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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Food
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Food - Part 2

 

610 A.D. - Pretzels originated in Southern France or Northern Italy; young monk prepared unleavened bread for Lent (Christian period of fasting and penitence before Easter) in shape of Christians' praying - arms folded across chests, each hand on opposite shoulder; twisted leftover dough into this shape, used as treat for children to recite their prayers; named twisted bread 'pretiola' (Latin for 'little reward'); form became symbol of good luck, long life, prosperity.

June 4, 1070 - Roquefort cheese created in cave near Roquefort, France.

July 28, 1586 - Sir Thomas Harriot introduced potatoes to Europe.

November 16, 1620 - Sixteen hungry Pilgrims, led by Myles Standish, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins, Edward Tilley, discovered first corn (maize) in U.S. in Provincetown, MA (named it Corn Hill); food previously harvested by local Indian tribe; provided much needed supply of food which saw Pilgrims through first Winter in New World.

1630 - Mogi family started making soy sauce in Japan; 1861 - Mogi-Takanashi families established Kikkoman; August 13, 1957 - Noda Shoyu Co., Ltd. registered in U.S. "Kikkoman" trademark first used 1885 ("Kikko" - "Hexagon," and "Man" - equivalent of English term "Ten Thousand"; all-purpose sauce and seasoning-namely, soy in liquid firm and Worcestershire sauce).

February 22, 1630 - Quadequine, brother of Massasoit introduced popcorn to English colonists (corn with smaller kernels than regular corn, "pops" when heated over flame); U.S. grows nearly all of world's popcorn. 

April 10, 1633 - Thomas Johnson, of Snow Hill, London, displayed bananas in shop window, first time on sale in Britain; 1884 - Elder Dempster and Co. regularly imported bananas from Canary Islands into Britain.

November 25, 1715 - Sybilla Masters first American to be granted English patent, for processing

June 10, 1720 - Mrs. Clements, of Durham, England marketed first paste-style mustard (biting-hot mustard powder); found way to mill heart of seed to fine flour; became standard method of processing seed for use as spice, in cooking, prepared mustards.

1728 - Walter Churchman started apothecary business in Bristol, England; 1729 - granted Letters Patent by George II for a chocolate making process; 1761 - Quaker, Doctor Joseph Fry, purchased patent and recipes from Charles Churchman (son); 1787 - business passed to wife and son, Joseph Storrs Fry; named J.S. Fry & Sons, oldest chocolate firm in Britain; 1847 - Fry's chocolates factory molded first "chocolate bar".

April 14, 1757 - Benjamin Jackson, chocolate and flour of mustard maker,  advertised mustard for sale for first time in America in Philadelphia Gazette.

March 8, 1765 - John Hannon, financed by James Baker, began producing one of first North American-made chocolate products, using water power, in Dorchester, MA; May 16, 1771 - Baker prepared to go into chocolate business on his own, bought what is believed to be his first order of cocoa beans; July 2, 1772 - made first recorded sale of chocolate; 1779 - Hannon lost at sea on cacao bean buying trip to West Indies; 1780 - Baker bought out John Hannon's widow, took over full ownership of business, produced first known chocolate branded as "Baker's"; 1791 - Edmund Baker (son, 21) entered into partnership; 1806 - built first Baker family mill for chocolate, grist, cloth; 1818 - Walter Baker (grandson) became partner; 1824 - took over; 1852 - employee Sam German created Baker's German Sweet Chocolate; 1854 - Walter Baker estate trustees appointed Henry Pierce (nephew) to run company; 1883 - adopted La Belle Chocolatiere (by Swiss artist Jean-Etienne Liotard) as Baker's official company trademark; 1884 - Pierce obtained full ownership of Walter Baker & Company from Baker estate trustees; 1895 - incorporated as Walter Baker & Company, Ltd.; 1896 - acquired by Forbes Syndicate for $4.75 million; July 4, 1905 - registered La Belle Chocolatiere design first used in 1877 (Colonial dress, women wearing; Hoop skirts); August 21, 1906 - registered "Baker's" trademark first used in October 1836 cocoa, chocolate, [broma] and cocoa preparations); July 12, 1921 - registered "German's" trademark first used in January 1910 (sweet chocolate); 1927 - acquired by Potsum Company (General Foods); 1989 - acquired by Kraft Foods.

1777 - Maurice Grey, who had developed a secret recipe for a strong mustard made with white wine, formed a partnership with Auguste Poupon, who supplied the financial backing to manufacture the product, in Dijon, France; introduced first automatic mustard machines.

May 12, 1777 - Philip Lenzi, London confectioner, ran first advertisement for ice cream in U.S. in New York Gazette; announced his selling of various confections, including ice cream.

June 8, 1786 - Mr. Hall of 76 Chatham Street (now Park Row) advertised first commercially-made ice cream in the U.S. (George Washington's expense ledger, of May 17, 1784, recorded purchase of "a cream machine for ice" [non-commercial production of ice-cream]).

1790 - Henry Wood, of Henry Wood & Son, commission merchant (wholesaler), distributed flour brought by English ships to Long Wharf in Boston's harbor; 1838 - Henry Wood and partner, George J. Cook, bought Richards and Co., flour company; 1840 - John Low Sands joined company started as a salesman, became part owner; 1895 - Orin E. Sands (youngest son of John Low Sands), Mark C. Taylor, George E. Wood owned company in limited partnership; renamed Sands, Taylor & Wood Co. (ST & W); October 1896 - introduced King Arthur Flour ('Never Bleached, Never Bromated') at Boston Food Fair; made of only hard, red, spring wheat from Minnesota and Canada; high-protein wheat produced more gluten, absorbed moisture better, made yeast-baked goods rise better, kept baked goods fresher for longer time; July 1, 1904 - incorporated as Sands, Taylor & Wood Co.; 1917 - Frank Edgar Sands (Ben's son) took over Presidency upon Orin's death; 1944 - Walter Sands (Frank's son) elected ST & W president; 1967 - Edgar Sands II (Walter's son) became president; acquisitions made ST & W largest New England distributor of bakery supplies; 1990 - published mail-order catalog under title The Baker's Catalogue; 1996 - Sands Family established an employee stock-ownership plan; 1998 - Catalogue mailed to some 3.5 million people, accounted for $10 million in sales; July 1, 1999 - name changed to The King Arthur Flour Company; oldest flour company, earliest food company in New England.

http://www.vtliving.com/flour/KAFlogo.gif (http://www.vtliving.com/flour/KAFlogo.gif)

February 2, 1795 - Nicholas Appert, French chef who invented way to can food, won prize of 12,000 francs offered by French government for method of preserving, transporting food to its armies; developed method of heating food in airtight glass jars.

February 14, 1803 - Moses Coates, of Coatsville, PA, received a patent for a "Machine for Paring Apples."

November 13, 1805 - Johann Georg Lehner, German butcher from Frankfurt living in Vienna, Austria, created sausage with mixture of beef and pork (allowed in Austria); Austrians called sausage 'Frankfurter' (created by someone from Frankfurt); called Wiener elsewhere (invented in Vienna).

1807 - Frederick C. and William Havemeyer, former employees of Edmund Seaman and Company sugar boiler business, founded William & F. C. Havemeyer Company, sugarhouse, on Van Dam Street in Manhattan; 1855 - Frederick C. Havemeyer, Jr., relocated sugarhouse to Williamsburg, Brooklyn; 1857 - operated as Havemeyer, Townsend & Co.; 1863 - name changed to Havemeyers & Elder Sugar Refining Co. (Joseph L. Elder, son-in-law); December 1887 - Henry O. Havemeyer (son of Frederick, Jr.) formed Sugar Refineries Company ("Sugar Trust"), consolidated 18 major refiners in Brooklyn, NY controlling 80% of industry capacity (Havemeyers & Elder, DeCastro & Donner, Brooklyn Sugar Refining, Dick & Meyer, Moller, Sierck); March 1889 - acquired American Sugar Refinery (former Bay Sugar Refining Company founded by Claus Spreckels in 1864); January 10, 1891 - American Sugar Refining Co. incorporated; October 8, 1901 - American Sugar Refining Co. registered "Domino" trademark first used August 1, 1900 (hard sugar); November 1910 - U. S. Government sued for dissolution of American Sugar Refining Company for restraint of trade - reduced competition, increased sugar prices, lost employment (controlled about 75% of refined sugar industry of United States); December 29, 1921 - anti-trust case settled by consent decree (industry control reduced to 24%); 1970 - American Sugar changed name to Amstar Corp.; 1988 - acquired by Tate & Lyle.

http://academics.smcvt.edu/shelburnemuseum/sestey/images/Scan0002.jpg Henry O. Havemeyer - American Sugar Refining (http://academics.smcvt.edu/shelburnemuseum/sestey/images/Scan0002.jpg)

April 17, 1810 - Lewis Mills Norton, of Goshen, CT, received a patent for a "Vat for Pineapple Cheese".

