West, introduced America to Americans, from 1880s through World War II; Fred Harvey worked his way up from dishwasher to household name, from single lunch counter into family empire of eating houses and hotels along Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad (historic lodges still in use at Grand Canyon); patronized by princes, presidents, countless travelers looking for best cup of coffee in country; staff of carefully screened single young women (celebrated Harvey Girls) - country’s first female workforce.

(Horn & Hardart), Lorraine B. Diehl and Marianne Hardart (2002). The Automat: The History, Recipes, and Allure of the Art Deco Masterpieces. (New York, NY: Clarkson/Potter, p.). Vending machines.

Joseph Horn (http://www.theautomat.net/images/horn.jpg)

Frank Hardart (http://www.theautomat.net/images/hardart.jpg)

(In-N-Out Burger), Stacy Perman (2009). In-N-Out Burger: A Behind-the-Counter Look at the Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 352 p.). Writer (BusinessWeek). In-N-Out Burger (Firm) --History; Fast food restaurants --United States --History. Begun in tiny shack in 1948; family-owned chain has refused to franchise, be sold; cultural institution with insanely loyal following; unique, profitable business exceeds all expectations; family's struggle to maintain sustainable pop empire against industry it helped pioneer, internal tensions, bitter lawsuit threatened to bring company to brink; counterintuitive approach to doing business; evolution of California fad that transformed into enduring cult of popularity.

Harry, Esther Snyder - In-N-Out Burger (http://www.nhra.com/UserFiles/image/2011/News/July/snyder.gif)

(Iron Horse Restaurant), Marilyn Pearsol Giorgetti (2005). From the Horse's Mouth: A Memoir of San Francisco's Legendary Iron Horse Restaurant, Its Charismatic Owner, and the Giorgetti Family. (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corp., 128 p.). Iron Horse Restaurant; San Francisco restaurants.

 (Jockey), Lorenzo Diaz (1996). Jockey, Historia de un Restaurante. (Barcelona, Spain: Tusquets Editores, 260 p.). Jockey (Restaurant : Madrid, Spain)--History.

(Carl Karcher), B. Carolyn Knight (1981). Making It Happen: The Story of Carl Karcher Enterprises. (Anaheim, CA: C. Karcher Enterprises, 143 p.). Karcher, Carl Nicholas; Carl Karcher Enterprises; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography.

(KFC), Edward G. Klemm, Jr. (1980). Claudia, The Story of Colonel Harland Sanders' Wife. (Los Angeles, CA: Crescent Publications, 95 p.). Sanders, Harland, 1890- ; Sanders, Claudia, 1902- ; Restaurateurs--Kentucky--Biography; Wives--Kentucky--Biography.

Colonel Sanders Colonel Harlan Sanders (http://colonelsanders.com/images/bio_earlyyears.jpg)

(KFC), John Ed Pearce (1982). The Colonel: The Captivating Biography of the Dynamic Founder of a Fast-Food Empire. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 225 p.). Sanders, Harland, 1890- ; Restaurateurs--Kentucky--Biography.

(KFC), Robert Darden (2002). Secret Recipe: Why KFC Is Still Cookin' After 50 Years. (Dallas, TX: Tapestry Press,    p.). Kentucky Fried Chicken (Firm); Restaurant management.

(KFC), Bill Carey (2005). Master of the Big Board: The Life, Times, and Businesses of Jack C. Massey. (Nashville, TN: Cumberland House, 285 p.). Massey, Jack C., 1904-1990; Businessmen --United States --Biography; Capitalists and financiers --United States --Biography. Only person ever to take three companies to New York Stock Exchange; 1964 - bought Harland Sanders's recipe, grew KFC into nationwide chain of restaurants; s1968 - tarted Hospital Corporation of America, chain of for-profit hospitals.

(KFC), Warren Liu (2008). KFC in China: Recipe for Success. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 191 p.). Vice President of Yum! Brands Greater China. Fried Chicken (Firm); International business enterprises --China; Franchises (Retail trade) --China --Marketing. Major contributing factors which catapulted KFC to top of Chinese restaurant service industry in less than two decades; industry leadership position in growth, profitability, market share, brand recognition in world's fastest growing economy.

(Krispy Kreme), Kirk Kazanjian & Amy Joyner; foreword by Dick Clark (2004). Making Dough: The 12 Secret Ingredients of Krispy Kreme's Sweet Success. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 222 p.). Television News Anchor/Business Reporter; Business Reporter (News & Record in North Carolina). Krispy Kreme Doughnuts; Baked products industry United States Case studies. 

