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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Shipping
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1760 - Shipping customers met at Edward Lloyd's coffee House in London, UK, formed Registry Society, first ship classification society, to develop system for independent inspection (by retired sea captains) of hulls, equipment of ships seeking insurance coverage; 1764 - Edward Lloyd published first edition of Lloyd's  Register of Ships; 1834 - renamed Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping"; employed surveyors, established rules for ship construction, maintenance.

February 1, 1788 - State of Georgia issued a patent for a steamboat to Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet; only one ever to be issued by Georgia, first in U.S. for steamboat.

1805 - London docks opened.

February 11, 1809 - Robert Fulton, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Steam Boats"; defended patent against lawsuits of competitors for years.

December 13, 1816 - John Adamson of Boston, MA, received a patent for a "Floating Dry Dock"; dry docking and repair of canal boats.

October 23, 1819 - Chief Engineer of Rome made first trial trip, excursion through Erie canal, from Utica to Rome and return with Governor DeWitt Clinton, state officials, with ladies and gentlemen (about seventy persons on board); boat named for Benjamin Wright, then chief engineer of Erie canal.

1822 - Brodie McGhie Wilcox, London ship broker, Arthur Anderson, Shetland-born former Royal Navy clerk, formed partnership to operate  shipping line operating routes between England and Iberian Peninsula; 1835 - joined forces with Captain Richard Bourne, Dublin shipowner; started regular steamer service between London and Iberian Peninsula; used name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company; August 22, 1837 - Bourne signed first commercial contract for carrying mails by sea with Admiralty; December 31, 1840 - Royal charter incorporated Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company as limited liability company on condition that steam communication with India established within two years (one of few British commercial concerns not incorporated under Companies Acts; name included neither "PLC" nor "Limited"); September 26, 1842 - first steamer, "Hindostan," despatched to India via Cape of Good Hope; 1844 - contract signed to establish regular monthly steam communication between England and Ceylon, Madras and Calcutta, and from Ceylon, eastward to Singapore and Hong-Kong; January 1, 1845 - Indian portion of service opened; 1852 - first mail service to Australia; 1854 - took over East India Company's service to Bombay; 1869 - opening of Suez Canal led to serious crisis in company's affairs (would not allow company to use canal for conveyance of its mails); 1874 - new arrangement made by which mails carried through canal, subsidy granted to company reduced; March 2006 - acquired by Dubai Ports World for $6.8 billion.

Portrait of Brodie McGhie Willcox Brodie McGhie Wilcox - Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company  (

October 26, 1825 - Erie Canal opened (425 miles); connected Great Lakes with Atlantic Ocean via Hudson River; Governor DeWitt Clinton of New York, driving force behind project, led opening ceremonies, rode canal boat Seneca Chief from Buffalo to New York City (work had begun on "Clinton's Ditch" in August 1923); effect of canal was immediate: settlers poured into western New York, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin; goods were transported at one-tenth previous fee in less than half previous time; barge loads of farm produce, raw materials traveled east, manufactured goods and supplies flowed west; 1834 - tolls had paid back cost of construction.

September 26, 1839 - Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. incorporated by Royal Charter (subsidy of 240,000 pounds).

1840 - Britain had 24% of steam tonnage, 24% of world trade; 1850 - Britain had 39.5% of world merchant shipping tonnage.

1845 - John Pilkington, Henry Wilson founded White Star Line to focus on Australian gold mine trade; October 1867 - faced forced bankruptcy (liability of 527,000 pounds); acquired by Thomas Henry Ismay (30) for 1,000 pounds; formed Oceanic Steam Navigation Company (400,000 pounds capital); 1899 - Joseph Bruce Ismay (son, 38) took over; early 1900s - J. P. Morgan formed International Mercantile Marine (IMM) to end fierce rate war among shipping competitors, acquired all shipping rivals of White Star Line, placed into controlling trust, shipping rates fixed; 1902 - acquired White Star; 1912 - Titanic disaster, Ismay exonerated; 1913 - Ismay foced to retire as President of IMM, Chairman of White Star; 1925 - IMM sought to dispose of holdings; 1926 - Owen Crosby Phillips (Lord Kylsant), chairman of Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (RMSP) acquired White Star Line for less than $14 million; August 1928 - acquired Australian Commonwealth Line; controlled one-sixth of British Merchant fleet, about 2.6 million tons of shipping; 1930 - White Star Line reported first loss; 1931 - government investigated financial condition of RMSP; Phillips arrested for filing false financial reports to stockholders, government; sentenced to 1-year in jail; 1934 - British government offered 9.5 million pound loan if White Star and Cunard merged (Cunard held 62% of merged interest); White Star disappeared as stand-alone company; 1947 - Cunard acquired remaining White Star shares, liquidated most of its holdings, ships; May 1988 - Cunard acquired by Carnival Corporation and PLC; January 1, 2005 - Cunard Line Ltd. assets, liabilities transferred to Carnival plc; Cunard name disappeared as business entity.

April 12, 1848 - New York Legislature incorporated Pacific Mail Steamship Company to execute 10-year contract to carry mail from Isthmus of Panama to newly-annexed territory of California; designated Howland & Aspinwall (best bid on contract, New York merchant firm specialized in trade with Caribbean; closed in 1895) as its agent; William H. Aspinwall elected president; 1869 - ran 23 steamers; 1893 - acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad Company; 1912 - acquired by Grace Line; 1925 - acquired by Robert Dollar & Co.; 1938 - acquired by American President Lines; 1949 - closed.

William H. Aspinwall -  Pacific Mail Steamship Company  (

October 10, 1850 - The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal completed, opened for business along 184.5 mile length from Washington, DC to Cumberland, MD.

November 19, 1861 - Elizabeth Watts, a 224-ton brig captained by Charles Bryant, carried first oil export shipment from U.S. to Europe (Philadelphia, PA to London, England); January 9, 1862 - cargo of 1,329 barrels arrived at Victoria Docks, London.