1814 - Jeremiah Colman, flour miller, took over mustard manufacturing business based on river Tas, four miles south of Norwich, UK; 1823 - took adopted nephew, James, into partnership in new firm; named J & J Colman; 1866 - introduced red and yellow livery to label; granted Royal Warrant as manufacturers to Queen Victoria; 1938 - merged with Reckitt & Sons; renamed Reckitt & Colman; March 26, 1974 - registered in U.S. "Colman's Mustard" trademark first used 1948 (mustard); 1995 - acquired by Unilever.

Jeremiah Colman - Colman's Mustard (http://www.redhill-reigate-history.co.uk/kgv%20colman%20pic.JPG)

1815 - Casparus van Houten established chocolate factory; 1828 - received a patent for Van Houten cocoa press to separate cocoa solids from cocoa butter to make cocoa powder; Coenraad Johannes Van Houten created process to treat cocao powder with alkaline salts to remove bitter taste, allow cocoa powder to mix more easily with water (called "Dutch process" chocolate); inventions by father and son led to 19th-century mass production, consumption of chocolate, put Dutch at forefront of cocoa processing; April 3, 1906 - C. J. Van Houten & Zoon registered "Van Houten" trademark first used in 1852 (cocoa).

http://exhibits.mannlib.cornell.edu/chocolate/images/content_img/VanHoutten_small.jpg Coenraad Johannes Van Houten - Van Houten cocoa (http://exhibits.mannlib.cornell.edu/chocolate/images/content_img/VanHoutten_small.jpg)

February 3, 1815 - World's first commercial cheese factory established in Kiesen, canton of Berne, Switzerland (first cheese production facility opened in 1802 in Howfil; only about 200 pounds of cheese exported from Switzerland in 1810); 1900 - about 2,600 cheese factories in Switzerland.

1818 - Johann Peter Gottlieb Bunge founded Bunge & Co. in Amsterdam, Netherlands as import/export trading business; 1859 - Edouard Bunge (grandson) relocated company to Antwerp, Belgium (one of world's leading commodities traders); 1884 - expanded to South America; Ernest Bunge (grandson) founded Bunge y Born in Argentina; 1905 - entered wheat milling business in Brazil; 1918 - entered North American market; 1923 - established Bunge North American Grain Corporation; 1935 - purchased first sizable grain facility, Midway, rail terminal in Minneapolis, MN; 1943 - name changed to Bunge Corporation; 1945 - first export of Brazilian soybeans (largest exporter of agricultural products in 2008); 1961 - opened export grain-handling elevator in Louisiana (centerpiece of U.S. export business); 1987 - acquired Carlin Food Corp. (served retail, wholesale bakers, foodservice operators, food processors); 1997-2004 - largest fertilizer producer, soy processor in South America; 1998 - built largest soybean crushing, refining plant in U.S. in Iowa; 1999 - moved headquarters to White Plains, NY; 2001 - went public; 2002 - world's largest soy processor, supplier of bottled oils to consumers; June 23, 2008 - announced acquisition of Corn Products International (fourth-largest maker of high-fructose corn syrup in U.S.) for $4.4. billion (foothold in syrups, sweeteners business); third largest agribusiness company in U. S. by revenue (Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland).

1822 - Englishman William Underwood set up small condiment business on Boston's Russia Wharf; 1836 - started packing his products in tin canisters (cans); 1868 - Underwood's sons began experimenting with new product created from ground ham blended with special seasonings; called process "deviling" (new way to cook, prepare ham, unique taste); 1870 - company registered Underwood devil logo trademark; 1895 - advertising with little red devil began to appear nationally; May 23, 1939 - William Underwood Company registered "Underwood" trademark first used June 1, 1937 (canned deviled ham); 2006 - oldest existing trademark still in use in United States.

January 1, 1823 - John Wheeley Lea, William Henry Perrins, of Worcester, UK, formed partnership; August 28, 1837 - began to produce Worcestershire Sauce commercially; May 31, 1892 - Lea & Perrins Firm registered "Lea & Perrins Worchestershire Sauce" trademark; 1904 - granted rare Royal Warrant by King Edward VII; 1916 - granted The Spanish Royal Warrant by King of Spain; June 11, 1930 - acquired by HP Foods.

1824 - John Cadbury (22), former apprentice to tea dealer in Leeds, UK, opened grocer's shop in Birmingham, England; sold cocoa, drinking chocolate; 1831 - began to manufacture on commercial scale; 1842 - sold 16 lines of drinking chocolate, cocoa in cake and powder forms; 1847 - Benjamin Cadbury (brother) made partner (dissolved in 1856), name changed to Cadbury Brothers; mid-1850s - Prime Minister William Gladstone reduced taxes on imported cocoa beans; February 4, 1854 - received first Royal Warrant as 'manufacturers of cocoa and chocolate to Queen Victoria'; 1861 - George (21) and Richard (25) Cadbury (sons) took over; 1866 - introduced new cocoa press process to remove some of cocoa butter from beans, produce less rich, more palatable cocoa essence (no need to add flour); helped turn small business into worldwide company; 1897 - introduced its first milk chocolate; 1899 - became private limited company, renamed Cadbury Brothers Limited; 1905 - introduced 'Dairy Milk' brand (company's best selling line in Britain by 1913, brand market leader in mid-1920s); 1919 - merged with J. S. Fry & Sons of Bristol, UK (introduced 'Chocolate Cream', plain chocolate bar with white fondant center in 1853); 1962 - re-organized, renamed Cadbury Limited, went public; 1964 - expanded into sugar confectionery; 1969 - merged with Schweppes, renamed Cadbury Schweppes; May 7, 2008 - separated beverage business from confection business, focused on confection; February 2010 - acquired by Kraft Foods Inc. for about $19.5 billion; created world's largest confectioner (more than $500 billion in sales).

http://www.cadbury.com.au/admin/file/content2/c3/JohnCadbury_1205801194719.jpg John Cadbury - Cadbury Group (http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/20/article-1244330-07EF049F000005DC-380_306x423.jpg)

1824 - Crowley family began making cheese in kitchen in Healdville, VT; 1882 - Winfield Crowley built present-day factory, Crowley Cheese started to reach shores of Maine, streets of Manhattan; January 24, 1893 - Crowley Foods, Inc. registered "Crowley" trademark first used February 24, 1969 (dairy products); believed to be oldest existing cheese factory in Western Hemisphere.

http://www.vtcheese.com/members/crowley/crowley_cover_sm.jpg Winfield Crowley - Crowley Cheese (http://www.crowleycheese-vermont.com/img/Winifred.jpg)

January 19, 1825 - Ezra Daggett, Thomas Kensett (nephew) of New York City, received a patent for "Preserving Animal Substances"; food storage in cans (had introduced method for canned salmon, oysters, lobsters in 1819; tin cans had been used by military, explorers in Europe since 1813 but their development did not start until after Civil War).

1827 - John Morrell & Co. founded in Bradford, Yorkshire, England; local woolcomber George Morrell bought barge load of oranges in local canal with 80 pound bequest left to his wife by an uncle; sold oranges at profit in streets of Bradford; started business in produce, butter, eggs, cheese, bacon, hams; 1864 - U.S.-based operations established in New York; December 1967 - acquired by AMK Corporation; 1970 - merged with United Fruit, renamed United Brands; December 1995 - acquired by Smithfield Foods for $60 million; considered to be the oldest continuously operating meat manufacturer in the U.S.

1828 - Baker Alfred Wyman made first Westminster Crackers in Westminster, MA; 1842 - built cracker factory; barrel of "seconds" near front door offered free samples to residents, visitors; 1891 - acquired by Charles Dawley, Frank Battles, Herman Shepard (Dawley & Shepard, Inc.); 1968 - breadcrumb business acquired by Pillsbury (ceased baking in Westminster, MA); cracker business remained with Dawley family; 1989 - resumed cracker manufacture in Rutland, VT; January 23, 1990 - Westminster Cracker company, Inc. registered "Westminster Crackers" trademark first used in 1890 (crackers); 1999 - 61% control acquired by Cains Foods, LP through acquisition of Olde Cape Cod Food Products; 2008 - fifth generation management.

1833 - AJ & RG Barber began farming, making cheese at Maryland Farm in Ditcheat, Somerset, UK; incorporated; sold milk from farm locally, used cheese to feed family, farm workers; 2010 - Barber farms comprise 10 farms, 2500 acres of prime Somerset dairy land, home to some 2,000 dairy cows; sixth generation management (cousins); Britain's oldest cheese-making family.

August 14, 1834 - Jacob Perkins, of Newburyport, MA, received British patent for "Improvement in the Apparatus and Means for Producing Ice, and in Cooling Fluids" ("volatile fluid for the purpose of producing the cooling and freezing ... and yet at the same time condensing such volatile fluids, and bringing them into operation without waste"); refrigerating machine; vapor-compression machine using sulphuric ether compression in a closed cycle.