(La Cote d'Or), William Echikson (1995). Burgundy Stars: A Year in the Life of a Great French Restaurant. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 311 p.). Loiseau, Bernard, 1951-; La Côte d'Or (Restaurant); Cooks--France--Biography; Burgundy (France)--Social life and customs.

 Bernard Loiseau Bernard Loiseau - La Côte d'Or (http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38876000/jpg/_38876979_ap203bodyfood.jpg)

(La Cote d'Or), Rudolph Chelminski (2005). The Perfectionist: Life and Death in Haute Cuisine. (New York, NY: Gotham, 528 p.). Loiseau, Bernard, 1951-; Cooks--France--Biography; Gastronomy. 

(Le Cirque), Sirio Maccioni and Peter J. Elliott (2004). Sirio: The Story of My Life and Le Cirque. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 432 p.,). Maccioni, Sirio; Le Cirque (Restaurant); Restaurateurs--United States--Biography. 

(The Legacy Companies), Neal Asbury (2010). Conscientious Equity: An American Entrepreneur's Solutions to the World's Greatest Problems. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 240p). Chief Executive of The Legacy Companies; 2008 Recipient United States National Champion Exporter of the Year Award. International trade; Free trade; Competition, Unfair; Social justice. Restructuring of national trade policy from intransigent political ideologies toward world driven by fair international commerce addresses, solves economic instability, destruction of environment, crushing poverty, crippling corruption all over planet.

(Lil' Orbits Inc.), Ed Anderson (1998). Climbing Jacob's Ladder to Wealth & Success: The Making of a Millionaire. (Lakeville, MN: Galde Press, 190 p.). Mini-Donut King. Anderson, Ed., 1931- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship--Biography; New business enterprises--United States--Management. 

(Locke-Ober), Ned and Pam Bradford (1978). Boston's Locke-Ober Café: An Illustrated Social History with Miscellaneous Recipes (New York, NY: Atheneum, 207 p.). Locke-Ober Café (Boston, Mass.).

(Lomando Locatelli), Tony Allan (2006). Making Good: The Inspiring Story of Serial Entrepreneur, Maverick and Restaurateur. (London, UK: Capstone, 240 p.). Britain's Second Wealthiest Restaurateur. Lomando Locatelli. Allan, Tony; Restaurants -- London; Entrepreneurs--London--Biography. Meteoric rise from fishmonger to elite of British entrepreneurs; what Tony Allan did, why he did it the way he did; genuine rags-to-riches story.

(Luby’s Cafeterias Inc.), Carol Dawson and Carol Johnston (2006). House of Plenty The Rise, Fall, and Revival of Luby’s Cafeterias. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 288 p.). Writer; Only Granddaughter of Lola Luby Johnston, Only Child of Luby's Cofounder and Corporate Executive Charles R. Johnston and Gertrude Johnston. Luby’s Cafeterias, Inc.--History; Cafeterias--United States--History. Cafeteria empire that by the 1980s had revenues second only to McDonald's; financial failure during 1990s with non-family leadership, struggle back to solvency.

(Lucky Dogs Inc.), Jerry E. Strahan (1998). Managing Ignatius: The Lunacy of Lucky Dogs and Life in the Quarter. (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 237 p.). Strahan, Jerry E., 1951- ; Talbot, Doug; Lucky Dogs, Inc.--History; Hot dog stands--Louisiana--New Orleans; New Orleans (La.)--Social life and customs.

(Lundy's), Robert Cornfield ; with recipes and food notes by Kathy Gunst (1998). Lundy's: Reminiscences and Recipes from Brooklyn's Legendary Restaurant. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 204 p.). Lundy's (Restaurant)--History; Cookery (Seafood).

(Lutece), Irene Daria (1993). Lutèce: A Day in the Life of America's Greatest Restaurant. (New York, NY: Random House, 230 p.). Lutèce (Restaurant : New York, N.Y.); Restaurants--New York (State)--New York.

(McDonald's), Max Boas and Steve Chain (1976). Big Mac: The Unauthorized Story of McDonald's (New York, NY: Dutton, 212 p.). McDonald's Corporation.