November 17, 1869 - The Suez Canal opened in Egypt (101 miles across Isthmus of Suez); linked Mediterranean and Red seas, separated Sinai from rest of Egypt (25 feet deep, 72 feet wide at bottom, 200 to 300 feet wide at surface,  fewer than 500 ships navigated it in first full year of operation); 1854 - Ferdinand de Lesseps, former French consul to Cairo, secured  agreement with Ottoman governor of Egypt to build canal 100 miles across Isthmus of Suez; 1856 - Suez Canal Company formed, granted right to operate canal for 99 years after completion of work; April 1859 - construction began; today - average of 50 ships navigate canal daily, carry more than 300 million tons of goods/year. 

1870 - Britain possessed 43% of world's merchant steam tonnage; 1880 - Britain possessed half world's merchant steam tonnage.

1876 - Plimsoll Line established for loading of ships.

May 24, 1881 - James Wormley, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a ""Life-Saving Apparatus [for Ships]" (" float or number of floats attached to the free end of a rope, which at that end has one or more eyes and runs out as the ship moves through the water, in combination with a lock and cast-off mechanism").

1882 - Captain William Matson borrowed from California sugar magnate, Claus Spreckels, bought shares in three-masted schooner, named it Emma Claudine (Spreckels's sister); sailed it from San Francisco to Hilo, HI; carried 300 tons of food, plantation supplies, general merchandise; launched company primarily involved in carrying freight between the Pacific Coast and Hawaii; built near-monopoly as trade in Hawaiian sugar boomed; first Matson steamship, Enterprise, first offshore ship in Pacific to burn oil instead of coal; 1901 - Matson Navigation Company incorporated in Hawaii; 1908 -Alexander & Baldwin, Inc. invested $200,000, acquired minority interest in company; 1917 - fleet comprised 14 of largest, fastest, most modern ships in Pacific passenger-freight service; 1941 - passenger liners completed wartime total of 119 voyages, covered 1 1/2 million miles, carried total of 736,000 troops; 1959 -Waikiki hotels sold to Sheraton Corporation; April 1960 - first all-container carrier in Pacific service (capacity for 436 24-foot containers); 1969 - became wholly owned subsidiary of Alexander & Baldwin, Inc.



 William Matson - Matson Navigation Company ( images/capmats.gif)

April 16, 1904 - Peter Mærsk-Møller, Arnold Peter Møller (28, son) founded A/S  Dampskibsselskabet Svendborg (The Steampship Company Svendborg) in Svendborg, Denmark; bought second-hand vessel; August 22, 1912 - established Dampskibsselskabet af 1912, Aktieselskab (the Steamship Company of 1912) Copenhagen (freight business with steamships); 1926 - A.P. Møller entered tanker business, ordered 5 motor tankers with 8,100 and 11,200 tdw; September 1939 - second largest shipping company in Denmark (46 ships); June 1945 - fleet reduced to seven ships; 1962 - Danish government granted license to search for oil in Danish part of North Sea, later founded Mærsk Olie og Gas A/S; 1964 - Dansk Supermarked A/S founded; 1973 - added first container ship to fleet; November 1999 - acquired Sea-Land Corporation (70 vessels, container terminals, liner service) from CSX Corporation; new shipping company named Mærsk Sealand; 2005 - Mærsk Olie og Gas AS acquired majority of Kerr-McGee’s UK oil, gas interests; August 11, 2005 - acquired Royal P&O Nedlloyd N.V. (162 container vessels with 460,203 TEU), merged with Mærsk-Sealand; February 2006 - company renamed Mærsk Line (container shipping division of A.P. Moller - Maersk Group); August 12, 2006 - broke world record for largest container ship (11,000 TEU); 2007 - employing about 110,000 people in around 130 countries

November 7, 1910 - Wright Brothers, department store owner Max Moorehouse shipped first freight by air from Dayton, OH, to Columbus, OH.

October 10, 1913 - The U.S.-built Panama Canal was completed with the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, concluding one of the largest construction projects in history.

August 15, 1914 - SS Ancon inaugurated Panama Canal on its first transit; January 7th, 1914 - Alexandre La Valley went through Pedro Miguel Locks - without ceremony (first transit of vessel through canal, as part of its routine job).

March 14, 1918 - First US concrete seagoing ship launched at Redwood City, California.

July 27, 1918 - Standard Oil Company of New York launched "Socony 200", first concrete barge, into Flushing Bay, NY; hull constructed of concrete with steel-reinforcement by Fougner Concrete Shipbuilding Company; designed to carry oil, 98 feet long, 31 feet wide and 9½ feet deep; increased structural weight as a disadvantage of concrete as a construction material offset by the saving in cost of construction.

April 24, 1928 - Henry Grove Dorsey, of Gloucester, MA, received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for Measuring Distance"; electro-mechanical sounding instrument that measured underwater depths by using series of electrical sounds signals and their echoes; a "fathometer"; assigned to Submarine Signal Corporation.

1934- Malcolm P. McLean, Clara McLean (sister), Jim McLean (brother) bought second-hand truck for $120, founded McLean Trucking Co. in Winston-Salem, NC; hauled empty tobacco barrels; grew into second-largest trucking company in US (1770 trucks, 32 terminals); 1955 - sold nation's third most profitable trucking company for $25 million, acquired Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company for $7 million; April 26, 1956 - sent freighter Ideal X from Berth 26 in Port Newark, NJ to Houston with 58 wheel-less trailer trucks (steel containers removed from running gear to be lifted onto empty truck beds at estimated cost of 15.8 cents a ton vs. $5.83 a ton old way) lashed to top deck;  beginning of container industry (vs. longshoremen), globalization of shipping; 1958 - name changed to  Sea-Land Services, Inc.; 1969 - acquired by R. J. Reynolds for $160 million; May 1986 - acquired by CSX; November 1999 - acquired by Mærsk Line (container shipping division of A.P. Moller - Maersk Group). International Maritime Hall of Fame named McLean as the ‘Man of the Century" for containerization. 1982 - Fortune magazine named him to its Hall of Fame, Forbes magazine called him, "one of the few men who changed the world."

May 1, 1946 - First radar on commercial ship operated by an American company began service with maiden voyage of S.S. African Star of American South African Line; Mariner equipment supplied by General Electric Co.

June 13, 1956 - After 72 years, Britain gave up Suez Canal to Egyptian control.