1838 - Carl Heinrich Knorr built factory in Heilbronn, Germany, to dry, grind chicory for coffee trade; developed process for dried soups (preserved natural values of ingredients, flavors, reduced cooking times); 1873 - KNORR Company began packaging, selling soup mixes in food shops; 1899 - C.H. KNORR A.G. went public; 1908 - introduced European sauce mix. 1912 - introduced bouillon cube; 1947 - near bankruptcy (demand immense, quality eroded); 1948 - substituted liquid brown seasoning with Glutamate (eliminated former factory taste); reduced cooking times from 30 to 5-10 minutes; replaced cardboard package with hermetically sealed aluminum pouch (protected product against humidity, other taste influences); launched chicken noodle soup (sold 6.4 million servings in first 7 months); 1957 - KNORR products (bouillons, soups, sauces, entree mixes) available in eight countries around world: April 1958 - acquired by CPC International Inc.; September 22, 1959 - KNORR Nahrmittel Aktiengesellschaft, Thayngen Corporation registered "Knorr" trademark first used October 23, 1913 (dehydrated, granulated, concentrated [and canned] coups and broths, [flours,] seasonings-to wit, [vinegar, mustard, table salt and] seasoned salt, [tapioca, oat flakes and] bouillon and vegetable cubes); 2000 - products sold in 87 countries; October 2000 - acquired by Unilever (largest brand); 2002 - introduced frozen meals, mealkits, vegetable products, snacks.

Carl Heinrich Knorr - Knorr soups (http://tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:EYmGualsBX06IM:http://www.knorr.nl/livelinkImage.php%3Fobjid%3D2308202)

March 12, 1841 - Orlando Jones (City Road, England) received first U.S. patent for "Improvement in the Manufacture of Starch" ("new and useful improvements in the treating or operating on farinaceous matters to obtain starch and other products, and in the manufacture of starch"); used alkali to speed up starch making process (corn starch); shortened production time, increased yield, left by-products in a condition suitable for further uses.

1842 - Stephen F. Whitman (19) founded Stephen F. Whitman & Son "confectionery and fruiterer shoppe" on Market Street near the Philadelphia waterfront; 1854 - introduced first prepackaged Whitman's candy (box of sugar plums adorned with curlicues and rosebuds); first packaged confection in printed, marked box; December 29, 1860 - ran first newspaper advertisement; 1888 - Horace F. Whitman (son) took over; April 3, 1906 - Stephen F. Whitman registered "Whitman's" trademark first used in 1842 (candies and chocolates of all descriptions); 1907 - established own national sales organization for direct distribution to dealers on national level; 1909 - incorporated; 1912 - introduced Whitman's Sampler, first use of cellophane by candy industry; March 24, 1914 - registered "Whitman's Sampler Chocolates & Confections" trademark first used January 1, 1912 (candy confections); 1915 - Sampler become America's best-selling box of chocolates (still is); early 1960s - acquired by Pet, Inc.; 1978 - Pet acquired by IC Industries; 1991 - became permanent fixture in Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History; 1993 - acquired by Russell Stover Candies; America's oldest continuous producer of boxed chocolates.

1842 - Samuel R. Mott founded Mott's in Bouckville, New York; made cider with help of hitched horses that plodded in circle, apples crushed between two large stone drums at center of 'sweep', shoveled into crib with slatted sides, packed in straw, pressed by three men leaning on lengthy level that operated jack screw; golden juice ran off into tank beneath, ready for bottling; 1900 - merged with W.B. Duffy Cider Company (Rochester, NY, also founded 1842); March 20, 1923 - Duffy-Mott Company, Inc. registered "Mott's" trademark first used (in another form) in 1850 (vinegar); 1929 - introduced series of new fruit products, contributed more to growth than events of any prior decade; 1930 - launched apple sauce; 1933 - introduced prune juice, in collaboration with California Prune and Apricot Growers Association (could be produced in apple processing plants during off-season); 1936 - began to make jellies; 1938 - acquired by American Brands, Inc.; 1982 - acquired by Cadbury-Schweppes

1842 - Thomas Kingsford, former superintendent of William Colgate & Co. wheat-starch factory, isolated starch from kernels of corn; perfected process, made pure laundry starch from corn; 1846 - "T. Kingsford and Son", corn starch merchant, established in Bergen, NJ; 1891 - corn milling plant (later called Argo Manufacturing) incorporated in Nebraska; 1892 - introduced ARGO Corn Starch; 1899 - Argo, Kingsford's, two other starch companies merged, formed United Starch Company (forerunner of The Corn Products Refining Co.); 1900 - acquired by National Starch Co.; 1906 - became Corn Products Refining Co.; January 26, 1915 - registered "ARGO" trademark first used January 1, 1891 (corn starch); October 19, 1915 - National Starch Co. registered "Kingsford's" trademark first used in 1848 (corn starch).

http://www.argostarch.com/images/hist_1842Pic.jpg Thomas Kingsford - Oswego Starch Factory (http://www.argostarch.com/images/hist_1842Pic.jpg)

August 26, 1843 - Norbert Rillieux, of New Orleans, LA, received patent for a "Vacuum Pan" ("Improvement in Sugar-Works"); December 10, 1846 - received patent for an "Evaporating Pan" ("Improvement in Sugar-Making"); multiple effect vacuum sugar evaporator; device revolutionized sugar processing; made it more efficient, faster, much safer.

September 9, 1843 - Nancy M. Johnson, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an "Artificial Freezer" ("Improvement in the Art of Producing Artificial Ices").

1845 - David Sprangli-Schwarz, confectioner, and Rudolf Sprangli-Ammann (son) owned small confectionery shop in Marktgasse of Zurich's Old Town; 1892 - business split between two sons (confectionery stores to David Robert, chocolate factory to Johann Rudolf Sprangli-Schifferli); 1899 - Sprangli-Schifferli converted company Chocolat Sprangli AG to raise money; acquired option to acquire chocolate factory of Rodolphe Lindt in Berne; name changed to to Aktiengesellschaft Vereinigte Berner und Zarcher Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprangli (option fully exercised in 1928); July 9, 1912 - Aktiengesellschaft Vereinigte Berner und Zarcher Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprangli Corporation registered "Lindt" trademark first used in 1879 (chocolate candies); 1919-1946 - sales flat; 1947 - signed licensing agreement in Italy (Germany in 1950, France in 1954); 1986 - Lindt & Sprangli (USA) Inc. activated (founded in New York in 1925); went public; 1993 - acquisitions of former licensees completed; worldwide net sales nearly 900 million Swiss Francs; 1994 - Kilchberg-based holding company formed; all companies became wholly-owned subsidiaries of Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprangli AG; September 1997 - acquired Caffarel (Torino, Italy); January 1998 - acquired Ghirardelli Chocolate Company (San Francisco, CA); world-wide leader in premium quality chocolate segment in all markets.

David Sprüngli-Schwarz, Rudolf Sprüngli- Ammann - Lindt (http://www.lindt.com/typo3temp/pics/0a99698e21.jpg)

June 30, 1845 - Peter Cooper, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Improvement in the Preparation of Portable Gelatine" ("consists in making a transparent concentrated or solidified jelly containing all the ingredients fitting it for table use, in a portable form, and requiring only the addition of a prescribed quantity of hot water to dissolve it, when it may be poured into glasses or molds, and when cold will be fit for use").

1847 - Oliver R. and Silas Edwin Chase founded Chase and Company; November 14, 1871 - Oliver Rice Chase, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Machine for Manufacturing Lozenges" ("...eminent advantages both as to simplicity of construction and to the manner in which it operates, and affords site of the paste prepatory to its being cut into lozenges and discharged from the machine"); 1901 - merged with Forbes, Hayward and Company (1848), Wright and Moody (1856); formed New England Confectionery Company (NECCO); January 30, 1906 - registered "NECCO Sweets" trademark first used June 1, 1904 (candy).

1848 - Alonzo Richmond founded Richmond & Company in Chicago, IL; agent for Onondaga Salt (Syracuse, NY); 1886 - Joy Morton, J. Sterling Morton (son), Secretary of Agriculture under Grover Cleveland, acquired majority interest; changed name to Joy Morton & Company; 1910 - renamed Morton Salt Company; 1914 - introduced Morton Umbrella Girl to blue package of table salt; March 30, 1915 - registered "When It Rains It Pours" trademark first used November 6, 1914 (salt); 1924 - developed iodized salt (contained 0.01% sodium iodide as dietary supplement as iodine reduced incidence of goiter [major swelling of thyroid gland in neck]); May 17, 1949 - registered "Morton" trademark first used June 15, 1912 (salt and meat and poultry seasoning, the seasoning consisting of salt and spices); 1999 - acquired by Rohm and Haas.

Joy Morton - Morton Salt (http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:OkMSZRidIIMROM:http://library.thinkquest.org/J0111463/media/joy.gif)

May 30, 1848 - William G. Young, of Baltimore, MD, received a patent for an "Ice Cream Freezer"; improvement made freezer turn rapidly within the ice-tub as well as the cream inside; designed to be used while both agitating the cream and turning the freezer using the weighted top-mounted handle; beating brought all cream in better contact with cold sides, air trapped with motion made cream lighter.

