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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Healthcare Providers
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June 26, 1498 - Chinese credited with inventing toothbrush.

September 23, 1518 - The Royal College of Physicians established to protect citizens from medical charlatans and quacks.

April 1, 1578 - William Harvey of England discovered blood circulation.

1750 - Sir John Pringle, military surgeon, formerly professor of moral philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, coined term 'antiseptic' (had investigated preservative properties of various salts [antiseptics] on beef, other substances to disinfect wounds; found suspension of bleaching powder, 'chloride of lime', most effective). 

May 11, 1751 - Colonial governor of Pennsylvania approved charter of The Pennsylvania Hospital, first in America, to include treatment of people with mental illness; February 11, 1752 - opened in Philadelphia through  indefatigable efforts of Benjamin Franklin (involved in drafting petition for its establishment, fund-raising); December 17, 1756 - Pine Street Hospital opened, accepted mentally ill, general medical patients.

June 10, 1760 - New York passed first effective law regulating practice of medicine.

September 26, 1772 - Soon-to-be state of New Jersey passed first law in U.S. to license medical practitioners who charged for their service (except bleeding patients or pulling teeth); no federal medical licensing law.

January 14, 1794 - Elizabeth Hog Bennett became first woman in U.S. to successfully give birth to child by Cesarean section. Her husband, Dr. Jesse Bennett of Edom, VA, performed operation (without anesthetic).

May 23, 1785 - Benjamin Franklin announced invention of bifocals; incorporated two part lens for each eye, each with different focusing power; limited acceptance (ordinary spectacles in colonies cost as much as $100 per pair.

April 30, 1796 - Samuel Lee, Jr., of Connecticut, received a patent for a "Composition of Bilious Pills"; first U.S. patent for pill of any kind; marketed as "Lee's Windham Pills" and "Lee's New London Bilious Pills".

February 25, 1811 - Massachusetts Legislature granted charter to "Massachusetts General Hospital Corporation"; established division for "Asylum for the Insane"; October 1, 1818 - Asylum opened (first in New England, fourth special institution for treatment of mentally ill in America); June 1826 - renamed "The McLean Asylum for the Insane" (in honor of John McLean, Boston merchant who bequeathed $25,000, left residuary legacy of more than $90,000 to Asylum).

1812 - Rhode Island Medical Society founded; 8th oldest organization of its kind in nation.

August 12, 1812 - Dr. Joseph Lister introduced phenol (carbolic acid) as form of disinfectant into surgery (first surgeon to do so); higher standards of hygiene reduced surgical death rate from 45% to 15%; first medical person raised to peerage.

1816 - Louis J. Dufilho, Jr. passed Louisiana state pharmacy licensing examination (Governor William Charles Cole Claiborne had established board of reputable pharmacists in 1804, physicians to administer three-hour oral examination given at Cabildo in Jackson Square); 1823 - opened for business at 514/516 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA; first pharmacy in United States conducted on basis of proven adequacy.

Louis J. Dufilho, Jr. - first licensed pharmacist in U.S. (

August 14, 1820 - The New York Eye Infirmary, first U.S. eye hospital, opened in New York City; March 22, 1822 - incorporated; 1864 - name changed to The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary.

March 9, 1822 - Charles M. Graham, of New York City, received a patent for "Artificial Teeth"; (not the first false teeth in use); George Washington had at least four sets of false teeth (none wooden); Washington's first dentures were made using human teeth inserted into carved ivory; dentist John Greenwood, of New York, had made Washington another set from gold in 1789, hippo teeth, and hippo and elephant ivory; one natural remaining tooth was a molar (hole was left for that). 

1832 - Local physicians, including obstetrician Walter Channing (Harvard's first professor of obstetrics in 1815) founded Boston Lying-In Hospital, one of nation’s first maternity hospitals; opened doors to women unable to afford in-home medical care; 1847 - anesthesia administered in childbirth for first time; 1875 - Free Hospital for Women founded "for poor women affected with diseases peculiar to their sex or in need of surgical aid"; each of five beds sponsored by different charitable group; 1911 - Peter Bent Brigham Hospital established "for the care of sick persons in indigent circumstances" with bequest from restaurateur and real estate baron Peter Bent Brigham; 1914 - Robert Breck Brigham Hospital, founded with bequest from Peter Bent Brigham’s nephew, opened to serve patients with arthritis, other debilitating joint diseases; 1966 - Boston Hospital for Women established through merger of Boston Lying-In Hospital and Free Hospital for Women; 1974 - Boston Hospital for Women, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Robert Breck Brigham Hospital affiliated; 1980 - Brigham and Women’s Hospital opened; 1986 to 1990 - acknowledged as having received more citations in scientific papers than any other hospital in world; 1994 - joined Massachusetts General Hospital, formed Partners HealthCare System.

1833 - John McKesson, Charles Olcott founded Olcott & McKesson in New York City; focused on import, wholesaling of therapeutic drugs and chemicals; 1853 - renamed McKesson & Robbins (Olcott died, Daniel Robbins made partner); distributed products via covered wagons in 17 states and territories, from Vermont to California; early 1900s - leading distributor of drug products in United States; 1926 - acquired by Frank D. Coster of Adelphi Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company, manufacturer of high alcohol-content products such as hair tonic, cosmetics (real name Philip Musica, twice-convicted criminal); 1938 - true identity revealed; company treasurer became suspicious of large payments to one customer; ordered Dun & Bradstreet credit reports on customer - customer fictitious; December 6, 1938 - SEC opened investigation into company's accounting, New York Stock Exchange suspended trading of company's shares; investigation revealed Coster had embezzled $3 million, inflated company's assets by more than 20% fictitious (inventories, accounts receivable); 1940s - returned to private ownership; 1967 - merged with Foremost Dairies (San Francisco) after hostile takeover; formed Foremost-McKesson Inc.; became largest U.S. distributor of drugs, alcoholic beverages and chemicals; largest supplier of whey by-products; largest producer of processed water; leader in fresh dairy products field; multiregional distributor of hospital and laboratory supplies and equipment; 1976 - corporate raider, Victor Posner, acquired 10% of company's stock in start of takeover attempt; McKesson management initiated negative public relations campaign to publicize Posner's overstating of his company's 1975 earnings; April 1976 - bid dropped; McKesson stockholders approved charter change, prohibited any "unsuitable" party (any business that might jeopardize company's liquor, drug licenses) from acquiring over 10% of company's common stock; May 4, 1981 - acquired Sharon Steel stock in Foremost-McKesson in targeted repurchase ('greenmail') for $65.1 million; 1990s - focused on healthcare, divested unrelated businesses; 2006 - 16th on FORTUNE 500 list, more than $80 billion in annual revenue; nation's largest healthcare services company. 

John McKesson, Charles Olcott - Mckesson Corporation  (

March 30, 1842 - Dr. Crawford W. Long of Georgia first to use ether as anesthetic during operation.

December 11, 1844 - Dr. John M. Riggs used nitrous oxide ("laughing gas")  for tooth extraction on Dr. Horace Wells, at Wells's request, to test potential of nitrous oxide as anesthetic.

March 26, 1845 - William H. Shecut, Horace H. Day, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement in Adhesive Plasters" ("new and improved method of preparing adhesive and strengthening plasters of india-rubber and other materials for medicinal purposes"); rubber dissolved in solvent then spread on fabric.

December 9, 1845 - J. Marion Sims began experiments to use fine silver wire drawn by jeweler for sutures for vaginal tears; June 21, 1849 - successfully performed vesico-vaginal fistula operation in Montgomery, AL; suture removed on eight day after operation; known as "Father of Modern American Gynecology" for development of techniques and instruments.

1846 - Theron T. Pond, pharmacist from Utica, NY, introduced 'Pond's Golden Treasure', a witch-hazel based 'wonder product' for use as topical salve for wounds, purported remedy for numerous other ailments; 1849 - Pond, several partners formed T. T. Pond Company; 1886 - re-launched as 'Pond's Extract'; 1905 - introduced as Pond's Cold Cream; 1914 - incorporated as Pond's Extract Company; 1955 - merged with Chesebrough Manufacturing Company.

October 16, 1846 - Dr. William Thomas Green Morton, dentist, publicly administered ether anesthetic during operation performed by Dr. John Collins Warren at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston; Gilbert Abbott, printer who had come to MGH for treatment of vascular tumor on his jaw, inhaled from blown glass flask containingether-soaked sponge; unconscious after  few minutes; Warren removed tumor; Abbott experienced no pain.

November 4, 1846 - Benjamin F. Palmer, of Meredith, NH, received a patent for an "Artificial Leg" (pliable joint that worked noiselessly, preserved its contour in all positions); 1837 - Howland & Co of Brookfield, MA exhibited an artificial leg at the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association.

1847 - James Smith, of Poughkeepsie, NY, received formula for effective cough candy from journeyman in exchange for a meal; quick success, demand for "cough candy" grew throughout Hudson River valley; 1852 - advertised James Smith & Sons Compound of Wild Cherry Cough Candy for Cure of Coughs, Colds, Hoarseness, Sore Throats, Whooping Cough, Asthma, etc., etc."; cooked by hand in five-pound batches in furnace in basement of Smith "Confectionery and Dining Saloon" in Poughkeepsie, NY; 1866 - William, Andrew Smith (sons) took over; shifted emphasis to medicated candy; 1872 - began selling Smith Brothers Cough Drops in prepackaged boxes ("factory-filled" packages vs. loose in glass jars); April 3, 1906 - William W. Smith registered "Smith Brothers" trademark first used on January 1, 1877 (cough-drops); 1919 - incorporated as Smith Brothers, Inc.; February 1964 - acquired from fourth Smith generation by Warner-Lambert; 1977 - acquired by F&F Foods, Inc. 

May 7, 1847 - Dr. Nathan Davis (30) founded The American Medical Association at Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia for scientific advancement, standards for medical education, medical ethics, improved public health.

Nathan S. Davis MD, AMA Founder Dr. Nathan Davis - founded  AMA (

November 12, 1847 - Sir James Young Simpson, father of modern anesthetics, employed chloroform ("perchloride of formyle") for first time as anesthetic in operation; persistent advocacy of its use led to acceptance.

August 15, 1848 - M. Waldo Hanchett, of Syracuse, NY, received a patent for a "Surgical Chair" ("a more simple, durable and convenient mode than has heretofore been used adjusting the positions of chairs for convenience in dental and surgical operations"; dental chair.

December 6, 1850 - Hermann von Helmholtz invented ophthalmoscope (could look through one side of  glass plate while light reflected into subject's eye from other); revolutionized ophthalmology, enabled view inside person’s eye to see details of living retina, diagnose eye diseases, prevent blindness; pioneered endoscopy.

November 3, 1853 - John Jacob Bausch, German immigrant, set up optical goods shop in Rochester, NY; sold spectacles, thermometers, field glasses, telescopes, magnifiers, opera glasses, microscopes, hours glasses, products imported from Germany; 1854 - borrowed $60 from good friend, Henry Lomb, cabinet maker; promised that if business grew big enough that he needed a partner, Lomb would be made full partner; 1855 - Lomb became active partner; June 1, 1866 - Bausch & Lomb  dissolved, renamed "Vulcanite Optical Instrument Company"; granted exclusive contract by  The India Rubber Comb Company  to manufacture optical instruments using Vulcanite; August 11, 1876 - renamed Bausch & Lomb Optical Company; May 15, 1888 - Edward Bausch received a patent for a "Diaphragm and shutter for Photographic and other Lenses"; March 20, 1908 - incorporated in state of New York; 1966 - Sales topped $100 million for first time; March 18, 1971 - FDA granted approval to market soft contact lenses.