April 25, 1959 - Queen Elizabeth II and President Dwight Eisenhower officially opened St. Lawrence Seaway to shipping; linked Atlantic Ocean with ports on Great Lakes.

November 10, 1975 - SS Edmund Fitzgerald, captained by Ernest McSorley, carried 29 crew members and 26,116 tons of iron-ore pellets, sank 17 miles from entrance to Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior in storm with 60 mph winds, waves in excess of 15 feet; launched in 1958, 729-foot-long freighter was  largest, fastest ship on Great Lakes; broken in two under 530 feet of water.

(American Line), William Henry Flayhart III (2000). The American Line (1871-1902). (New York, NY: Norton, 404 p.). American Steamship Company--History; Steamboat lines--United States--History; Shipping--United States--History.

(American President Lines), John Niven (1987). The American President Lines and Its Forebears, 1848-1984: From Paddlewheelers to Containerships. (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 327 p.). American President Lines, Ltd. -- History.

(Anchor Shipping & Foundry Company), Allan A. Kirk (1967). Anchor Ships and Anchor Men; The History of the Anchor Shipping & Foundry Company Ltd. (Wellington, NZ: Reed, 186 p.). Anchor Shipping & Foundry Company.

(Atlantic Steam Navigation Company), Miles Cowsill (1990). 'By Road' - Across the Sea: The History of Atlantic Steam Navigation Company Ltd. (Kilgetty, UK: Ferry, 72 p.). Ferries -- Great Britain -- History; Shipping ; Great Britain.

(I. G. Baker and Company), Annalies Corbin; foreword by William E. Lass (006). The Life and Times of the Steamboat Red Cloud, or, How Merchants, Mounties, and the Missouri Transformed the West. (College Station TX: Texas A&M University Press, 145 p.). Assistant Professor (East Carolina University). Red Cloud (Steamboat)--History; I.G. Baker and Company--History; North West Mounted Police (Canada)--History--19th century; Inland water transportation--Missouri River--History--19th century; River steamers--Missouri River--History--19th century; Business enterprises--Montana--Fort Benton--History--19th century; Frontier and pioneer life--Missouri River Region; Prairie Provinces--History--19th century. Development of Canadian Rockies from maritime perspective, ties Missouri River's commercial development with opening of the Canadian West.

(C. T. Bowring & Company Ltd.), David Weir (1962). The Bowring Story. (London, UK: Bodley Head, 448 p.). Bowring family; Shipping -- Great Britain -- History.

(Boyd), Marion Diamond (1988). The Sea Horse and the Wanderer : Ben Boyd in Australia. (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 254 p.). Boyd, Benjamin, 1803?-1851; Pioneers--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; Businesspeople--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; New South Wales--Biography.

(Boyd), Tom Mead (1994). Empire of Straw: The Dynamic Rise & Disastrous Fall of Dashing Colonial Tycoon Benjamin Boyd. (Sydney, AU: Dolphin Books, 286 p.). Boyd, Benjamin, 1803?-1851; Capitalists and financiers--Australia--Biography; Australia--Economic conditions; Australia--History--1788-1900.

(Boyd), Marion Diamond (1995). Ben Boyd of Boydtown. (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 262 p.). Boyd, Benjamin, 1803?-1851; Pioneers--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; Businessmen--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Australia--New South Wales--Biography; New South Wales--Biography.

(Brocklebank Line), Dave Hollett (1984). From Cumberland to Cape Horn: The Complete History of the Sailing Fleet of Thomas & John Brocklebank of Whitehaven and Liverpool: "The World's Oldest Shipping Company" and the Early History of Their Associated Company Robert & Henry Jeffersons of Whitehaven, Plantation Owners, Merchants, and Shipowners: Established 1734. (London, UK: Fairplay Publications, 204 p.). Brocklebank Line--History; Jefferson Line--History; Shipping--Great Britain--History.

(Broken Hill Proprietary), Denis M. Riley (1992). The Iron Ships: A Maritime History of BHP, 1885-1992. (Melbourne, AU: Australia : BHP Transport, 252 p.). Broken Hill Proprietary Company, ltd.--History; Shipping--Australia--History.

(Burrell & Son), R.A. Cage (1997). A Tramp Shipping Dynasty--Burrell & Son of Glasgow, 1850-1939: A History of Ownership, Finance, and Profit. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 213 p.). Burrell and Son--History; Tramp shipping--Scotland--Glasgow--History.

(Canadian Pacific Navigation), Norman R. Hacking and W. Kaye Lamb (1974). The Princess Story: A Century and a Half of West Coast Shipping. (Vancouver, BC: Mitchell Press, 360 p.). Canadian Pacific Navigation Company; Canadian Pacific Railway Company; Coastwise shipping -- Pacific Coast -- History; Steamboat lines -- Pacific Coast -- History.

(Canadian Pacific), George Musk (1981). Canadian Pacific: The Story of the Famous Shipping Line. (Toronto, ON: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 272 p.). Canadian Pacific Limited; Shipping -- Canada -- History.

(Canadian Pacific), Susan Goldenberg (1983). Canadian Pacific: A Portrait of Power. (New York, NY: Facts on File, 316 p.). Canadian Pacific Limited.

(Crowley Maritime Corp.), Jean Gilbertson (1992). Two Men at the Helm: The First 100 Years of Crowley Maritime Corporation, 1892-1992. (Oakland, CA: Crowley Maritime Corp., 154 p.). Crowley, Thomas; Crowley, Thomas Bannon; Crowley Maritime Corporation--History; Shipping--California--San Francisco--History; Shipping--Alaska--History.

(Cyprien Fabre et Compagnie), Michèle Darde (1992). Le Voyage de Mon Grand-Père. (La Chapelle Montligeon, FR: M. Darde, 200 p.). Faber family; Fabre, Paul, b. 1870 --Journeys--United States; Shipping--France--Marseille--History; Businesspeople--France--Marseille--Biography; United States--Description and travel; Marseille (France)--Genealogy.

(East Asiatic Company), Ole Lange (1986). Den Hvide Elefant: H.N. Andersens Eventyr og ØK 1852-1914. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal, 256 p.). Andersen, Hans Niels, 1852-1937; Østasiatisk kompagni--History; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History.