September 23, 1848 - John B. Curtis started first commercial chewing gum factory in Bangor, ME to produce State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum; first commercially sold chewing gum in U.S.; 1860 - employed 200 people at facility in Portland, ME; end of 19th century - Maine spruce gum production peaked at 300,000 pounds a year.

John B. Curtis - made first chewing-gum, in Maine (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/John_B_Curtis.png/125px-John_B_Curtis.png)

1849 - Samuel Northrup Castle, Amos Starr Cooke of Boston formed partnership to run private storehouse (once the missionary depository); 1851 - obtained licenses to sell wholesale products (farm tools, sewing machines, medicine), formed Castle & Cooke Corporation ("Kakela Me Kuke" in Hawaiian); 1853 - fourth largest company in Hawaii; 1894 - incorporated under laws of Hawaii; 1905 - organized Sugar Factors Company, Ltd., to buy, sell, transport, arrange for refining Hawaii's sugars; 1932 - acquired 21% ownership of Hawaiian Pineapple Company; 1961 - merged with Dole Pineapple, Columbia River Packers (Bumble Bee); 1968 - acquired Standard Fruit, second largest producer, importer of bananas; 1972 - established Castle & Cooke Foods group (all food activities except sugar); 1985 - severe financial problems, merged with Flexi-Van Corporation (transportation equipment leasing company); 1991 - name changed to Dole Food Company, Inc.; 1995 - separated food, real estate businesses: Dole Food Company, Inc. as food producer, distributor; Castle & Cooke, Inc. as developer, builder of residential real estate, resorts , commercial real estate; 2003 - Dole acquired by David H. Murdock.

Samuel Northrup Castle - Castle & Cooke (http://foundationcenter.org/grantmaker/castle/castles.jpg)

1849 - Isidore Boudin established French bakery in San Francisco (one of more than 60 in the city); continued use of leavening bread with wild yeast starter ('mother dough'); combined ordinary sourdough yeast used by miners with French-style loaf of bread; 1873 - home deliveries by horse-drawn wagon; 1900 - introduced motorized delivery trucks; 1910 - Charles, Jules Boudin (sons) took over; 1941 - acquired by Steve Giraudo Sr.; 1975 - first retail demonstration bakery on Fisherman's Wharf; 1978 - mail order business started; 1984 - focus shifted to bakery-cafes, away from wholesale business.

Isidore Boudin (with family at right) - 1849 (http://www.boudinbakery.com/ximages/J_467x245_since1849.jpg)

1849 - John Pew founded John Pew & Sons in Gloucester, MA; 1868 - Slade Gorton began fishing business in Rockport, MA; first to pack salt-dried codfish; 1904 - "Man at Wheel" painting became logo; March 31, 1906 - Slade Gorton & Co., John Pew & Son, David B. Smith & Co., Reed & Gamage combined, formed Gorton-Pew Fisheries Co.; fleet of 39 fishing vessels, largest fleet operated by any company on Atlantic Coast; 1923 - reorganized from bankruptcy by Boston lawyer named William Putnam; February 6, 1945 - Gorton-Pew Fisheries Company, Ltd. registered "Gorton's" trademark first used in 1875 (canned fish, salt fish, smoked fish, and spiced fish); 1957 - name changed to Gorton's of Gloucester; December 12, 1967 - Gorton Corporation registered "Gorton's of Gloucester" trademark first used August 26, 1966 (frozen seafood et al); 1968 - acquired by General Mills; May 1995 - acquired by Unilever; August 2001 - acquired, with BlueWater Seafoods, by Nippon Suisan (USA), Inc., subsidiary of Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., for $175 million in cash.

1850 - Eugene Durkee founded Durkee Spices in Buffalo, NY; 1907 - Durkee helped establish the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA); 1918 - introduced cans for spices (replaced paperboard cartons); August 28, 1951 - Glidden Company (dba as Durkee Famous Foods Corporation) registered "Durkee's" trademark first used July 18, 1929 (spices, meat sauces, salad and mayonnaise dressings, coconut, margarine, vegetable oils solid for edible purposes, vegetable oil shortening and hydrogenated vegetable oil shortening); 1982 - pioneered freeze-ground milling, introduced plastic packaging with tamper-evident seals; 1994 - acquired by Burns Philp of Sydney, Australia; 2005 - acquired by Associated British Foods plc purchased (operated under ACH Food Companies, Inc. management).

Eugene Durkee - Durkee Foods (http://www.durkeefoodservice.com/images/ahGfx1.jpg)

1850 - Francis Hulman, John Bernhard Ludowici invested $700 and $1,400, respectively, opened Cincinnati Wholesale Grocery Store in Terre Haute, IN; March 12, 1853 - partnership ended; Ludowici kept business; Septrember 1853 - Hulman opened F.T. Hulman Wholesale Store directly across street; 1854 - Herman Hulman (23) arrived from Germany to sell for Francis; September 13, 1858 - Francis Hulman, wife and child died aboard ship destroyed by fire on way to New York; July 1869 - merged with R.S. Cox Jr., closest competitor in wholesale grocery business; 1878 - acquired Benjamin Cox's half-interest; became major supplier of food, merchandise under house brands (Crystal, Dauntless, REX, Farmers Pride, Clabber Brand baking powder (mixture of baked fireplace ash and "clabber" - sour milk); September 1893 - opened Clabber Baking Powder building; 1923 - renamed Clabber Girl Baking Powder; March 18, 1924 - Hulman & Company registered "Clabber Girl Baking Powder" trademark first used July 13, 1923 (baking powder); 1926 - Tony Hulman, Jr. (grandson), company's sales manager, made Clabber Girl #1 selling baking powder in U.S.; 1931 - assumed management of company (age 30); 1945 - acquired Indianapolis Motor Speedway; 1995 - closed grocery business.

Herman Hulman, Francis Hulman, Theodore Hulman - Hulman & Company (http://www.clabbergirl.com/images/features/3_hulmans.jpg)

1850 - Scotsman David Jack, arrived in Monterey, CA; 1869 - Monterey's dominant landowner (had bought, with attorney Delos Rodeyn Ashley, 29,698.53 acres of Monterey peninsula at auction on February 9, 1859 - included what is now Monterey, Pacific Grove, Seaside, Del Rey Oaks, Del Monte Forest [aka Pebble Beach], Fort Ord [now California State University, Monterey Bay); owned dairy along Salinas River, produced cheese originally known as Queso Blanco (soft, creamy, light cheese known as "Queso blanco pais", country peasant cheese, and "Queso blanco", white cheese, first made by Franciscan padres at nearby Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo); went into partnership with 13 regional dairies (Spanish and Portuguese dairymen dominated North Californian dairy farming); used excess milk to produce cheese, marketed as "Jacks Cheese" (changed to 'Monterey Jack' because so many customer's asked for the cheese by that name; became synonymous with white, creamy cheese; official name approved by Food and Drug Administration in 1955); first to commercially manufacture Jack cheese on large scale (Domingo Pedrazzi of Carmel Valley argued that his use of pressure housejack gave cheese its name, Pedrazzi's jack cheese); one of four cheeses to supposedly have been created in United States.

David Jack - Monterey Jack Cheese (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/David_Jack.jpg/180px-David_Jack.jpg)

February 5, 1850 - Gail Borden, Jr. of Galveston, TX, received patent for "Preparation of Portable Soup-Bread"; process baked a combination of extracts from meat with flour to produce a meat biscuit capable of long term storage; convenient method that preserved meat-based product could be carried by the military, seamen and other travelers; reconstituted with hot water as a soup.

August 24, 1853 - It has been claimed that Chef George Crum, an American Indian, prepared first potato chips at Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs, NY - railroad magnate Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt complained that his potatoes were "too thick", sent them back to kitchen, Crum retaliated by slicing paper thin strips of potatoes, frying them to a crisp; Vanderbilt loved them; "Saratoga Chips" -instant success; 1895 - William Tappenden began delivering potato chips to stores in Cleveland, OH; potato chips first became available in grocery stores; 1926 - Laura Scudder (Monterey Park, CA) introduced potato chips in hand-ironed wax paper 'bags' (vs. dispensed in bulk in paper sacks from from cracker barrels or glass display cases); 1937 - Potato Chip Institute (PCI) established (formerly Ohio Potato Chip Association); 2003 - Snack Food Association (SFA), United States Potato Board (USPB) celebrated this history.

Chef George Crum - potato chip (http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/snacks/images/GeorgeCrum.gif)

1856 - Cadwallader Colden (C. C.) Washburn formed Minneapolis Milling Company to lease power rights to mill operators; 1866 - built his first flour mill (one of largest in world) on banks of Mississippi River in Minneapolis, MN; 1874 - built second mill (burned down); 1877 - John Crosby joined C. C. and William D. Washburn (brother) in milling business as partner (married to sister of Washburn's sister-in-law); formed Washburn Crosby Company; 1880 - Washburn Crosby Company won gold medal at first Millers International Exhibition, renamed highest quality product Gold Medal Flour (remains best selling brand in U.S.); 1888 - James Stroud Bell assumed leadership; expanded national flour market; 1921 - Betty Crocker created; 1924 - Wheaties, company's first ready-to-eat cereal introduced; June 20, 1928 - James Ford Bell (son) incorporated General Mills Inc.