The Bausch & Lomb Story John Jacob Bausch, Henry Lomb - Bausch & Lomb  (

1855 - Robert von Bunsen, German chemist, physicist, invented Bunsen burner; Peter Desaga, University of Heidelberg mechanic, designed, built  burner according to Bunsen's specifications; Carl Desaga (son) founded C. Desaga, Factory for Scientific Apparatus, to manufacture burner; gave colorless flame by mixing air with gas at bottom of chimney; almost colorless flame allowed Bunsen, others to measure frequencies of spectral lines, useful in identifying elements from light they emit or absorb.

November 17, 1857 - H. Nichols Wadsworth, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Tooth-Brush" ("...separating the bunches of bristles more than the common brush, so as to give more elasticity and enable them to enter between the interstices of the teeth-having the brush wide that it may be imperative on the part of the patient to brush the gums thoroughly..."); first toothbrush patent in United States.

1859 - Robert Augustus Chesebrough (22) English-born chemist from New York, observed rod wax, pasty residue stuck to oil drillers' rods, clogged their pumps in oil fields of Titusville, PA; healed workers' burns, cuts; 1870 - branded product as Vaseline Petroleum Jelly (supposedly combination of German Wasser "water" + Greek elaion "oil" + scientific-sounded ending -ine); began manufacturing in Brooklyn, NY after years of experimenting to extract, purify "petroleum jelly";  June 4, 1872 - received patent for  "Improvement in Products from Petroleum"; 1875 - organized Chesebrough Manufacturing Company; 1880 - incorporated; 1881 - focused solely on manufacturing of Vaseline; July 25, 1905 - registered "Vaseline' trademark first used in 1870 (emollient and medicinal preparation for external and internal use); 1955 - merged with Pond's Extract Co.; 1987 - acquired by Unilever.

The Bausch & Lomb Story Robert Augustus Chesebrough - Vaseline (

February 10, 1863 - Du Bois D. Parmelee, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement in Artificial Legs"; used custom-moulded suction cup to receive the stump.

April 13, 1863 - Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled in New York is first orthopedic hospital.

January 1864 - Dr. William Worrall Mayo (44) bought property in Rochester, MN; 1883 - Dr. William J. Mayo returned to Rochester to join his father, Dr. William Worrall Mayo, in successful practice; 1888 - Dr. Charles H. Mayo returned home to join his father and older brother in the growing Mayo family practice; September 30, 1889 - Saint Mary's Hospital opened in Rochester, MN; 1892 - partnership era of the Mayo practice began as Dr. Augustus Stinchfield, a prominent area physician, became the first of a series of partners to join the Doctors Mayo group; 1914 - partnership name remained until establishment of Mayo's educational program and foundation made the name "Mayo Clinic" correct; 1919 - Dr. Charles H. Mayo and Dr. William J. Mayo dissolved their partnership, turned over clinic's name and assets, including the bulk of their life savings, to a private, not-for-profit, charitable foundation; transformed the private medical practice they had created into an independent, not-for-profit organization.

September 28, 1865 - Elizabeth Anderson became first female licensed physician in Britain; had studied medicine privately after being refused admission to medical schools; 1888 - became general medical attendant to St. Mary's Dispensary, London, later known as New Hospital, where she instituted medical courses for women; 1918 - New Hospital renamed Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital.

May 12, 1868 - Dr. Samuel Pitcher, family doctor from Barnstable, MA, received a patent for "Improved Medicine" (" be employed as a cathartic, or substitute for castor-oil, in the treatment of disease...ingredients of the composition are senna-leaves, bicarbonate of soda, extract of teraxicum, essence of wintergreen, and sugar"); named Pitcher's Castoria; 1869 - rights acquired by Charles H. Fletcher; 1871 - partnered with Joseph B. Rose (J. B. Rose & Co., maker of Centaur Liniment for people and for animals); 1872 - backed by Demas Barnes; Rose, Charles H. Fletcher as principals to manufacture Pitcher's Castoria; 1877 - Rose left, company renamed The Centaur Company; Charles H. Fletcher, Demas S. Barnes as principals; 1888 - Fletcher assumed control; November 14, 1905 - The Centaur Company registered "Chas. H. Fletcher" trademark first used June 16, 1890 (medicinal preparation for assimilating the food and regulating the stomachs and bowels of infants and children); 1923 - 25% interest in Centaur acquired by Sterling Drug for $3.5 million; eventually acquired in full by household Products Inc. division; 1984 - Fletcher's Castoria acquired by Mentholatum Co., Inc.; April 7, 1987 - The Mentholatum Company registered "Castoria" trademark first used December 31, 1878 (natural vegetable laxative specially made for children); 1988 - Mentholatum acquired by Rohto Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd of Osaka Japan.

Charles H. Fletcher - Castoria  (

1869 - Dr. Charles Browne Fleet opened small, family owned pharmacy in Lynchburg, VA to provide people with easy-to-use, innovative personal health, beauty care products; developed medicines, balms, salves; January 1, 1890 - invented non-medicated, petroleum-based lip balm to combat dry, cracked lips, called ChapStick; 1893 - invented first laxative to improve bowel health; 1912 - sold rights to lip balm to John Morton for $5 (established Morton Manufacturing Corporation to market ChapStick; sold rights to A. H. Robbins Company in 1963); July 17, 1934 - C. B. Fleet Company, Incorporated registered "Fleet" trademark first used in 1893 (concentrated solution of sodium phosphate used as a laxative, purgative, [and hepatic stimulant] and for the treatment of constipation, gastro-intestinal disturbances); 1953 - introduced disposable, small-volume enema for greater convenience, ease of use; 1972 - introduced disposable douche for women's health needs; 1983 - acquired Norforms feminine deodorant suppositories; 1990 - acquired E.C. DeWitt to continue growth in European market; 1992 - acquired Witch skin care products, further increased reach in European market; 1994 - acquired Bergamon, European maker of feminine hygiene, skin care lines; 1996 - acquired Casen, distributor of health, beauty products throughout Spain; August 17, 2004 - Wyeth Corporation registered "Chap Stick" trademark first used January 1, 1890 (non-medicated skin protectant and moisturizer, namely lip balm); 2005 - acquired Swedish pharmaceutical company, CCS, leading supplier of pharmaceutical, personal care products in Swedish market; 2006 - sold Bergamon; 2009 - leads personal healthcare industry, ranks among top non-prescription drug companies in United States.

Dr. Charles Browne Fleet - Fleet Enema (

November 8, 1895 - German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen observed X-rays in his Wurzburg, Germany, lab; was testing whether cathode rays could pass through glass, noticed glow coming from nearby chemically coated screen; named rays that caused this glow X-rays because of their unknown nature = electromagnetic energy waves that act similarly to light rays, but at wavelengths approximately 1,000 times shorter than those of light; became important diagnostic tool in medicine, allowed doctors to see inside the human body for the first time without surgery; 1897 - X-rays first used on a military battlefield, during the Balkan War, to find bullets and broken bones inside patients; 1901 - received first Nobel Prize in physics. 

February 16, 1866 - New York Legislature formed New York City Metropolitan Board of Health.

March 28, 1866 - First hospital ambulance went into service.

April 1, 1867 - Using antiseptic methods he introduced, Scottish physician Dr. Joseph Lister completed series of 11 compound fractures; forever changed surgical techniques; June 17, 1867 - became first surgeon to perform surgery under antiseptic conditions.

May 9, 1869 - New York State Legislature granted charter to found voluntary, non-profit Eye and Ear; October 15, 1869 - Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital opened; 2000 - merged with Lenox Hill Hospital.

June 4, 1872 - Robert A. Chesebrough. of New York, NY, received a patent for "Improvement in Products from Petroleum"; process for making vaseline; made from residue of petroleum distillation left in still after oil has vaporized; patent claimed its uses include currying, stuffing, oiling all kinds of leather; also adapted to use as pomade for hair, substance for glycerine cream for chapped hands.

November 4, 1873 - Dr. John B. Beers, of San Francisco, CA, received first U.S. patent for "Artificial Crowns for Teeth"; replaced old method of restoring decayed or broken teeth by condensing gold on it with a hammer until it had taken the desired shape; hollow metal crown slipped over projecting portion of old tooth, secured so that it would continue to function for chewing, while preventing further decay; gold screw mounted in old tooth, hollow crown slipped over it, cemented with oxychloride of zinc.

February 24, 1874 - Asahel M. Shurtleff, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Thread-Holders" ("Improved Pocket Thread Carrier and Cutter...for removing foreign matters lodged between the teeth"); dental floss.

June 22, 1874 - Dr. Andrew Taylor Still (Macon, MO) began first practice of osteopathy.

November 24, 1874 - Stephen S. Southworth, of Niagra Falls, NY, received a patent for "Improvement in Dental Amalgams".

January 26, 1875 - George F. Green, dentist from Kalamazoo, MI, received a patent for an "Electro-Magnetic Dental Tool"; electric dental drill for sawing, filing, dressing and polishing teeth.

November 16, 1875 - William G.A. Bonwill, of Philadelphia, PA received first U.S. patent for an "Electro-Magnetic Dental-Plugger"; dental mallet (tooth-filling device); used to drive gold into tooth cavity.

1879 - William H. Luden began making moshie, clear, hard candy, in his widowed mother's kitchen, behind jewelry shop in Reading, PA; persuaded shopkeepers to display, sell his products; 1881 - made menthol cough drops, gave samples of cough drops to railroad workers to spread word-of-mouth; January 3, 1922 - William H. Luden registered "Luden's" trademark first used in 1905 (menthol cough drops); 1928 - acquired by Food Industries of Philadelphia (Dietrich family) for $6.5 million; 1986 - acquired by Hershey Foods Corporation; 2001 - Luden's throat drops business acquired by Pharmacia; 2006 - consumer products division, including Luden's, acquired by Johnson & Johnson.

September 23, 1879 - Richard S. Rhodes invented Audiphone, first practical hearing aid; bone conduction device, for people who could not pick up sound waves in air; used vulcanite fan to pick up air vibrations, transmitted them to teeth; January 4, 1881 - received a patent for "Audiphone" ("...for increasing sound and communicating it by the teeth"). 

April 27, 1880 - Francis D. Clarke and Macomb G. Foster, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Device for Aiding the Deaf To Hear"; electrical hearing aid.

May 21, 1881 - In Washington, DC, humanitarians Clara Barton,  Adolphus Solomons founded American Association of the Red Cross.

May 9, 1882 - William F. Ford, of New York, NY, received a patent for the "Stethoscope".

February 17, 1883 - A. Ashwell, of West Dulwich, UK, received patent for the "vacant/engaged" toilet door bolt for lavatory doors; manufactured by C. Cross & Co. of Herne Hill.

1885 - Dr. Aletta Jacobs opened first birth-control clinic in  world in Amsterdam.