--- (1988). Jorden er Ikke Større--: H.N. Andersen, ØK og Storpolitikken 1914-37. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal, 296 p.). Andersen, Hans Niels, 1852-1937; Østasiatisk kompagni--History; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History; Denmark--Politics and government--1912-1947.

(East Asiatic Company), A. Eggers-Lura (1993). Etatsra°d H.N. Andersens Livserindringer. (Odense, Denmark: Odense universitetsforlag, 274 p.). Andersen, Hans Niels, 1852-1937; Østasiatisk kompagni--History; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History.

(East Asiatic Company), Flemming Højbo (1993). Det Sidste Kompagni: ØKs Storhed og Fald. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Schultz, 209 p.). Østasiatisk kompagni--History; Shipping--Denmark--History.

(Elder Dempster Lines Ltd.), P. N. Davies. With a foreword by Lord Cole (1973). The Trade Makers; Elder Dempster in West Africa, 1852-1972. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 526 p.). Elder Dempster Lines Ltd.

(Erie Canal), Gerard Koeppel (2009). Bond of Union: Building the Erie Canal and the American Empire. (New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 464 p.). Former Editor at CBS News. Erie Canal (N.Y.) --History. Manifest Destiny, beginning of America’s self-perception as empire destined to expand to Pacific; completed in 1825, boldest, biggest American engineering project of its century, with enduring political, social, economic effects; opened West to American enterprise; memorable characters turned visionary plan into successful venture.

(Fyffes Group), Peter N. Davies (1990). Fyffes and the Banana: Musa Sapientum: A Centenary History, 1888-1988. (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Athlone Press, 301 p.). Fyffes Group--History; Banana trade--Great Britain--History.

(George Hammond Plc), Nigel Watson (1993). Time and Tide Wait for No Man: George Hammond Plc 1767-1992. (Cambridge, UK: Granta, 155 p.). George Hammond Plc.; Shipping -- Great Britain -- History.

(Gellatly Hankey & Co.), George Blake (1962). Gellatly's 1862-1962; A Short History of the Firm. (London, UK: Blackie, 178 p.). Gellatly, Hankey & Sewell; Gellatly, Hankey & Co.

(German Shipowners’ Association), Dirk Max Johns (2007). 100 Jahre Verband Deutscher Reeder = 100 years German Shipowners’ Association. (Hamburg, Germany: Seehafen Verlag, 551 p.). Verband Deutscher Reeder --History; Shipping --Germany --History --20th century; Merchant marine --Germany --History --20th century.

(Harland and Wolf), John R. Hume and Michael Moss (1986). Shipbuilders to the World: 125 Years of Harland and Wolff, Belfast 1861-1986. (Wolfeboro, NH: Blackstaff Press, 601 p.). Harland and Wolff--History; Shipbuilding--Northern Ireland--Belfast--History; Belfast (Northern Ireland)--History, Naval.

(Thos. and Jas. Harrison Ltd.), Francis E. Hyde, with contributions from J. R. Harris and A. M. Bourn (1967). Shipping Enterprise and Management 1830-1939: Harrisons of Liverpool. (Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 208 p.). Harrison (Thos. and Jas.), Ltd.

(Michael Henley and Son), Simon P. Ville (1987). English Shipowning During the Industrial Revolution: Michael Henley and Son, London Shipowners, 1770-1830. (Wolfeboro, NH: Manchester University Press, 192 p.). Michael Henley and Son--History; Shipping--England--History.

(Holm Shipping Company), Allan A. Kirk (1975). Fair Winds and Rough Seas: The Story of the Holm Shipping Company. (Wellington, NZ: Reed, 260 p.). Holm Shipping Company; Steamboat lines--New Zealand--History.

(Alfred Holt and Company), Francis E. Hyde with the assistance of J. R. Harris (1956). Blue Funnel; A History of Alfred Holt and Company of Liverpool from 1865 to 1914. (Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press,, 201 p.). Holt (Alfred) and Company, Liverpool; Ocean Steam Ship Company, ltd., Liverpool.

(Inchcape Group), Stephanie Jones; foreword by Sir David Orr (1986). Two Centuries of Overseas Trading: The Origins and Growth of the Inchcape Group. (London, UK: Macmillan in association with Business History Unit, University of London, 328 p.). Inchcape PLC -- History; Great Britain -- Commerce -- History.

(Inchcape Group), Stephanie Jones (1989). Trade and Shipping: Lord Inchcape, 1852-1932. (New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 222 p.). Inchcape, Lord, 1852-1932; Merchant marine--Great Britain--Biography; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography; Shipping--Great Britain--History.

(Johnson Line Ab), Bengt Hähnel (1987). The Johnson Line and Shipping Conferences: A Concise History of a Steam Ship Company and Its Relations to International Shipping Cartels 1904-1940. (Stockholm, Sweden, 321 p.). Johnson Line AB -- 1904-1940; Shipping industry -- history -- Sweden; Liner shipping -- history -- Sweden.

(Johnson Line), Thorsten Rinman; translation by Rolf E. Gooderham (1990). The Johnson Line, 1890-1990. (Gothenburg, Sweden: Rinman & Linde´n for Johnson Line AB, 296 p.). Johnson Line--History; Steamboat lines--Sweden--History.

(Frederick Jones & Co.), P.M. Heaton (1983). The Abbey Line: History of a Cardiff Shipping Venture. (Pontypool, UK: P.M. Heaton, 151 p.). Frederick Jones & Co. -- History; Cardiff Shipping services Frederick Jones & Co. to 1982.

(Jones), A. H. Milne (1914). Sir Alfred Lewis Jones, K. C. M. G., A Story of Energy and Success. (Liverpool, UK: H. Young & Sons, Ltd., 113 p.). Jones, Alfred Lewis, Sir, 1845-1909.

(Jones), Peter N. Davies (1978). Sir Alfred Jones: Shipping Entrepreneur par Excellence. (London, UK: Europa Publications, 162 p.). Jones, Alfred Lewis, Sir, 1845-1909; Merchant marine--Great Britain--Biography.

(Keystone Shipping), George H. Kurz (1987). Through the Port of Philadelphia: Memoirs of Charles Kurz. (Bryn Mawr, PA: Dorrance, 168 p.). Kurz, Charles, 1888-1985; Merchant marine--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Shipping--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History.