1858 - David Oppenheimer and three brothers founded Oppenheimer Bros. & Co. in Victoria, BC, to provide food, supplies to thousands of fortune seekers who followed gold rush to British Columbia; 1859 - opened second store in Yale, along Cariboo trail; 1862 - opened another branch in Barkerville; 1887 - moved company to Vancouver, BC, effectively opened city's first wholesale provisions warehouse; considered innovative founding father of Vancouver; 1891 - established strategic alliance with Japan Fruit Growers Cooperative; 1956 - brought first Granny Smith apples to North America from New Zealand; late 1960s - established one of first large-scale Chilean shipping programs to import grapes, stone fruit; 1985 - established U.S. business under name David Oppenheimer & Co. Seattle, WA; 1992 - The David Oppenheimer Group - comprised David Oppenheimer & Associates (Canadian company), David Oppenheimer & Co. (U.S. company), David Oppenheimer Transport Inc. (transport services); 2002 - name changed to The Oppenheimer Group; shipped total of 35 million packages of fresh produce; 2003 - launched Oppenheimer-branded packaging; chosen by Ocean Spray to market fresh cranberries in North America; 2008 - awarded platinum status, from National Post, as one of Canada's "Best Managed Companies."

1859 - Henry Tate (40), grocer in Liverpool, joined John Wright & Co, sugar refinery, as partner; 1862 - set up his own refinery; joined by Alfred and Edwin (sons), formed Henry Tate & Sons; 1872 - Love Lane Refinery (Liverpool) began operations; incorporated new refining technique to increase yield of white sugar; 1875 - acquired rights, in partnership with David Martineau, from German inventor Eugen Langen, introduced sugar cube to UK; 1878 -- opened refinery at Silvertown in East London; 1921 - merged with Abram Lyle & Sons, formed Tate & Lyle PLC; 1963 - acquired United Molasses for £30 million, became world leader in molasses trade; 1976 - acquired one-third stake in Amylum, established first major interest in cereal sweetener, starch-based manufacturing; 1988 - acquired 90% North American AE Staley Manufacturing Co. (2000 - acquired balance); increased stake in Amylum to 63%; 1998 - acquired citric acid business of Haarmann & Reimer (subsidiary of Bayer AG), became world's leading producer of citric acid; 2006 - Lyle's Golden Syrup tin design named Guinness World Records as world's oldest branding (packaging); March 21 2006 - annual sales of £3.7 billion, 7,000 employees in subsidiaries, 4,800 in joint ventures.

1861 - Julius Sturgis, ran bread bakery, established first commercial pretzel bakery in America, in Lititz, Lancaster County, PA.

1861 - William G. Bell founded The William G. Bell Company; created, marketed premium nutrition products, savory combinations that enhanced cuisines (Jamaican ginger, Zanzibar clove, Batavian cinnamon, Dalmatian sage); 1867 - introduced Bell's seasoning; March 16, 1937 - William G. bell Company registered "Bell's" trademark first used March 10, 1878 (spiced seasonings).

William G. Bell - Bell's Seasoning (http://bellventures.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/grandpag.jpg?w=300&h=244)

1862 - Godfrey Keebler bought baking business of John T. Ricketts (deceased employer) in Philadelphia; 1890 - formed partnership with Augustus Weyl, incorporated Keebler-Weyl Baking Company; February 1898 - New York Biscuit Company, United States Baking Company, American Biscuit Company formed 'Cracker Trust' (controlled 145 bakeries); 1966 - Keebler adopted as corporate title for bakery network, single brand name for all bakery products; February 20, 1968 - Keebler Company registered "Keebler" trademark first used May 5, 1966 (cookies, crackers, and candy); 1974 - acquired by U.K.-based United Biscuit Company; 1996 - acquired in leveraged buyout; acquired Sunshine Biscuit Co.; 1997 - name changed to Keebler Foods Company; 1998 - acquired President Baking Co.; Flowers Industries became majority shareholder after initial public offering; 2001 - acquired by Kellogg Company, no. 2 cookie and cracker brand in United States.

1862 - Henry Issac Rowntree acquired cocoa side of Wm. Tuke and Sons shop; 1869 - Joseph Rowntree joined brother's business as partner; 1887 - Elect Cocoa introduced; 1890 - built Cocoa, Chocolate & Chicory Works in York, UK; 1897 - Rowntree & Co went Limited, Joseph Rowntree as Chairman; 1904 - established Rowntree Foundation; 1937 - Chocolate Crisp changed name to Kit Kat; Rolos introduced; 1962 - After Eight is introduced; 1969 - merged with rival John Mackintosh & Sons Ltd., formed Rowntree Mackintosh Ltd.; 1987 - name changed to Rowntree plc; 1988 - acquired by Nestle SA.

1862 - Charles Gulden established mustard company near South Street Seaport in New York City; purchased imported seeds and spices, earned prestigious award from American Institute in 1869, 1883; March 16, 1875 - Jacob Gulden (father), of New York, NY, received patent for a "Design for Mustard-Bottle"; July 5, 1881 - received a patent for a "Vessel for Holding and Dispensing Mustard"; January 30, 1893 - Charles Gulden received patent for a "Cap for Mustard-Bottles"; March 16, 1897 - Charles Gulden, Jr. received a patent for a "Package for Mustard, etc."; January 2, 1906 - registered "Gulden's Mustard" trademark first used 1875 (mustard).

1863 - Claus and Bernard Spreckels built Bay Sugar Refinery in San Francisco, CA (with proceeds from sale of grocery business, brewery); used raw sugar from Hawaii; 1866 - sold refinery; 1867 - incorporated California Sugar Refinery in San Francisco to refine, produce sugar made from Hawaiian sugar cane (became largest factory on West Coast in value of output); July 28, 1874 - received a patent for an "Improvement in Processes of manufacturing hard Sugar" ("To make the crystals or grains adhere to each other, so as to be molded, pressed, and dried into hard sugar ...water to do the cleansing and white liquor to give the necessary adhesiveness"); September 30, 1878 - organized Hawaiian Commercial Company; 1881 - organized Oceanic Steamship Company (shipping line between San Francisco, Hawaii); March 31, 1882 - organized Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company as plantation company; 1888 - established Western Beet Sugar Company in Watsonville, CA; 1889-1892 - battled Havemeyer Sugar Trust; 1891 - 50% of California Sugar Refinery acquired by American Sugar Refining Company); renamed Western Sugar Refinery; 1895 - President of the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railway (acquired by Santa Fe in 1901); August 6, 1896 - incorporated Spreckels Sugar Co., beet sugar company, in Salinas, CA; 1908 - Adolph B. Spreckels (second son) assumed control; 1963 - acquired by American Refining Company (AMSTAR); 1987 - went private in management buyout; renamed Spreckels Industries; 1996 - acquired by Holly Sugar; 2005 - Southern Minnesota Beet Sugar Cooperative acquired Holly Sugar from Imperial Sugar Company; name changed to Spreckels Sugar Company, Inc.

1863 - German-British Liebig Extract of Meat Company built factory in Fray Bentos, Uruguay (town once known as "The Kitchen of the World"); produced meat extract, tinned beef, by-products, corned beef (initially for working classes, became staple for many people in Britain, continental Europe); 1924 - renamed Anglo Meatpacking plant.

November 3, 1863 - J. T. Alden, of Cincinnati, OH, received patent for "Improvement in the Preparation of Yeast"; reduced concentrated yeast from plastic or semi-fluid state to dry granular form, convenient way of preservation for future use.

1865 - Abram Lyle (shipowner, sugar transporter), John Kerr, two partners acquired Glebe Sugar Refinery; 1872 - Lyle sold his shares, looked for site for new refinery; 1883 - Abram Lyle & Sons started melting sugar in Plaistow Refinery (Plaistow Wharf in London's Docklands, mile-and-a-half from Henry Tate's refinery); created Lyle's Golden Syrup (treacly syrup from sugar cane refining process); January 10, 1885 - first packaged in tins; 1904 - "lion and bees" identified with Lyle's Golden Syrup, registered as trademark; November 5, 1912 - Abram Lyle & sons, Limited registered "Lyle's Golden Syrup" trademark in the U. S. first used October 1884 (table-syrup); 1921 - merged with Henry Tate & Sons, formed Tate & Lyle PLC; 2006 - Lyle's Golden Syrup named by Guinness World Records as world's oldest branding/packaging (since 1885).

1865 - Jefferson A. Thompson (Thompson Bros. Cheese Company) started producing California fresh cheese for San Francisco market; created shortage of eggs; sold fresh cheese (later named Breakfast Cheese) to Saloons (served on bar as substitute for pickled eggs), readily consumed by Stevedores (dockworkers); cheese transported by horse, wagon to Petaluma River, taken by The Steamer Gold across bay to Yerba Buena oldest continually operating cheese factory in the United States.