Richard and Maurice McDonald  (http://doney.net/aroundaz/celebrity/mcdonald_brothers.jpg)

Ray Kroc -McDonald's (http://www.mcdonalds.com/content/us/en/our_story/our_history/ the_ray_kroc_story/_jcr_content/ genericpagecontent/everything_0/image.img.jpg/1271053450190.jpg; January 15, 1984 Obituary: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1005.html

(McDonald's), Edited by Marshall William Fishwick (1983). Ronald Revisited: The World of Ronald McDonald. (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 157 p.). McDonald's Corporation; Fast food restaurants -- United States.

(McDonald's), John F. Love (1986). McDonald's: Behind the Arches (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 470 p.). Kroc, Ray, 1902- ; McDonald's Corporation; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Fast food restaurants--United States.

(McDonald's), Ray Kroc; with Robert Anderson (1987). Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 218 p. [orig. pub. 1977]). Kroc, Ray, 1902- ; McDonald's Corporation; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography.

(McDonald's), edited by James L. Watson (1997). Golden Arches East: McDonald's in East Asia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 256 p.). McDonald's Corporation; Fast food restaurants--East Asia.

(McDonald's), George Cohon; with David Macfarlane (1997). To Russia with Fries (Toronto, ON: M&S, 335 p.). Cohon, George, 1937- ; McDonald's Corporation; McDonald's Corporation; Restaurateurs--Canada--Biography; Fast food restaurants--Russia (Federation); Fast food restaurants--Canada; Restaurateurs (Alimentation)--Canada--Biographies; Restaurants-minute--Russie; Restaurants-minute--Canada.

(McDonald's), John Vidal (1997). McLibel: Burger Culture on Trial. (New York, NY: New Press, 354 p.). Reporter (London Guardian). Morris, David, 1954- --Trials, litigation, etc.; Steel, Helen--Trials, litigation, etc.; McDonald's Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Trials (Libel)--England--London. 

(McDonald's), Joe L. Kincheloe (2002). The Sign of the Burger: McDonald's and the Culture of Power. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 232 p.). McDonald's Corporation; Fast food restaurants--Social aspects; Restaurant management; Consumer behavior; United States--Social conditions--1945-.

(McDonald's), Paul Facella; with Adina Genn (2008). Everything I Know About Business I Learned at McDonald’s: The 7 Leadership Principles that Drive Break Out Success. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 256 p.). Former Regional Vice President of the New York Region (34-Year Career at McDonald’s). McDonald’s Corporation; Leadership; Success in business; Management. McDonald's result-driven culture; core principles that have successfully guided company for more than five decades; grew New York Region to $600 million in revenues, four-fold increase in profit, 90% increase in store count, one of strongest performing regions in country.

(Nepenthe), Romney Steele (2009). My Nepenthe: Bohemian Tales of Food, Family, and Big Sur. (Kansas City, MO, Andrews McMeel Pub., 352 p.). Granddaughter of Bill and Lolly Fassett, creators of Nepenthe Restaurant. Steele, Romney; Nepenthe Restaurant --History; Cookery, American --California style. Famous California restaurant (1949) perched on majestic cliffs of Big Sur, nestled among native oak trees and historic log cabin, sweeping views of rugged Santa Lucia Mountains, wild south coast of Monterey County; history of place through food, Fassett family who started Nepenthe; about 250,000 people visit Nepenthe every year; family enterprise, Fassett family and legacy; stories about family's more than sixty-year history on the coast, arts and architecture, colorful people who were genesis of legendary restaurant.

(Noah's Bagels), Noah Alper, Thomas Fields-Meyer (2009). Business Mensch: Timeless Wisdom for Today's Entrepreneur. (Berkeley, CA, Book Clearing House, 176 p.). Founder of Noah's Bagels. Alper, Noah; Entrepreneurship --California --History. Started small bagel shop in Berkeley, CA (after early nervous breakdown, failed business); run on Biblical injunction to "lech lecha"-to embrace one's journey while contributing to community through volunteerism and "tzedakah" - justice; ability to innovate, adapt, and evolve; 2006 - acquired by Einstein Bros. for $100 million.

(Old French House Restaurant), Edward J. Lepoma (1998). A Passion for People: The Story of Mary Mahoney and Her Old French House Restaurant. (Brandon, MS: Quail Ridge Press, 154 p.). Mahoney, Mary, 1924-1985; Old French House Restaurant; Restaurateurs--Mississippi--Biloxi--Biography.