February 21, 1887 - Dr. Cornelius N. Hoagland incorporated  first U.S. institutional bacteriology laboratory, Hoagland Laboratory of Brooklyn, NY, for original medical research; cost exceeded $100,000 and $50,000 more in an endowment fund; financed with profits from his ownership interest in the Royal Baking Powder Company (founded 1866); February 1889 - laboratory opened with special departments in physiology and bacteriology.

1888 - Isaac E. Emerson, Baltimore pharmacist, created a headache remedy, granular effervescent salt, named "Bromo-Seltzer"; became so successful that he abandoned his retail business to devote his time to the manufacture of his product; 1891 - incorporated Emerson Drug Company in Maryland; September 19, 1905 - registered "Bromo-Seltzer" trademark first used January 15, 1889 (granular effervescent salt for the cure of headache, nervousness, nervous headache, neuralgia, brain fatigue, sleeplessness, over-brain-work, depression, and mental exhaustion); 1956 - merged with Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.

1889 - Albert Alexander Hyde established partnership in Wichita, KS to manufacture soap from yucca plant; named Yucca Company; 1890 - Hyde bought out partners; December 1894 - introduced Mentholatum Ointment (combination of menthol, petrolatum); November 21, 1905 - Yucca Company registered "Mentholatum" trademark first used December 1894 (a salve for external application in the treatment of inflammations and eruptions of the skin and mucous membrane and in the treatment of croup, asthma, sore throat, pneumonia, catarrh, and like afflictions involving or the resulting from congestion); 1906 - name changed to The Mentholatum Company; grew into international manufacturer, marketer of non-prescription drugs with reputation for quality, value; 1988 - acquired by ROHTO Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd.

Photo of Reciepient Albert Alexander Hyde - Mentholatum  (

1890 - Reverend Jenkins Jones secured commitment from  Armour Meat Packing Company for down payment on three-story brick house at 29th and Dearborn (12 beds); became first Provident Hospital; first hospital in U.S. organized by African-Americans; 1891 - Provident Hospital and Training School Association opened; first annual budget totaled $5,429; Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, respected black surgeon, chief of staff; 1892 - seven women enrolled in first nursing class; 1897 - 189 inpatients, outpatient clinic, Armour Dispensary, treated approximately 6,000 patients; 1898 - moved to new 36th Street location (65 beds); 1933 - educational affiliation with University of Chicago; July 1987 - declared bankruptcy; September 1987 -closed; 1991 - acquired by Cook County Board of Commissioners; 1994 - traditional medical education role reestablished through educational affiliation with Loyola University's Stritch School of Medicine. 

Dr. Daniel Hale Williams - Provident Hospital  (

January 1, 1880 - Dr. Charles Browne Fleet (Lynchburg, VA) invented  petroleum-based lip balm to combat dry, cracked lips; called it ChapStick; 1912 - sold rights for $5.00 to John T. Morton, fellow Lynchburg resident; June 4, 1912 - Morton (doing business as The Chap Stick Co., registered "Chap Stick" trademark first used January 1, 1890 (medicinal preparation for chapped skin, sunvurn and [hangnails]). 1963 - acquired by A. H. Robbins; 1989 - acquired by American Home Products.

September 9, 1892 - The New York City health department established first diagnostic public heath laboratory in U.S. as its Division of Pathology, Bacteriology and Disinfection; spurred by the scare of Asiatic cholera.

January 5, 1896 - The Austrian newspaper Wiener Presse reported discovery by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen of  type of radiation that came to be known as an X-ray.

January 12, 1896 - Dr. Henry Louis Smith, professor of physics and astronomy at Davidson College (Davidson, NC), took first x-ray photograph; showed location of bullet in hand of corpse.

January 18, 1896 - First x-ray machine exhibited in U.S. at Casino Chambers, New York City; January 20, 1896 - X-rays first used in clinical setting, both in America, Germany; January 23, 1896 - Wilhelm Roentgen first made public lecture-demonstration of his X-ray device, in WŘrzburg, Germany.

February 7, 1896 - Radiology began in England when X-rays first used to discover location of a bullet in wrist of 12-year-old boy who had shot himself the previous month; boy brought to laboratory of Oliver Lodge, head of physics department at Liverpool University, for X-rays; pellet identified, embedded in  third carpo-metacarpal joint.

1898 - Maurice Berger, pharmacist, discovered beneficial effect of catalytic combustion of ozoalcohol; created Lampe Berger lamp (oil lamp with wick) to purify air in hospital wards, mortuaries; June 1898 - received a patent for a "new lamp system for purifying the air" (stone catalyst process, called cold evaporation, used to convert alcohol to ozone and phenol; device for disinfection); 1910 - opened shop in Paris, L'Ozosenteur, at 18 rue Duphot, to commercialize Berger lamp; 1927 - shop acquired by Jean-Jacques Failliot, former paper manufacturer; name changed to SociÚtÚ des Produits Berger; used ethyl alcohol (instead of methyl alcohol), expanded selection of lamps from about one dozen to more than 100 styles; 1930 - added fragrance; became collector's item; 1930-1938 - annual sales of about 20,000 lamps; October 1940 - Gilbert Failliot (son) took over; 1973 - acquired by Marcel Auvray (annual production of approximately 80,000 lamps); introduced colorful contemporary styles, electrified Lampe Berger; 1989 - Phillipe Auvray (son) ran business; hired Pierre Casenove to design for company (attracted other major artists); 1992 - set up first Lampe Berger subsidiary in New York; 1993 - introduced new collection called Signatures; 1996 - formed Research and Development department to continue to improve product performance; Alain Le Bourg as Managing Director; developed exports, especially to Asia, gave new impetus to Company’s marketing; 1998 - acquired Point Ó la Ligne, specialized in decorative candles; 1999 - formed Lampe Berger Group; acquired Bougies Epistrof brand; 2000 - Group included six companies, six brands; 2003 - acquired Parfums Indigo (specialized in olfactive marketing); became Toulouse Parfum Industry; 2009 - only hygienic lamp that has stood test of time.

Maurice Berger - nt FACE="Verdana" SIZE="2"> Lampe Berger (

November 3, 1903 - Lambert Pharmacal Company registered "Listerine" trademark first used May 1, 1881 (liquid chemical or medical preparation manufactured by US under a private formula and more especially known as an antiseptic).

1904 - Dr. LeRoy Francis Herrick opened 20-bed Roosevelt Hospital in Berkeley, CA; named for President Theodore Roosevelt; 1934 - re-named Herrick Memorial Hospital.

May 6, 1904 - American Lung Association held first meeting.

1905 - Nurse Alta Alice Miner Bates founded Alta Bates Sanitarium in Berkeley, CA as eight-bed hospital for women and their infants; assisted by nurse with one year's training, by four young women, first students in her nursing school; January 2000 - Summit Medical Center, Alta Bates Medical Center, Sutter Health completed their affiliation process.

Alta Alice Miner Bates - Alta Bates Medical Center  (

1905 - Five prominent San Francisco physicians founded Saint Francis Hospital Company.

March 9, 1908 - Friedrich Merz (24), pharmacist and chemist, established Chemische Fabrik Merz & Co., pharmaceuticals production plant in former cigarette factory on Eckenheimer Landstrasse in Frankfurt, Germany, with 10,000 Reichsmark (received from Emile Losson, master pharmacist in Metz) and patent and utility model protection as starting capital; developed Patentex, first topical contraceptive (topical skin cream with water-soluble base that permitted cream's ingredients to be more readily absorbed by skin); 1920 - joined with Georg Merz (brother), Justus Krell, machine lathe operator, founded Merz & Krell; began producing penholders, celluloid-based fountain pens, and pencils (made from artificial horn) under Melbi brand name; later used Senator brand name; 1964 - launched Merz Spezial Dagrees vitamin formulation, cosmetic supplement; 1985 - acquired E.E. Dickinson, manufacturer of witch hazel-based products; late 1980s - launched Contratubex, scar treatment compound (launched in U.S. in 1997 under Mederma brand name); 1990s - clinically proved product's effectiveness, identified active ingredients contributing to its effect; March 23, 1999 - patent for "Composition and Method for Improvement of the Appearance of Scars" assigned to Merz, Incorporated; 2002 - launched Memantine (received approval as treatment for Alzheimer's disease in Europe); 2005 - sales above EUR 417 million (pharmaceuticals group more than half of total, Germany less than 40% of group's sales). Friedrich Merz - Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH ( 2009_weltkarte_standorte.jpg)

April 5, 1909 - The Neurological Institute of New York, first U.S. institute for research in nervous diseases, incorporated; October 1, 1909 - its hospital opened; established as the first specialty hospital in the nation devoted entirely to the study and treatment of the nervous system.

February 6, 1910 - West field State Sanatorium opened as treatment sanitorium for tuberculosis patients (one of half dozen "sanitoria" built by  state of Massachusetts to protect public from spread of tuberculosis); 1962 - name changed to Western Massachusetts Hospital; 2010 - focus on specialty care for patients with chronic diseases, terminal illness, neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, related disorders involving behavioral problems; provides education, workshops to community groups, professional organizations in variety of health issues; annual budget of $16.5 million, capable of serving as many as 100 patients, 215 employees.

1914 - Baltimore pharmacist George Bunting invented skin cream consisting of camphor, menthol, eucalyptus; called it "Dr. Bunting's Sunburn Remedy"; name changed to Noxema after customer swore that the cream had "knocked out his eczema"; September 19, 1916 - registered "Noxzema Skin Cream" trademark first used November 1, 1914 (medicine for the skin).

1915 - LA Jackson founded London Rubber Company Ltd; sold imported condoms, barber supplies; July 17, 1929 - LRC Products Limited registered 'DUREX' trademark in Britain (Baby soothers, feeding bottle teats and enemas, sprays, syringes and pessaries, all being goods not medicated for surgical or curative purposes); name chosen to represent DUrability, Reliability & EXcellence; July 8, 1930 - Durex Products, Inc. registered 'DUREX Products, Inc." trademark in U.S., first used in March 1928 (pessaries); 1930s - manufactured first condoms using latest liquid latex dipping technology; 1950 - went public; 1953 - introduced electronic testing as part of production process; 1962 - acquired Julius Schmid Inc., U.S. manufacturer of Ramses, Sheik brand condoms; 1969 - manufactured world’s first anatomically shaped condom; 1974 - produced first spermicidally lubricated condom; 1986 - name changed to London International Group plc; 1998 - all medical devices, including condoms, had to carry CE markings when sold in EU (Durex was first condom brand to be CE marked); 1999 - acquired by Seton Scholl Healthcare for $984.7 million (combination of Seton Healthcare Group and Scholl plc); formed new company, named SSL International plc; best-selling condom in UK for 81 years; July 20, 2010 - agreed to be acquired by Reckitt Benckiser (consumer brands Vanish, Lysol, Clearasil) for $3.9 billion.

October 16, 1916 - Margaret Sanger opened first birth-control clinic, in New York City at 46 Amboy Street in Brooklyn; clinic was closed by the police, she received a 30-day jail sentence. 1917 - Sanger helped to organize the National Birth Control League (later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America); 1923 - opened a permanent birth control clinic in New York City.

October 31, 1916 - Dr. William David Coolidge, of Schenectady, NY, received patent for a "Vacuum-Tube" ("tube operated for the purpose of producing Rontgen of X-Rays"); X-ray tube called Coolidge Tube; assigned to General Electric Company.