1865 - David F. Bremner opened D.F. Bremner Baking Company in Cairo, IL; 1871 - moved to Chcago to supply bread to devastated public after Great Fire; bread baked with his initials, D.F.B., stamped on the top, became known as "Damn Fine Bread"; 1902 - original Bremner Butter Wafer created; 1905 - sons established their own bakery, called it Bremner Brothers Biscuit Company.

1865 - Douw Ditmars Williamson founded D. D. Williamson & Co., Inc. in New York to manufacture burnt sugars for brewing industry; 1963 - developed double-strength caramel color (largest caramel category on a global basis); 2001 - opened South America's largest caramel color manufacturing operation in Manaus, Brazil; 2007 - leader in caramel color, seven caramel manufacturing sites on five continents.

1866 - William A. Breyer produced, sold dairy product made of cream, pure cane sugar, nuts, fresh fruits, other natural flavorings, from his kitchen in Philadelphia; 1882 - opened retail ice cream store; Louisa Breyer (widow) assumed control; 1904 - began to freeze ice cream by using brine rather than salt, ice; 1908 - incorporated as Breyers Ice Cream Company; 1914 - produced one million gallons annually; July 19, 1921 - registered "Breyer's" trademark first used in May 1912 (ice-ream); 1926 - became division of National Dairy Products Corporation (NDPC, formed in 1923), holding company; 1969 - renamed Kraftco; 1976 - name changed to Kraft, Inc.; 1993 - acquired by Unilever, Inc.; merged with Gold Bond-Good Humor Ice Cream Company (founded 1920 by Harry Burt in Youngstown, OH; acquired in 1961 by Thomas J. Lipton, subsidiary of Unilever), renamed Good Humor-Breyers Ice Cream Company.

William A. Breyer - Breyer's Ice Cream (http://tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:ChnzYK6ct0LhpM:http://www.goodhumor.com/assets/images/breyers/breyers)

1866 - Druggists Cornelius, Joseph Hoagland (brothers), Thomas Biddle (Fort Wayne, IN) developed powder that revolutionized baking (substitute for yeast sold over-the-counter at drugstore); 1870 - Joseph Hoagland, William Ziegler, John H. Seal organized Royal Chemical Company; 1873 - formed Royal Baking Powder Company; 1888 - Ziegler sold his interest for $4 million; acquired Price Baking Powder Company (Chicago), Tartar Chemical Company (New Jersey); March 1, 1899 - incorporated as consolidation of Royal Baking Powder Company, Cleveland Baking Powder Company, Price Baking Powder Company, Tartar Chemical Company, New York Tartar Company; July 12, 1910 - Royal Baking Powder Company registered "Royal Baking Powder" trademark first used in April 1873 (baking powder); 1929 - merged with Fleischmann Company, Chase and Sanborn, became Standard Brands Incorporated.

1866 - Charles Feltman started as baker on Classon Avenue, Brooklyn, NY; delivered freshly baked pies to inns, lager-beer saloons that lined Coney Island's beaches; expanded product line to hot sandwiches - built tin-lined chest to keep rolls fresh, small charcoal stove inside to boil sausages; served hot sausage on a roll; 1871 - opened first Coney Island hot dog stand, sold 3,684 dachshund sausages in a milk roll first year; built ocean pavilion ($20,000), hotel, beer gardens, restaurants, food stands, various rides to amuse customers; considered true inventor of hot dog (ten cents).

 (http://www.coneyislandhistory.org/graphics/hall_of_fame/banner_feltman.jpg)

1867 - Johann Tobler established Tobler brand of hand-made, specialty candies in Bern, Switzerland; March 30, 1926 - Aktiengesellschaft Chocolat Tobler registered "Toblerone" trademark first used February 11, 1909 (chocolate and cocoa).

Johann Tobler - Toblerone (http://www.chocolat-villars.com/typo3temp/pics/4eac8bf59b.jpg)

1868 - Henri Nestle opened office in London to cope with quantity of orders for farine lactate (based, as he put it, on wholesome Swiss milk and cereal component) for mothers unable to breastfeed; 1873 - exported to South America, Australia; 1874 - sold company for million francs; November 25, 1884 - Henri Nestle (composed of Jules Monnerat, Louis Roussy, and Henry Marguys) registered "Nestle" trademark (condensed milk); 1905 - acquired Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk; 1929 - acquired chocolate makers Peter, Cailler and Kohler, pioneers in making milk chocolate; 1938 - launched Nescafe, world's first instant coffee; mid-1960s - Switzerland's biggest company, multinational with over 200 factories around world.

1868 - Edmund McIlhenny founded McIlhenny Company at Avery Island, LA; legend: obtained hot pepper seeds from traveler recently arrived in Louisiana from Central America; planted seeds on Avery Island, experimented with pepper sauce recipes; named one he liked, TABASCO Sauce (state of Tabasco in Mexico, where seeds allegedly came from); September 27, 1870 - McIlhenny, of New Iberia, LA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Pepper-Sauce" ("new process for preparing an aromatic and strong sauce from the pepper known in the market as Tabasco pepper. This pepper is as strong as Cayenne pe, but of finer flavor"); unique formula for processing peppers into pepper sauce; Avery Island factory produces more than 700,000 bottles of Tabasco sauce daily; February 1, 1927 - registered "Tabasco" trademark first used in 1868 (pepper sauce).

1868 - Charles and Maximilian Fleischmann, immigrants from Austria-Hungary, James F. Gaff of Cincinnati, founded Gaff, Fleischmann & Co. in Riverside, OH; May 1876 - exhibited Model Vienna Bakery at Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia (10 million visitors); introduced first compressed yeast (Viennese production) sold in North America; February 14, 1922 - The Fleischmann Company registered "Fleischmann's" trademark first used January 1, 1876 (compressed yeast and yeast mixtures, adapted for use as food alone or for use in the making of bread and bread stuffs or other food products); June 1929 - absorbed four smaller corporations (Royal Baking Powder Company, E.W. Gillette Company Ltd. of Canada, The Widlar Food Products Company, Chase and Sanborn, Inc.); formed Standard Brands, Incorporated; 2004 - acquired by Associated British Foods.

Charles Fleischmann - yeast (http://www.microsour.com/ images/yeast_7.jpg)

1868 - Etienne Guittard opened Guittard Chocolate on Sansome Street, San Francisco; 1950s - Horace A. Guittard (grandson) became President; 1955 - relocated factory to Burlingame; remained one of foremost suppliers of fine chocolate to professionals in pastry, confectionery, ice cream trades; oldest family owned, operated chocolate company in U.S.

Etienne Guittard - Guittard Chocolate Company (http://www.guittard.com/images/history/history10.jpg)

1868 - Arthur Albion Libby began barreling beef; formed A. A, Libby & Company with brother, Charles Perly Libby; admitted Archibald McNeill to partnership; 1874 - name changed to Libby, McNeill and Libby in Chicago. IL; pioneered refrigeration, canning of meats; 1888 - acquired by Swift & Co.; 1900 - began canning fruits, vegetables; 1918 - spun off from Swift; June 8, 1920 - Libby, McNeill & Libby Corporation registered "Libby's" trademark first used 1894 ([fresh], prepared, [pickled, and] canned beef, [veal,] pork, [mutton, and] poultry and their products...); 1971 - canned fruit, vegetable business acquired by Nestle, annual sales close to $500 million, 1,300 workers in Chicago area; 1998 - canned meats division acquired by ConAgra.

1868 - Edouard Naegelin, Sr. (24) opened Naegelin's Bakery in New Braunfels, TX; January 1, 1924 - Edward and Laura Naegelin took over management; early 1980s - acquired by Granzin Family; oldest bakery in Texas.

June 16, 1868 - William Davis, fish dealer in Detroit, MI, received a patent for an "Improvement in Preserving Meats, etc." ("peculiar construction of a railroad-car, box, chest or room in which to preserve animal or vegetable substances from decay for a certain reasonable time, to allow them to be transported from place to place or kept in store in a sweet and fresh condition"); refrigerated railroad car; January 19, 1869 - received a patent for an "Improvement in Freezing-Box for Fish, etc." ("freezing-box or pan for freezing fish and meats").

1869- Henry John Heinz and L. Clarence Noble established Heinz & Noble in Sharpsburg, PA to bottle horseradish; 1875 - forced into bankruptcy; 1876 - established F. & J. Heinz (financial assistance from brother John, cousin Frederick), introduced tomato ketchup, six other products (celery sauce, pickled cucumbers, sauerkraut, vinegar); 1886 - Fortnum & Mason, England's leading food purveyor, accepted all seven products for distribution; 1888 - acquired controlling interest from brother, renamed H. J. Heinz; 1893 - introduced pickle pin at Chicago World's Fair; 1896 - introduced "57 Varieties" slogan; December 28, 1897 - Henry J. Heinz registered "Heinz" trademark first used June 1, 1893 (pickles, vinegar, sauces, catsups [horse radish ], prepared mustard, [mince-meat, preserves, jellies, marmalades, jams, and fruit butters]; March 5, 1907 - H. J. Heinz Corporation registered "57 Varieties" trademark first used in 1898; February 25, 1908 - H. J. Heinz Corporation registered "Heinz 57 Varieties Pure Food Products" trademark first used in May 1900; 1963 - acquired StarKist, "Charlie the Tuna" became national media star; 1965 - acquired Ore-Ida, transformed regional business into leading retail frozen potato brand in U.S.; 1978 - acquired Weight Watchers International, now largest weight-loss program in U.S.; 1987 - Anthony ('Tony') O'Reilly first non-Heinz family member named Chairman, President and CEO; 2002 - U.S. StarKist seafood, North American pet foods and pet snacks, U.S. private label soup, College Inn broth, U.S. baby food businesses acquired by Del Monte Foods Company.