(Park Lane Restaurant), Ellen Taussig (1979). Your Host, Peter Gust of the Park Lane Restaurant, His Story. (Boston, MA: Herman Pub., 207 p.). Gust, Peter; Park Lane Restaurant (Buffalo, N.Y.); Restaurateurs--New York (State)--Buffalo--Biography.

(Pepe's North of the Border), Lyn Kidder (1996). Tacos on the Tundra: The Story of Barrow, Alaska's Long-Time Resident, Fran Tate. (Anchorage, AK: Bonaparte Books, 266 p.). Tate, Fran, 1929- ; Pepe's North of the Border (Restaurant); Restaurateurs--Alaska--Barrow--Biography; Barrow (Alaska)--Description and travel. 

(Rainforest Cafe), Steven Schussler, Marvin Karlins (2010). It's a Jungle in There: Inspiring Lessons, Hard-Won Insights, and Other Acts of Entrepreneurial Daring. (New York, New York: Union Square Press, 256 p.). Founded the Rainforest Cafe (record as top-grossing concept restaurant in US). Schussler, Steven; Entrepreneurship; restaurants--United States--history. Creativity to achieve dreams; principles for entrepreneurs on budget; lessons can work in larger corporations: self-branding, developing strategic partnerships, giving recognition where due.

(Restaurant Associates), Lawrence Freundlich (2000). A Time Well Spent: A Biography of Jerome Brody. (New York, NY: Welcome Rain, 236 p.). Brody, Jerome; Restaurant Associates; restaurant management. How Brody and handpicked team took Restaurant Associates from failing cafeteria chain to highest levels of luxury dining; invented theme restaurants; fired; created  restaurant empire of his own (Gallagher's Steakhouse, Grand Central Oyster Bar).

(Russian Tea Room), Faith Stewart-Gordon (1999). The Russian Tea Room: A Love Story. (New York, NY: Scribner, 250 p.). Wife-Husband Owners of The Russian Tea Room. Stewart-Gordon, Faith--Biography; Russian Tea Room. 

(Saga Corporation), William F. Scandling (1994). The Saga of Saga: The Life and Death of an American Dream. (Mill Valley, CA: Vista Linda Press, 382 p.). Scandling, William F.; Saga Corporation--History; Universities and colleges--Food service--United States--History.

(Shenkel’s Restaurant), Edith Barr Dunn (1986). Lady from Longboat Key. (New York, NY: Carlton Press, 192 p.). Dunn, Edith Barr, 1920- ; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Restaurant management--United States.

(Shoney's - founded 1947 by Alex Schoenbaum and Ray Danner), Steve Watkins (1997). The Black O: Racism and Redemption in an American Corporate Empire. (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 276 p.). Shoney's Inc.--Personnel management; Discrimination in restaurants--United States--Case studies; Discrimination in employment--United States--Case studies; Race discrimination--United States--Case studies; African Americans--Employment--Case studies.

(Sloppy Joe’s), Carol Shaughnessy (1995). Sloppy Joe’s: The Tradition Continues. (Key West, FL: Market Share Co., 58 p.). Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961 --Homes and haunts--Florida--Key West; Sloppy Joe’s (Bar); Bars (Drinking establishments)--Florida--Key West--History; Novelists, American--20th century--Biography; Key West (Fla.)--Intellectual life--20th century; Key West (Fla.)--Social life and customs.

(Sonic), Bob Blackburn (2009). Sonic: The History of America's Drive-in. (Oklahoma City, OK, Cottonwood Publications,    p.). Executive Director of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Smith, Troy; Sonic Drive-in; restaurants--United States--history. 

(Starbucks), Howard Schultz and Dori Jones Yang (1997). Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time. (New York, NY: Hyperion, 351 p.). Starbucks Coffee Company; Coffee industry--United States.

(Steak n Shake), Robert P. Cronin (2000). Selling Steakburgers: The Growth of a Corporate Culture. (Carmel, IN: Guild Press of Indiana, 112 p.). Cronin, Robert P., 1924- ; Steak n Shake (Firm); Restaurateurs--United States--Biography.

(Stork Club), Ralph Blumenthal (2000). Stork Club: America's Most Famous Nightspot and the Lost World of Cafe Society. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 296 p.). Reporter (New York Times). Billingsley, Sherman; Stork Club (New York, NY). How Stork Club came to be, why it became an institution, why it died; 1934 - opened as speakeasy front for Jazz Age gangsters by Sherman Billingsley, former bootlegger from Oklahoma; 1940s - peak; October 4, 1965 - closed, victim of battle over unionization, charges of racism, changing culture.

Sherman Billingsley Sherman Billingsley - Stork Club (http://www.storkclub.org/graphics/billingsley.jpg)

(Stuckey's), Elizabeth McCants Drinnon (1997). Stuckey: The Biography of Williamson Sylvester Stuckey, 1909-1977. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 131 p.). Stuckey, Williamson Sylvester, 1910- ; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Grocers--United States--Biography; Fast food restaurants--United States--History; Convenience stores--United States--History.

(Taco Bell), Debra Lee Baldwin (1999). Taco Titan: The Glen Bell Story. (Arlington, TX: Summit Publishing Group,   p.). Bell, Glen William, 1923- ; Taco Bell (Firm); Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Fast food restaurants--United States--History.

Glen Bell (http://www.tacobell.com.ph/images/glen_bell.gif)

(Tadich Grill), John Briscoe; foreword by Michael Buich (2002). Tadich Grill: The History of San Francisco's Oldest Restaurant, with Recipes. (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 186 p.). Tadich Grill--History; Cookery, American. 

(Tea & Sympathy), Anita Naughton (2002). Tea & Sympathy: The Life of an English Tea Shop in New York. (New York, NY: Putnam, p.). Waitress at Tea Shop. Tea & Sympathy (Tea shop)--History; Cookery. 108 Greenwich St. (between 12th and 13th Streets), opened on December 23, 1990.

(The Beautiful Helen), Tom Stone (2002). The Summer of My Greek Taverna: A Memoir. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 250 p.). Stone, Tom--Travel--Greece--Patmos Island; Restaurants--Greece--Patmos Island; Cookery, Greek; Patmos Island (Greece)--Description and travel.

(Tim Hortons), Ron Buist (2003). Tales from Under the Rim: The Marketing of Tim Hortons. (Fredericton, NB: Goose Lane Editions, 218 p.). Former Marketing Director at Tim Hortons for over 25 years. Tim Hortons; Restaurant Management--Canada.

(Tour d’Argent), Claude Terrail (1974). Ma Tour d’Argent. (Paris, FR: Stock, 526 p.). Owner. Terrail, Claude; Tour d’argent (Restaurant); Cookery, French.





Claude Terrail - La Tour d'Argent (http://www.gayot.com/images/restaurants/claude_terrail.jpg)

--- (1982). La Tour d’Argent: Histoire et Recettes du Plus Celebre Restaurant du Monde. (Paris, FR: JC Lattes, 318 p.). Owner. Tour d’argent (Restaurant); Cookery, French; Paris (France)--Buildings, structures, etc.

(Tour d’Argent), Claude Terrail (1997). Le Roman de la Tour d’Argent. (Paris, FR: Le Cherche midi e´diteur, 124 p.). Owner of Restaurant. Terrail, Claude; Tour d’argent (Restaurant)--History.

(Trader Vic's), Trader Vic. Introd. by Herb Caen (1973). Frankly Speaking: Trader Vic's Own Story. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 170 p.). Trader Vic; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Cookery, International; Bergeron, Victor Jules, Jr. 

Victor J. "Trader Vic" Bergeron - Trader Vic's    (http://image2.findagrave.com/photos/2007/113/19073652_117747706316.jpg)

(Tropicana), Rosa Lowinger and Ofelia Fox (10/3/2005). Tropicana Nights: The Life and Times of Havana's Legendary Nightclub. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 448 p.). Cuban-Born Journalist; Widow of the Tropicana’s Last Owner, Martín Fox. Tropicana (Nightclub : Havana, Cuba)--History; Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.)--Cuba--Havana--History--20th century.

(Charlie Trotter's), Edmund Lawler (2001). Lessons in Service from Charlie Trotter. (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 233 p.). Charlie Trotter's (Restaurant); Restaurant management. 

(Union Square Hospitality Group), Danny Meyer (2006). Setting the Table: The Power of Hospitality in Restaurants, Business, and Life. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 336 p.). CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group. Meyer, Danny; Restaurant management. "Enlightened Hospitality" ("how the delivery of that product makes its recipient feel") - core of his business strategy.

(Victoria Station), Tom Blake (2006). Prime Rib and Boxcars. Whatever Happened To Victoria Station? (Dana Point, CA: Tooter's Publishing, 433 p.). Columnist for The Orange County Register. Restaurant industry--history--1970s ; Victoria Station. Rise, crash of Victoria Station; fastest growing restaurant chain of 1970s; how company grew to over 100 restaurants in just over eight years; went from most-envied restaurant chain to mismanaged disaster that ended in bankruptcy.

(Washington Square Bar & Grill), Ron Fimrite; foreword by Dan Jenkins (1988). The Square: The Story of a Saloon. (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub. Co., 174 p.). (San Francisco, Calif.); San Francisco (Calif.)--Social life and customs.

(Wendy's), R. David Thomas (1991). Dave's Way: A New Approach to Old-Fashioned Success (New York, NY: Putnam, 256 p.). Founder, Wendy's International. Thomas, R. David, 1932- ; Wendy's International; Restaurateurs--United States--Biography.

Dave Thomas (http://www.meatindustryhalloffame.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/DaveThomas-150x150.jpg)

(Wendy's), Dave Thomas with Ron Beyma (1994). Dave Says-- Well Done!: The Common Guy's Guide to Everyday Success. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 224 p.). Founder, Wendy's. Thomas, R. David, 1932- ; Success; Success in business.

(Whataburger), Greg Wooldridge (2011). The Whataburger Story, How One Man's Dream and One Woman's Heart Inspired a Business to Become a Family. (Austin, TX Texas Monthly Custom Pub., 160 p.). Dobson, Harmon; Whataburger, L.P., fast food -- Texas -- history. 1950 - Harmon Dobson opened up first Whataburger, small roadside hamburger stand, on Ayers Street in Corpus Christi, TX (25 cent, all-American beef burgers served on five-inch buns); 1967 - Grace Dobson (wife) took over; passed on to three children; 2011 - family-owned and operated, more than 700 locations in 10 states, annual sales of more than $1 billion; more than 20,000 employees.

(White Castle), David Gerard Hogan (1997). Selling 'Em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American Food. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 199 p.). Ingram, Billy, 1880-1966; Anderson, J. Walter, 1880- ; White Castle (Restaurant)--History; Restaurateurs--United States.

Walt Anderson and Billy Ingram -  White Castle Systems, Inc. (http://cdm16007.contentdm.oclc.org/utils/ajaxhelper/?CISOROOT=p267401coll32&CISOPTR=8878&action=2&DMSCALE= 08&DMWIDTH=500&DMHEIGHT=500)

(White Tower), Paul Hirshorn and Steven Izenour (2007). White Towers. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 189 p. [rev. ed.]). Head of the Department of Architecture ( Drexel University); principal in the Philadelphia firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Inc. White Tower (Firm). 1926 - Thomas Saxe founded hamburger chain in Milwaukee, WI; instantly recognizable buildings as three-dimensional billboards; branding before age of branding; evolution of restaurant chain, corporate culture, mass marketing, rise of franchising in 20th  century.

(Winston's), Herbert Whittaker, Arnold Edinborough (1988). Winston's: The Life and Times of a Great Restaurant. (Don Mills, ON: Stoddart, 198 p.). Winston's (Restaurant) -- History; Restaurants -- Ontario -- Toronto -- History; Toronto (Ont.) -- Social life and customs.

(Worcester Lunch Car Company), Richard J.S. Gutman (2004). The Worcester Lunch Car Company. (Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia, 128 p.). Worcester Lunch Car Company--History--Pictorial works; Diners (Restaurants)--Massachusetts--Worcester--History--Pictorial works; Wagons--Massachusetts--Worcester--History--Pictorial works; Worcester (Mass.)--Buildings, structures, etc.--Pictorial works; Worcester (Mass.)--History--Pictorial works; Worcester (Mass.)--Social life and customs--Pictorial works. 1906 to 1961 - company built 651 diners (10 - 70 seats); oak, mahogany woodwork, intricate ceramic tile patterns, backbar of stainless steel; distinctive porcelain enamel exteriors.

(Yo! Sushi), Simon Woodroffe (2000). The Book of Yo! (London, UK: Capstone, 60 p.). Founder, Yo! Sushi, sushi bar in London. Woodrodde, Simonl Yo! sushi -- sushii restaurant; Entrepreneurs--London. Author's story and wisdom for those starting a business and for general life.

(Yum! Brands), David Novak with John Boswell (2007). The Education of an Accidental CEO: My Journey from the Trailer Park to the Corner Office. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 32o p.). chairman and CEO of Yum! Brands, Inc. (KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Long John Silver’s, A&W All American Food); Literary Agent, Book Packager, Author. Novak, David; Yum! Brands (Firm); Restaurateurs--United States--Biography; Success in business. Building culture around reward, recognition, recognizing achievements of others: getting ahead, getting noticed; motivating people, turning businesses around; building winning teams, running global company of nearly one million people; staying true to yourself.

Bill Barich (2009). Pint of Plain: Being an Account of the Decline of the Traditional Irish Pub. (New York, NY: Walker, 256 p.). Bars (Drinking establishments) --Ireland --History; Bars (Drinking establishments) --Social aspects --Ireland. State of Irish pub today (missing archetypal ideal portrayed in Ireland's literature); Irish culture at time of great change; shift in country's values, identity.

Brian Cowan (2005). The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 384 p.). Canada Research Chair in Early Modern British History (McGill University). Coffeehouses--History; Coffee--History. Definitive account of the origins of coffee drinking and coffeehouse society. 

Phoebe Damrosch (2007). Service Included: Four-Star Secrets of an Eavesdropping Waiter. (New York, NY: Morrow, 240 p.). First female captain at Per Se (New York City four-star restaurant). Damrosch, Phoebe, 1978- ; Per Se (Restaurant); Waitresses--United States--Biography; Food Service--New York (State)--New York--Anecdotes. Obsession with food, affair with a sommelier, observations of highly competitive, frenetic world of fine dining; tips:1) do not ask waiter what else he or she does; 2) do not steal waiter's pen; 3) do not say you're allergic when you don't like something; 4) do not send something back after eating most of it; 5) do not make faces or gagging noises when hearing specials.

Robert L. Emerson (1979). Fast Food: The Endless Shakeout. (New York, NY: Lebhar-Friedman Books, 331 p.). Restaurants; Convenience foods.

Jim Heimann (1996). Car Hops and Curb Service: A History of American Drive-In Restaurants, 1920-1960. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 127 p.). Drive-in restaurants--United States--History.

--- (1998). May I Take Your Order?: American Menu Design, 1920-1960. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 131 p.). Menu design--United States--History--20th century.

Tom Higgins (1995). Spotted Dick, s'Il Vous Plait : An English Restaurant in France. (New York, NY: Soho Press, 248 p.). Restaurants--France--Lyon.

Ben Ryder Howe (2011). My Korean Deli: Risking It All for a Convenience Store. (New York, NY: Holt, 320 p.) .Former Senior Editor (The Paris Review). Howe, Ben Ryder; Convenience stores --New York (State) --New York; Delicatessens --New York (State) --New York; Korean American business enterprises --New York (State) --New York; Businesspeople --New York (State) --New York. Author's wife, daughter of Korean immigrants, bought store in Brooklyn for her parents; business struggled, author commuted to Paris Review offices by day, sliced cold cuts, sold lottery tickets at night; store's tumultuous life; transformative experience to salvage original gift, and family, while sorting out issues of values, work, identity.

Philip Langdon (1986). Orange Roofs, Golden Arches: The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants. (New York, NY: Knopf, 223 p.). Chain restaurants--United States--Buildings.

Stan Luxenburg (1985). Roadside Empires: How The Chains Franchised America. (New York, NY: Viking, 313 p.). Fast-Food, Franchises (Retail Trade).

John Mariani (1991). America Eats Out: An Illustrated History of Restaurants, Taverns, Coffee Shops, Speakeasies, and Other Establishments That Have Fed Us for 350 Years (New York, NY: Morrow, 285 p.). Restaurants--United States--History; Taverns (Inns)--United States--History.

Alice Foote MacDougall (1980). The Autobiography of a Business Woman. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 205 p. [orig. pub. 1928]). Ran chain of coffee houses in New York. MacDougall, Alice Foote; Coffee houses. MacDougall, Alice Foote, 1867-1945; Restaurateurs--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Coffeehouses--New York (State)--New York. Ran chain of coffee houses in New York.

Jerry Newman (2006). My Secret Life on the McJob: Lessons from Behind the Counter Guaranteed to Supersize Any Management Style. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 240 p.). University Distinguished Teaching Professor (State University of New York at Buffalo). Fast food restaurants--United States; Fast food restaurants--Social aspects; Restaurant management. College professor went undercover as bottom-rung worker for the biggest names in fast food; each restaurant's respective manager determined climate of work environment. 

Richard Pillsbury (1990). From Boarding House to Bistro: the American Restaurant Then and Now. (Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman, 247 p.). Restaurants--United States--History; Fast food restaurants--United States--History; Diet--United States.

Ruth Reichl (2005). Garlic and Sapphires: The Secret Life of a Critic in Disguise. (New York, NY: Penguin, 352 p.). Former Restaurant Critic (New York Times). Reichl, Ruth--Biography; Cookery. 

Eric Schlosser (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 356 p.). Fast food restaurants--United States; Food industry and trade--United States; Convenience foods--United States.

Steven A. Shaw (2005). Turning the Tables: Restaurants from the Inside Out. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 240 p.). Former Attorney Turned Food and Restaurant Critic in 1997. Restaurants.

Rebecca L. Spang (2000). The Invention of the Restaurant: Paris and Modern Gastronomic Culture. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 325 p.). Restaurants--France--Paris--History--18th century; Restaurants--France--Paris--History--19th century; Food habits--France--Paris--History--18th century; Food habits--France--Paris--History--19th century; Paris (France)--Social life and customs.

Alan Warde and Lydia Martens (2000). Eating Out: Social Differentiation, Consumption, and Pleasure. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 246 p.). Food habits--England; Restaurants--England--Social aspects; Consumer behavior--England; England--Social life and customs.

Jan Whitaker (2002). Tea at the Blue Lantern Inn: A Social History of the Tea Room Craze in America. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 192 p.). Tearooms --United States --History.; United States --Social life and customs. Cultural institution that survives, thrives; sparked by rise of automobile, advent of Prohibition, rumblings of suffragist movement, general American inventiveness, women across America started tea room craze - everywhere, from small towns to big cities, fringes of bohemian scene in Greenwich Village to high-society salons of grand hotels; offering way for women to express their creativity, entrepreneurial spirit.


Business History Links

American Diner Museum                                                    http://www.dinermuseum.org/                                          

This Rhode Island museum is "focused on celebrating and preserving the cultural and historical significance of the American diner, a unique American institution." Read about the history of diners, learn diner slang, and find links to other diner sites. Subjects: Diners (Restaurants)... Since 1996, the American Diner Museum (ADM) has been focused on celebrating and preserving the cultural and historical significance of the American diner, a unique American institution. The museum also hopes to recognize and share the importance of diners nationally and internationally.

Bohn-Bettoni Collection                                                                     http://www.library.unlv.edu/speccol/menus/index.html

UNLV Special Collections houses one of the largest menu collections in the United States. Purchased from Mrs. Marion Bohn Knutson, daughter of Henry J. Bohn, owner, publisher, editor of The Hotel World magazine in Chicago (1879-1930); had purchased Henri Bettoni’s Recueil de Menus to add to his own personal collection (Henri Bettoni was late 19th-century London restaurateur, manager of number of London restaurants, including Tracadero, Kuhn’s, Kissel’s Tivoli, Globe, Savoy Hotel; had also managed Haxell’s Hotel in Brighton); Collection comprised approximately 1500 menus dating from 1874 to 1933. Bohn’s own collection derived principally from American Midwest, Bettoni collection predominantly British and French with examples from German, other European cities.

National Restaurant Association                                      Http://Www.Restaurant.Org/                                   

Representing, Educating and Promoting the  Restaurant/Hospitality Industry.

Restaurant-ing Through History                                                     http://victualling.wordpress.com/                                        

Restaurants in American history, going all the way back to the 1700s. On top of that I’ve collected menus, postcards, leaflets, business cards, etc.; very revealing of our culture’s humanity (and lack thereof).

Restaurant Performance Index (RPI)                                                   http://www.restaurant.org/research/economy/rpi/

National Restaurant Association's Restaurant Performance Index is a monthly composite index that tracks the health of and outlook for the U.S. restaurant industry (released on the last business day of each month, based on responses to the Association's Restaurant Industry Tracking Survey, a monthly survey of restaurateurs nationwide on key indicators, including same-store sales, traffic, labor and capital expenditures. The Index consists of two components -- the Current Situation Index and the Expectations Index).

What America Spends on Food and Drink                                http://www.bundle.com/article/foodanddrink2010-10578               

Grocery-dining out breakdown in major cities. The average household in Austin spends the most money on food per year. Atlanta has the highest skew towards spending on dining out at 57%. The US average is 37%. People making $40,000 to $50,000 spent $5,560 on food in 2009. People making more than $125,000 spent $12,655 — more than double (buy more expensive food); people who are spending the most money on food overall devote more money to dining out; as income rises, people spend more money on restaurants.


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