(London and Overseas Freighters Limited), Stanley Sedgwick (1993). London & Overseas Freighters Limited, 1949-1977: A Short History. (Kendal, UK: World Ship Society, 120 p.). London and Overseas Freighters Limited -- History; London and Overseas Freighters Limited; Ship registers -- Great Britain; Great Britain Freight transport services Shipping services; London and Overseas Freighters Limited to 1977.

(Los Angeles), Bill Sharpsteen (2011). The Docks. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 328 p.). Los Angeles-based Photographer. Harbors --California --Los Angeles; Stevedores --California --Los Angeles. Port of Los Angeles - vulnerable microcosm of labor, environmental, security issues; people who have made port largest in country, one of nation's most vital economic enterprises; critical entryway for goods coming into country - 40% of all waterborne cargo, 70% of all Asian imports. 

(Lyle Shipping), John Orbell with Edwin Green and Michael Moss (1978). From Cape to Cape: The History of Lyle Shipping Company. (Edinburgh: P. Harris Pub., 239 p.). Lyle Shipping Company, Ltd., Glasgow.

(Wm. Mackinnon Co.), J. Forbes Munro (2003). Maritime Enterprise and Empire: Sir William Mackinnon and His Business Network, 1823-1893. (Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 525 p.). Mackinnon, William, 1823-1893; Wm. Mackinnon Co.--History--19th century; Steamboat lines--Scotland--History--19th century; Shipping--Scotland--History--19th century.

(Mærsk Line), Ove Hornby (1988). With Constant Care--: A.P. Møller: Shipowner 1876-1965. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Schultz, 325 p.). Møller, A. P. (Arnold Peter), 1876-1965; Mærsk Line (Firm)--History; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History.

Arnold Peter Møller -  A.P. Moller - Maersk Group  (

Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller - A.P. Moller - Maersk Group (

(Mærsk Line), Jan Cortzen (1993). Myten Møller: Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Han Gør Danmark Rigere. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Børsen Bøger, 338 p.). Møller, Mærsk Mc-Kinney; Mærsk Line (Firm)--History; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History.

(Mærsk Line), Peter Suppli Benson, Bjørn Lambek og Stig Ørskov (2005). Mærsk: Manden og Magten. (Denmark, København: Politiken Bøger, 510 p.). Møller, Mærsk Mc-Kinney; Maersk A/S; Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark--History.

(Mærsk Line), Henrik Tuchsen og Søren Funch (2006). Manden de Kaldte Særlig Egnet: Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møllers Udvalgte--Michael Pram Rasmussen. (Denmark, København: Jyllands-Postens forlag,, 269 p.). Rasmussen, Michael Pram; Mærsk Line (Firm); Merchant marine--Denmark--Biography; Shipping--Denmark.

(Maersk Line), Majbritt Greve, Michael Wendelboe Hansen, Henrik Schaumburg-Muller (2007). Container Shipping and Economic Development: A Case Study of A.P. Moller - Maersk in South East Asia. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press, 72 p.). A.P. Moller - Maersk; Container ships--History; Containerization--History.

(Matson Navigation Company), William L. Worden (1981). Cargoes: Matson's First Century in the Pacific. (Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii, 192 p.). Matson Navigation Company -- History; Shipping -- Hawaii -- History.

(Merchants and Miners), Edward A. Mueller; Edwin L. Dunbaugh, contributing editor (1999). Queen of Sea Routes: The Merchants and Miners Transportation Company. (Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press, 185 p.). Merchants and Miners Transportation Co.--History; Coastwise shipping--Atlantic Coast (U.S.)--History.

(Mersey Docks and Harbour Company), Anthony Lynch (1884). Weathering the Storm: The Mersey Docks Financial Crisis, 1970-74. (Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 144 p.). Mersey Docks and Harbour Company -- History; Harbors -- England -- Liverpool -- History; Liverpool (England) -- Economic conditions; Liverpool (England) -- History.

(Mitsubishi Zaibatsu), William D. Wray (1984). Mitsubishi and the N.Y.K., 1870-1914: Business Strategy in the Japanese Shipping Industry. (Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University (Harvard University Press), 672 p.). Nihon Y¯usen Kabushiki Kaisha--History; Mitsubishi Zaibatsu--History.

(Morel Limited), John Morel Gibbs (1982). Morels of Cardiff: The History of a Family Shipping Firm. (Cardiff, Wales: Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru, 183 p.).Morel Limited -- History; Cardiff Shipping services.

(New England Steamship Company), Edwin L. Dunbaugh (2005). The New England Steamship Company: Long Island Sound Night Boats in the Twentieth Century. (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 406 p.). Retired Professor of History (Hofstra University). New England Steamship Company--History; Steamboat lines--New England--History--20th century; Steamboat lines--New York (State)--History--20th century. First reliable, consistent form of transportation in the area for commuters, tourists, and business travelers (1000 passengers); essential to manufacturers in the industrial communities of central New England. 

(New Zealand Shipping Company Ltd.), Gordon Holman; with a foreword by Sir Denis Blundell (1973). In the Wake of Endeavour: The History of the New Zealand Shipping Company and Federal Steam Navigation Company. (London, UK: C. Knight, 241 p.). New Zealand Shipping Company Ltd.; Federal Steam Navigation Company.

(Norddeutscher Lloyd), Edwin Drechsel; foreword, Arnold Kludas (1994). Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen, 1857-1970: History, Fleet, Ship Mails. (Vancouver, BC: Cordillera Pub. Co., 2 vols.). Norddeutscher Lloyd--History; Merchant marine--Germany--History; Mail steamers--Germany--History.

(Northern Steam Ship Company), Cliff Furniss (1977). Servants of the North: Adventures on the Coastal Trade with the Northern Steam Ship Company. (Wellington, NZ: Reed, 201 p.). Northern Steam Ship Company--History; Coastwise shipping--New Zealand--History.

(Ocean Steam Ship Company), Malcolm Falkus (1990). The Blue Funnel Legend: A History of the Ocean Steam Ship Company, 1865-1973. (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 411 p.). Ocean Steam Ship Company; Goods Shipping Great Britain.

(Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah), Edward A. Mueller (2001). The Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah: Savannah Line. (Providence, RI: Steamship Historical Society of America, 237 p.). Florida's First Secretary of Transportation, Former Curator, President, and Executive Director of the Jacksonville Maritime Museum. Coastwise shipping--Southern States--History.

(Pacific Mail Steamship Company), John H. Kemble (1990). The Panama Route, 1848-1869. (Columbia, SC: Univ of South Carolina Press, 316 p. [orig. pub. 1943]). Pacific Mail Steamship Company; United States Mail Steamship Company; Voyages to the Pacific coast; Postal service -- United States.

(Pacific Mail Steamship Company), Robert J. Chandler, Stephen J. Potash; foreword by James P. Delgado (2007). Gold, Silk, Pioneers & Mail: The Story of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. (San Francisco, CA: Friends of the San Francisco Maritime Museum Library, 52 p.). Senior Research Historian at Wells Fargo Bank; Potash & Company. Pacific Mail Steamship Company --History; Steamboat lines --United States --History; Mail steamers --United States --History. Served San Francisco from 1848 through first quarter of 20th Century; transported miners to San Francisco for California Gold Rush (carried their gold dust back to New York); 1867 - inaugurated world's first regular trans-Pacific steamship service.

(P & O Company), George Fleming Kerr (1951). Business in Great Waters. The War History of the P. & O., 1939-1945. (London, UK: Faber & Faber, 196 p.). Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company; WW II.

(P & O Company), David Howarth and Stephen Howarth (1994). The Story of P & O: the Peninsular and Oriental steam Navigation Company. (London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 240 p.). ; Shipping History Great Britain.

(P & O Company), Carola Ingall (1997). The P&O Line and Princess Cruises: A Celebration in Pictures of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company. (Coltishall, UK: Ship Pictorial Publications, 172 p.). P & O Cruises (Firm) -- History -- Pictorial works; Cruise ships -- England -- History -- Pictorial works.

(P & O Company), Freda Harcourt (2006). Flagships of Imperialism: the P & O Company and the Politics of Empire from Its Origins to 1867. (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 245 p.). Retired Senior Lecturer in History (Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London);. P. & O. European Ferries. -- History; Ocean liners -- Great Britain -- History; Ferries -- Great Britain -- History; Ocean travel -- History -- 19th century; Ocean travel -- History -- 20th century; Imperialism -- History; (Great Britain -- Foreign relations. Context of nineteenth century imperial politics which so significantly shaped company’s development.

(Palgrave Murphy & Company), Cornelius F. Smith (2004). The Shipping Murphys: The Palgrave Murphy Shipping Line 1850-1926. (Blackrock, Co. Dublin, IR: Albany Press, 192 p.). Murphy, Michael, 1816-1894; Palgrave, Charles, 1813-1893; Palgrave Murphy & Company--History; Shipowners--Great Britain--Biography; Shipping--Great Britain--History--19th century.

(R. & W. Paul Ltd.), Roger Finch (1979). A Cross in the Topsail: An Account of the Shipping Interests of R. & W. Paul Ltd., Ipswich. (Ipswich, UK: Boydell Press, 122 p.). R. & W. Paul Ltd.--History; Coastwise navigation--Great Britain--History; Sailing barges--Great Britain--History.

(Pittsburgh Steamship), Al Miller (1999). Tin Stackers: The History of the Pittsburgh Steamship Company. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 349 p.). Pittsburgh Steamship Company--History; Steamboats--Great Lakes--History; Steamboat lines--Great Lakes--History; Shipping--Great Lakes--History; Steel industry and trade--Great Lakes--History.

(Port Line), H.C. Spong (2004). Port Line: Incorporating James P. Corry & Company, Thomas B. Royden & Company, Wm. Milburn & Company, G. D. Tyser & Company, the Commonwealth & Dominion Line Ltd. (Windsor, UK: The World Ship Society Ltd., 256 p.). Port Line (Firm) -- History; Merchant ships -- History -- 20th century.

(Port of Los Angeles), Ernest Marquez and Veronique de Turenne; foreword by Geraldine Knatz, Ph.D. (2008). Port of Los Angeles: An Illustrated History from 1850 to 1945. (Santa Monica, CA: Angel City Press, 250 p.). Santa Monica native; Los Angeles-based journalist; first female Executive Director of the Port of Los Angeles in 2006. Los Angeles--maritime--history; shipping--Los Angeles--history. Earliest years as maritime center; history of Port, development of Los Angeles, from pueblo to metropolis; established Los Angeles as major presence on international maritime scene; opened North America to Pacific Rim, brought world closer together.

(Railway Express Agency), Klink Garrett with Toby Smith (2003). Ten Turtles to Tucumcari: A Personal History of the Railway Express Agency. (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 172 p.). Railway Express Agency -- History; Express service -- United States -- History.

(Richardson and Company Ltd.), Sydney D. Waters (1959). Richardsons of Napier; A Century of Coastal Shipping, 1859-1959. (Napier, NZ: Richardson, 108 p.). Richardson and Company, ltd.

(Royal Mail), T. A. Bushell (1939). "Royal Mail"; A Centenary History of the Royal Mail Line, 1839-1939. (London, UK: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd., 252 p.). Royal Mail Steam Packet Company; Royal Mail Lines, ltd.; Ships.





Lord Kylsant - Royal Mail (

(Royal Mail), Edited by Collin Brooks (1980). The Royal Mail Case: Rex v. Lord Kylsant, and Another. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 276 p. [reprint of 1933 ed.]). Kyslant, Owen Cosby Philipps, Baron, 1863-1937.; Morland, Harold John; Royal Mail Steam Packet Company; Trials (Fraud)--England--London.

(Royal Mail), Edwin Green & Michael Moss (1982). A Business of National Importance:The Royal Mail Shipping Group, 1902-1937. (New York, NY: Methuen, 291 p.). Merchant marine--Great Britain--History; Shipping--Great Britain--History.

(Scales Corporation), Gaving McLean (2002). Rocking the Boat?: A History of Scales Corporation Limited. (Christchurch, NZ, Hazard Press, 324 p.). History Group of the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Scales Corporation; Geo. H. Scales Ltd.; Shipping companies (Marine transportation) --New Zealand --History; Business enterprises --New Zealand --History.