1869. Henry John Heinz and L. Clarence Noble (front center, front right, respectively)  - founded Heinz & Noble (http://doclibrary.com/MFR66/CMM/relishing.jpg)

1869 - Joseph Campbell, fruit merchant, and Abraham Anderson, icebox manufacturer, formed Joseph A. Campbell Preserve Company in Camden, New Jersey, to produce canned tomatoes, vegetables, jellies, soups, condiments, minced meats; 1876 - Campbell bought Anderson's share of company; formed partnership with Arthur Dorrance; 1891 -renamed Jos. Campbell Preserve Company; 1897 - Dr. John T. Dorrance (24), chemist and nephew of company GM, joined company at token wage of $7.50 a week; invented condensed soup; eliminated water in canned soup, lowered costs for packaging, shipping, storage (volume of can of soup reduced from 32 ounces to approximately 10 ounces, and the price lowered from about 34 cents to a dime); October 31, 1905 - Joseph H. Campbell Company registered "Campbell's" trademark first used in 1898 (baked beans); September 1, 1910 - Heinz tomato soup went on sale in UK for first time, at Fortnum & Mason; 1914 - Dr. Dorrance named President; 1921 - company renamed Campbell Soup Company; 1931 - Arthur C. Dorrance (brother) succeeded as president.

Dr. Joseph Campbell, Abraham Anderson - Campbell Soup (http://careers.campbellsoupcompany.com/Styles/Sites/Campbells/Images/1869.jpg)

Dr. John T. Dorrance - Campbell Soup (http://careers.campbellsoupcompany.com/Styles/Sites/Campbells/Images/1897.jpg)

(http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~njcamden/arthurcdorrance.gif)

1869 - Charles Alfred (C. A.) Pillsbury (27) bought one-third interest in failing Minneapolis Flouring Mill for $10,000 (made profit within year); 1872 - produced 2,000 barrels of flour a day; reorganized company as C.A. Pillsbury and Company, made father and uncle partners; August 8, 1905 - registered trademark; 1889 - mills acquired by English financial syndicate, renamed Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills Company Ltd.; 1896 - produced 10,000-barrels-per-day; 1908 - entered bankruptcy (freight rates, poor harvest); Charles S. Pillsbury (son) reorganized company, renamed Pillsbury Flour Mills Company; June 27, 1923 - acquired all remaining assets from shareholders of Pillsbury-Washburn; 1927 - went public; 1940 - Philip W. Pillsbury (grandson) became president; 1944 - changed name to Pillsbury Mills, Inc.; 1979 - acquired Green Giant; October 1965 - introduced little dough-boy mascot; 1983 - acquired HagenDazs ice cream; 1984 - acquired Van de Kamp, seafood company; 1989 - acquired by Grand Metropolitan for $5.8 billion (8th largest food manufacturing company in world); 1997 - Grand Met merged with Guinness plc; formed Diageo plc; November 2001 - acquired by General Mills for $10.4 billion.

1869 - Gustav (24), Albert (21) Goelitz, immigrants from the Harz Mountain region of Germany, bought an ice cream and candy store in a Belleville, IL (above); Gustave made candy, Albert sold it from a horsedrawn wagon; 1897 - forced to sell business in wake of Panic of 1893; 1898 - Adolph (Gustave's son) established Goelitz Confectionery Co., candy making company, in Cincinnati, OH; Gus Jr. and Herman Goelitz (brothers) joined company; 1900 - made Candy Corn; 1922 - Herman opened Herman Goelitz Candy Co. in Oakland, CA; 1976 - Los Angeles candy distributor had idea for jelly bean made with natural flavorings; created first eight Jelly Belly flavors; 1978 - Goelitz Confectionary merged with Herman Goelitz Candy Co.; renamed Herman Goelitz, Inc.; 1980 - sold 1.4 billion jelly beans annually; August 3, 1982 - Herman Goelitz Candy Co. registered "Jelly Belly" trademark first used July 15, 1976 (Candy-Namely, Jelly Beans); April 2001 - Goelitz companies merged into Jelly Belly Candy Company; two factories produce 100,000 pounds of Jelly Belly beans a day, 1.25 million beans an hour; world's #1 gourmet jelly bean; Herm Rowland (Gustave's great grandson) as president.

Gustav Goelitz - Jelly Belly (http://www.germanheritage.com/biographies/atol/goelitz1.jpg)

June 10, 1869 - Machine-frozen food transported significant distance in U.S. for first time; frozen shipment of Texas beef (refrigeration equipment invented by John Gorrie) delivered via steamship ('Agnes') to New Orleans, LA; meat served in meals at hospitals, celebration banquets at hotels, restaurants.

October 20, 1869 - Hippolyte Mege-Mouries received a 15-year French patent for "Demande d'un Brevet d'Invention de Quinze Ans pour la Production de Certains Corps Gras d'Origine Animale" from French Ministry of Agriculture and Trade (processing, production of certain fats of animal origin (patent also registered in England); 1870 - won contest, held by Emperor Napoleon III, to find suitable substitute for butter used by French Navy; 1871 - invention acquired by Dutch firm Anton Jurgens (later Unilever) for 60000 Francs; April 12, 1872 - French government permitted commercial sale of margarine (after Felix Henri Boudet, French druggist retained by government, reported favorably on product); 1873 - Mege formed Societe Anonyme d'Alimentation; began production of formula with fatty component with pearly luster when mixed (named product after Greek word for pearl - margaritari); manufactured from tallow; December 30, 1873 - received American patent for "Improvement in Treating Animal Fats"; acquired by U.S. Dairy Company.

December 28, 1869 - William Finley Semple, of Mount Vernon, OH, received first patent for "Improved Chewing-Gum"; made of "the combination of rubber with other articles adapted to the formation of an acceptable chewing gum"; he never commercially produced gum.

1870 - Captain Lorenzo Dow Baker bought 160 bunches of bananas in Jamaica for a shilling per bunch, sold them in Jersey City for $2 each; joined Bostonian entrepreneur Andrew Preston to develop banana market in Boston; 1885 - established Boston Fruit Company; Preston took charge of tropical enterprises, Baker controlled management in Boston; 1899 - Minor Copper Keith, 50% owner of Snyder Banana Co. (produced bananas on 6,000 acres at Bocas del Toro, Panama), merged with Boston Fruit; controlled 75% of banana market in U.S.; March 30, 1899 - United Fruit Company established; 1944 -hired cartoonist Dik Browne (creator of Hagar the Horrible) to create cartoon based on Latin American singer, movie star Carmen Miranda; 1945 - character of Miss Chiquita Banana debuted in technicolor movie advertisement "Miss Chiquita Banana's Beauty Treatment" (sang to revive an exhausted housewife); April 12, 1949 - United Fruit Company registered "Chiquita Banana" trademark first used September 11, 1947 (fresh bananas); 1962 - created individual banana sticker label (small blue stickers with Chiquita logo affixed to fruit to promote consumption of its branded banana); 1969 - Eli Black acquired 733,000 shares in one trading day (3rd largest transaction in Wall Street history to date), became largest shareholder; March 1973 - Dole moved to first place in U. S. sales (45%) ahead of United Brands (35%); February 3, 1975 - Black committed suicide, jumped from 44th floor of Pan Am building in New York (SEC accused United Brands of bribing President of Honduras, Osvaldo Lopez Arellano ($1.25 million with promise of another $1.25 million later, in exchange for a reduction in export taxes); 1975 - Carl Lindner, one of biggest investors, became new President; 1989 - name changed to Chiquita Brands International Incorporated; 1990 - returned to number one banana importer (33% share of world's market), Dole (22%); June 10, 2005 - Wal-Mart, Chiquita's biggest U. S. customer, decreased its banana purchases = 33% decrease in Chiquita banana U. S. sales (cheaper bananas from competitors).

1870 - William Underwood & Co. received first U.S. food trademark registered by U.S. Patent Office, for red devil logo (for "deviled entremets"); 1895 - advertising with little red devil began to appear nationally; oldest existing trademark still in use in United States.