1920s - American chemist Irvine W. Grote (head of Department of Chemistry at University of Tennessee at Chattanooga), invented Rolaids antacid (name derived from original packaging that came in foil roll); June 22, 1954 - American Chicle Company registered "Rolaids: trademark first used August 25, 1953 (antacid mints).

1920 - Johnson & Johnson introduced Band-Aid (brand adhesive bandages) invented by Earle Dickson, J&J cotton buyer; his wife, Josephine, was always cutting her fingers in kitchen while preparing food; took piece of gauze, attached it to center of  piece of tape, covered product with crinoline to keep it sterile; made by hand, too unwieldy (3" wide, 18" long; sales of $3,000 in first year); 1924 - J&J introduced first machine-made, sterilized Band-Aid;  January 13, 1925 - registered "Band-Aid" trademark first used November 1920 (protective surgical dressing in the form of a bandage); 1940 - red string to open packages introduced; 1961 - J & J sold over $30,000,000 worth of Band-Aids« each year.

Earle Dickson - Band-Aids ( Dickson_Earle/DicksonEarleThm.jpg)

1923 - Leo Gerstenzang founded Leo Gerstenzang Infant Novelty Company to market baby care accessories; figured out how to clean infants' ears with ready-made, one-piece cotton sticks (rather than by applying wad of cotton to toothpick); first product called "Baby Gays"; 1926 - label changed to Q-tips Baby Gays (cotton swab Q-tips, "Q" stood for quality); January 9, 1934 - Q-Tips Inc. registered "Q-Tips" trademark first used January 1, 1926 (swabs consisting of sanitary absorbent cotton, attached to the end of a small piece of wood); 1962 - acquired by Chesebrough-Ponds.

August 5, 1924 - H. A. Metz Laboratories, Inc. (New York, NY) registered "Novocain" trademark first used September 8, 1917 (anaesthetics).

March 8, 1927 - Norwich Pharmacal Company registered "Pepto-Bismol" trademark first used in April 1919 (liquid demulcent preparation, administered [given] as an intestinal, antiseptic, digestant, and for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders). 

April 25, 1928 - First seeing eye dog, Buddy, presented to Morris S. Frank.

October 12, 1928 - Artificial respirator, called an iron lung, first demonstrated in Boston Children's Hospital.

October 19, 1931 - Physicians Donald Baxter, Ralph Falk started Don Baxter Intravenous Products Corp.; made supplies for IV systems in hospitals, distributed products manufactured by another company in Los Angeles owned by Baxter; 1933 - opened first manufacturing facility in renovated automobile showroom in Glenview, IL (six employees turned out complete line of five solutions in glass containers); 1935 - Falk acquired Baxter's interest in company; 1939 - named Baxter Laboratories; introduced Transfuso-Vac container, first sterile, vacuum-type blood collection and storage unit (allowed storage for up to 21 days vs. a few hours); 1952 - acquired Hyland Laboratories, first US company to make human plasma commercially available; May 15, 1961 - went public; 1967 - sales over $100 million; 1976 - changed name to Baxter Travenol ('TRAVENous sOLutions') Laboratories; 1978 - introduced continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as practical alternative to hemodialysis; 1985 - sales of about $2 billion, acquired American Hospital Supply Corp.; became broad-based health-care products distributor and developer of medical technologies; 1988 - renamed Baxter International Inc.; 1996 - renewed focus on core technologies of renal technology, biotechnology, cardiovascular medicine, medication delivery, increased its emphasis on global expansion; 2002 - sales exceeded $8 billion.

February 21, 1931 - Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer in the U.S.; Hub Beardsley, president of Miles Laboratories asked chief chemist, Maurice Treneer, to develop an effervescent tablet, with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and sodium bicarbonate as the main ingredients, to ward off illness (had worked for staff members of the local newspaper); June 9, 1931 - Dr. Miles Medical Company (Elkhart, IN) registered "Alka-Seltzer"  trademark first used December 20, 1930 (anti-acid effervescent preparations).

April 4, 1932 - Professor C. Glen King (University of Pittsburgh) isolated vitamin C, after five years of effort; isolated a crystalline substance, identified, and later synthesized vitamin C; discovery meant prevention of disease of scurvy, long source of human suffering, during WW II.

1933 - Sidney Garfield, MD, provided prepaid, preventive health care to thousands of workers building Los Angeles Aqueduct; 1938 - Henry Kaiser persuaded Dr. Garfield to set up group-practice prepayment plan for construction workers on Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state; later opened membership    to workers and families; 1942 - Dr. Garfield established group-practice prepayment plans for workers, their families at Kaiser-managed shipyards in San Francisco Bay area, Vancouver, WA, Kaiser steel mill in Fontana in Southern California (served about 200,000 members); October 1, 1945 - Permanente Health Plan officially opened to public, took name from Permanente Creek that flowed through Henry Kaiser's first plant in California's Santa Cruz Mountains; 1955 - 300,000 Northern California members were enrolled in the Health Plan; 1952 - name of Health Plan,  hospitals changed to Kaiser (recognized nationwide); November 5, 1968 - Kaiser Foundation Hospitals Non-Profit  Corporation registered "Kaiser" trademark first used November 1, 1958 (hospital services);  July 7, 1981 - Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc. registered "Kaiser" trademark first used December 31, 1953 (arranging for and financing of prepaid health care services).; July 1, 1986 - registered "Kaiser Permanente" trademark first used August 10, 1984 (arranging for and financing of prepaid health care services). 

Henry J. Kaiser and Sidney R, Garfield - Kaiser Permanente  (

June 12, 1933 - Dr R. Plato Schwartz (1894-1965) of The Myodynamics Laboratory of University of Rochester, NY, exhibited electrobasograph for first time in U.S. to American Medical Association convention in Milwaukee, WI; could make  record on film of "the walking gait of individuals, to distinguish between actual and spurious limps in damage claims for injuries."

July 4,1933 - William D. Coolidge, of Schenectady, NY,  received a patent for an "X-ray Tube" ("adapted to therapeutic use in body cavities"); for inside the body; January 2, 1917 - received first patent for an "X-ray Tube".

1934 - G. D. Searle & Co. introduced Metamucil Powder; October 2, 1934 - registered "Metamucil" trademark first used may 5, 1934 (preparation in powder form for the treatment of gastro-enterological conditions); December 1985 - acquired by Procter & Gamble.

July 1, 1934 - Arthur W. Fuchs of Eastman Kodak Company made first X-ray photograph (one-piece radiograph) of whole body taken in one-second exposure, using ordinary clinical conditions such as would exist at an average hospital; selective filter was used for the first time, film size was 32"x72".

1935 - Arnold O. Beckman invented acidimeter to measure acidity levels in lemon juice; later called a pH meter, quickly became indispensable tool in analytical chemistry; founded Beckman Instruments, Inc.; 1940 - released DU« Spectrophotometer - simplified tedious laboratory procedures, it also increased analytical precision and revolutionized chemical analysis; October 1997 - acquired Coulter Corporation (Miami, FL), manufacturer of cellular analysis systems; April 1998 - renamed Beckman Coulter, Inc.

January 28, 1935 - Iceland became first country to introduce legalized abortion.

June 10, 1935 - Alcoholics Anonymous founded in Akron, OH.

February 24, 1937 - First U.S. group hospital-medical cooperative authorized, Washington, DC.

March 15, 1937 - Chicago's Cook County Hospital established first blood bank.

June 14, 1938 - Dr. Benjamin Grushkin, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Therapeutic Agent for Use in the Treatment of Infection"; chlorophyll (green pigment responsible for photosynthesis in plants) for use in treatment of infection of blood stream, infected parts, open cuts and wounds; proposed that chlorophyll could be prepared in a water-soluble form (cholorphyllins) to be applied directly to infected parts, or applied intravenously to the blood stream; stated he had discovered that in this way there would be a gradual attenuation of infectious bacteria; formation of granulation tissue is enhanced, promoting healing; patent assigned to the Lakeland Foundation of Chicago, IL.

July 8, 1938 - Dr. West's Miracle-Tuft toothbrushes first to offer plastic, non-animal, bristles (used Du Pont Exton bristle-like filaments, would not soften in water or saliva; Western Bottle Manufacturing Company [later the Western Company] had registered "Dr. West's" trademark, first used February 1, 1920 for toothbrushes, on November 8, 1921); October 7, 1952 - Weco Products Company registered "Dr. West's Miracle-Tuft" trademark first used July 8, 1938 (toothbrushes and denture brushes).

December 31, 1938 - Dr Rolla N. Harger, of Indiana University School of Medicine, introduced the "drunkometer," first breath test for car drivers, in Indianapolis; first successful machine for testing human blood alcohol content by breath analysis (required re-calibration when moved from place to place); 1937 - gave first "short course" on chemical tests for intoxication; 1948 - Harger and other IU faculty began one-week courses on breath alcohol testing sponsored by the National Safety Council's Committee on Tests for Intoxication; 1954 - Robert F. Borkenstein, an instructor on those courses, invented the Breathalyzer, a more practical, highly portable instrument for testing breath alcohol.

July 19, 1939 - Dr. Roy P Scholz (St. Louis, MO) first surgeon to use fiberglass sutures.

November 22, 1941 - U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in  Federal Register, specified first minimum daily requirements for dietary supplements - for vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, thiamine, riboflavin, calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus.

1944 - Benjamin Green, Florida pharmacist, invented suntan cream in his kitchen (mixture of cocoa butter, jasmine), became "Coppertone Suntan Cream"; first consumer sunscreen product; January 25, 1955 - Douglas Laboratories Corporation (Miami, FL) registered "Coppertone" trademark first used March 29, 1945 (suntan creams and lotions); 1980 - Coppertone developed first UVA/UVB sunscreen

December 15, 1944 - Dr. R. Townley Paton of Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital and a small group of doctors and laymen from surrounding institutions formed an organization laid the groundwork for The Eye-Bank for Sight Restoration, first ''eye bank'' in New York City.

1945 - Charles Kettering, Alfred Sloan established Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York City.

January 25, 1945 - Grand Rapids, MI became first U.S. city to  fluoridate drinking water (one part per million of fluoride added to water supply) to reduce tooth decay; fluorine is 13th most abundant element on earth, found in nature in its ionic form - fluoride, normal constituent of all diets, highest concentrations found in the bones and teeth; based on work done by Frederick S. McKay, a Colorado dentist, who related brown stains (mottling) on his patients’ teeth to low dental caries due to the source of their drinking water containing high levels of naturally occurring fluoride); early 1940s - H. Trendley Dean, dental surgeon and epidemiologist at the National Institute of Health (NIH), had determined the ideal level of fluoride in drinking water to reduce decay without mottling.

April 7, 1948 - World Health Organization founded.

May 25, 1948 - Andrew J. Moyer, of Peoria, IL, expert on  nutrition of molds at USDA's Northern Laboratory (now part of Agricultural Research Service), received a patent for a "Method for Production of Penicillin"; mass production of penicillin.

July 5, 1948 - Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect; provided government-financed medical and dental care.

November 18, 1950 -Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp. (Jamaica, NY) announced first fluoro-record reflector camera; could make x-ray pictures in one-sixth of the time previously required; used for gastro-intestinal surveys. 

August 28, 1951 - Oral B Company (Robert W. Hutson, Paul E. Bahr, and John Murphy), Santa Clara, CA, registered "Oral B" trademark first used May 19. 1949 (toothbrushes).

December 29, 1952 -Sonotone Corporation (Elmsford, NY) introduced first transistor hearing aid (model 1010); weighed 3.5-oz, measured 3"x1.5"x0.6", cost $229.50 (about $1500.00 today); hybrid device consisted of two sub miniature pre-amplifier tubes, single transistor as final audio amplifier to benefit from low power consumption of transistors; shortly discontinued as transistor production techniques improved, largely eliminated noise.

July 26, 1955 - Becton, Dickinson and Company registered "Ace-Hesive" trademark first used June 11, 1954 (elastic bandages).

January 30, 1957 - Team of scientists at University of Minnesota, led by Dr C. Walton Lillehei, first used external artificial pacemaker with internal heart electrode (sewn to wall of heart, connected through chest to external desk-top pulse generator to maintain patient's heartbeat rhythm); infection often occurred along electrode wires, device required no interruption in house electricity; ultimately led to development of billion-dollar pacemaker industry.

October 8, 1958 - Dr ┼ke Senning implanted first internal heart pacemaker at Karolinska Institute of Stockholm (worked for three hours), invented earlier same year by Rune Elmqvist; designed to be implanted in subcutaneous pouch in patient suffering cardiac disease, used only two transistors, size of hockey puck, sent pulses to cardiac muscle to establish normal, regular contractions.

1959 - Joyce B. Brand, commercial artist for Grant Advertising (New York), created Little Miss Coppertone«, symbol of summer and poster-girl for the long-running Coppertone sunscreen ad campaign; showed dog pulling at bathing suit of little girl (her 3-year-old daughter, in pig-tails, named Cheri Brand ) to reveal her bottom and a tan line; paid $ 2,500 for the artwork; initial billboard slogan: "Don't be a paleface."

1960 - Smith Kline and French Laboratories launched Contac, cold remedy; used Spansule to release initial major therapeutic dose, followed by numerous smaller doses, over 10-12 hours; November 21, 1961 - registered "Contac" trademark first used February 7, 1961 (oral nasal decongestant).

May 9, 1960 - US Food and Drug Administration approved birth-control pill.

1961 - David A. Jones, Sr., Wendell Cherry founded Extendicare as nursing home company; became largest nursing home company in United States; 1972 - divested nursing home chain, purchased hospitals; became world's largest hospital company; 1974 - name changed to Humana Inc.; 1978 - acquired American Medicorp Inc. (doubled company's size); November 6, 1984 - Humana, Inc. registered "Humana" trademark first used May 5, 1973 (hospital and healthcare services); 1985 - created Humana Heart Institute; 1998 - failed acquisition attempt by United Healthcare.

July 1, 1966 - Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.

January 1, 1967 - First fluoridation law in U.S. went into effect in Connecticut; required fluoridation of public water supplies serving 20,000 or more population to prevent dental caries.

January 10, 1967 - Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, IN, registered "One A Day Brand Multiple Vitamins" trademark first used in July 1961 (vitamin tablets).

May 18, 1967 - Oklahoma enacted first legalization of human artificial insemination in the U.S., signed by governor (century after the first trials); 1866 - Dr. James Marion Sims, gynecologist and chief of the Woman's Hospital, New York made first recorded human impregnation by means of artificial insemination in the U.S. (gave over 54 injections in 1866-67).

1968 - Dr. Thomas Frist, Sr., Jack C. Massey and Dr. Thomas Frist, Jr. formed hospital management company - Hospital Corporation of America (HCA); 1969 - hospitals, 3,000 beds under management; 1987 - operated 463 hospitals (255 owned and 208 managed); spun off HealthTrust (privately owned, 104-hospital company); 1988 - went private in a $5.1 billion leveraged buyout; 1992 - went public again; 1996 - $20 billion company, approximately 285,000 employees, more than 350 hospitals, 145 outpatient surgery centers, 550 home care agencies, several other ancillary businesses.

February 11, 1969 - Albert D. Herman, of Encino, CA, and Zeppo Marx, of Palm Springs, CA, received a patent for a "Method and Watch Mechanism for Actuation by a Cardiac Pulse"; heart wristwatch monitor; October 21,1969 - received a patent for a "Cardiac Pulse-Rate Monitor".

February 15, 1972 - William Kolff, of Salt Lake City, UT, received a patent for a "Soft Shell Mushroom Shaped Heart"; artificial heart.

February 5, 1974 - Raymond V. Damadian, of Forest Hill, NY, received a patent for an "Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue" ("tissue sample is positioned in a nuclear induction apparatus whereby selected nuclei are energized from their equilibrium states to higher energy states through nuclear magnetic indication of the presence and degree of malignancy of cancerous tissue can be obtained"); MRI; built first MR scanner (to take advantage of relaxation differences among body's tissues); July 3, 1977 - produced first human image (Larry Minkoff's chest); 1978 - first scans of patients with cancer; incorporated FONAR, first, oldest, most experienced MR manufacturer in industry; 1980 - introduced world's first commercial MRI (whole-body MRI scanner); 1981 - went public; 1982 - introduced patented iron-core technology, basis for all Open MRI scanners; 1984 - invented Oblique Imaging, means to produce multiple images "at any angle"; 1996 - introduced Stand-Up™ MRI, world’s only whole-body MRI scanner with ability to perform Position Imaging ™ (pMRI™), patients can be scanned standing, sitting, bending, lying down.

February 12, 1974 - Stephen G. Kovacs, of Clearwater Beach, FL, received a patent for a "Magnetic Heart Pump" ("simulates the pulsatile pumping action of a natural heart").

April 9, 1974 - African American Phil Brooks, of Washington, DC, received a U.S. patent for a "Disposable Syringe".

November 25, 1975 - Robert S. Ledley, of Silver Spring, MD, received first U.S. patent for "Diagnostic X-Ray Systems"; whole-body X-ray scanner; ACTA (Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial) diagnostic X-ray scanner revolutionized medical diagnosis: three-dimensional analysis of all organs and parts of the body in a series of cross-section images using thin X-ray beams and high power computer processing of the collected data; diagnosis of tumors, infection or bleeding possible even deep within large organs, improved radiation therapy for cancer.

September 27, 1977 - Anacleto Montero Sanchez, of Salamanca, ES, received a patent for a "Hypodermic Syringe" ("for administering a plurality of measured doses, particularly to animals").

April 4, 1978 - Francisco G. Garcia, of Rio Piedras, PR, received a patent for "Orthodontic Pliers" ("especially useful for bending the alignment wire end during all phases of the Begg orthodontic technique").

February 28, 1984 - Donald M. Mauldin and Richard E. Jones III, of Dallas, TX, received a patent for a "Knee and Elbow Brace".

June 5, 1984 - Ronald D. Kay, of Fort Worth, TX, received patent for a "Safety Closure Device for Medicine Container"; child-proof Safety Cap for Medicine Bottle.

July 11, 1985 - Dr. H. Harlan Stone announced zippers for stitches; had used zippers on 28 patients whom he thought he might have to re-operate, because of internal bleeding following initial operations; zippers lasted between five and 14 days, then replaced with permanent stitches. 

November 27, 1995 - AmHS/Premier, SunHealth Alliance announced plans to merge; formed nation's biggest health care network, over 650 hospitals and 1,000 affiliates in fifty states.

1998 - James A. Thomson, Professor, Department of Anatomy, Genome Center of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madsion, plucked stem cells from human embryos for first time, destroyed embryos, set off divisive national debate about stem cell research; November 6, 1998, Science published the results of his research, "Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts".

January 30, 1998 - Medical advisory panel for Food and Drug Administration voted unanimously to approve Dermabond, a new medical-grade glue using proprietary cyanoacrylate technology (manufactured by Closure Medical), to replace painful stitches; August 1998 - approved for marketing in U.S.; can seal off certain wounds quickly, without need for painful shots, can hold  wound closed, sterile, flexible while healing; March 23, 1999 - Johnson & Johnson Corporation registered "Dermabond" trademark first used September 2, 1998 (body tissue sealant preparation for medical use).

2005 - Journal of the American Medical Association reported results of study of annual household survey data from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, collected from about 23,000 people/year from 1997 to 2005 (included pharmacy, medical record data, used to estimate national spending, treatment practices); 1) spending on spine treatments in United States totaled nearly $86 billion in 2005, rise of 65% from 1997, after adjusting for inflation; 2) people with spine problems spent about $6,096 each on medical care in 2005, vs. $3,516 in medical spending by those without spine problems; 3) biggest surge in spending - for drugs: estimated $20 billion on drug treatments for back and neck problems in 2005, increase of 171% from 1997; biggest jump for narcotic pain relievers (OxyContin, other drugs, increased more than 400%); 4) outpatient treatment for back, neck problems increased 74% to about $31 billion during period, spending related to emergency room visits grew by 46%to $2.6 billion; spending for surgical procedures, other inpatient costs grew by 25% to about $24 billion; 5) about 26% of adult population suffered from back, neck problems that limited their function in 2005, after adjusting numbers for aging population vs. about 21% in 1997; 6) percentage of people with serious spine problems has not declined; appears to have increased.

July 24, 2006 - HCA (Hospital Corporation of America) agreed to sell itself to three private-equity firms and the family of Senator Bill Frist (R-TN, Senate majority leader) whose father and brother founded the company; largest leveraged buyout ever; totaled $31.6 billion (including debt); RJR Nabisco = $30.6 billion.

September 23, 2007 - Bausch & Lomb shareholders accepted $3.7billion bid by investment group controlled by Warburg Pincus (private equity firm).

May 4, 2008 - 158 million people covered by employer health insurance; since recession of 2001 - employee’s average cost of annual health care premium for family coverage has nearly doubled (to $3,300, up from $1,800), incomes have not kept up; portion of average American household’s income that goes toward health care has risen about 12%, approaching 20% of  average household’s spending (source: Deloitte).

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June 29, 2008 - Medical spending in U. S. reached estimated $2.25 trillion in 2007; U.S. spends 50% more on healthcare per capita than next closest industrialized country (often with no better patient outcomes). One culprit - overuse of medical technology:

(Source: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;

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(Greenwich Hospital), Jim H. Smith (2003). A Century of Caring: The Story of Greenwich Hospital. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 128 p.). Hospitals--Connecticut--Greenwich (Town)--History.

(Group Health Association), Edward D. Berkowitz and Wendy Wolff (1988). Group Health Association: A Portrait of a Health Maintenance Organization. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 236 p.). Group Health Association (Washington, D.C.)--History.

(Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound), Walt Crowley (1996). To Serve the Greatest Number: A History of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 293 p.). Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound--History; Group medical practice--Washington--Puget Sound--History.

(HCA), Bob Vraciu (2003). Leadership To Win: A Biography of R. Clayton McWhorter. (Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press, 163 p.). McWhorter, R. Clayton; HealthTrust; Hospital Corporation of America.  

(HealthSouth), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002). The Story of HealthSouth. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 152 p.). HealthSouth (Firm)--History; Hospital management companies--United States--History; Hospitals--Rehabilitation services--United States--History.

(Hill-Rom Company), Garven Dalglish (1982). Of This Man: The Biography of William A. Hillenbrand. (Canaan, NH: Phoenix Pub., 250 p.). Hillenbrand, William A.; Hill-Rom Company--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Institute of Medicine), Edward D. Berkowitz (1998). To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 294 p.). Institute of Medicine (U.S)--History; Medicine--Research--United States--History.

(Invacare Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen & Anthony L. Wall (2001). The Yes, You Can of Invacare Corporation. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 192 p.). INVACARE Corporation (Elyria, Ohio)--History; Wheelchair industry--History; Medical supplies industry--History.

(Kaiser Permanente), John G. Smillie; foreword by Bruce J. Sams, Jr. (1991). Can Physicians Manage the Quality and Costs of Health Care?: The Story of the Permanente Medical Group. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 283 p.). Permanente Medical Group (Oakland, Calif.)--History; Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program--History; Health Maintenance Organizations--history--California.

(Kaiser Permanente), Rickey Hendricks (1993). A Model for National Health Care: The History of Kaiser Permanente (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 265 p.). Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program -- History. 

(Kalamazoo State Hospital), William A. Decker (2008). Asylum for the Insane: A History of the Kalamazoo State Hospital. (Traverse City, MI: Arbutus Press, 400 p.). Former Medical Superintendent. Kalamazoo State Hospital; mental illness--Michigan. Opened in Kalamazoo in 1859 as Michigan's first state institution created solely for care, treatment of mentally ill; emphasis on treatments (hydrotherapy, electro-convulsive therapy, psychoanalysis), various instruments used, growth and development of hospital's campus, buildings.

(Longworth Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd.), Sir Anthony Jephcott (1988). A History of Longworth Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd. (London, UK: Regency Press, 202 p.). Longworth Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd.; Great Britain Medical equipment industries Companies history.

(Maimonides Medical Center), Julie Salamon (2008). Hospital: Man Woman Birth Death Infinity, Plus Red Tape, Bad Behavior, Money, God, and Diversity on Steroids. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 384 p.). Former culture writer for The New York Times, critic and reporter for The Wall Street Journal. Maimonides Medical Center--History; Maimonides Medical Center; Hospitals--New York (State)--New York--History; Hospitals, Urban--New York City--Personal Narratives; Cultural Diversity--New York City--Personal Narratives. One year tracking progress of cancer center, characters (doctors, patients, administrators, nurses, ambulance drivers, cooks, cleaning staff) who make hospital run; case study of concerns that arise in institutions that serve an increasingly multicultural American demographic; science and emotion of medical drama grounded in financial realities of operating a huge, private institution.

(Marquette Electronics), Michael J. Cudahy (2002). Joyworks: The Story of Marquette Electronics and Two Lucky Entrepreneurs. (Milwaukee, WI: Milwaukee County Historical Society, 236 p.). Co-founder, Chairman & CEO Marquette Electronics, Inc. Cudahy, Michael J.; Cozzens, Warren B.; Marquette Electronics; Medical electronics equipment industry--Wisconsin--Milwaukee; Milwaukee (Wis.)--Biography. 

(Mayo Clinic), Leonard L. Berry, Kent D Seltman (2008). Management Lessons from Mayo Clinic: Inside One of the World's Most Admired Service Organizations. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 276 p.). Service Business Authority; Mayo Clinic Marketing Administrator. Mayo Clinic -- History; Hospitals -- United States -- Administration; Management; Success in business; Hospitals, General -- history -- Minnesota; History, 20th Century -- Minnesota; History, 21st Century -- Minnesota; Hospital Administration -- history -- Minnesota; Leadership -- Minnesota. Sustainable service excellence - how Clinic's business concept produces stellar clinical results, organizational efficiency, interpersonal service.

(McKesson), The Company (1958). The Road to Market: 125 Years of Distribution Service. (New York, NY: The Company, 62 p.). McKesson and Robbins, Inc.; Pharmaceutical industry -- United States. "Published to commemorate the one hundred twenty-fifth anniversary of McKesson & Robbins, incorporated, 1958."

(McLean Hospital), S. B. Sutton (1986). Crossroads in Psychiatry: A History of the McLean Hospital. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 372 p.). McLean Hospital--History; McLean Hospital; Psychiatric hospital care--Massachusetts--History; Psychiatry--History; Hospitals, Psychiatric--history--Massachusetts.

(McLean Hospital), Alex Beam (2001). Gracefully Insane: The Rise and Fall of America's Premier Mental Hospital. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 273 p.). McLean Hospital--History. Belmont, MA hospital was shelter for well-born.

(M. D. Anderson), James Stuart Olson (2009). Making Cancer History: Disease and Discovery at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 392 p.). Texas State University System Regents Professor of History (Sam Houston State University). University of Texas. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center --History; University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; Oncology --Texas --Houston --History; Academic medical centers --Texas --Houston --History; Cancer Care Facilities --history; Medical Oncology --history; Neoplasms --history; Neoplasms --therapy. History of M. D. Anderson Cancer Center - founding, surgeons, radiologists, radiotherapists, nurses, medical oncologists, scientists, administrators, patients who built M. D. Anderson into world-class institution;; how cancer treatment in America, attitudes toward disease, have changed since middle of 20th century; struggle to understand, treat cancer.

Monroe Dunaway Anderson - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (

(MDS ordion), Paul Litt (2000). Isotopes and Innovation: M D S Nordion's First Fifty Years, 1946-1996. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University Press, 249 p.). MDS Nordion; radioisotopes; radioisotope technology.

(Mentholatum Company), Alex Taylor (2006). Amazing Mentholatum: And the Commerce of Curing the Common Cold, 1889-1955. (La Canada, CA: Angeles Crest, 242 p.). Great-Grandson of the Founder of Mentholatum Company (A.A. Hyde). Hyde, Albert Alexander; Mentholatum Company; cold--treatments. First half century of Mentholatum Company;  development of patent medicine, pharmaceutical industry from quackery of early years to post-WWII scientific era. 

(Methodist Hospital), Bill Beck (1992). A Tradition of Caring: Methodist Hospital. (Minneapolis, MN: Methodist Hospital, 342 p.). Corporate historian. Methodist Hospital -- history; Hospitals -- Minneapolis -- history. 1892 - founded as Asbury Hospital; February 16, 1959 - first baby born, first patients admitted to new Methodist Hospital (initial capacity was 246 beds and 60 bassinets).

(Metroplex Health System), Patricia K. Benoit (2003). Trusting in Miracles: Metroplex Health System’s 25 Years of Healing. (Killeen, TX: Metroplex Health System, 100 p.). Metroplex Health System (Killeen, Tex.); Seventh-Day Adventist Hospital Association; Seventh-Day Adventist health facilities--Texas--Killeen; Public hospitals--Texas--Killeen.

(Miami Valley Hospital), Mark Bernstein (1990). Miami Valley Hospital: A Centennial History (Dayton, OH: Miami Valley Hospital Society, 203 p.). Miami Valley Hospital--History.

(Michael Reese Hospital), ed. Sarah Gordon (1981). All Our Lives: A Centennial History of Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, 1881-1981. (Chicago, IL: The Hospital and Medical Center, 210 p.). Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center--History; History of medicine, 19th century--United States; History of medicine, 20th century--United States; Hospitals, General--History--United States; Hospitals--History--United States.

(Mississippi Baptist Medical Center), Carroll Brinson (1991). A Tradition of Caring: Mississippi Baptist Medical Center's First Eighty Years. (Jackson, MI: Oakdale Press, 240 p.). Mississippi Baptist Medical Center--History.

(Mountainside Hospital), Robert D.B. Carlisle (1991). Heritage of Caring: A Centennial History of the Mountainside Hospital (Glen Ridge/Montclair, N.J.: The Hospital, 102 p.). Mountainside Hospital (Montclair, N.J.)--History; Hospitals--New Jersey--Montclair--History.

(Mt. Sinai), Joseph Hirsh and Beka Doherty (1952). The First Hundred Years of the Mount Sinai Hospital of New York, 1852-1952. (New York, NY: Random House, 364 p.). Mount Sinai Hospital (New York, N.Y.)--History.

(National Medical Care), Tim McFeeley (2001). The Price of Access: The Story of Life and Death and Money and the First National Health Care Program and the Three Doctors Who Changed Medicine in America Forever. (Nashua, NH: MDL Press, 401 p.). Corporate Counsel (National Medical Care). Hampers, Constantine L.; Schupak, Eugene; Hager, Edward B.; National Medical Care (Firm); United States. Medicare Bureau. End-Stage Renal Disease Program; Hemodialysis facilities--United States.

(Nebraska Methodist Hospital), Hollis J. Limprecht (1991). A Century of Medical Miracles: Nebraska Methodist Hospital, 1891-1991. ([Omaha, NE: H.J. Limprecht, 456 p.). Nebraska Methodist Hospital--History.

(Ochsner Medical), John Wilds (1985). Ochsner's: An Informal History of the South's Largest Private Medical Center. (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 256 p.). Ochsner Medical Institutions--History; Medical centers--Louisiana--New Orleans--History.

(Oxford Instruments), Audrey Wood (2001). Magnetic Venture: The Story of Oxford Instruments. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 387 p.). Scientific apparatus and instruments industry--Great Britain--History; Medical instruments and apparatus industry--Great Britain--History; Nuclear magnetic resonance--Industrial applications--History.

(Pennsylvania Hospital), Thomas G. Morton, assisted by Frank Woodbury (1973). The History of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 1751-1895. (New York, Arno Press: New York, Arno Press, 575 p. [orig. pub. 1895)). Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.).

(Pennsylvania Hospital), Kristen A. Graham (2008). A History of Pennsylvania Hospital. (Charleston, SC: History Press, 128 p.). Staff Reporter at the Philadelphia Inquirer. Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.) --History; Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.); State hospitals --Pennsylvania --History; Hospitals, State --history --Philadelphia; History, Modern 1601- --Philadelphia. Opened on eve of American Revolution as provincial charity for physically, mentally ill; became America's first voluntary hospital, home of first apothecary, medical library, surgical amphitheatre; evolved into world-renowned facility that treats over 225,000 patients a year.

(Perkin-Elmer), Thomas P. Fahy (1987). Richard Scott Perkin and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation. (United States: Perkin-Elmer Print Shop, 271 p.). Perkin, Richard Scott, 1906-1969; Elmer, Charles Wesley, 1872-1954; Perkin-Elmer Corporation--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Optical industry--United States--History.

(Physio-Control Corporation), Harriet and Terry King (1980). The Team 1955-1980. (Redmond, WA: Physio-control Corporation, 103 p.). Physio-control Corporation.

(Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company), Sarah Stage (1979). Female Complaints: Lydia Pinkham and the Business of Women's Medicine. (New York, NY: Norton, 304 p.). Pinkham, Lydia Estes, 1819-1883; Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company--History; Gynecology--United States--History--19th century; Advertising--Drugs--United States--History--19th century; Women--United States--Social conditions.

(Presbyterian Hospital), Mo Palmer and Bill Beck (2008). 1908-2008: The First 100 Years Presbyterian. (Virginia Beach, VA Donning Co., p.). Corporate historian. Presbyterian Hospital (Albuquerque, N.M.) --History; Southwestern Presbyterian Sanatorium; Presbyterian Hospital Center; Presbyterian Hospital (Albuquerque, N.M.); Hospitals --New Mexico --Albuquerque --History; Hospitals, Community --history --New Mexico; Community Health Services --history --New Mexico; History, 20th Century --New Mexico; History, 21st Century --New Mexico; Tuberculosis --history --New Mexico.

(Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital), Laurie Levin (2008). Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital: The First 50 Years: By the Community, for the Community. (Whittier, CA, The Hospital, 93 p.). Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital; Hospitals; Hospital care; Medical care --California --Whittier; Whittier, Calif.

(Presbyterian Medical Center), David John Seel (1999). For Whom No Labor of Love Is Ever Lost: The History of Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju, Korea, 1898-1998. (Franklin, TN, Providence House Publishers, 210 p.). Presbyterian Medical Center (ChoĆnju-si, Korea) --History.

(Reading Hospital), The Hospital (1942). History of the Reading Hospital 1867-1942. (Reading, PA: Reading Hospital, 287 p). Reading Hospital; Reading, PA -- history; Healthcare - Pennsylvania.

(Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus), Thomas Faltin (2002). Homoopathie in der Klinik: Die Geschichte der Homoopathie am Stuttgarter Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus von 1940 bis 1973. (Stuttgart. Germany: Karl F. Haug, 453 p.). Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus (Stuttgart, Germany) --History --20th century; Homeopathy --Hospitals and dispensaries --Germany --Stuttgart --History --20th century; Specialty hospitals --Germany --Stuttgart --History --20th century.

(Rochester General Hospital), Virginia Jeffrey Smith (1947). A Century of Service: Rochester General Hospital, 1847-1947. Chapters on the Medical Staff by Charles R. Witherspoon [and others]. (Rochester, NY: The Hospital, 227 p.). Rochester General Hospital; Rochester (N.Y.)--Hospitals.

(Rochester General Hospital), Teresa K. Lehr & Philip G. Maples (1997). To Serve the Community: A Celebration of Rochester General Hospital, 1847-1997. (Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co., 207 p.). Rochester General Hospital (Rochester N. Y.)--History; Hospitals--New York (State)--Rochester--History.

(Royal Berkshire Hospital), Margaret Railton, Marshall Barr (1989). The Royal Berkshire Hospital 1839-1989. (Reading, UK: Royal Berkshire Hospital, 355 p.). Royal Berkshire Hospital. -- History; Hospitals -- England -- Reading -- History.

(Rush-Presbyterian), Jim Bowman (1987). Good Medicine: The First 150 Years of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 214 p.). Medical Care, Hospitals, Rush-Presbyterian.

(Sacred Heart Hospital), Robert F. Karolevitz (1997). A Commitment to Care: The First 100 Years of Sacred Heart Hospital, 1897-1997. (Mission Hill, SD: Dakota Homestead Publishers, 128 p.). Sacred Heart Hospital (Yankton, S.D.)--History; Catholic hospitals--South Dakota--Yankton--History; Hospitals--South Dakota--Yankton--History.

(Salem Hospital), John McMillan (1996). A Century of Service, 1896-1996. (Salem, OR: Salem Hospital, 124 p.). Salem Hospital (Salem, Or.)--History; Hospitals--Oregon--Salem--History.

(Scott and White Memorial Hospital), Patricia K. Benoit (1992). For the Good of Humanity: A Century of Surgery at Scott & White, 1892-1992. (Temple, TX: Scott & White Memorial Hospital, 107 p.). Scott and White Clinic (Temple, Tex.)--History; Santa Fe Memorial Hospital--History; Scott & White Santa Fe Center--History; Surgery--Texas--Temple--History.

(Smith & Nephew), James Foreman-Peck (1995). Smith & Nephew in the Health Care Industry. (Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar, 269 p.). Smith & Nephew Medical; Pharmacy--Great Britain--History; Pharmacy--history--Great Britain.

(Staten Island University Hospital), Kathryn Levy Feldman (2005). Staten Island University Hospital: A History of Service. (Phoenix, AZ: Heritage Publishers,    p.). Staten Island University Hospital; Hospital care--Economic aspects--United States.

(Sunrider International), Robert A. Henrie (1999). Journey to the Sun: The Journey of Tei Fu Chen: The Legacy of Sunrider International. (Salt Lake City, UT: R. A. Henrie, 319 p.). Chen, Tei Fu; Sunrider International--History; Herb industry--United States--History; Dermatologic agents industry--United States--History; Weight loss preparations industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Taiwanese Americans--Biography.

(Texas Medical Center), Frederick C. Elliott; edited, with an introduction by William Henry Kellar; foreword by Richard E. Wainerdi (2004). The Birth of the Texas Medical Center: A Personal Account. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 264 p.). One of the Nine Signers of the original charter establishing the Texas Medical Center in 1945, Executive Director from 1952-63. Elliott, Frederick C.; Texas Medical Center--History; Medical centers--Texas--Houston--History; Health facilities--Texas--Houston--History. Eyewitness account of founding of Texas Medical Center; political struggles of finding funding and property for building of the center , conflicts regarding innovative treatments, procedures for inter-institutional cooperation.

(Traverse City State Hospital), Chris Miller (2005). Traverse City State Hospital. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Traverse City State Hospital (Mich.)--History; Northern Michigan Asylum at Traverse City--History; Traverse City (Mich.)--History. Served  mental health needs of large part of Michigan for 104 years until closure in 1989; housed population as large as 3,000.

(Vermont State Hospital), Marsha R. Kincheloe and Herbert G. Hunt, Jr. (1989). Empty Beds: A History of Vermont State Hospital. (Barre, VT: M. Kincheloe, 245 p.). Vermont State Hospital; State hospitals--Vermont--History; Hospitals, State--history--Vermont.

(Wellesley Hospital), Eds. edited by David Goyette, Dennis William Magill, and Jeff Denis (2006). Survival Strategies: The Life, Death and Renaissance of a Canadian Teaching Hospital. (Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 501 p.). Wellesley Hospital--History; Wellesley Central Hospital--History; Teaching hospitals--Ontario--Toronto--History.

(Wesley Medical Research Institutes), Craig Miner (2000). Studying to Care: A History of Wesley Medical Research Institutes, 1949-1999. (Wichita, KS: Wesley Medical Research Institutes, 116 p.). Wesley Medical Research Institutes (Wichita, Kan.)--History.

(Wyoming Medical Center), Rebecca A. Hunt (2011). Wyoming Medical Center: A Centennial History. (Virginia Beach, VA Donning Co. Publishers, 144 p.). Wyoming Medical Center --History; Wyoming Medical Center --History --Pictorial works; Hospitals --Wyoming --Casper --History; Hospital care --Wyoming --Casper --History; Medical personnel --Wyoming --Casper --History; Casper (Wyo.) --History; Casper (Wyo.) --Social conditions.

(Yale-New Haven Hospital), Wendy Murphy (2001). A Leader of Substance: Yale-New Haven Hospital at 175 Years. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 144 p.). Yale-New Haven Hospital--History; Hospitals--Connecticut--New Haven--History.

(Yoga), Robert Love (2010). The Great Oom: The Improbable Birth of Yoga in America. (New York, NY: Viking, 416 p.). Former Managing Editor of Rolling Stone, Former Executive Editor of Best Life. Yoga; United States --Religion. American obsession, from moonlit Tantric rituals in San Francisco to arrival in New York - Wall Streeters, Gilded Age heiresses adopted teachings of Pierre Bernard, trained with Indian master and instructed wealthy followers in  asanas, modern yogic lifestyle; bankrolled luxurious ashram on Hudson River-first in nation; his salesman's persistence sustained interest in yoga despite generations of naysayers; forgotten life, times of colorful, enigmatic character who brought hatha yoga; murky intersection of mysticism, money, celebrity gave rise to creation of one of America's most popular practices, $5 billion-dollar industry. Pierre Bernard - Yoga ( 

(Yoga), Stefanie Syman (2010). The Subtle Body: The Story of Yoga in America. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 400 p.). Yoga; Leisure --Economic aspects --United States; Big business --United States; United States --Religion. How succession of charismatic yoga teachers,  practitioners transformed yoga from centuries-old spiritual discipline to multibillion-dollar American industry; how seemingly arcane, foreign practice is as deeply rooted in American society as baseball or ballet.

George Anders (1996). Health against Wealth: HMOs and the Breakdown of Medical Trust. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 299 p.). Health maintenance organizations--United States; Health Maintenance Organizations--United States; Insurance, Health--trends--United States. 

Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele (2004). Critical Condition: How Health Care in America Became Big Business-- and Bad Medicine. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 304 p.). Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative team, Editors at Large (Time Magazine). Medical care, Cost of--United States; Insurance, Health--United States; Medical policy--United States; Medical economics--United States; Medical care--United States.

Daniel Benamouzig (2005). La Sante au Miroir de l’Economie: Une Histoire de l’Economie de la Sante en France. (Paris, FR: Presses Universitaires de France, 479 p.). Medical economics--France--History.

E. Richard Brown(1979). Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 283 p.). Rockefeller Foundation--History; Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching--History; Medicine--United States--History--20th century; Medical policy--Business community participation--United States--History--20th century; Charities, Medical--United States--History--20th century; Medical economics--United States--History--20th century; Medical education--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918.

Shannon Brownlee (2007). Overtreated: Why Too Much Medicine Is Making Us Sicker and Poorer. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 352 p.). Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation. Medical care--United States; Medical care--Utilization--United States. Health care system delivers huge amounts of unnecessary care,   wasteful, can imperil health of patients; specialists rewarded more for some procedures than for appropriate ones; Veterans Health Administration outperforms rest of American health care system on multiple measures of quality; patients in hospitals that spent most were 2%-6% more likely to die than patients in hospitals that spent least.

Richard Carter (1958). The Doctor Business. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 283 p.). Medical economics--United States. Critical view of American Medical Association.

Mary G. Clark (2001). One in a Million: A Memoir. (Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 259 p.). Medical Pioneer. Clark, Mary G., 1932- ; Businesswomen -- Pennsylvania -- Biography; Alternative medicine -- Pennsylvania -- Biography; Christian biography.

David Dranove (2000). The Economic Evolution of American Health Care: From Marcus Welby to Managed Care. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 211 p.). Managed care plans (Medical care)--Economic aspects--United States; Medical care--Economic aspects--United States; Public health--Economic aspects--United States.

Julie M. Fenster (2005). Mavericks, Miracles, and Medicine: The Pioneers Who Risked Their Lives To Bring Medicine into the Modern Age. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 304 p.). Medicine--History; Medical innovations; Medicine--Biography; History of Medicine, Modern--Biography.

Eric A. Finkelstein, Laurie Zuckerman (2008). The Fattening of America: How the Economy Makes Us Fat, If It Matters, and What To Do About It. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 274 p.). Health Economist (RTI International); Journalist. Obesity--Economic aspects--United States. Economic drivers behind obesity epidemic, financial impact of obesity on society; companies that encourage obesity, companies that provide weight loss products profit handsomely from obesity; employers, government, taxpayers, military lose; need to revise farm subsidies, create incentives for healthy behaviors, discourage production of high-caloric foods.

Laura Fraser (1997). Losing It: America's Obsession with Weight and the Industry That Feeds On It. (New York, NY: Dutton, 328 p.). Weight loss--Social aspects--United States; Weight loss preparations industry--United States.

Eds. Martin Gorsky and Sally Sheard (2006). Financing Medicine: The British Experience Since 1750. (New York, NY: Routledge, 258 p.). Medical care, Cost of--Great Britain--History; Delivery of Health Care--economics--Great Britain; Delivery of Health Care--history--Great Britain; Financing, Organized--history--Great Britain; Health Care Sector--history--Great Britain; History, 18th Century--Great Britain; History, 19th Century--Great Britain; History, 20th Century--Great Britain. 

Bradford H. Gray (1991). The Profit Motive and Patient Care: The Changing Accountability of Doctors and Hospitals. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 440 p.). Medical economics--United States; Hospitals--United States--Business management; Medical care--United States; Delivery of Health Care--trends--United States; Economics, Hospital--trends--United States; Economics, Medical--trends--United States; Financial Management--trends--United States; Hospitals--trends--United States.

Deborah Haas-Wilson (2003). Managed Care and Monopoly Power: The Antitrust Challenge. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 238 p.). Professor of Economics (Smith College). Medical care--United States; Medical economics--United States; Managed care plans (Medical care)--United States; Monopolies. Economic concepts necessary to enforcement of antitrust laws in health care markets; argument for principled, economics-based health care antitrust policy.

Regina E. Herzlinger (1997). Market-Driven Health Care: Who Wins, Who Loses in the Transformation of America's Largest Service Industry. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub., 379 p.). Nancy R. McPherson Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. Medical care--United States--Cost control; Patient satisfaction--United States; Health services accessibility--United States; Medical economics--United States; Medical care--United States.

--- (2007). Who Killed Health Care?: America’s $2 Trillion Medical Problem -- and the Consumer-Driven Cure. (New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill, 304 p.). Nancy R. McPherson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Medical care--United States--Cost control; Patient satisfaction--United States; Health services accessibility--United States; Medical economics--United States; Medical care--United States. Current system organized around payers, providers not needs of users; consumer-driven system:1) insurance money in hands of patients, 2) remove middleman, 3) give employers cost relief, 4) smaller, disease-focused medical facilities, 5) national system of medical records, 6) mandatory performance evaluations, 7) mandatory health insurance with subsidies for those who cannot afford it.

Eds. Marl S. R. Jenner and Patrick Wallis (2007). Medicine and the Market in England and Its Colonies, c.1450-c.1850. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Senior Lecturer in History (University of York); Lecturer in Economic History (London School of Economics and Political Science). Medical economics--Great Britain--History; Medical care--Great Britain--History; Medicine--Great Britain--History; Medical economics--Great Britain--Colonies--History; Medical care--Great Britain--Colonies--History; Medicine--Great Britain--Colonies--History; Economics, Medical--history--England; Economics, Medical--history--India; Economics, Medical--history--New England; Delivery of Health Care--history--England; Delivery of Health Care--history--India; Delivery of Health Care--history--New England; History, Early Modern 1451-1600--England; History, Early Modern 1451-1600--India; History, Early Modern 1451-1600--New England; History, Modern 1601---England; History, Modern 1601---India; History, Modern 1601---New England. Pre-modern 'medical marketplace'; medicine and market in England, North America, India between 15th and 19th centuries: magic, midwifery, professionalization;  how healthcare operated, changed over this period.

Jerome P. Kassirer (2005). On the Take: How America's Complicity with Big Business Can Endanger Your Health. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 251 p.). Former Editor-in-Chief (The New England Journal of Medicine). Physicians--Professional ethics--United States; Pharmaceutical industry--Corrupt practices--United States; Medical ethics--United States; Conflict of interests; Gifts; Practice Management, Medical--ethics; Conflict of Interest; Physician Incentive Plans--ethics; Physician's Practice Patterns--ethics; Physician's Role; Physician-Patient Relations--ethics. Billion-dollar onslaught of industry money has deflected many physicians' moral compasses, directly impacted the everyday care we receive from doctors and institutions we trust most.

John A. Kastor (2001). Mergers of Teaching Hospitals: in Boston, New York, and Northern California. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 487 p.). Teaching hospitals--Administration--Case studies; Hospital mergers--Case studies; Multihospital systems--Case studies; Hospitals--Shared services--Case studies. Mergers of hospitals can be risky.

Bettyann Holtzmann Kevles (1997). Naked to the Bone: Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 378 p.). Science Writer. Diagnostic imaging--History; Radiography, Medical--History. 

Betty Leyerle (1984). Moving and Shaking American Medicine: The Structure of a Socioeconomic Transformation (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 218 p.). Medical economics -- United States; Social medicine -- United States. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

--- (1994). The Private Regulation of American Health Care (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 229 p.). Medical care -- United States -- History; Medical economics -- United States; Medical care -- Law and legislation -- United States.

Arthur J. Linenthal (1990). First a Dream: The History of Boston’s Jewish Hospitals, 1896 to 1928. (Boston, MA: Beth Israel Hospital in association with The Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 737 p.). Mount Sinai Hospital (Boston, Mass.); Beth Israel Hospital (Boston, Mass.); Jewish hospitals--Massachusetts--Boston--History; Hospitals, Private--history--Boston.

Barbara Bridgman Perkins (2004). The Medical Delivery Business: Health Reform, Childbirth, and the Economic Order. (Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 252 p.). Health services administration--Economic aspects--United States; Health planning--Economic aspects--United States; Medical economics--United States; Medical policy--United States--History; Health care reform--United States--History; Maternal health services--Economic aspects--United States. 

Elizabeth Pisani (2008). The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels, and the Business of AIDS. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Epidemiologist Researching AIDS. AIDS (Disease)--Prevention; Epidemiologists Biography; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome--prevention & control; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome--economics; HIV Infections; Health Policy; Sexual Behavior. How profession works - waste, fraud, arrogance of Aids industry; how easy to draw wrong conclusions from "objective" data; how much money spent very badly.

Allyson M. Pollock, with Colin Leys ... [et al (2004). NHS Plc: The Privatisation of Our Health Care. (New York, NY: Verso, 256 p.). Professor of Health Policy and Chair of the Health Policy and Health Services Research Unit (University College, London). Great Britain. National Health Service; Great Britain. National Health Service; National health services--Economic aspects--Great Britain; Health services administration--Great Britain; Medical care--Great Britain--Finance; Medical policy--Great Britain; Privatization--Great Britain; State Medicine--economics--Great Britain; Health Care Sector--trends--Great Britain; Marketing of Health Services--economics--Great Britain; Privatization--economics--Great Britain. 

Michael E. Porter, Elizabeth Olmstead Teisberg (2005). Redefining Health Care: Creating Positive-Sum Competition To Deliver Value. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 432 p.). Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at Harvard Business School; Associate Professor at the Darden Graduate School of Business (University of Virginia). Medical care--Quality control; Medical care--Cost control; Medical care--Cost effectiveness; Value analysis (Cost control); Competition; Delivery of Health Care--economics--United States; Economic Competition--United States; Quality of Health Care--economics--United States; Health Care Costs--United States. Positive-sum competition in health care to improve quality and efficiency.

Darryl J. Roberts (1997). Profits of Death: An Insider Exposes the Death Care Industries. (Chandler, AZ: Five Star Publications, 238 p.). Undertakers and undertaking--United States; Undertakers and undertaking--Social aspects--United States; Funeral rites and ceremonies--United States; Consumer education--United States.

Debora L. Spar (2005). The Baby Business: Elite Eggs, Designer Genes, and the Thriving Commerce of Conception. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 302 p.). Spangler Family Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School. Human reproductive technology--Economic aspects; Infertility--Treatment--Economic aspects; Surrogate motherhood--Economic aspects; Adoption--Economic aspects; Infertility--therapy; Adoption; Commerce; Genetic Services--economics; Reproductive Medicine--economics; Reproductive Techniques--economics; Socioeconomic Factors; Surrogate Mothers. Commercial truth about reproduction - a $3 billion unregulated industry.

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Douglas Starr (1998). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. (New York, NY: Knopf, 441 p.). Co-Director, Graduate Program in Science Journalism (Boston University). Blood banks--History. 

Rosemary Stevens (1989). In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 432 p.). Hospitals--United States--History--20th century; Hospitals--history--United States.

Andrea Tone (2001). Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. (New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 366 p.). Birth control--United States--History; Contraceptives--United States--History. 

Barbra Mann Wall (2005). Unlikely Entrepreneurs: Catholic Sisters and the Hospital Marketplace, 1865-1925. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 344 p.). Assistant Professor of Nursing (Purdue University). Catholic hospitals--United States--Administration--History--19th century; Catholic hospitals--United States--Administration--History--20th century; Monasticism and religious orders for women--United States--History--19th century; Monasticism and religious orders for women--United States--History--20th century; Pastoral medicine--Catholic Church--History--19th century; Pastoral medicine--Catholic Church--History--20th century; Hospitals, Religious--history--United States; Catholicism--United States; History, 19th Century--United States; History, 20th Century--United States; Hospitals, Religious--economics--United States. 

James Wynbrandt (1998). The Excruciating History of Dentistry / Toothsome Tales & Oral Oddities from Babylon to Braces. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 248 p.). Comedy Writer. Dentistry--History.


Business History Links

American College of Healthcare Executives                                                                          

International professional society of nearly 30,000 healthcare executives.

American Hospital Association                                                                                                

Founded in 1898, the American Hospital Association (AHA) is the national umbrella organization that represents a wide range of hospitals and health care networks. While some of the site's contents are designed for health care professionals and executives, the general public and some scholars will find some of the features, such as their quarterly reports on the latest in hospital trends, quite valuable. A good place to start is the Resource Center section of the site, which contains helpful guides to locating the information on the site itself. There are a number of free resources available here, such as a fact sheet about America's hospitals and studies, including "The State of America's Hospitals: Taking the Pulse" and "Costs of Caring: Sources of Growth in Spending for Hospital Care".

American Institute of the History of Pharmacy                                                                                  

Non-profit national organization devoted to advancing knowledge and understanding of the place of pharmacy in history. The mission is to contribute to the understanding of the development of civilization by fostering the creation, preservation, and dissemination of knowledge concerning the history and related humanistic aspects of the pharmaceutical field.

Medicine and Madison Avenue                                                                                      

This website explores the complex relationships between modern medicine and modern advertising, or "Madison Avenue," as the latter is colloquially termed. The Medicine and Madison Avenue Project presents images and database information for approximately 600 health-related advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines. These ads illustrate the variety and evolution of marketing images from the 1910s through the 1950s. The collection represents a wide range of products such as cough and cold remedies, laxatives and indigestion aids, and vitamins and tonics, among others. In addition to the advertisements themselves, the MMA website includes historical material -- non-graphical text-only documents -- that put health-related advertising into a broader perspective.

History of Pepto-Bismol                                                                          

Introduced in 1901 by a doctor in New York state.

"We Have Conquered Pain": A Celebration of Ether 1846-1996        

This site celebrates the 150th anniversary of "one of the greatest moments in medicine ... [when] William T.G. Morton, a Boston dentist, demonstrated the use of ether during surgery" at Massachusetts General Hospital. Features brief background about "the controversy surrounding four men who each claim to be the first to discover the means to prevent pain during surgery." Also includes a discussion of surgery before anesthesia and the development of anesthesia. From Massachusetts General Hospital.

Sindecuse Museum of Dentistry (U of Michigan)                                                              

One of only a handful of museums throughout the world devoted to preserving the history of the dental profession; develops and preserves a historical museum collection containing over 12,000 objects focused on the history of dentistry with particular interest on dental practice and technology in the United States and Michigan dating from the 18th century to today.


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