(Sea-Land Service Inc.), Brian J. Cudahy (2006). Box Boats: How Container Ships Changed the World. (New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 338 p.). Director of the Steamship Historical Association. Container ships--History; Containerization--History. Container-ship revolution—made it possible to ship more goods more cheaply than ever before.

Malcolm P. McLean  Malcolm P. McLean - founder Sea-Land  (

(Sea-Land Service, Inc.), Arthur Donovan, Joseph Bonney (2006). The Box That Changed the World: Fifty Years of Container Shipping - an Illustrated History. (East Windsor, NJ: Commonwealth Business Media Inc, 262 p.). Maritime Historian; Editor-in-Chief (Journal of Commerce). McLean, Malcolm Purcell, 1913-2001; Containerization--History. How one man's innovative idea launched an industry that transformed global economy.

(Sea-Land Service, Inc.), Marc Levinson (2006). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 392 p.). Former Finance and Economics Editor (Economist). McLean, Malcolm Purcell, 1913-2001; Containerization--History.   Malcolm McLean turned containerization into massive industry - slashed cost of transporting goods around world.

(Sitmar Line), Maurizio Eliseo (1998). The Sitmar Liners & the V Ships, 1928-1998: The History of the Shipping Companies Founded by Alexandre and Boris Vlasov and of Their Vessels. (London, UK: Carmania, 239 p.). Sitmar Cruises -- History; V.Ships -- History; Merchant ships -- History -- 20th century. Sitmar = Società Italiana Trasporti Marittimi.

(William Thomson and Company), George Blake (1956). The Ben Line; The History of Wm. Thomson & Co. of Leith and Edinburgh, and of the Ships Owned and Managed by Them, 1825-1955. (New York, NY: T. Nelson, 222 p.). Ben Line Steamers, ltd.; Thomson (William) and Company.

(Henry Tyrer & Company), Peter N. Davies (1979). Henry Tyrer: A Liverpool Shipping Agent and His Enterprise, 1879-1979. (London, UK: Croom Helm, 159 p.). Tyrer, Henry, 1858-1936; Henry Tyrer & Company--History; Ship brokers--Great Britain--Biography.

(Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company), Andrew Porter (1986). Victorian Shipping, Business, and Imperial Policy: Donald Currie, the Castle Line, and Southern Africa. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 332 p.). Currie, Donald, Sir, 1825-1909; Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company--History; Castle Line (Firm)--History; Merchant marine--Great Britain--History; Shipping--Great Britain--History.

(Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company), G.R. Berridge (1987). The Politics of the South Africa Run: European Shipping and Pretoria. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 254 p.). Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company--History; Merchant marine--South Africa--History; Merchant marine--Europe--History; Shipping conferences--History.

(Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company), Norman Hodson (1995). The Race to the Cape: A Story of the Union-Castle Line, 1857-1977. (Ringwood, Hampshire, UK: Navigator, 148 p.). Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company--History; Merchant marine--Great Britain--History; Shipping--Great Britain--History.

(Union Steamship Company of British Columbia), Gerald A. Rushton (1974). Whistle Up the Inlet: The Union Steamship Story. (Vancouver, BC: J. J. Douglas, 236 p.). Union Steamship Company of British Columbia--History; British Columbia--History.

(Union Steamship Company of British Columbia), Gerald A. Rushton (1981). Echoes of the Whistle: An Illustrated History of the Union Steamship Company. (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press,   p.). Union Steamship Company of British Columbia.

(Union Steamship Company of British Columbia), Arthur M. Twigg (1997). Union Steamships Remembered, 1920-1958. (Campbell River, BC, A.M. Twigg, 427 p.). Union Steamship Company of British Columbia --History; Union Steamship Company of British Columbia --Biography; Union Steamships Limited --History; Union Steamships Limited --Biography; Steamboats --British Columbia --History; Shipping --British Columbia --History.

(Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand), Sydney D. Waters (1952). Union Line; A Short History of the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand, Ltd., 1875-1951; The Story of a Shipping Company of World-Wide Scope That Was Founded and Is Managed in New Zealand. (Wellington, NZ, 148 p.). Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand, ltd.

(Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand), Gavin McLean (1990). The Southern Octopus: The Rise of a Shipping Empire. (Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Ship & Marine Society, 239 p.). Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand; Shipping--New Zealand--History.

(White Star Line), Wilton J. Oldham (1961). The Ismay Line; The White Star Line, and the Ismay Family Story. (Liverpool, UK: Journal of Commerce, 283 p.). Ismay, Thomas Henry, 1837-1899.; Ismay, Joseph Bruce, 1862-1937; Oceanic Steam Navigation Company; White Star Line.

Thomas Henry Ismay - acquired White Star Line  (

Joseph Bruce Ismay Joseph Bruce Ismay - Whit Star Line  (

(White Star Line), Paul Louden-Brown (1990). The White Star Line. (New York, NY: Hyperion, 152 p.). Harland and Wolff--History; Ismay, Thomas; Ismay Bruce; Titanic.

(White Star Line), Robin Gardiner (2001). The History of the White Star Line. (Hersham, UK: Ian Allan, 224 p.). White Star Line--History; Ocean liners--History.

(Wilh. Wilhelmsen), J. P. Syse and Astri Howells and a fleet list by Michael Crowdy (1978). Wilh. Wilhelmsen, 1861-1977: A Brief History. (Kendal, UK: World Ship Society, 144 p.). Wilh. Wilhelmsen (Firm).

(Wilh. Wilhelmsen), Dag Bakka (1995). Speed & Service: Wilhelmsens's First Century in Australia. (Sydney, AU: Maritime Heritage Press, 160 p.). Wilh. Wilhelmsen (Firm); Merchant ships--Australia.

(Wilson's Transit Line), Alexander C. Meakin (1988). Master of the Inland Seas: The Story of Captain Thomas Wilson and the Fleet That Bore His Name. (Vermillion, OH: Great Lakes Historical Society, 448 p.). Wilson, Thomas, 1839-1900; Wilson's Transit Line--History; Shipping--Great Lakes--History; Businesspeople--Great Lakes Region--Biography.

(World-Wide Shipping Group), Robin Hutcheon (1990). First Sea Lord: The Life and Work of Sir Y.K. Pao. (Hong Kong, China: Chinese University Press, 170 p.). Pao, Yü-kang, 1918- ; Merchant marine--Biography; Businesspeople--China--Biography.

Hugh Barty-King (1977). The Baltic Exchange: The History of a Unique Market. (London, UK: Hutchinson, 431 p.). Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange, ltd., London--History.

James P. Baughman (1972). The Mallorys of Mystic; Six Generations in American Maritime Enterprise. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 496 p.). Mallory family; Shipping--Connecticut--Mystic--History.

Alexander Crosby Brown (1981). Juniper Waterway, a History of the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. (Charlottesville, VA: Published for the Mariners Museum, Newport News, VA, and the Norfolk County Historical Society, Chesapeake, VA, by the University Press of Virginia, 255 p.). Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, Va. --History.

Rene De La Pedraja (1992). The Rise and Decline of U.S. Merchant Shipping in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 345 p.). Steamboat lines--United States--History--20th century; Merchant marine--United States--History--20th century; Shipping--United States--History--20th century.

--- (1998). Oil and Coffee: Latin American Merchant Shipping from the Imperial Era to the 1950s. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 191 p.). Shipping--Latin America--History.

--- (1999). Latin American Merchant Shipping in the Age of Global Competition. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 188 p.). Shipping--Latin America--History; Merchant marine--Latin America--History; Shipping--Government policy--Latin America--History; Packing for shipment.

Helen Doe (2009). Enterprising Women and Shipping in the Nineteenth Century. (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 272 p.). Centre for Maritime Historical Studies (University of Exeter). Women executives -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century. Women ship owners; women in every aspect of shipping (wharfingers to sail makers, blacksmith).

C. Ernest Fayle, with a foreword by Sir Alan G. Anderson (1933). A Short History of the World's Shipping Industry. (New York, NY: The Dial Press, 320 p.). Shipping--History.

Ed. Lewis R. Fischer (1992). From Wheel House to Counting House: Essays in Maritime Business History in Honour of Professor Peter Neville Davies. (St. John's, Nfld.: International Maritime Economic History Association, 387 p.). Davies, Peter N.; Davies, Peter N.; Shipping--History--19th century; Shipping--History--20th century; Shipbuilding industry--History--19th century; Shipbuilding industry--History--20th century; Transports maritimes--Histoire--19e siècle; Transports maritimes--Histoire--20e siècle; Construction navale--Industrie--Histoire--19e siècle; Construction navale--Industrie--Histoire--20e siècle.

Ed. Ferry de Goey (2004). Comparative Port History of Rotterdam and Antwerp (1880-2000): Competition, Cargo and Costs. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Aksant, 264 p.). Harbors--Netherlands--Rotterdam--History; Harbors--Belgium--Antwerp--History.

Martin Meylach in collaboration with Charles Whited (1971). Diving to a Flash of Gold. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 373 p.). Treasure-trove--Florida--Florida Keys; Shipwrecks--Florida--Florida Keys.

Matthew Parker (2007). Panama Fever: The Battle to Build the Canal. (London, UK: Hutchinson, 464 p.). Panama Canal. Most ambitious, most expensive building project world had seen;  cost American government about $400 million, four times the bill for Suez Canal,  did not begin to show profit until the 1950s;  25,000 laborers, most of them West Indians, died in imperialist project that brought nothing to people of Panama.

James William Putnam (1918). The Illinois and Michigan Canal; A Study in Economic History. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 213 p.). Illinois and Michigan Canal (IL).

Raymond A. Rydell (1952). Cape Horn to the Pacific; The Rise and Decline of an Ocean Highway. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 213 p.). Shipping--United States--History; United States--Commerce--History; Pacific Area--Commerce.

Eric W. Sager, with Gerald E. Panting (1990). Maritime Capital: The Shipping Industry in Atlantic Canada, 1820-1914. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University Press, 289 p.). Shipping--Atlantic Provinces--History; Shipbuilding industry--Atlantic Provinces--History.

Daniel Sekulich (2007). Ocean Titans: Journeys in Search of the Soul of a Ship. (Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 272 p.). Writer, Documentary filmmaker, Journalist. Merchant marine--History--20th century; Shipping--History--20th century. World of modern-day shipping -- man versus nature, big business, international greed, human drama, high seas piracy. 

Bill Sharpsteen (2011). The Docks. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 328 p.). Los Angeles-based Photographer. Harbors --California --Los Angeles; Stevedores --California --Los Angeles. Port of Los Angeles -vulnerable microcosm of labor, environmental, security issues; people who have made port largest in country, one of nation's most vital economic enterprises; critical entryway for goods coming into country - 40% of all waterborne cargo, 70% of all Asian imports.

Jerry Shields (1986). The Invisible Billionaire, Daniel Ludwig. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 401 p.). Ludwig, Daniel Keith, 1897-1992; Merchant marine--United States--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Millionaires--United States--Biography.


Business History Links

AAPA: Industry Information                                                                          

Documents about ports and the port industry in the U.S., Canada, Caribbean, and Latin America. Features an overview and data on U.S. ports, statistics (such as container traffic), port images, a glossary of maritime terms, and material about port industry issues, activities and functions, and trade. From the American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA), "a trade association which represents more than 150 public port authorities in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean and Latin America."

International Association of Ports and Harbors                                                                  

November 7th 1955 - Some 100 delegates from 38 ports and maritime organizations in 14 countries gathered in Los Angeles to announce the creation of the International Association of Ports and Harbors; has developed into a global alliance of ports, representing today some 230 ports in about 90 countries. The member ports handle over 60% of the world’s sea-borne trade and more significantly, nearly 90% of the world’s container traffic. It is a non-profit-making and non-governmental organization (NGO) headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

Make the Dirt Fly!                                                                              

Illustrated presentation about the building of the Panama Canal by French and American interests. Includes background about the Suez Canal built by the French (joining the Mediterranean and Red Seas, finished in 1869), selection of the canal route, workers and tropical diseases (such yellow fever, carried by mosquitoes), and civil and structural engineering issues. Includes photos, maps, and related documents about this canal first used in 1914. From the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.


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