1870 - Pembroke Decatur Gwaltney, Sr., Confederate veteran, formed partnership with O.G. Delk (cousin), named Gwaltney and Delk; retail mercantile business sold cured and smoked hams, produced smoked ham known as "Smithfield Ham"; 1875 - Delk share acquired by Gwaltney (store, smokehouse, shed, wharf property); renamed "P.D. Gwaltney & Co."; 1880 - formed partnership, "Gwaltney, Chapman and Company"; set up peanut cleaning plant (peanut sorting, cleaning machines) and warehouse on Pagan Creek; 1882 - P.D. Gwaltney and P.D. Gwaltney, Jr. (21) went into business together; renamed P.D. Gwaltney and Sons (sold groceries, dry goods, general merchandising - fertilizer, fine Smithfield Hams as "specialties"); 1891 - with Augustus Bunkley incorporated Gwaltney-Bunkley Peanut Company in Norfolk, VA (returned to Smithfield after fire); 1902 - turned ham into promotional tool ("World's Oldest Smithfield Ham" still on display); 1911 - merged with American Peanut (Norfolk, VA), Bain Peanut (Wakefield, VA), formed American Peanut Corporation; 1914 - P.D. Gwaltney, Jr. took over; sold peanut factories to American Peanut Corporation; expanded ham industry (pork-processing operations); 1921 - fire wiped out local peanut industry; 1926 - Virginia enacted law defining Genuine Smithfield Meats as peanut-fed hogs raised in Virginia or North Carolina, cured in town limits; July 28, 1931 - P.D. Gwaltney Jr. & Co., Inc. registered "Gwaltney's Smithfield Ham" trademark first used in 1882 (cured meats-namely, hams); 1936 - Howard W. Gwaltney became president, Julius D. Gwaltney vice president, P.D. Gwaltney, III, secretary/treasurer and chairman; 1957 - name changed to "Gwaltney, Inc."; 1970 - merged with International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., renamed ITT Gwaltney Inc.; October 27, 1981 - acquired by Smithfield Foods, Inc.; name changed to Gwaltney of Smithfield, Ltd.

1871 - Charles Alfred Pillsbury, brother Fred, father George, uncle John Sargent Pillsbury founded C. A. Pillsbury & Co. in Minneapolis; November 19, 1940 - Pillsbury Flour Mills Company registered "Pillsbury's Best XXXX" trademark (flour made from wheat; brand first used January 1, 1873); 1989 - acquired by Grand Metropolitan PLC in $5.76 billion hostile takeover.

1871 - Dr. James Madison Dawson, his wife Eloise Jones Dawson, their son Thomas Dawson established first successful commercial canning operation in Santa Clara Valley (300 cases of peaches, apricots, pears, plums processed in woodshed in Dawson's backyard); 1872 - founded J. M. Dawson & Co.; 1875 - incorporated as San Jose Fruit Packing Company; 1889 - joined forces with 17 other small companies, formed California Fruit Canners Association; 1916 - Tom Dawson as general superintendent of California Packing Corporation (Del Monte premium brand); 1967 - name changed to Del Monte Corp.

1871 - Charles Schimpff (son of Gustav Schimpff, Sr., who had been making candy in Louisville since the 1850s) opened confectionary store in Jeffersonville, IN; April 11, 1891 - Gustav Schimpff, Sr. and Jr. established G.A. Schimpff's Confectionery in Jeffersonville in rented storefront; 1918 - Gus Jr. and wife Louisa Weber Schimpff primary owners; 1940s - Catherine and Wig Schimpff (grand children), and Sonny Schimpff (great grandson) became working partners; 1952 - Sonny took over as candy maker; 1990 - acquired from Catherine's estate by Warren Schimpff (grandson) and his wife, Jill Wagner Schimpff.

Gustav Schimpff, Sr. - G.A. Schimpff's Confectionery (http://www.schimpffs.com/images/GusSR.gif)

January 3, 1871 - Henry Bradley, of Binghamton, NY, received patent for "Improvement in Compounds for Culinary Use"; oleomargarine.

February 14, 1871 - Thomas Adams, of Hudson City, NJ, received patent for "Improvement in Chewing-Gum" ("method of producing the natural product 'chickly' to produce a chewing-gum"); first chicle-based chewing gum, "Adams' New York Gum No. 1 -- Snapping and Stretching" (from Sapodilla trees (introduced to it by exiled Mexican, former president and general, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in 1869). February 1871 - Adams New York Gum went on sale in drug stores for penny apiece; 1876 - glass merchant Thomas Adams, two sons, formed Adams Sons and Company; 1884 - added licorice flavoring, called Adams' Black Jack, first flavored gum in America; 1888 - introduced irst vending machines to United States, installed on elevated subway platforms in New York City, sold Tutti-Fruiti gum; 1899 - merged with six largest, best-known chewing gum manufacturers in United States and Canada (Beeman, Primley, S.T. Britten, Frank Fleer Company); formed monopoly, American Chicle Company; nation's most prosperous chewing gum company by end of century; achieved great success as the maker of Chiclets; 1962 - acquired by Warner-Lambert; 2002 - acquired by Cadbury Schweppes for $4.2 billion; 2004 -number one worldwide in confectionery (leader in functional confectionery, number two in chewing gum).

1872 - Christian Ditlev Ammentorp (D. A.) Hansen, Danish pharmacist from University of Copenhagen, awarded gold medal for chemical treatise (procedure to extract pure, standardized rennet enzyme from calves' stomachs, used to make cheese.); revolutionized production of dairy products; 1874 - established rennet factory in Copenhagen; 1878 - established processing plant in New York City; 1886 - introduced Junket brand (initially in form of rennet tablets); 1891 - built factory in Little Falls, NY; November 30, 1897 - Johan D. Frederiksen, vice-president and general manager of Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Little Falls, NY, registered "Junket" trademark" ("milk with rennet") first used April 1887 (preparations for coagulating or curdling milk); one of world's top 15 food ingredients companies; global market leader within enzymes for cheese production, bacterial cultures for cheese, yoghurt, wine and meat products, natural colors for the food and beverage industries and special products for the health food and agricultural industries.

1872 - Chocolates Arumi founded in Barcelona city of Vic, Spain; 1977 - acquired by Nederland Group, renamed Chocovic, S.A.; 2008 - annual sales of about EUR 60 million, 120 employees, made about 30,000 tons of chocolate, specialty products for industrial and artisanal customers; November 3, 2009 - signed agreement to be acquired by Barry Callebaut (Zurich, Switzerland).

July 9, 1872 - Captain John F. Blondel (Thomaston, ME) received a patent for "Improvement in Doughnut-Cutters", "an improved device for removing the dough from the cutter-tube automatically"; origin of doughnut as a deep-fried egg-batter pastry was from Holland with the Dutch name of olykoeks -- "oily cakes." 1847 - New England ship captain Hanson Gregory enjoyed his mother's pastries made using a deep-fried spiced dough; Elizabeth Gregory put hazelnuts or walnuts in the center, where the dough might not cook through ("doughnuts"); Captain Gregory claimed credit for originating the hole in the doughnut; originally cut hole using top of a round tin pepper box, made more uniform frying possible with increased surface area; commemorated by a bronze plaque at his hometown, Rockport, Maine.

April 8, 1873 - Alfred Paraf, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement in Purifying and Separating Fats"; first commercially successful margarine manufacturing process; federal and state taxes were levied when its success threatened butter sales.

November 4, 1873 - Anthony Iske, of Lancaster, PA, received a patent for "Machines for Slicing Dried Beef"; oblique knife in vertical sliding frame.

June 1, 1875 - Black American inventor Alexander P. Ashbourne, of Oakland, CA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Processes for Preparing Cocoa-Nut for Domestic Use"; November 30, 1875 - received a U.S. patent for a "Biscuit Cutter".

November 30, 1875 - Asmus J. Ehrrichson, of Akron, Ohio, received a patent for an "Oat-Meal Machine" ("process of converting the hulled kernels of oats into coarse meal"); oat-crushing machine.

November 30, 1875 - Alexander P. Ashbourne, of Oakland, CA, received a patent for "Biscuit-Cutters" ("molding-board, having hinged to one side or end a cover, which is provided with the desired shaped cutters upon its lower side"); plate closed over dough, allowed cutters to cut through dough, formed many shapes simultaneously.

1876 - Charles and Maxmillian Fleischmann introduced new yeast to 10 million visitors to Philadelphia's Centennial Exposition; February 14, 1922 - The Fleischmann Company registered "Fleischmann's" trademark first used January 1, 1876 (compressed yeast and yeast mixtures, adapted for use as food alone or for use in the making of bread and bread stuffs or other food products); June 1929 - absorbed four smaller corporations (Royal Baking Powder Company, E.W. Gillette Company Ltd. of Canada, The Widlar Food Products Company, Chase and Sanborn, Inc.); formed Standard Brands, Incorporated.

February 17, 1876 - Julius Wolff, of Wolff & Reessing, New York importers, produced the first canned sardines in Eastport, Maine; 1875 - established Eagle Preserved Fish Company; first year - 60,000 cans (not cases) packed and sold; 1880 - 18 factories operated; 1881-1898 - 23 sardine factories operated in Lubec, ME.

1878 - Giuseppe Citterio established Giuseppe Citterio S. p. A. in Milan, Italy; December 25, 1956 - