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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Broadcasters
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March 4, 1877 - Emile Berliner announced his invention of the microphone.

August 30, 1881 - Clement Adler received German patent for first stereo system (for a telephonic broadcasting service).

1900 - Constantin Perskyi, Professor of Electricity at Artillery Academy of Saint Petersburg Russia, coined term "television" at  1900 Paris World Exhibition's first International Congress of Electricity; may have been French translation of Russian word ("televisija").

January 1, 1902 - Nathan B. Stubblefield gave first radio broadcast demonstration in U.S. at Fairmont Park, Philadelphia; his voice was first to be carried on air-waves ("wireless" - without any wires used for transmission); unable to obtain suitable buyer for his invention, received little notice for being first to have accomplished voice radio broadcast.

November 25, 1905 - First U.S. advertisement for radio receiver, offered by Hugo Gernsback of The Electro Importing Company, appeared in issue of Scientific American;  offered Telimco for $8.50; system suitable for sending dots and dashes, not full audio; guaranteed to work up to one mile.

January 13, 1906 - Date sometimes given for first U.S. advertisement for radio receiver; November 25, 1905 - earliest one-inch advertisement for Telimco appeared in issue of Scientific American - both run by Hugo Gernsback of The Electro Importing Company of New York.

October 20, 1906 - Dr. Lee De Forest, one of "fathers of radio," announced three-element electrical vacuum tube (triode) to amplify weak radio signals (mesh, or grid, of wire placed between filament and collector "plate" in diode tube produced a large voltage-amplifying effect); June 26, 1906 - received two patents for an "Oscillation-Responsive Device"; November 13, 1906 - received two patents for an  "Oscillation-Responsive Device"; radio tube detector; January 15, 1907 - received a patent for a "Device for Amplifying Feeble Electrical Currents"; radio amplifier tube (made long-distance communication possible); February 18, 1908 - received a patent for "Space Telegraphy"; triode.

November 20, 1906 - Greenleaf Whittier Pickard, U.S. electrical engineer from Amesbury, MA,, received U.S. patent for a "Means for Receiving Intelligence Communicated by Electric Waves"; crystal detector; one of first devices widely used for receiving radio broadcasts (until superseded by triode vacuum tube).

December 24, 1906 - General Electric inventor Ernst Alexanderson broadcast world's first radio program with song and music via his new creation, high frequency alternator.

December 24, 1906 - Canadian physicist music Reginald A. Fessenden gave first broadcast of human voice by wireless transmission, from Brant Rock, MA; part of effort of his National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO) to develop wireless communication commercially.

December 16, 1907 - First U.S. radio broadcast of singer featured Eugenia H. Farrar on occasion of departure of Admiral Robley Dunglison Evans ("Fighting Bob Evans") on cruise with fleet; her voice transmitted by Lee De Forest from Brooklyn Naval Yard, Brooklyn, NY.

May 12, 1908 - Nathan B. Stubblefield, of Murray, KY, received patent for a "Wireless Telephone"; wireless radio broadcasting.

1909 - Dr. Charles Herrold, scientist and inventor, began, as hobby, broadcasting regularly-scheduled programming on 14-watt transmitter in San Jose, CA; first to "broadcast" radio entertainment, information to mass audience (daily through 1917) of experimenters who listened on home made crystal radios; first regular radio broadcasting station, in continuous operation, in world; lacked call letters, simply identified itself as "This is San Jose Calling" (KDKA, Pittsburgh, made first 'commercial' broadcast on November 2, 1920 after Commerce department granted license on October 27, 1920); 1921 - radio licenses issued, Herrold assigned call letters of KQW; operated station KQW for several years, ran out of money; worked as radio time salesman, audiovisual technician for high school, janitor at local naval facility; 1949 - acquired by CBS (740 AM on dial); 1968 - became first all news station in Northern California; has won every major national award for excellence in broadcast journalism (Peabody Award, duPont-Columbia Award, five Edward R. Murrow Awards for Overall Excellence from national Radio-TV News Directors Association, Sigma Delta Chi Award from Society of Professional Journalists, Crystal Award for public service from National Association of Broadcasters).

March 18, 1909 - Einar Dessau of Denmark used shortwave transmitter to talk with government radio post -- believed to have been first broadcast by 'ham' operator.

1910 - Oliver David (O.D.) Fisher, Oliver Williams (O. W.) Fisher (brothers) incorporated Fisher Flour Mills; April 1911 - Harbor Island mill ground first wheat, largest flour mill in western United States; created "Zoom" (first instant-cooking whole wheat cereal); 1922 - O.D. Fisher took over; 1926 - co-founded radio station KOMO (known as "the Fisher Blend Station"), one of first broadcasting companies in Pacific Northwest region; began broadcasting from Seattle's Cobb Building; broadcast more than 5,000 hours of airtime in first year (more hours than any other station in country); 1927 - KOMO AM affiliated with NBC, provided Seattle with first national network programming; 1953 - established KOMO-TV; flour milling operations ranked as fifth-largest in nation, biggest in size and capacity west of Mississippi River, produced more kinds of flour than any other mill in world; February 1, 1956 - KOMO TV presented first live color television broadcast to Northwest; 1958 - KOMO AM became ABC affiliate; 1959 - KOMO TV became ABC affiliate; 1971 - formed Fisher Companies, Inc. as holding company; 1985 - KOMO TV: first commercial station in U.S. to broadcast continuously in stereo; 1999 - KOMO TV: first TV station in world to broadcast daily local news in HDTV; 2001 - Flour Mills acquired by Pendleton Flour Mills for $31 million; 2002 - owned 26 radio stations, 12 TV stations.

Powel Crosley Jr. in 1920 Oliver David (O. D.) Fisher - Fisher Companies (

January 13, 1910 - Lee De Forest, American inventor of vacuum tube, broadcast live performance of Enrico Caruso from Metropolitan Opera over telephone transmitter (heard only by small number of electronics hobbyists who had radio receivers); 1915 - started regular nightly concerts, increased interest in radio receivers, which at time depended on vacuum tubes manufactured by De Forest's company.

December 13, 1910 - Lee De Forest (invented much of technology involved in early radio) arranged first opera broadcast from stage of Metropolitan Opera, featuring Enrico Caruso; Met did not broadcast over radio again until 1922.

November 14, 1911 - Ernst F. W. Alexanderson, of Schenectady, NY, received patent for a "High-Frequency Alternator"; radio tuning system.

April 14, 1912 - David Sarnoff, telegraph operator and manager of Marconi radio telegraph station on top of Wannamaker's department store in New York, learned of Titanic's sinking; stayed at his post for 72 hours, received, transmitted information on the disaster; relayed names of the rescued from the Carpathia telegraph operator to newsmen, families; 1926 - founded NBC; 1928 - created experimental television station for NBC, became president and chairman of RCA.

January 5, 1914 - The Federal Communications Commission listened to demonstration of FM radio, free from static, huge advantages over AM frequencies (prone to interference), 1941 - first FM transmitter went into operation.

October 6, 1914 - Edwin H. Armstrong, of Yonkers, NY, received a patent for a "Wireless Receiving System" ("improvements in the arrangement and connections of electrical apparatus at the receiving station of a wireless system"..."object being to amplify the effect of the received waves upon the current in the telephone or the receiving circuit, to increase the loudness and definition of the sounds in the telephone or other receiver"). 

February 1, 1919 - First Miss America crowned, in New York City.

October 17, 1919 - General Electric's (GE) privately owned corporation, formed to acquire assets of wireless radio company American Marconi from British Marconi, incorporated as Radio Corporation of America (RCA); later acquired by American Telephone and Telegraph (AT& T) and Westinghouse.

November 23, 1919 - First play-by-play football game radio broadcast took place during Texas A&M - Texas game.

November 2, 1920 - Harry P. Davis, vice president of Westinghouse Electric, made nation's first commercial broadcast on Westinghouse Station KDKA, Pittsburgh, PA, from small wooden shack on top of "K" Building, tallest building at company's East Pittsburgh Works in Turtle Creek, PA - of election results of Harding-Cox presidential race (before results published in newspaper); Westinghouse station established by Dr. Frank Conrad, assistant chief engineer at Westinghouse East Pittsburgh Works and Pittsburgh area ham operator who played music on 75 watt 8XK from Wilkinsburg, PA from 1919; July 2, 1921 - first national broadcast with live commentary of Jack Dempsey - Georges Carpentier fight via teletype from New Jersey; first commercially licensed radio station in United States, start of broadcasting industry.

April 26, 1921 - WEW in St. Louis, MO  broadcast weather report for federal government, first time on radio, 

April 29, 1921 - David Sarnoff became general manager of RCA.

October 5, 1921 - World Series broadcast on radio for first time.

June 30, 1921 - Radio Corporation of America (RCA) incorporated.

February 27, 1922 - Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover called conference to allocate radio wavelengths (500 stations broadcasting on the same wavelength); 1921 - Americans spent about $10 million on radio sets and parts.

March 22, 1922 - Crosley Broadcasting (Cincinnati, OH) went on air with commercial station (65th licensed radiotelephone station); call letters WLW-AM (amplitude modulation) assigned by new Federal Radio Commission; 50-watt signal received from Colorado, Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin, Connecticut; station's broadcast power increased to 50,000 watts over next six years; October 4, 1928 - nation's first 50,000-watt commercial broadcasting station to operate on regular schedule; April 17, 1934 - FCC granted Crosley Broadcasting authority to use 500 kW experimentally, during regular hours, with regular WLW call; May 3, 1934 - 500,000-watt transmitter put on the air (on occasion, the station's power was boosted as high as 700,000 watts); most powerful AM radio station in the world.

Powel Crosley Jr. in 1920 Powel Crosley, Jr. - Crosley Broadcasting Corp. (

August 28, 1922 - First radio commercial aired on WEAF in New York City; 10-minute advertisement for Queensboro Realty Co., for $100.

October 18, 1922 - British Broadcasting Company formed by group of leading wireless manufacturers to sell radios; November 14, 1922 - daily broadcasting from Guglielmo Marconi's London studio; 1925 - BBC heard throughout most of UK; John Reith, Scottish engineer, general manager; 1927 - received first Royal Charter, became British Broadcasting Corporation; John Reith knighted; 1932 - opened Empire Service (forerunner of BBC World Service); December 25, 1932 - King George V gave first royal broadcast to Empire; November 2, 1936 - opened world's first regular service of high-definition television; May 12, 1937 - King George VI's coronation procession broadcast to 10,000 people; June 1937 - first Wimbledon coverage.

November 14, 1922 - BBC officially began daily domestic radio service broadcasting with 6:00pm news read by Arthur Burrows from 2LO, Marconi House, London (Manchester and Birmingham stations went into service next day). 

December 23, 1922 - British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began daily news broadcasts.

1923 - First American broadcasts heard in Britain.

October 11, 1923 - First political telecast, sponsored by Democratic National Committee, aired from New York.

February 8, 1924 - First coast-to-coast radio broadcast; Speech by Bell Telephone's vice president and chief of research at meeting of Bond Men's Club in a Chicago hotel, broadcast in Providence, New York, Washington, Oakland, San Francisco, heard by some 50 million people.

February 12, 1924 - Eveready Hour, first network radio program sponsored by advertising, debuted; sponsored by National Carbon Company, broadcast in New York, Washington, Providence.

1925 - Rogers, Sr. invented world’s first alternating current (AC) radio tube (enabled radios to be powered by ordinary household current); key factor in popularizing radio reception; 1931 - awarded experimental TV licence; 1962 - Rogers, Jr. pioneered stereo broadcasting in FM with CHFI (also founded CFTR-AM in Toronto); became one of Canada’s most listened to FM radio stations, most popular and profitable FM radio station in Canada; 1967 - awarded cable licenses for areas in, around Toronto, Brampton, Leamington; 1970s - Rogers Cable TV became Canada’s most innovative cable company; 1974 - first cable company to expand past 12 channels; added more programming choice (in particular with multi-cultural television); 1979 - acquired control of Canadian Cablesystems Limited through reverse-takeover; 1980 - acquired Premier Communications Limited (almost doubled Rogers’ cable subscribers); largest cable television company in Canada; 1983 - asked board of directors to invest $500,000 Canadian dollars ($403,000) in wireless technology; 1985 - established Rogers Cantel Mobile Communications Inc. to operate national cellular telephone network in Canada in competition with established telephone companies; Canada's largest cable-television, cell phone company; 2008 - 24,000 employees 24,000, market value of 18 billion Canadian dollars.

June 1, 1925 - JOBK radio station (now NHK, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, Osaka) made Japan's first successful radio transmission from test station at Mitsukoshi Department Store; first crystal radio set cost 3.50 yen with monthly license fee of 1 yen; 5,455 listening households were registered; 1928 - holders of NHK radio licenses exceeded 500,000; February 1953 - NHK began daily television transmissions for 4 hours a day; initial number of viewing households was 866 nationwide, license fee was 200 yen per month; August 1953 - NTV (Nippon Television Network Corporation) became first commercial television station in country; September 1953 - more than 1,000 new TV licenses registered; September 10, 1960 - NHK, four commercial stations began color television broadcasts in Tokyo and Osaka (about an hour a day), dawn of color TV in Japan.

June 13, 1925 - Charles Jenkins invented first telecast in the U.S. of objects in motion, called it "visions by radio"; first mechanical TV system broadcast used 48 scanning lines, showed a model of Dutch windmill with its blades turning.

June 30, 1925 - Charles F. Jenkins, of Washington, DC, received a patent for "Transmitting Pictures by Wireless" ("wireless electrical agency"); electromechanical television.

October 30, 1925 - John Logie Baird made first televised transmission of moving object in London, UK; transmitter made from tea chest, cardboard scanning discs, empty biscuit box, old electric motors, darning needles, motorcycle lamp lenses, piano wire, glue, string, sealing wax.

January 12, 1926 - Radio program, Sam 'n' Henry, debuted on WGN radio in Chicago; starred two white vaudeville performers, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll; portrayed two black characters from  South looking to make their fortune in Chicago during Depression; March 19, 1928 - show moved to WMAQ, name changed to Amos 'n' Andy (WGN owned rights to prior character names); 1948 - attracted more than 40 million listeners, most highly rated comedy in radio history; 1951 - came to TV, starred Alvin Childress and Spencer Williams; first TV series to feature an all-black cast; 1953 - show cancelled; November 25, 1960 - last radio broadcast.

Amos 'n' Andy - WMAQ radio ( q=tbn:8isxHoaH3TubiM:

January 26, 1926 - John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor, gave first public demonstration of true television system to members of Royal Institution, reporter from The Times in London, launched  revolution in communication, entertainment; pictorial transmission machine (called "televisor") used mechanical rotating disks to scan moving images into electronic impulses, then transmitted by cable to a screen where it showed up as a low-resolution pattern of light and dark; 1928 - established Baird Television Development Company Ltd.; made first transatlantic television transmission from London to New York.

John Logie Baird ( archives/etv/B/htmlB/bairdjohnl/bairdjohnlIMAGE/bairdjohnl.jpg)

September 9, 1926 - Radio Corporation of America created The National Broadcasting Co.; November 15, 1926 - NBC debuted with radio network of 24 stations, nation's first permanent radio network; celebrated launch with one of earliest remote musical broadcasts (nationally known bands played at several locations).

February 23, 1927 - President Calvin Coolidge signed Radio Act of 1927 into law; transferred most of responsibility for radio to newly created Federal Radio Commission; five-person FRC given power to grant, deny licenses, assign frequencies, power levels for each licensee; divided country into five geographical zones (each represented by one of five Commissioners); February 26, 1927 - Radio Division of the Department of Commerce created in Office of Secretary; 1928 - issued first noncommercial TV license; some powers transferred to Department of Commerce; July 20, 1932 - Radio Division abolished, functions transferred to Federal Radio Commission.

April 7, 1927 - Group of newspaper reporters, dignitaries gathered at AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories auditorium in New York, viewed first public display of long distance television transmission - "operative one-way systems for television over telephone circuits, by radio" (speech by then Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, as his live picture. voice were transmitted over telephone lines from Washington, DC).

September 7, 1927 - TV pioneer, Philo T. Farnsworth, succeeded in transmitting an image through purely electronic means; used device called image dissector.

September 18, 1927 - Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System (later CBS) went on air with 47 radio stations; lost money in first year.

January 13, 1928 - American inventor, Ernst F. W. Alexanderson,  broadcast first experimental television program in Schenectady, NY (delivered poor, unsteady picture only 1.5 inches square); broadcast signal had range of 15 to 20 miles; Spring 1928 - US Federal Government issued first name to WRGB, with call letters "W2XB" (station popularly known as WGY Television, after its sister radio station founded 1922); May 10, 1928 - first TV Newscaster, Kolin Hager, broadcast farm, weather reports twice a day, three times weekly; programs lasted from 1:30 to 2:00 p.m. on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Fridays; most viewers were on technical staff at nearby General Electric (had designed system, was using broadcasts to refine its equipment); August 22, 1928 - world's first remote news telecast from State Capitol in Albany; end of 1928 - 17 more stations around country began scheduled broadcasts, designed to test  apparatus rather than attract viewers.

Errnst Alexanderson - WRGB-TV (

January 13, 1928 - Experimental television station founded from General Electric facility in Schenectady, NY, under call letters W2XB; claimed to be first U. S. television station; March 1942 -- renamed WRGB, in tribute to Dr. Walter R. G. Baker, GE vice president, pioneer in US television and radio.

February 8, 1928 - John Logie Baird's transmission of TV image received across Atlantic ocean, from Purley, England to Hartsdale, NY. 

February 25, 1928 - Federal Radio Commission issued first television license to Charles Francis Jenkins for television station  W3XK of Jenkins Television Corporation; July 2, 1928 - went on air, broadcast from Jenkins Laboratories on Connecticut Avenue in Washington, DC; 1929 - station moved to Wheaton, MD; March 1932 - liquidated; assets acquired by Lee DeForest Radio Corporation.

C. Francis Jenkins -USA- (20K bytes)





Charles Francis Jenkins - first U. S. television station license (

September 1928 - William S. Paley (27), Philadelphia cigar manufacturer, acquired United Independent Broadcasters Inc., network of 16 independent radio stations, changed name to Columbia Broadcast System, became President of the Company; January 8, 1929 - tripled broadcasting coverage, served 49 stations in 42 cities throughout country; January 18, 1929 - Paley, group of private investors acquired Columbia Records for $400,000; renamed The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); July 21, 1931 - began first regularly scheduled television broadcasting in country on experimental station W2XAB in New York City (broadcast seven hours daily, seven days a week by end of year); 1933 - Paul White (news editor) organized Columbia News Service, first network news operation; 1935 - nation’s largest radio network with 97 stations; 1937 - went public; August 1940 - first color television broadcast from CBS transmitter atop Chrysler Building received in CBS building; 1941 - first FM station (147 stations by 1944); 1945 - Paley named Chairman of Board, Frank Stanton President; 1946 - first television broadcast of National Football League; November 2, 1948 - first dual radio, television coverage of political conventions; August 11, 1951 - first baseball game on color television (Brooklyn Dodgers vs. Boston Braves from Ebbets Field); July 7, 1952 - term "anchor" coined to describe Walter Cronkite's role in covering at Democratic convention; 1954 - News and Public Affairs departments of CBS Radio and Television Divisions combined, officially formed CBS News, first autonomous news organization in network television designed to serve both radio television networks of CBS; November 30, 1956 - first videotaped news broadcast (magnetic tape); 1960 - first network to broadcast Olympics; 1961 - CBS Sports became division of CBS Television Network; 1965 - fifty percent of CBS’s regular primetime schedule  broadcast in color; November 25, 1965 - first color broadcast of NFL game on Thanksgiving Day; August 19, 1965 - "CBS Morning News with Mike Wallace" first major network news program broadcast in color; 1966 - first primetime schedule all in color; 1967 - entire CBS schedule broadcast in color; April 9-17, 1967 - "CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite" first network news program seen via satellite; April 17, 1971 - Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. officially changed name to CBS Inc.; January 15, 1978 - Super Bowl XII (Dallas Cowboys defeated Denver Broncos) largest audience ever to watch sporting event (47.2/67 national household rating/share, highest-rated Super Bowl to date); November 21, 1980 - "Who Shot J. R.?" episode of "Dallas" most-watched television program up to that time (90 million viewers, nearly 80 percent of all television viewers); second most-watched primetime broadcast in television history; February 1994 - 204 million viewers tuned in to CBS Sports’ coverage of XVII Olympic Winter Games from Lillehammer, Norway (most-watched Winter Games in history); November 28, 1995 - merged with Westinghouse Electric Corporation; June 20, 1996 - Westinghouse Electric Corporation announced decision to merge with Infinity Broadcasting Corporation; December 1, 1997 - Westinghouse Electric Corporation changed name to CBS Corporation; launched as largest combined television, radio, out-of-home media entity in history; May 4, 2000 - merged with Viacom, name changed to Viacom Inc.; February 21, 2001 - Infinity Broadcasting Corp. merged with Viacom as wholly owned subsidiary.

September 11, 1928 - General Electric made first simulcast in Schenectady, NY; broadcast a play, The Queen's Messenger, over radio and TV at same time.

June 27, 1929 - Scientists at Bell Laboratories revealed Bell Labs's Mechanical Color System for transmitting television pictures in color; used scanning disk with three banks of photoelectric cells, amplifiers, glow-tubes, color filters; receiver used three lights with filters and system of mirrors to reconstruct the image.

August 19, 1929 - Comedy program, "Amos and Andy", debuted on network radio; starred Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll.

December 19, 1930 - BBC Empire Service went on air from studio in newly-built Broadcasting House in London; opened by BBC chairman J. H. Whitley, followed by director general Sir John Reith, with two-hour transmission for Australia and New Zealand.

June 30, 1930 - First round-the-world broadcast from U.S. used  series of short-wave radio relays, took only one-eighth of a second; carried voice of Clyde D. Wagoner; signal from W2XAD began in Schenectady, NY, relayed through Holland, Java, Australia, across Pacific Ocean, back to Schenectady.

July 31, 1930 - Radio mystery program, "The Shadow", first aired; drew listening audience of about 15 million a week during its peak; featured crime-fighting superhero, the Shadow, played by three different actors during the show's 25 years; 1937-1938 - Orson Welles played the Shadow for $185 a week; show became famous for trademark opening line: "Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows..."

August 20, 1930 - Allen Balcom DuMont produced first demonstration telecast of home television reception in U.S. in New York City (sets had been set up in homes beginning on January 13, 1928); half-hour program, signal traveled about six miles (greatest distance for TV transmission to date).

1931 - NBC began experimental TV broadcasts from top of Empire State Building.

February 17, 1931 - First telecast of a sporting event in Japan (baseball).

March 6, 1931 - First radio newsreel, The March of Time, debuted; associated with Time magazine, featured dramatizations of news events, complete with music, sound effects, and a stable of actors to impersonate real news figures; 1942 - shifted to straight news, with only a few dramatized events.

April 6, 1931 - Radio show, Little Orphan Annie, debuted, based on comic strip by Harold Gray; first late-afternoon radio serial for children (ran until 1942).

1932 - Canadian Broadcasting Act created Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC); November 2, 1936 - Canadian Broadcasting Act replaced the CRBC with Crown Corporation, CBC; 1940 - CBC symbol showing radio waves, map of Canada adopted; 1941 - formal opening of CBC News Service; 1946 - opening of first CBC FM stations in Toronto, Montreal; September 6, 1952 - Canadian television broadcasting began, CBFT Montreal (bilingual); September 8, 1952 - CBLT Toronto (English).

February 15, 1932 - George Burns and Gracie Allen made their U.S. radio debut as regulars on Guy Lombardo Show.

March 29, 1932 - Jack Benny (born Benjamin Kubelsky) debuted on fifteen-minute radio program hosted by Broadway columnist for The New York Daily News named Ed Sullivan; May 2, 1932 - Jack Benny's first radio show debuted on NBC Blue Network (sponsored by Canada Dry); aired for more than 20 years.

August 22, 1932 - British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began its first experimental TV broadcast in England.

January 30, 1933 - Station WXYZ (Detroit) broadcast first episode of ''Lone Ranger'' radio program (total of 2,956 episodes over 21-year run); created by station-owner George Trendle, writer Fran Striker; televised version of The Lone Ranger, starred Clayton Moore as masked man; became ABC's first big hit in early 1950s (remained on air until 1957).

June 26, 1933 - Kraft Foods sponsored Kraft Music hall, two-hour radio program; part of promotional push to introduce new salad dressing, Miracle Whip; ran from 1933 to 1949, featured singer, actor Bing Crosby as host; May 7, 1947 - sponsored Kraft Television Theater on NBC with play called Double Doors; show ran for 11 years.

March 24, 1934 - Radio program, Major Bowes' (theater owner and variety-show producer) Original Amateur Hour, debuted, launched national craze among amateur performers hoping to hit big time; 1935 - Frank Sinatra appeared on show.

June 19, 1934 - President Franklin Roosevelt signed  Communications Act of 1934 into law; replaced Federal Radio Commission with Federal Communications Commission (FCC); transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from Interstate Commerce Commission to FCC; July 1, 1934 - Federal Communications Commission replaced Federal Radio Commission as regulator of broadcasting in United States.

March 22, 1935 - Television broadcasts began in Berlin, Germany, with low definition,180 lines system.

April 16, 1935 - Marian and Jim Jordan launched Fibber McGee and Molly, show about incessant teller of tall tales and his wife who gets him out of trouble; 1943 - top-rated radio program in nation (ran until 1959).

January 6, 1936 - Porky Pig made world debut in Warner Brothers cartoon, "Gold Diggers of '49"; 1937 - Mel Blanc joined Warner Brothers, became famous voice behind Porky as well as Warner Brothers characters Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Sylvester, Tweety.

April 24, 1936 - Group of firemen, responding to alarm in Camden, New Jersey, televised; first time unplanned event broadcast on television, anticipated development of live TV news coverage.

June 10, 1936 - First coaxial cable telecast transmitted 1.5 miles from Radio City, New York City to transmitter on top of Empire State Building; October 5, 1936 - first intercity telecast in U.S. using coaxial cable transmitted from New York City to Philadelphia; September 4, 1951 - first U.S. coast-to-coast telecast made between New York City and San Francisco.

November 2, 1936 - BBC began world's first high-definition television service from studios, transmitters at Alexandra Palace, in north London; range about 35 miles; February 1937 - Marconi-EMI won contract with 405-line transmitting system (vs. 240-line Baird system) which was more mobile, flexible and easy to use.

November 3, 1936 - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation  established.

December 17, 1936 - Ventriloquist Edgar Bergen, his wisecracking dummy Charlie McCarthy debuted on Rudy Vallee's popular radio show; became hit radio star with own show for more than 20 years.

January 25, 1937 - First broadcast of Soap Opera "Guiding Light" on NBC radio.

February 11, 1937 - All three major radio networks (CBS, NBC, Mutual) simultaneously broadcast program for first time, benefit concert from Radio City Music Hall for American National Red Cross.

February 17, 1938 - First public experimental demonstration of Baird color television transmitted from Crystal Palace to Dominion Theatre, London.

April 19, 1938 - RCA-NBC launched first regular TV broadcasts  from Empire State Building, five hours/week; few TV sets existed to receive programs.

July 11, 1938 - Radio drama Mercury Theater on the Air debuted; dramatic anthology program featured Orson Welles and John Houseman (founders of the Mercury Theater in New York); best remembered for 1938 broadcast of The War of the Worlds, fictional drama about Martian invasion in Grovers Mill, New Jersey; aired on Halloween, sparked a panic among listeners who believed play was  real news broadcast.

August 26, 1938 - Tape recorder (sapphire stylus engraved Millertape invented by James Arthur Miller of the Miller Broadcasting Company) used for first time in U.S. to send radio broadcast; 1,000 foot section of tape could carry 15-min program (edited by cutting); first program to use sound tape transmitted by WQXR, Interstate Broadcasting Company, in New York City.

October 30, 1938 - Radio play, ''The War of the Worlds'' (H.G. Wells' 19th-century science fiction novel), starring Orson Welles (23 years old), aired on CBS; live drama, employed fake news reports, panicked an estimated million listeners who thought its portrayal of a Martian invasion was true; panic broke out across the country; terrified civilians jammed highways in New Jersey seeking to escape the alien marauders; news of the real-life panic leaked into the CBS studio, Welles went on the air as himself to remind listeners that it was just fiction. Federal Communications Commission investigated the program but found no law was broken.

November 11, 1938 - Kate Smith first sang Irving Berlin's ''God Bless America'' on network radio.

April 30, 1939 - New York World's Fair, billed as look at ''the world of tomorrow,'' opened; first day of television broadcasting in New York; Roosevelt first president to appear on television (broadcast was beamed to only 200 television sets).

August 26, 1939 - Major league baseball televised for first time; experimental station W2XBS broadcast doubleheader between  Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field.

December 27, 1939 - Glen Miller Show debuted on CBS radio; 1944 - his plane from England to Paris disappeared, never found (age 40).

January 7, 1940 - Gene Autry's musical variety show premiered on CBS radio (ran for next 16 years.

February 25, 1940 - New York City station W2XBS televised hockey game for first time.

February 28, 1940 - First televised basketball game shown, from Madison Square Garden in New York.

April 17, 1940 - DuMont received a license to operate New York's second television station; November 1940 - inaugurated New York City's experimental W2XWV; station broadcast throughout World War II; May 2, 1944 - granted a commercial license; call letters changed to WABD (Du Mont's initials); May 19, 1945 - received license first station in Washington DC, known as experimental W3XWT; August 9, 1945 - first DuMont network telecast occurred when DuMont's New York and Washington TV stations were linked via coaxial cable for an announcement concerning the dropping of the second atomic bomb on Nagasaki; April 26, 1946 - granted a commercial television license for a Washington station, WTTG-TV, channel five; 1947 - broadcats first network program, "Walter Compton and the News" (aired simultaneously on WABD and WTTG); 1955 - Du Mont Broadcasting incorporated; 1958 - renamed Metropolitan Broadcasting; New York station call letters changed to WNEW; 1961 - renamed Metromedia (after John Kluge gained control of the company).

July 27, 1940 - Bugs Bunny made debut in Warner Bros. animated cartoon ''A Wild Hare.''

1941 - FCC licensees allowed to sell air time for advertisements or other commercial purposes;

March 1, 1941 - Nashville radio station W47NV began transmitting, first station in country to receive a license for FM radio transmission.

April 2, 1941 - Radio sitcom, Life of Riley, debuted; starred William Bendix as bullheaded family man; ran for 10 years on radio, about six years on television.

Mid-1941 - President Roosevelt established U.S. Foreign Information Service (FIS), named speechwriter Robert Sherwood as first director; December 1941 - FIS made first direct broadcasts to Asia from  studio in San Francisco; February 24, 1942 - beamed first broadcast to Europe via BBC medium- and long-wave transmitters; announcer William Harlan Hale opened German-language program with the words: "Here speaks a voice from America, name took hold; June 1942 - Voice of America (VOA)  had twenty-three transmitters and 27 language services;  February 17, 1947 - began first radio broadcasts to Soviet Union.

May 2, 1941 - Federal Communications Commission agreed to regular scheduling of TV broadcasts by commercial TV stations to begin July 1; start of what became network television.

July 1, 1941 - NBC broadcasted first TV commercial sanctioned by Federal Communications Commission (FCC); Bulova paid $9 to advertise watches on air during Dodgers-Phillies game 

July 1, 1941 - NBC granted FCC's first commercial TV station license for WNBT in New York.

February 24, 1942 - Voice of America went on the air as multimedia international broadcasting service funded by U.S. government through Broadcasting Board of Governors.

August 2, 1943 - Edward J. Noble (acquired rights to Life Savers in 1913), grew Life Savers Incorporated from fledgling mint candy company into global food business with sales of $20 million in mid-1950s, already owned American Broadcasting Company, bought network division from NBC for $8 million (in a Federal Trade Commission-mandated divestiture), promptly renamed it American Broadcasting Systems; December 25, 1944 - FCC transferred owned-station licenses, ratified  change of network to American Broadcasting Co.; June 14, 1945 - name of network changed to American Broadcasting Company, Inc. (ABC).

Edward J. Noble - ABC (

October 8, 1944 - ''The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet'' made its debut on CBS Radio; October 3, 1952 - "Ozzie and Harriet" premiered on television (ran until 1966).

1945 - FCC reserved 20 FM channels, between 88 and 92 MHz, for non-commercial, educational broadcasting; represented 20% of broadcast band.

December 9, 1945 - Oscar Brand's radio show, "Folksong Festival" debuts on WNYC radio; December 9, 2005  - won Guinness Book of World records as longest-running radio show with the same host (60 years); beat Alistair Cooke's "Letter from America" (58 years).

 1946 - "Geographically Speaking", first commercially sponsored TV show, debuted; backed by Bristol-Myers.

May 9, 1946 - First variety show on TV, hour-long "NBC's Hour Glass," premiered.

June 1, 1946 - Television licenses first issued in Britain (financed BBC's domestic radio and TV services); sold at Post Offices at cost £2, included radio (radio-only licenses then cost £1); September 1, 1939 - TV service suddenly blacked out for defense purposes, suspended for duration of WW II; June 8, 1946 - television re-opened to cover Victory Parade; November 1922 - first radio license fee began, cost 10 shillings (50p); April 1, 2002 - license fees cost £112.00 for color, £37.50 for black and white.

October 27, 1946 - First television program with commercial sponsor debuted ("Geographically Speaking", travel show, sponsored by Bristol-Myers); ran until December 1, 1946.

November 7, 1946 - Tradio Inc., of Asbury Park, NJ, publicly exhibited first U.S. coin-operated television (25 cents) in New York City.

1947 - Dorothy Stimson Bullitt purchased KEVR, small Seattle AM radio station with almost no listeners; negotiated swap for call letters KING (King County, WA); 1948 - received license for FM station, KING-FM, broadcast classical music; 1949 - purchased 8-month-old ABC affiliate television station, KRSC-TV, renamed it KING-TV (1959 - became NBC affiliate); 1961 - Stimson (son) assumed presidency; 1992 - acquired by Providence Journal; 1998 - acquired by A. H. Belo.

January 22, 1947 - KTLA-TV in Hollywood, CA, first commercially-licensed television station west of Mississippi River, went on air as Bob Hope signed station on with special program billed as "Western Premiere of Commercial Television"; originated from small garage on Paramount Studios movie lot; 1939 - Paramount Pictures started KTLA as experimental station W6XYZ under guidance of television pioneer Klaus Landsberg.

April 16 1947 - National Broadcasting Company in New York City demonstrated first zoom lens for television camera; November 23, 1948 - Dr. Frank Gerard Back patented Zoomar lens, patented as  "varifocal lens for cameras".

June 16, 1947 - Dumont Television Network's "News from Washington" was first network news; parent company DuMont Laboratories, broadcasting-equipment and set manufacturer; founded by Dr. Allen B. DuMont.

November 6, 1947 - "Meet the Press" premiered on TV; oldest program still on television.

December 27, 1947 - Children's TV program ''Howdy Doody'' debuted on NBC.

January 1, 1948 - Warner Brothers-Pathe took first U.S. motion picture newsreel in color, using Cinecolor process, at Tournament of Roses and Rose Bowl Game, Pasadena, CA; January 5, 1948 - started showing this first color newsreel to theatre audiences.

January 18, 1948 - Original Amateur Hour, spin-off of popular radio show, Major Bowes' Amateur Hour, debuted; aired for 12 years; one of few programs aired by all four early TV networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, and the ill-fated DuMont network).

February 16, 1948 - NBC-TV aired its first nightly newscast, ''The Camel Newsreel Theatre''; consisted of Fox Movietone newsreels.

April 19, 1948 - ABC television network went on the air.

August 10, 1948 - Candid Camera, produced and hosted by Alan Funt, debuted.

September 21, 1948 - "Texaco Star Theater" with Milton Berle premiered on NBC-TV.

November 23, 1948 - Frank G. Back, of New York, NY, received a patent for a ""Varifocal lens for cameras" ("for use in connection with moving picture cameras"); zoom effects for television cameras; Zoomar lens was adjustable for close-ups or long-distance shots without requiring the camera be moved toward or away from the object televised; eliminated having to use a lens turret with multiple focal length lenses.

November 25, 1948 - Ed Parsons, electronics equipment, ran radio station in Astoria, OR, invented cable television; picked up usable signal on roof of John Jacob Astor Hotel; set up antenna, strung  cable across street to his living room; installed set in hotel lobby attracted so many people that guests could not reach registration desk; put set in store window across street, brought signal to it with coaxial cable - first recorded use of coaxial to carry television.

November 29, 1948 - Children's show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, premiered on prime time network TV; featured puppets Kukla, Ollie (a dragon), and others, with live actress Fran Allison as host; one of the two most important series made in Chicago, along with Garroway at Large, during city's period as important production center for network programs in late 1940s; 1957 - show cancelled; 1969-1971 - PBS revived series.

December 6, 1948 - Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, one of TV's first amateur talent shows, debuted; show discovered numerous stars (Rosemary Clooney, Pat Boone, Steve Lawrence, Connie Francis, Patsy Cline); 1955 - Elvis Presley flunked his audition; July 1958 -  show canceled.

January 11, 1949 - NBC linked East and Midwest TV networks; 1946 - NBC launched its first TV network by transmitting programs from New York station to Philadelphia and Schenectady stations; September 1948 - opened Midwest network; September 1951 - opened West Coast network, created country's first coast-to-coast network.

January 17, 1949 - The Goldbergs (from a nearly 20-year-old popular radio program of same name) debuted as television's first situation comedy (ran until 1954); adventures of middle-class Jewish family in Bronx; starred Gertrude Berg and Philip Loeb.

January 25, 1949 - National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences presented its first industry award ("Emmy") at Hollywood Athletic Club in Los Angeles; most awards were for programs produced by TV station KTLA; award for most popular program went to Pantomime Quiz Time; puppeteer Shirley Dinsdale and her puppet Judy Splinters won award for Outstanding TV Personality.

January 31, 1949 - First TV daytime soap opera, ''These Are My Children,'' broadcast from NBC station in Chicago.

April 1, 1949 - Happy Pappy, first TV variety show starring African-American cast, debuted on local television in Chicago; Ray Grant as master of ceremonies.

April 15, 1949 - Pacifica went on air as KPFA 94.1 fm in Berkeley CA; first listener supported non-commercial radio station in United States (created by Lewis Hill; 1951 - Pacifica received first major foundation grant (Ford Foundation) for support of non-commercial broadcast operation; 1959 - Pacifica began second station, KPFK-FM, in Los Angeles (Terry Drinkwater as General Manager); 1968 - established Pacifica Radio News (originally Washington News Bureau of WBAI/New York) in Washington DC; December 12, 2001 - Pacifica board, dissident groups signed settlement that led to democratization of Pacifica radio network (listener-subscribers won right to vote for representatives on local station board).

July 29, 1949 - BBC radio began broadcasting.

November 26, 1949 - "Twenty Questions" had its TV premiere.

February 16, 1950 - TV game show, What's My Line, debuted; produced by game show magnates Mark Goodson, Bill Todman, ran for 18 years, longest-running prime-time game show in history of television.

August 19, 1950 - American Broadcasting Company aired first Saturday morning television shows for children, Animal Clinic and Acrobat Ranch.

October 11, 1950 - Federal Communications Commission authorized Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) to begin commercial color television broadcasts.

October 15, 1950 - First American radio paging service, Aircall of New York City, sent first page, to doctor who was on golf course 25 miles away, via six-ounce pocket radio receiver; call numbers repeated in numerical sequence on air at least once per minute within 30-mile radius.

October 28, 1950 - Jack Benny Show, starring Jack Benny, premiered (ran for 15 years).

1951 - Hallmark Cards sponsored 'Hallmark Presents Sarah Churchill', 15-minute weekly interview series hosted by Sir Winston Churchill's daughter; Hallmark Hall of Fame debuted on NBC with world premier of Gian Carlo Menotti's Christmas opera 'Amahl' and the 'Night Visitors', first original opera commissioned for television.

January 1, 1951 - Zenith Radio Corporation started test transmissions of first pay television in U.S. to limited group of subscribers ( 300 families chosen from 51,000 applicants) in Chicago, IL for 90 days; signal could only be viewed by people having "key signal" sent to them by telephone; company sold over 2,000 program views in first month, not enough to sustain commercial venture.

May 1951 - Leonard H. Goldenson, President of United Paramount Theatres, agreed to acquire $25 million, 14-station ABC network pending FCC approval from Edward J. Noble [Lifesavers candy founder].

June 25, 1951 - Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) televised  one-hour premiere of commercial color television; not compatible with existing black-and-white TV sets, failed commercially; October 20, 1951 - CBS color broadcasts ended.

June 28, 1951 - "Amos 'N' Andy" premiered on TV, first series to have all-black cast.

October 15, 1951 - Situation comedy, ''I Love Lucy'', premiered on CBS; first long-running sitcom hit; starred comedian Lucille Ball and her real-life husband, Desi Arnaz; turned couple's production company, Desilu, into multimillion-dollar business; 1960 - Ball became president of company.

December 24, 1951 - NBC broadcast Gian Carlo Menotti's ''Amahl and the Night Visitors,'' first opera written specifically for TV.

January 3, 1952 - Television series, Dragnet, debuted, launched  long legacy of realistic police drama on TV; December 1951 - first appeared on TV as drama on anthology show called Chesterfield Sound-Off Time; one of first series filmed in Hollywood, not New York; episodes based on real cases from Los Angeles Police Department; each half-hour segment concluded with capture of perpetrator by  short update on what happened at suspect's trial.

January 14, 1952 - NBC's ''Today'' show premiered.

October 7, 1952 - Bandstand began as local program on WFIL-TV (now WPVI), Channel 6 in Philadelphia, hosted by Bob Horn, called Bob Horn's Bandstand; July 9, 1956 - Dick Clark (26) named new host.

February 1, 1953 - "General Electric Theater" premiered on TV.

February 9, 1953 - "Adventures of Superman" TV series premiered in syndication.

December 24, 1953 - Dragnet became first network series with regular sponsor as Fatima cigarettes backed show (debuted on radio in 1949); one of first dramatic series in medium that had been dominated to that point by anthology shows.

January 1, 1954 - Station WNBT, of National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), placed first color mobile television units in U.S. in operation to broadcast first color telecast originating from west coast (Tournament of Roses parade hosted by Don Ameche in Pasadena, CA); viewed by audiences in 21 cities (with remaining cities showing program in black and white).

March 9, 1954 - First color television commercial broadcast, for Castro Decorators of New York City.

March 25, 1954 - RCA announced production of color television sets.

September 27, 1954 - ''Tonight!'', hosted by Steve Allen, made its debut on NBC-TV; July 1957 - Jack Paar became host; October 1, 1962 - Johnny Carson became host; May 1992 - Jay Leno became host.

October 27, 1954 - Disneyland, Walt Disney's first television series, premiered on ABC; presented rotating selection of cartoons, dramas, movies, other entertainment; ran for 34 years under various names (Walt Disney Presents, The Wonderful World of Disney); longest-running prime-time series on network TV.

November 7, 1954 - "Face the Nation" debuted.

1955 - Commercial TV started in Britain.

March 7, 1955 - Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, aired, first Broadway play televised in color.

June 7, 1955 - TV game show, The $64,000 Question, debuted; spin-off of radio game show The $64 Question; started with contestants answering question worth $64, with each subsequent question worth double amount of previous one; instant hit.

September 18, 1955 - Ed Sullivan's popular talk show (started in 1948), originally called Toast of the Town, changed name to The Ed Sullivan Show.

September 22, 1955 - Start of Independent Television (ITV) service in UK, first commercial television network in United Kingdom; initially only from Crystal Palace transmitter in Croydon on channel 9 to London area only; potential coverage of 10 million viewers; broadcast first commercial on television in Britain for Gibbs SR toothpaste; owned by four shareholders: ITV PLC(40%), Daily Mail and General Trust(20%), Reuters(20%), and United Business Media(20%).

October 3, 1955 - ''Captain Kangaroo'' premiered on CBS; ''The Mickey Mouse Club'' premiered on ABC.

1956 - Ray Dolby invented videotape recorder.

1956 - John W. Kluge, formerly in food brokerage business, assembled investment group, purchased Metropolitan Network, former DuMont stations; named company Metromedia; low-cost producer, programming strategy of re-running old network situation comedies, low budget movies; grew into largest independent television business in United States; acquired Ice Capades, Harlem Globetrotters, music publishing companies, Playbill magazine, highly profitable direct mail advertising division, syndication rights to M*A*S*H; 1984 - structured a $1.3 billion leveraged buyout; 1985 - sold seven Metromedia International Group television stations to Rupert Murdoch for $2 billion (served as basis for FOX television network); 1995 - formed Metromedia International Group Inc., global communications company to sell all forms of mass communication to citizens in Eastern Europe, former Soviet Republics).

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April 2, 1956 - Soap operas, "As the World Turns", "The Edge of Night", premiered on television.

August 9, 1956 - First statewide, state-supported educational television network went on air in Alabama.

October 29, 1956 - ''The Huntley-Brinkley Report'' premiered as NBC's nightly TV newscast.

November 3, 1956 - The Wizard of Oz shown on television for first time; viewing audience estimated at 45 million people.

November 26, 1956 - "The Price is Right" premiered on TV.

January 21, 1957 - NBC taped, broadcast President Dwight D. Eisenhower's second inauguration ceremonies; first nationally televised videotaped broadcast in U. S.

May 1, 1957 - Larry King's first radio broadcast.

May 4, 1957 - Alan Freed hosted "Rock n' Roll Show", first prime-time network rock show.

May 6, 1957 - Last broadcast of "I Love Lucy" on CBS-TV.

June 23, 1957 - Roy Rogers Show aired last episode after running for more than decade.

July 29, 1957 - Jack Paar's Tonight show premiered..

August 5, 1957 - ABC began broadcasting series nationwide, nightly, Monday-Friday evenings; renamed American Bandstand, hosted by Dick Clark (27); September 7, 1963 - broadcast weekly on Saturday afternoons; September 5, 1987 - ended association with ABC; October 7, 1989 - final show aired.

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October 4, 1957 - Leave It to Beaver debuted; typical 1950s "wholesome family" comedy presented life of Cleaver family from  perspective of seven-year-old Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver.

1958 - Dr. Donald Hare founded Grass Valley Group as R&D company in Grass Valley, CA; 1964 - demonstrated first video product, video distribution, solid-state amplifier, in hotel room at National Association of Broadcasters convention; 1968 - introduced its first vision mixer, flagship product that helped build company’s reputation; 1974 - merged with Tektronix; September 24, 1999 - video business acquired by Terry Gooding of San Diego, CA; reincorporated as Grass Valley Group Inc.; 2002 - acquired by French electronics giant Thomson SA; 2009 - Thomson planned to sell division; world's video, film experts (especially as broadcast, television, film production go digital).

March 11, 1958 - Charles Van Doren finally lost on TV game show "21".

December 19, 1958 - First known radio broadcast from outer space transmitted; President Eisenhower's voice issued Christmas greeting from pre-recorded tape on recorder aboard orbiting space satellite.

January 9, 1959 - Rawhide premiered, starring Clint Eastwood as  cattle-driving cowboy = one of 30 western series in 1959-60 TV season, up steadily since debut of Gunsmoke (1955); 1966 - Rawhide cancelled.

June 18, 1959 - First telecast transmitted from England to U.S.

September 12, 1959 - Bonanza debuted; first western televised in color.

October 2, 1959 - "The Twilight Zone" premiered.

November 2, 1959 - Charles Van Doren admitted to House subcommittee that he had questions, answers in advance of his appearances on NBC-TV game show ''Twenty-One.''

January 25, 1960 - National Association of Broadcasters proposed that disc jockeys accepting payment from record labels for broadcasting particular songs be charged $500 fine, spend year in prison; 1938 - Variety magazine coined term "payola" for this practice of pay for play; big-city DJs equated this to tip a headwaiter would receive for giving a patron good table; 18th century - composers in England sold their songs outright, didn't receive royalties, relied on bribes to get their songs performed so they could sell new ones; result: amendment to the Communications Act of 1934 outlawed pay-for-play.

May 19, 1960 - Alan Freed, seven other DJs arrested on suspicion  of taking radio payola (commercial bribery); 1959 - charged with 26 counts of commercial bribery, fined; Communications Act of 1934 amended; outlawed pay-for-play.

September 19, 1960 -"The Twist," by Chubby Checker, hit top of charts; only song to top chart twice-No. 1 again in 1962; stayed on charts for 39 weeks, launched national dance craze.

September 30, 1960 - Flintstones premiered, first prime time animation show.

October 17, 1960 - Charles Van Doren, former contestant on popular TV game show "Twenty-One," arrested along with 13 others, including television producers Dan Enright and Al Freedman, for perjury.

April 14, 1961 - First live television broadcast from Soviet Union.

April 29, 1961 - ABC's "Wide World of Sports, debuted.

May 9, 1961 - Federal Communications Commission chairman, Newton N. Minow, condemned TV programming as ''vast wasteland'' in speech to the National Association of Broadcasters.

June 1, 1961 - Federal Communications Commission received first notifications of regular stereo FM broadcasting operations from WEFM Chicago and WGFM Schenectady; authorized FM stereo broadcasting to begin in U.S.; FCC adopted stereo FM broadcasting standards co-invented by Carl Eilers of Zenith

March 7, 1962 - Beatles made broadcasting debut on BBC radio; March 8, 1962 - Beatles, with Pete Best, TV debut (perform "Dream Baby" on BBC).

April 16, 1962 - Walter Cronkite replaced Douglas Edwards as anchor of CBS Evening News.

April 24, 1962 - MIT executed first satellite relay of TV signal.

October 2, 1962 - Johnny Carson succeeded Jack Paar as regular host of NBC's "Tonight Show" (show had first appeared in 1953 on New York's local NBC affiliate, hosted by Steve Allen; network began airing show nationally in 1954; Allen left show in 1957); 1992 - Carson announced he would retire;  replaced by Jay Leno.

February 20, 1963 - General Telephone and Electronics Co. (GTE) demonstrated television receiver, transmitter operated by laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radion) beam in Bayside, NY; laser provides narrow high-intensity light beam that can be focused. directed over long distances; May 14, 1963 - Laser light beam link first carried TV signal from studio camera during network broadcast of "I've Got a Secret"; GTE scientists Samuel M. Stone and Louis Richard Bloom created communication system; signal used to modulate laser beam that traveled two feet to receiver that decoded signal from beam; relayed via control room for national broadcast; laser light beams now routinely used to transmit signals along optical fibers.

September 2, 1963 - ''The CBS Evening News'' lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.

September 12, 1963 -"Leave It to Beaver" aired last episode (debuted in 1957).

February 9, 1964 - Beatles made first live American television appearance, on "The Ed Sullivan Show."

April 19, 1965 - First all news radio station (WINS 1010 AM in New York City) began operating.

May 2, 1965 - Early Bird satellite used to transmit television pictures across Atlantic Ocean.

November 8, 1965 - Days of Our Lives, soap opera, debuted on NBC.

March 3, 1966 - Postmaster General, Anthony Wedgwood Benn, announced in House of Commons that British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) planned to begin broadcasting television programs in color following year; would make Britain first European country to have schedule of color programs; cost of production would be paid from higher license fee for use of color televisions, beginning with four hours of original programming per week in color; service expected to expand to 10-12 hours weekly within year; new color receiver then cost about £250; back and white reception unaffected.

January 10, 1967 - First educational television network launched, called National Educational Television (70 independent, affiliated educational stations interconnected to show live broadcast of President Lyndon Johnson's State of the Union address).

February 23, 1967 - Washington Week aired locally on WETA in Washington, DC; longest-running public affairs program on PBS; January 1969 - first local program to air on new Public Broadcasting Service; 1974 - won Alfred duPont–Columbia University Award for outstanding journalistic achievement; 2007 - carried by 90 percent of 306 PBS stations around country, reaches 97% of U.S. television households.

September 24, 1967 - First broadcast of 60 Minutes on CBS-TV.

October 14, 1968 - First live telecast from manned U.S. spacecraft transmitted from Apollo 7; Captain Walter Schirra, Jr., Major Donn Eisele and Major Walt Cunningham showed views of satellite, views through windows.

November 7, 1967 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed bill establishing Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

December 22, 1968 - Apollo VIII, a manned spacecraft, transmitted  first U.S. live telecast from outer space; earth appeared as blurred ball of light; craft was 139,000 miles from earth, 31-hr 20-min after launch.

November 3, 1969 - The Public Broadcasting System debuted when few local educational TV channels united.

November 10, 1969 - ''Sesame Street'' made its debut on National Educational Television (predecessor to Public Broadcasting Service); brainchild of Joan Ganz Cooney, former documentary producer for public television, to create programming for preschoolers that was both entertaining, educational; set in fictional New York neighborhood, included ethnically diverse characters and positive social messages; hired puppeteer Jim Henson to create cast of characters (Bert and Ernie, Cookie Monster, Oscar the Grouch, Grover, Big Bird); estimated 8 million weekly viewers in U.S. alone.

July 31, 1970 - Chet Huntley retired from NBC, ended "Huntley-Brinkley Report".

September 21, 1970 - ''NFL Monday Night Football'' debuted on ABC with game between New York Jets, Cleveland Browns; 2006 - show moved to ESPN (also a Walt Disney Company); production cost: $8.5 million for ABC in 1970; annually - $550 million for ABC; 2006 - $1.1 billion for ESPN.

November 20, 1970 - "Wall Street Week" debuted (created by Anne Truax Darlington, producer with Maryland Public Broadcasting); ran for 32 years; attracted largest audience on public television (about 6 million viewers by mid-1980s); first economic commentary on television.

January 10, 1971 - Masterpiece Theater debuted on PBS.

May 3, 1971 - National Public Radio started broadcasting; "All Things Considered" premiered on 112 National Public Radio stations.

May 9, 1971 - Last episode of The Honeymooners; aired only 39 episodes in its familiar sitcom format, ran for only one season; filmed in front of live audience, broadcast at later date.

June 6, 1971 - "Ed Sullivan Show" last broadcast on CBS-TV.

1972 - Lowry Mays, Red McCombs first FM station in San Antonio, TX; 1975 - acquired AM station WOAI; 1976 - acquired two stations in Tulsa, OK; 1984 - went public; 1995 - owned 43 radio stations, 16 television stations; 1996 - Telecommunications Act of 1996 became law, deregulated media ownership; company acquired more than 70 media companies, individual stations; 2000 - owned more than 1,200 stations; largest owner of full-power AM, FM, shortwave radio stations; largest media company focused only on radio; 2005 - split into three separate companies; 2008 - TV stations, 161 radio stations acquired by Newport Television (Providence Equity Partners); July 24, 2008 - acquired by Thomas H. Lee Partners, Bain Capital Partners for $17.9 billion.

April 2, 1973 - CBS radio began news on top of hour 24 hours a day.

September 23, 1973 - World's first Ceefax teletext service began on BBC Television.

October 11, 1975 - ''Saturday Night Live'' made its debut on NBC; George Carlin as host comedian.

November 6, 1975 - "Good Morning America" premiered on TV.

April 22, 1976 - Barbara Walters became first female nightly news anchor on network television; signed record-breaking five-year, $5 million contract with ABC; highest paid TV journalist to date. 

September 4, 1976 - Lillian Lincoln Howell founded station KTSF in San Francisco, began transmitting from San Bruno with Chinese and Japanese programming; largest, oldest Asian-language television station in U. S.

April 2, 1978 - Nighttime drama, "Dallas", premiered on television.

November 24, 1978 - David Letterman made his first guest appearance on The Tonight Show; 1982 - had his own late-night comedy talk show, Late Night with David Letterman; 1993 - launched Late Show on rival network CBS when NBC chose Jay Leno as host of Tonight Show.

March 19, 1979 - C-Span, staff of four, first televised coverage of U.S. House of Representatives live to 3.5 million households; no formal budget, approximate expenditure about $500,000; September 13, 1982 - programming expanded to 24 hours a day; June 2, 1986 - C-SPAN 2 aired live proceedings of U.S. Senate during television test period; July 29, 1986 - Senate voted in favor of permanent televised coverage of its proceedings; January 5, 1987 - C-SPAN 2 programming expanded to 24-hours-a-day; November 22, 1988 - inaugurated international telecasts with Queen Elizabeth II's speech to State Opening of Parliament; April 1989 - launched Booknotes, weekly, hour-long interview program with authors of public affairs books; January 1997 - C-SPAN offered live, video web coverage of House and Senate on Internet; September 12, 1998 - Book TV debuted on C-SPAN 2, 48 hour, weekend literary programming block dedicated to nonfiction books; January 22, 2001 - C-SPAN3 launched as national digital cable network, offered live coverage of national events on weekdays, long-form history programming overnights and weekends; November 12, 2001 - C-SPAN Radio reached national audience with advent of satellite radio; December 2004 - 801st, final Booknotes program aired, concluded 15-year run.

September 7, 1979 - Bill Rasmussen, unemployed sports announcer, group of committed sports junkies in Bristol, CT leased unwanted satellite time to broadcast local college sports, minor league hockey games; called organization Entertainment & Sports Programming Network (ESPN); most powerful and prominent name in sports media (27 satellite dishes feeding more than 97 million subscribers). 

June 1, 1980 - Cable News Network made its debut.

March 6, 1981 - Walter Cronkite signed off for last time as anchorman of "The CBS Evening News."

March 24, 1981 - ABC's nightly Iran Hostage crisis program ("The Iran Crisis--America Held Hostage: Day xxx") renamed Nightline, anchored by Ted Koppel.

August 1, 1981 - Music Television, (MTV), music video cable channel, debuted as operation of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment Company (WASEC), joint venture of Warner Communications, American Express; programming format created by Bob Pittman, one of most successful radio program directors; developed concept of all video channel - record-company-produced videos programmed as records on radio station; (later became president, chief executive officer, of MTV Networks); 1984 - companies divested WASEC; renamed MTV Networks Inc.; first MTV Video Music Awards show; 1985 - MTV introduced new channel, VH-1, Video Hits One; 1986 - MTV Networks Inc. acquired by Viacom Inc.; renamed MTV Networks.

February 1, 1982 - ''Late Night with David Letterman'' premiered on NBC.

May 2, 1982 - Weather Channel went on air; 10 months from concept to live broadcast (24 hour cable weather station); created by former WLS-TV Chicago chief meteorologist, Good Morning America forecaster John Coleman; took idea to Frank Batten, CEO of Landmark Communications.

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Frank Batten, CEO - Landmark Communications (Weather Channel) (

November 2, 1982 - Channel Four, public-service television and radio broadcaster in United Kingdom, began transmission; established to provide fourth television service to UK that would break only television services in UK: 1) duopoly of BBC's two established television services, 2) ITV, single commercial broadcasting network; originally a subsidiary of  Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), now owned, operated by Channel Four Television Corporation, public body established in 1990 for this purpose, began operating in 1993, following abolition of the IBA.

January 17, 1984 - U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that private use of home video cassette recorders to tape TV programs did not violate federal copyright laws; decision paved way for success of video store chains like Blockbuster.

March 1985 - News Corporation acquired 50% of TCF Holdings, the parent company of 20th Century Fox movie studio for $250 million; May 1985 - agreed to pay $1.55 billion to acquire independent television stations in six major U.S. media markets from John Kluge's company, Metromedia; October 1985 - Rupert Murdoch announced intentions to form independent television system to compete with three major U.S. television networks; May 6, 1986 - Murdoch, along with newly-hired Fox CEO and chairman Barry Diller and comedian Joan Rivers, announced plans for "FBC" or the "Fox Broadcasting Company", with WNYW in New York as flagship station; October 9, 1986 - Fox network launched; broadcast to 96 stations reaching more than 80% of nation's households.

March 18, 1985 - Capital Cities Communications acquired American Broadcasting Cos. (ABC) for $3.5 billion.

December 11, 1985 - General Electric agreed to acquire RCA and National Broadcasting Co. for $6.3 billion; deal engineered by RCA chairman (former Atlantic Richfield president) Thornton F. Bradshaw; largest acquisition in history outside oil business.

April 5, 1987 - Fox Broadcasting Co. made its prime-time TV debut.

August 4, 1987 - Federal Communications Commission voted to rescind Fairness Doctrine; required radio and television stations to present balanced coverage of controversial issues.

November 18, 1987 - CBS, under chairman Laurence A. Tisch,  sold non-broadcast affiliates, divisions; agreed to sell CBS Records to Sony Corp. for $3.4 billion (included CBS's manufacturing plants,  subsidiary companies,10,000 employees, Columbia House, direct-mail music club); capped major corporate makeover for CBS.   

February 22, 1989 - First Spanish commercial on network TV (Pepsi-Cola-CBS Grammy Award).

April 11, 1991 - New York City's Museum of Broadcasting became "Museum of Radio and Television".

July 1, 1991 - Court TV debuted.

May 25, 1992 - Jay Leno made his first appearance as host of The Tonight Show; replaced Johnny Carson, who had hosted the show for nearly 30 years.

May 6, 1995 - Classic Sports Network began on cable TV.

July 31, 1995 - Walt Disney Company agreed to acquire Capital Cities-ABC Inc. in a $19 billion deal.

August 1, 1995 - Westinghouse Electric Corporation (founded in 1886) acquired CBS for $5.4 billion; primarily a power company before media power.

January 3, 1996 - Congress amended, repealed sections of Communications Act of 1934 with new Telecommunications Act of 1996; first major overhaul of American telecommunications policy in nearly 62 years.

July 15, 1996 - MSNBC, 24-hour all-news network, made its debut on cable TV, Internet.

October 7, 1996 - Rupert Murdoch's Fox News Channel made its debut.

February 10, 1997 - Westinghouse/CBS unit of Westinghouse Electric Corp. acquired The Nashville Network (TNN - broadcast in over 70 million homes), Country Music Television (CMT - subscription base of over 38 million viewers) for $1.5 billion from Gaylord Entertainment.

February 23, 1997 - NBC televised Schindler's List, first TV movie without commercial interruption, sponsored by Ford Motor Company; one commercial before, after film.

March 17, 1997 - CNN began Spanish broadcasts.

January 14, 1998 - NBC agreed to pay Warner Bros. record $13 million per episode to retain top-rated TV show, ''ER.''

September 8, 2003 - Recording Industry Association of America, music industry's largest trade group, filed 261 copyright lawsuits across country against Internet users for trading songs online.

March 31, 2004 - Air America, intended as liberal voice in network talk radio, made its debut on five stations.

June 28, 2006 - Univision Communications Inc., largest Spanish-language broadcaster in U.S., fifth largest in U.S. (reaches 98% of Spanish-speaking households), agreed to be acquired by group of investors led by billionaire Haim Saban (including Madison Dearborn Partners, Providence Equity Partners, Texas Pacific Group, Thomas H. Lee Partners) for $12.3 billion.

November 16, 2006 - Clear Channel Communications Inc., nation's largest network of 1,150 radio stations (42 television stations), agreed to $18.7 billion buyout by group led by Thomas H. Lee Partners, Bain Capital Partners.

October 15, 2007 - News Corp., owner of Fox channel, launched Fox Business Network to challenge General Electric Co.'s highly profitable CNBC network; sought to redefine business news for average Americans faced with increasingly complex decisions about  financial futures.

January 2009 - Local TV viewership, ad revenue in decline, original programming scaled back, weekend news shows cut back, staffs trimmed; 2009 TV-station ad revenue projected to fall 20%-30% (source: Bernstein Research); network executives may take shows directly to cable (steady subscriber fees).

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(ABC), Sterling Quinlan; illustrated with photos (1979). Inside ABC: American Broadcasting Company's Rise to Power. (New York, NY: Hastings House, 290 p.). American Broadcasting Company--History.

Leonard Goldenson  (

(ABC), Huntington Williams (1989). Beyond Control: ABC and the Fate of the Networks. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 290 p.). American Broadcasting Company; Television broadcasting -- United States.

(ABC), Leonard H. Goldenson; with Marvin J. Wolf (1991). Beating the Odds: The Untold Story Behind the Rise of ABC: The Stars, Struggles, and Egos that Transformed Network Television by the Man Who Made It Happen. (New York, NY: Scribner, 495 p.). Postwar Entrepreneur, Chief of ABC Network. Goldenson, Leonard H.; American Broadcasting Company; Television broadcasting--United States. 

(ABC), James E. Duffy (1997). Stay Tuned: My Life & The Business of Running the ABC Television Network. (New York, NY: Dunhill Pub., 407 p.). Duffy, James E., 1926- ; American Broadcasting Company--History; Broadcasters--United States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(BBC), Asa Briggs (1985). The BBC: The First Fifty Years (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 439 p.). British Broadcasting Corporation--History.

John Reith John Reith - BBC's first Director general ( 

(BBC), Chris Horrie and Steve Clarke (2000). Citizen Greg: The Extraordinary Story of Greg Dyke and How He Captured the BBC. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 290 p.). Dyke, Greg, 1947- ; British Broadcasting Corporation; Television personalities--Great Britain--Biography; Chief executive officers--Great Britain--Biography.

(BBC), Lucy KŁng-Shankleman (2000). Inside the BBC and CNN: Managing Media Organisations. (New York, NY: Routledge, 245 p.). British Broadcasting Corporation; Cable News Network; British Broadcasting Corporation; Cable News Network; Broadcasting--Great Britain; Broadcasting--United States.

(BBC), Marmaduke Hussey (2001). Chance Governs All. (London, UK: Macmillan, 326 p.). Former Chairman of BBC. Hussey, Marmaduke, 1923- ; British Broadcasting Corporation; Journalists--Great Britain--Biography; Executives--Great Britain--Biography. 

(BBC), Georgina Born (2004). Uncertain Vision: Birt, Dyke and the Reinvention of the BBC. (London, UK: Secker & Warburg, 564 p.). Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (Cambridge University). Birt, John, 1944- ; Dyke, Greg, 1947- ; British Broadcasting Corporation--History; Public broadcasting--Great Britain--History.   

(BET), Brett Pulley (2004). The Billion Dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the Inside Story of Black Entertainment Television. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 248 p.). Senior Editor (Forbes). Johnson, Robert, 1946 April 8- ; Black Entertainment Television History; Television broadcasting United States; Executives United States Biography.

(Bloomberg), Michael Bloomberg with invaluable help from Matthew Winkler (1997). Bloomberg by Bloomberg. (New York, NY: Wiley, 261 p.). Founder Bloomberg Media, Mayor of New York City. Bloomberg, Michael; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Investments--United States; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Telecommunication--United States.

(British Satellite Broadcasting), Peter Chippindale & Suzanne Franks (1991). Dished!: The Rise and Fall of British Satellite Broadcasting. (London, UK: Simon & Schuster, 327 p.). ; Television Role of Artificial satellites Great Britain.

(Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland), Jeffrey A. Webb (2008). The Voice of Newfoundland: A Social History of the Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland, 1939-1949. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 272 p.). Assistant Professor in the Department of History (Memorial University of Newfoundland). Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland -- History. Public broadcaster at center of cultural, political change from 1939 to 1949; radio programming, responses of listeners; innovative programs that responded to challenges of Great Depression, Second World War; roles that radio played in society, culture; how broadcaster's decision to air political debates was pivotal in Newfoundlanders' decision to join Canada, become part of North American consumer society.

(CBC), Tony Manera (1996). A Dream Betrayed: The Battle for the CBC. (Toronto, ON: Stoddart, 221 p.). Manera, Tony; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation--Appropriations and expenditures; Broadcasting policy--Canada; Chief executive officers--Canada.

(CBS), Peter C. Goldmark with Lee Edson (1973). Maverick Inventor; My Turbulent Years at CBS. (New York, NY: Saturday Review Press, 278 p.). Head of CBS Labs. Goldmark, Peter C., 1906-; CBS Inc.

William S. Paley - CBS (

(CBS), William S. Paley (1979). As It Happened: A Memoir. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 418 p.). Paley, William S. (William Samuel), 1901- ; CBS Inc.; Broadcasting--United States; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(CBS), Lewis J. Paper (1987). Empire: William S. Paley and the Making of CBS. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 384 p.). Paley, William S. (William Samuel), 1901- ; CBS Inc.--Biography; Broadcasters--United States--Biography; Broadcasting--United States--History.

(CBS), Peter J. Boyer (1988). Who Killed CBS?: The Undoing of America's Number One News Network. (New York, NY: Random House, 361 p.). Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Broadcasting--United States.

(CBS), Robert Slater (1988). This--Is CBS: A Chronicle of 60 Years. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 354 p.). CBS Inc., Broadcasting.

(CBS), Sally Bedell Smith (1990). In All His Glory: The Life of William S. Paley, the Legendary Tycoon and His Brilliant Circle. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 782 p.). Paley, William S. (William Samuel), 1901- ; Columbia Broadcasting System, inc.; Broadcasting--United States--Biography; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(CBS), Christopher Winans (1995). The King of Cash: The inside Story of Laurence Tisch (New York, NY: Wiley, 288 p.). Tisch, Laurence A., 1923- ; CBS Inc.; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Capitalists and financiers -- United States -- Biography; Millionaires -- United States -- Biography; Television broadcasting -- United States -- Ownership.

(CBS), Sig Mickelson (1998). The Decade that Shaped Television News: CBS in the 1950s. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 242 p.). CBS Television Network--History; Television broadcasting of news--United States--History.

(Channel Four Television Corporation), Maggie Brown (2007). A Licence to Be Different: The Story of Channel 4. (London, UK: BFI (British Film Institute) Publishing, 368 p.). Channel Four Television Corporation. Revolt against 70s BBC/ITV hegemony; spawned new entrepreneurial culture of independent producer; defined itself as in dissenter tradition, created one of most archly self-knowing brands in marketing culture.

(Channel Four Television Corporation), Dorothy Hobson (2007). Channel 4: The Early Years and the Jeremy Isaacs Legacy. (London, UK: I B Tauris & Co Ltd., 256 p.). Senior Lecturer in Media & Cultural Studies (University of Wolverhampton). Channel Four Television Corporation; Isaacs, Jeremy. Charged by Parliament to be innovative, experimental, educational; had to attract audiences, make space for new voices.

(Clear Channel Communications - founded 1972), Red McCombs with Mickey Herskowitz (2002). The Red Zone: Cars, Cows and Coaches: My Life and Good Times of a Texas Dealmaker. (Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 226 p.). Co-Founder of Clear Channel Communications. McCombs, Red, 1927- ; Businessmen--Texas--Biography.

Red McCombs - Clear Channel Communications (

Lowry Mays - Clear Channel (

(Clear Channel Communications), Reed Bunzel (2008). Clear Vision: The Story of Clear Channel Communications. (Albany, TX: Bright Sky Press, 256 p.). President/CEO of American Internet Media Service. Clear Channel (Firm)--History; Radio broadcasting--United States--History. Only corporate history of largest radio- and outdoor-advertising company in world authorized by company; story of chance and circumstance, opportunity and diligence, vision and foresight, willingness to take calculated risk, of fiscal prudence, vibrant leadership, capacity to influence dynamics of media marketplace.

(Clear Channel Communications), Alec Foege (2008). Right of the Dial: The Rise of Clear Channel and the Fall of Commercial Radio. (New York, NY: Faber and Faber,320 p.). Clear Channel (Firm)--History; Radio broadcasting--United States--History. How media conglomerate evolved from local radio broadcasting operation, founded in 1972, into one of biggest (fourth-largest media company in United States, nation’s largest owner of radio stations), most profitable, most polarizing corporations in country; reshaped America’s cultural, corporate landscapes.

(CNN), Christian Williams (1981). Lead, Follow or Get out of the Way: The Story of Ted Turner (New York, NY: Times Books, 282 p.). Turner, Ted; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography; Telecommunication -- United States -- Biography; Sports team owners -- United States -- Biography; Sailors -- United States -- Biography.

Click to start Real Audio. Ted Turner (bought an Atlanta UHF station in 1970, launched CNN in 1980) (

(CNN), Hank Whittemore (1990). CNN, The inside Story (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 319 p.). Turner, Ted; Cable News Network; Television broadcasting of news--United States.

(CNN), Robert Goldberg and Gerald Jay Goldberg (1995). Citizen Turner: The Wild Rise of an American Tycoon (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace & Co., 525 p.). Turner, Ted; Cable News Network--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Telecommunication--United States--Biography.

(CNN), Porter Bibb (1997). Ted Turner: It Ain't as Easy as It Looks (Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 480 p.). Turner, Ted; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Telecommunication--United States--Biography; Sports team owners--United States--Biography; Sailors--United States--Biography.

(CNN), Reese Schonfeld (2001). Me and Ted Against the World: The Unauthorized Story of the Founding of CNN. (New York, NY: Cliff Street, 407 p.). Co-founder, CNN. Turner, Ted; Schonfeld, Reese; Cable News Network; Television broadcasting of news--United States.

(CNN), Ken Auletta (2004). Media Man: Ted Turner's Improbable Empire. (New York, NY: Norton, 205 p.). Turner, Ted; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Sports team owners--United States--Biography; Telecommunication--United States--Biography.

(CNN), Ted Turner with Bill Burke (2008). Call Me Ted. (New York, NY: Business Plus, 448 p.). Turner, Ted; Businesspeople --United States --Biography; Telecommunication --United States --Biography. From difficult childhood, emotional impact of devastating losses, to successful launch of media empire to catastrophic AOL/Time Warner deal; what makes him tick, what ticks him off, what he's all about; one of richest men in world, largest land owner in United States, revolutionized television business.

(Collins Radio), Ken C. Braband ; with excerpts from articles by R.L. Carrel ... [et al.] (1983). The First 50 Years: A History of Collins Radio Company and the Collins Divisions of Rockwell International. (Cedar Rapids, IA: Communications Dept., Avionics Group, Rockwell International, 218 p.). Collins, Arthur Andrew, 1909- ; Collins Radio Company--History; Radio supplies industry--United States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History.

(Columbia Pictures Television), Jeb H. Perry (1991). Screen Gems: A History of Columbia Pictures Television from Cohn to Coke, 1948-1983. (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 371 p.). Screen Gems--History; Columbia Pictures Television--History.

(Comcast - founded 1969), Daniel Aaron with David A. Long; foreword by Ralph J. Roberts (2001). Take the Measure of the Man: An American Success Story. (Philadelphia, PA: Veritas Press, 260 p.). Founder, Comcast Corporation. Aaron, Daniel, 1926-2003; Comcast Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Refugees, Jewish--United States--Biography; Antisemitism--Germany--History. Comcast is largest cable company in U.S.

Brian, Ralph Roberts - Comcast (

(Comcast), Joseph N. DiStefano (2005). COMCASTed: How Ralph and Brian Roberts Took Over America's TV, One Deal at a Time. (Philadelphia, PA: Camino Books, 294 p.). Philadelphia Inquirer Business Writer. Roberts, Ralph.; Roberts, Brian (Brian Leon); Comcast Corporation--History; Cable television--United States--History. 

(Corporation for Public Broadcasting), Ralph B. Rogers (1993). Splendid Torch. (West Kennebunk, ME: Phoenix Pub., 327 p.). Former CEO (Texas Industries, Inc.). Rogers, Ralph B., 1909- ; Corporation for Public Broadcasting; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Public broadcasting--United States.

(Crosley Broadcasting Corporation), Rusty McClure; with Michael Banks and Dave Stern (2006). Crosley: The Story of Two Brothers and the Business Empire that Transformed a Nation. (Cincinnati, OH: Clerisy Press, 320 p.). Crosley, Powel; Crosley, Lewis; Crosley Broadcasting Corporation; WLW-Nation's Station; Businessmen--Ohio--Cincinnati--Biography; Industrialists--Ohio--Cincinnati--Biography. Invented first mass-produced economy car, push-button radio; breakthroughs in broadcasting and advertising made them wealthy and famous, as did their ownership of Cincinnati Reds.

(CTV Television Network), Michael Nolan (2001). CTV, The Network that Means Business. (Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 405 p.). CTV Television Network--History; Reseau de television CTV--Histoire; Television broadcasting--Canada--History; Television--Canada--Histoire.

(Du Mont Television Network), Gary Newton Hess (1979). An Historical Study of the Du Mont Television Network. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 233 p.). Du Mont Television Network. Originally presented as the author’s thesis, Northwestern University, 1960.

Allen B. Du Mont ’24 Allen B. (Balcom) Du Mont - Du Mont TV (

(Du Mont Television Network), Ted Bergmann, Ira Skutch (2002). The Du Mont Television Network: What Happened?: A Significant Episode in the History of Broadcasting. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 146 p.). Former Managing Director of the Du Mont Network. Du Mont Television Network--History.

(Du Mont Television Network), David Weinstein (2004). The Forgotten Network: DuMont and the Birth of American Television. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 288 p.). Senior Program Officer at the National Endowment for the Humanities. Du Mont, Allen B. (Allen Balcom), 1901-1965; Du Mont Television Network--History.

(ESPN), Michael Freeman (2000). ESPN: The Uncensored History. (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub. Co., 286 p.). ESPN (TV network)--History; Television broadcasting of sports--History.

(ESPN), Anthony F. Smith, with Keith Hollihan (2009). ESPN The Company: The Story and Lessons Behind the Most Fanatical Brand in Sports. (Hoboken, NJ  John Wiley, 256 p.). Cofounder and the Managing Director of Leadership Research Institute; Journalist. Television broadcasting of sports --History; ESPN (Television network) --History. Creative and innovative spirit and practices that drove the programming, products, and services of the most powerful and prominent name in sports media; how ESPN dealt with their partners, how they handled mistakes and missteps; humble beginnings as underrated startup to pinnacle of success as major industry player. 1979 - Bill Rasmussen, unemployed sports announcer, group of committed sports junkies in Bristol, CT leased unwanted satellite time to broadcast some local college sports, minor league hockey games, called organization  Entertainment & Sports Programming Network (ESPN), most powerful and prominent name in sports media (27 satellite dishes feeding more than 97 million subscribers). 

Bill Rasmussen - ESPN (

(ESPN), James Andrew Miller, Tom Shales (2011). Those Guys Have All the Fun. (New York, NY Little, Brown, 624 p.). Senior Executive Producer of "Anderson Cooper 360"; Pultizer Prize for Television Criticism (Washington Post). ESPN; sports broadcasting -- history; television -- history. Rise of empire unlike any television had ever seen; 32-year run revolutionized sports coverage, cable TV; original gamble - lineup that included Australian Rules Football, rodeo, rinky-dinky clip show called Sports Center; 2011 - empire stretches to radio, magazines, mobile phones, internet, video games, more; ESPN's personalities have become global superstars to rival sports icons they cover (Chris Berman, Robin Roberts, Keith Olbermann, Hannah Storm, Bill Simmons, Tony Kornheiser, Stuart Scott, Erin Andrews, Mike Ditka, Bob Knight, scores of others); games, shows, scandals, gambling addictions, bitter rivalries, sudden suspensions that make up network's soaring and stormy history.

(Fisher Companies), Herman Steen (1961). The O. W. Fisher Heritage.  (Seattle, WA, F. McCaffrey, 224 p.). Fisher family.

(Fox Broadcasting), Alex Ben Block (1990). Outfoxed: Marvin Davis, Barry Diller, Rupert Murdoch, Joan Rivers and the Inside Story of America's Fourth Television Network. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 304 p.). Fox Broadcasting Company; Television broadcasting--United States.

(Fox Broadcasting), Kristal Brent Zook (1999). Color by Fox: The Fox Network and the Revolution in Black Television. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 148 p.). African Americans on television; African Americans in television broadcasting. Explosion of black television programming in 1980s, 1990s to salvage network profits lost in war against video cassettes, cable T.V.; radical representations of African-American memory, experience; interpretation of black TV; how Fox hip-hop sitcom reinforced, rebelled against black sitcoms from 1960s, 1970s; production, reception among African-American viewers; deep-rooted ties to African-American protest literature, autobiography, desire for social transformation.

(Fox Broadcasting), Scott Collins (2004). Crazy Like a Fox: The Inside Story of How Fox News Beat CNN. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 242 p.). Reporter (Los Angeles Times). Fox News; Cable News Network; Television broadcasting of news--United States--History.

(Fox Broadcasting), Daniel M. Kimmel (2004). The Fourth Network: How Fox Broke the Rules and Reinvented Television. (Chicago, IL: I. R. Dee, 323 p.). Fox Broadcasting Company--History. 

(Hazeltine Corporation), Harold Alden Wheeler (1982). The Early Days of Wheeler and Hazeltine Corporation--Profiles in Radio and Electronics. (Greenlawn, NY: Hazeltine Corporation, 432 p.). Hazeltine Corporation--History; Radio supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic industries--United States--History.

(KCBS), Gordon B. Greb, Mike Adams, and Foreword by Christopher H. Sterling (2003). Charles Herrold, Inventor of Radio Broadcasting. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 247 p.). Professor Emeritus (San Jose State University); Chair of the Department of Television, Radio, Film and Theatre (San Jose State University). Herrold, Charles; Radio broadcasters --United States --Biography. How he used primitive technology to get on air; innovator who never received recognition, died penniless; father of radio.

Charles Herrold - founder KCBS (

(King Broadcasting), Delphine Haley (1995). Dorothy Stimson Bullitt: An Uncommon Life. (Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books, 344 p.). Bullitt,  Dorothy Stimson, Dorothy Stimson, 1892-1989; King Broadcasting Company; Broadcasters--United States--Biography.

Dorothy Stimson Bullitt - King Broadcasting (

(King Broadcasting), O. Casey Corr (1996). King: The Bullitts of Seattle and Their Communications Empire. (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 306 p.). Bullitt, Dorothy Stimson, 1892-1989; King Broadcasting Company -- History.

(KMA Radio), Robert Birkby (1985). KMA Radio, The First Sixty Years. (Shenandoah, IA: May Broadcasting Co., 248 p.). KMA (Radio station : Shenandoah, Iowa)--History; Radio broadcasting--Iowa--Shenandoah--History.

(London Weekend Television Ltd.), ,David Docherty (1990). Running the Show: 21 Years of London Weekend Television. (London, UK: Boxtree, 218 p.). London Weekend Television, ltd. History; Television broadcasting--Great Britain--History; Television stations--England--London--History.

(MTV), Paul Temporal (2008). The Branding of MTV: Will Internet Kill the Video Star. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 250 p.). Associate Fellow at the University of Oxford, Visiting Professor in Marketing at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. MTV; brand. Consumer-oriented brand managed across multiple markets; how company built cult following, enviable reputation through creating, developing, managing powerful brand that caters for complex but universal array of needs, want; how to build, manage brand culture when faced with simultaneous needs for consistency and change, in both global, local markets.

(MTV), Bill Roedy (2011). What Makes Business Rock: Inside MTV's Global Phenomenon. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 320 p.). Chairman and CEO of MTV International. Roedy, Bill; MTV Networks; Mass media --United States --Biography; Rock videos --United States. How author built largest international entertainment network in existence - 1) in environment of continually evolving, developing communications platforms; 2) cultural demands of countries as diverse as China, Zambia, and Ireland; 1989 - single channel; launched more channels, networks than any other entertainment company; built global operation (175 locally programmed channels, 400 digital media properties across 165 countries, potential audience of more than 2 billion people speaking 33 languages).

(NBC), Robert Campbell (1976). The Golden Years of Broadcasting: A Celebration of the First 50 Years of Radio and TV on NBC. (New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 256 p.). National Broadcasting Company, inc.; Television programs--United States--History; Radio programs--United States--History.

(NBC), Alan Pearce (1979). NBC News Division and The Economics of Prime Time Access. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 370 p.). NBC News; Television broadcasting of news -- Costs; Television broadcasting -- United States.

(NBC), Mark Christensen & Cameron Stauth (1984). The Sweeps: Behind the Scenes in Network TV. (New York, NY: Morrow, 416 p.). National Broadcasting Company, inc.

(National Public Radio), Jack W. Mitchell (2005). Listener Supported: The Culture and History of Public Radio. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 219 p.). Professor of Journalism and Mass Communications (University of Wisconsin); First producer of "All Things Considered", Served Three Times as Chair of the NPR Board of Directors. National Public Radio (U.S.)--History; Public radio--United States--History; Radio programs, Public service--United States--History; Public radio--United States--Public opinion; Public opinion--United States.

(Nickelodeon), Sarah Banet-Weiser (2007). Kids Rule!: Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 276 p.). Associate Professor in the Annenberg School for Communication (University of Southern California). Nickelodeon (Television network); Television programs for children--United States; Child consumers--United States. Relationship between children, media, citizenship, consumerism; construction of children as citizens within commercial context; self-conscious engagement with kids appeals to kids’ formidable purchasing power, asserts their political, cultural power; analysis of political citizenship, commercial citizenship in tandem.

(Pacifica Radio), Jeff Land (1999). Active Radio: Pacifica's Brash Experiment. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 179 p.). To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the independent Pacifica Radio Network. 1946 - Lewis Hill, other pacifist conscientious objectors formed Pacifica Foundation to resist "mediocrity and exploitation" they believed defined commercial radio; FCC denied AM application; April 1949 - began to broadcast on FM via KPFA in California Bay Area; 1980 - Pacifica Radio network, with stations in Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC, Houston; role in American culture; power of First Amendment.

(Pacifica Radio), Matthew Lasar (2000). Pacifica Radio: The Rise of an Alternative Network. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 304 p.). Pacifica Radio; Alternative radio broadcasting --United States.

(Pacifica Radio), Matthew Lasar (2006). Uneasy Listening: Pacifica Radio's Civil War. (London, UK: Germinal Productions, Ltd/ Black Apollo Press, 432 p.). Teaches History (University of California in Santa Cruz). Epic battle over five listener supported radio stations that rocked American Left, raised difficult questions about public broadcasting in United States.

(PAX NET), Lowell "Bud" Paxson with Gary Templetion (1998). Threading the Needle: The PAX NET Story. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 183 p.). Co-Founder, HSN. Paxson, Lowell; PAX NET; Television broadcasting--United States.

(Pennsylvania Cable Network), Brian Lockman and Don Sarvey (2005). Pioneers of Cable Television: The Pennsylvania Founders of an Industry. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 231 p.). President and Chief Executive Officer of Pennsylvania Cable Network. Pennsylvania Cable Network--History; Cable television--United States--History; Businessmen--Pennsylvania--Biography.

(Radio Argentina), Carlos Ulanovsky (1995). Dias de Radio: Historia de La Radio Argentina. (Buenos Aires, Argentina:Editora Espasa Calpe Argentina, 445 p.). Radio broadcasting -- Argentina -- History; La Radio Argentina (Buenos Aires, Argentina) -- History.

(Radio Nacional), Carlos Ulanovsky (2010). Voces de la Historia: La Radio Nacional, 1937-2010. (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Radio Nacional, 467 p.). Radio broadcasting -- Argentina -- History; Radio Nacional (Buenos Aires, Argentina) -- History.

(RCA), The Company (1944). The First 25 Years of RCA, A Quarter-Century of Radio Progress. (New York, NY: Radio Corporation of America, 87 p.). Radio--United States--History.

  David Sarnoff - RCA  (

(RCA), Eugene Lyons (1966). David Sarnoff: A Biography (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 372 p.). Sarnoff, David, 1891-1971.

(RCA), Carl Dreher (1977). Sarnoff, An American Success. (New York, NY: Times Books, 282 p.). Sarnoff, David, 1891-1971; Radio--United States--Biography; Television--United States--Biography.

(RCA), Kenneth Bilby (1986). The General: David Sarnoff and the Rise of the Communications Industry. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 326 p.). Sarnoff, David, 1891-1971; Radio Corporation of America--History; Broadcasters--United States--Biography; Industrialists--United States--Biography.

(RCA), Robert Sobel (1986). RCA. (New York, NY: Stein & Day, 282 p.). Academic (Hofstra University). Sarnoff, David, 1891-1971; Radio Corporation of America--History; Electronic industries--United States--History; Broadcasting--United States--History.

(RCA), Frederick O. Barnum, III (1991). "His Master’s Voice" in America: Ninety Years of Communications Pioneering and Progress: Victor Talking Machine Company, Radio Corporation of America, General Electric Company. (Camden, NJ: General Electric Co., 385 p.). Victor Talking Machine Company--History; Radio Corporation of America--History; General Electric Company--History; RCA Corporation--History; Electronic industries--United States--History; Mass media--United States--History; Communication and traffic--United States--History.

(RCA), Jefferson R, Cowie (1999). Capital Moves: RCA's Seventy-year Quest for Cheap Labor. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 272 p.). RCA Corporation -- History; RCA Corporation -- Employees -- History; Electronics industry workers -- United States -- History; Business relocation.

(RCA), Eric P. Wenaas (2007). Radiola: The Golden Age of RCA, 1919-1929. (Chandler, AZ: Sonoran, 475 p.). Radio Corporation of America--History; Electronic industries--United States--History; Radio--Receivers and reception--History; Radio broadcasting--United States--History. Radiola - trade name used on broadcast receivers sold by Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in 1920s, early 30s; radio receiver, accessories sold by RCA during first decade.

(Rogers Communications), Ted Rogers (2009). Relentless: The True Story of the Man Behind Rogers Communications. (Toronto, ON: HarperCollins, 261 p.). Founder. Rogers, Ted, 1933-; Rogers Cablesystems; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography; Telecommunication -- Canada -- Biography. 1925 - Rogers, Sr. invented world’s first alternating current (AC) radio tube (enabled radios to be powered by ordinary household current); key factor in popularizing radio reception; 1931 - awarded experimental TV licence; 1962 - Rogers, Jr. pioneered stereo broadcasting in FM with CHFI (also founded CFTR-AM in Toronto); became one of Canada’s most listened to FM radio stations, most popular and profitable FM radio station in Canada; 1967 - awarded cable licenses for areas in, around Toronto, Brampton, Leamington; 1970s - Rogers Cable TV became Canada’s most innovative cable company; 1974 - first cable company to expand past 12 channels; added more programming choice (in particular with multi-cultural television); 1979 - acquired control of Canadian Cablesystems Limited through reverse-takeover; 1980 - acquired Premier Communications Limited (almost doubled Rogers’ cable subscribers); largest cable television company in Canada; 1983 - asked board of directors to invest $500,000 Canadian dollars ($403,000) in wireless technology; 1985 - established Rogers Cantel Mobile Communications Inc. to operate national cellular telephone network in Canada in competition with established telephone companies; Canada's largest cable-television, cell phone company; 2008 - 24,000 employees 24,000, market value of 18 billion Canadian dollars.

(Tele-Communications Inc.), Lawrence J. Davis (1998). Billionaire Shell Game: How Cable Baron John Malone and Assorted Corporate Titans Invented a Future Nobody Wanted. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 292 p.). Tele-Communications Inc., Cable Television, John Malone.

John Malone ( faces/malone_john.jpg)

(Tele-Communications Inc.), Mark Robichaux (2002). Cable Cowboy: John Malone and the Rise of the Modern Cable Business. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 310 p.). Malone, John, 1941- ; Tele-Communications, Inc.--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography.

(Tyne Tees Television), Geoff Phillips (1998). Memories of Tyne Tees Television. (Durham City, UK: G P Electronic Services, 144 p.). Tyne Tees Television -- History; Television stations -- England, North East -- History; Television broadcasting -- England, North East -- History.

(Universal Television), Jeb H. Perry (1983). Universal Television: The Studio and Its Programs, 1950-1980. (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 443 p.). (Firm).

(USA Cable), Kay Koplovitz with Peter Israel (2002). Bold Women, Big Ideas: Learning To Play the High-Risk Entrepreneurial Game. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 265 p.). Founder, USA Cable Network. Women executives; New business enterprises; Entrepreneurship.

(WB Television Network), Suzanne Daniels and Cynthia Littleton. (2007). Season Finale: The Unexpected Rise and Fall of the WB and UPN. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 400 p.). Former President of Entertainment at WB; Deputy Editor of News Development (Variety). WB Television Network--History; UPN (Television network)--History.  Dreams, tragicomic reality of trying to launch two old–style broadcast TV networks when cable TV, Internet were finally ending dominance of network television; entertainment industry remains business of big hunches, big gambles, big disasters.

(WCCO), Larry Haeg, Jr. (1984). Sixty Years Strong: The Story of One of America’s Great Radio Stations, 1924-1984: 50.000 Watts Clear Channel, Minneapolis, St. Paul. (Minneapolis, MN: WCCO Radio, 132 p.). WCCO (Radio station : Minneapolis, Minn.)--History.

(Weather Channel), Frank Batten with Jeffrey L. Cruikshank (2002). The Weather Channel: The Improbable Rise of a Media Phenomenon. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 276 p.). Founder, Weather Channel. Weather Channel (Television station : Atlanta, Ga.)--History--20th century; Television weathercasting--Georgia--Atlanta--History--20th century. 

(WLS Radio), Scott Childers (2008). Chicago’s WLS Radio. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Delivered News and Traffic on WLS in the Md-1990. WLS--history; radio broadcasting--Chicago--history. From early days as farmer’s companion to over quarter century as nation’s premier rock-and-roll station, 50,000-watt WLS (89) touched lives of millions of listeners; 1990s - became leader in news and talk format.

(WNAX 570 Radio), Marilyn Kratz and Stan Ray (2006). WNAX 570 Radio: 1922-2007. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). WNAX (Radio station: Yankton, S.D.)--History--Pictorial works; Radio stations--South Dakota--Yankton--History--Pictorial works; Yankton (S.D.)--History--Pictorial works. 1922 - Al Madson, proprietor of Yankton radio parts shop, made a radio transmitter; formed broadcasting company; November 25, 1922 - WNAX broadcast first program; .has influenced history of five-state area it covers.

(WSM-AM), Craig Havighurst (2007). Air Castle of the South: WSM and the Making of Music City. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 279 p.). WSM (Radio station : Nashville, Tenn.); Radio broadcasting--Tennessee--Nashville--History. Nashville, radio, and country music in American culture. 1925 - National Life and Accident Insurance Company started WSM radio in Nashville - "Music City USA". 

(WWL Radio), C. Joseph Pusateri (1980). Enterprise in Radio: WWL and the Business of Broadcasting in America. (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 366 p.). WWL (Radio station : New Orleans, La.)--History; Radio broadcasting--United States--History.

Ken Auletta (1991). Three Blind Mice: How the TV Networks Lost Their Way (New York, NY: Random House, 642 p.).

Erik Barnouw (1966-1970). A History of Broadcasting in the United States (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.: v. 1. A Tower in Babel; to 1933.--v. 2. The Golden Web, 1933 to 1953.--v. 3. The Image Empire; from 1953).

Erik Barnouw (1966-1970). A Tower in Babel: A History of Broadcasting in the United States. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.). Broadcasting--United States--History. v. 1. to 1933.

--- (1966-1970). The Golden Web: A History of Broadcasting in the United States. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.). Broadcasting--United States--History. v. 2. 1933 to 1953.

--- (1966-1970). The Image Empire; from 1953: A History of Broadcasting in the United States. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.). Broadcasting--United States--History. v. 3.  from 1953.

--- (1990). Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 607 p. [2nd rev. ed.]). Television broadcasting--United States--History.

James L. Baughman (2007). Same Time, Same Station: Creating American Television, 1948--1961. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 460 p.). Professor, Director of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication (University of Wisconsin--Madison). Television broadcasting--United States--History. Commercial success over cultural aspiration; battle of ideas in early 1950s which determined future of television

Asa Briggs (1961-1970, 1995). The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 5 vols.). Broadcasting--Great Britain--History.

Asa Briggs (1961-1970, 1995). The Birth of Broadcasting: The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Vol 1.). Broadcasting--Great Britain--History.

--- (1961-1970, 1995). The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: The Golden Age of Wireless. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Vol. 2). Broadcasting--Great Britain--History.

Asa Briggs (1961-1970, 1995). The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: The War of Words. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Vol. 3). Broadcasting--Great Britain--History.

Asa Briggs and Joanna Spicer (1986). The Franchise Affair: Creating Fortunes and Failures in Independent Television. (London, UK: Century, 226 p.). Television broadcasting--Great Britain.

Les Brown (1971). Television; The Business Behind the Box. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 374 p.). Television broadcasting--United States; Television advertising--United States.

Richard E. Caves; with Karen Guo ... [et al.] (2005). Switching Channels: Organization and Change in TV Broadcasting. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 360 p.). Nathaniel Ropes Research Professor of Political Economy (Harvard University). Television broadcasting--Economic aspects--United States; Television broadcasting--United States. Why television industry produces what it does.

Susan J. Douglas (1987). Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899-1922 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 363 p.). Radio broadcasting--United States--History; Radio--United States--History. Johns Hopkins studies in the history of technology.

James T. Hamilton (1998). Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 390 p.). Charles S. Sydnor Professor of Public Policy, Economics, and Political Science (Duke University). Violence on television; Television broadcasting--Economic aspects--United States.

--- (2004). All the News That’s Fit To Sell: How the Market Transforms Information into News. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 337 p.). Charles S. Sydnor Professor of Public Policy, Economics, and Political Science (Duke University). Television broadcasting of news--United States; Television broadcasting of news--Economic aspects--United States; Press--United States; Press--Economic aspects--United States.

Alvin F. Harlow (1971). Old Wires and New Waves. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 548 p. [orig. pub. 1936]). Telegraph--History; Telephone--History; Radio--History.

Harvard University Addresses to the Students of the Graduate School of Business Administration (1974). The Radio Industry; The Story of Its Development, as Told by Leaders of the Industry. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 330 p. [orig. pub. 1928]). Radio broadcasting; Radio--History.   

Adrian Johns (2010). Death of a Pirate: British Radio and the Making of the Information Age. (New York, NY: Norton, 320 p.). Professor of History (University of Chicago). Pirate radio broadcasting --Great Britain --History. Pirate radio in mid-1960s heyday; outlaw radio stations dotted coastal waters of England (on ships, offshore forts); entrepreneurial efforts to undermine growing British welfare state as embodied by BBC.

James Ledbetter (1997). Made Possible By-- ; The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States. (New York, NY: Verso, 280 p.). Public broadcasting--United States.

John Motavalli (2002). Bamboozled at the Revolution: How Big Media Lost Billions in the Battle for the Internet. (New York, NY: Viking, 334 p.). Television broadcasting--United States; Interactive television--United States; Mass media--United States; Internet industry--United States.

Megan Mullen (2008). Television in the Multichannel Age: A Brief History of Cable Television. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 238 p.). Associate Professor of Communication and Co-Director of the Humanities Program (University of Wisconsin-Parkside). Cable television--History. History of multichannel television in all forms; evolution of cable television from pre-historical origins in late 1940s to communications satellites, DBS distribution systems of modern digital age; factors that influence today’s television landscape.

Patrick Parsons (2008). Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 816 p.). Don Davis Professor of Ethics, College of Communications (Penn State University). Cable television--United States--History. Complete history of cable television, most influential technology affecting lives of almost every American; early days of cable; pioneers in last half of twentieth century whose business skills, entrepreneurial instinct, luck played give rise to most ubiquitous technology in country.

Anthony Rudel (2008). Hello, Everybody!: The Dawn of American Radio. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 416 p.). Former Vice President of Programming (WQXR in New York, SW Radio Networks). Radio broadcasting --United States --History --20th century. Little more than gizmo of scant interest to anyone but hobbyists at dawn of 20th century; radio as business built from ground up, often by people who didn't necessarily know what they were doing; radio took its place in nation's living room, forever changed American politics, journalism, entertainment.

Stephen Singular (2003). Relentless: Bill Daniels and the Triumph of Cable TV. (Denver, CO: The Bill Daniels Estate, 320 p.). Daniels, Bill; cable television--United States--History.

Christopher H. Sterling & Michael C. Keith; foreword by Lynn Christian & Bill Siemering (2008). Sounds of Change: A History of FM Broadcasting in America. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 317 p.). Professor of Media and Public Affairs (George Washington University); Adjunct Associate Professor, Communication Deptartment (Boston College). Radio broadcasting --United States --History; FM broadcasting --United States --History. History of FM radio in seven time periods: 1) its creation (pre-1941), 2) war and evolution ('41–45), 3) the "dismal years" ('45–57), 4) FM's turnaround ('58–65), 5) the period when the FM band was a "sound alternative" ('66–80), 6) dominance ('80–95) and 7) "clouds in the air" (everything since).

Tony Stoller (2010). Sounds of Your Life: The History of Independent Radio in the UK. (Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press, 362 p.). Chief Executive of the Radio Authority from 1994 to 2005. Radio broadcasting -- Great Britain. Independent Radio from the mid-1970s; stations in big cities, smaller towns provided music, news, style which accompanied changing patterns of life as UK grew into youth-driven, modern state; initial attempt - harness power of popular radio, funded by advertising, to provide local public service; supplanted by commercial music radio.

Kristal Brent Zook (2008). I See Black People: The Rise and Fall of African American-Owned Television and Radio. (New York, NY: Nation Books, 200 p.). Television stations --United States --Management; Radio stations --United States --Management; African Americans in television broadcasting; African Americans in radio broadcasting; African American businesspeople --Biography. Minorities form 33% of population, control only 3% of broadcast media; African Americans own less than 1% of all television stations in country; powerful case that ownership does matter. When media fails to reflect the diversity of its audience, inevitable that voices of  least powerful vanish first from airwaves.


Business History Links

The American Archive of Broadcasting                                                         Http://Www.Tol.Lib.Ca.Us/1specoll.Html                                        

The Special Collections Reading Room of the Thousand Oaks Library System is home to one of the largest archival collections on the history of radio broadcasting in the United States. Materials include books, manuscripts, photographs, documents, pamphlets, scripts, sound recordings, and realia.

American Museum of Radio                                                           

Radio collection of John Jenkins assembled by Jonathan Winter.

American Radio History: The First Hundred Years                                            Survey of radio history in the United States and chapters on the history of radio in several metropolitan areas across the country.

Antique Wireless Association                                                                        

Founded in 1952 - organization of some 4,000 members linked by a common interest in the history of electrical and electronic communications.

BBC History                                                                                                   

The following pages give a short history of the BBC, with highlights from each decade. Links to further information about broadcasting, technical developments and the growth of services are available.

Birth of TV [Windows Media Player]                                                                             

Numerous clips of early television programs, insightful commentaries, and early television guides. The BIRTH Television Archive was created from materials offered by five major European television archives, including the BBC and Osterreichischer Rundfunk. The "Library" contains links to the previously mentioned articles, which deal with the early era of television plays, the production of early television, and taboos in early television. Visitors can also view several hundred clips of early television programs, read about the project’s creation, and look over a multilingual thesaurus. 

The Cable Center                                                                     oral_histories/index.cfm 

Oral history project began in 1985 - over 200 video and audio recordings provide a unique source of documentation about the development of the cable industry; first hand accounts, from industry leaders, trace the history of cable from its beginnings to the present and provide invaluable primary source material for research, study and teaching.

The Complete Lee de Forest                                                               

Dr. Lee de Forest was an inventor who changed the world with electronics. His two major inventions were the vacuum tube and sound for motion pictures. One of the most important 20th Century inventors of radio and electronics technology, a formally educated scientist whose inventions touch every life.

Hallmark Hall of Fame: The First Fifty Years                                                                          

This site celebrates television broadcasts sponsored by Hallmark from 1951 through 2001. It features an introductory essay, timeline, and synopses of programs (browsable by title or by decade) such as for the memorable live premiere in 1951 of "Amahl and the Night Visitors" and the 1953 production of "Hamlet," which "marked the first presentation of a Shakespearean play on U.S. network television." From the UCLA Film and Television Archive.

Hammond Museum of Radio                                                                                                           Founded by Fred Hammond, home to hundreds of receivers and transmitters dating from the spark era up to and including National's first solid state HRO500. Has become one of North America's premiere wireless museums.

Houston Radio History blog                                                     History of broadcasting and the history of Houston; of the 15 stations to receive broadcast licenses from early 1922 to early 1925 in the Houston-Galveston area only one is still in operation, of all those licensed in the 1920s only three are still on the air; stories of wireless operators and their exploits, broadcasters, broadcasting stations, performers and more, from the pre-World War I era down through the ensuing decades.

Museum of Broadcast Communications
Opened to the public in June of 1987, mission is to collect, preserve, and present historic and contemporary radio and television content as well as educate, inform, and entertain the public through its archives, public programs, screenings, exhibits, publications and online access to its resources; only museum in nation dedicated to broadcast history and home to America's only National Radio Hall of Fame.

National Museum Of Broadcasting                                                                                            

Founded, in part, to preserve Frank Conrad’s Garage, the Wilkinsburg workshop where broadcasting was born. The goals of the broadcasting museum are historic preservation and education, increased tourism and economic development benefits to the Pittsburgh region.

Radio and Television History                                                                           Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University of San Diego.

The David Sarnoff Library                                                                                                                  Documents David Sarnoff's life; the history of radio, television, electronics, and communications; and the history of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Built in 1967 by RCA, the David Sarnoff Library contains a museum, an archives, a library, and this website.


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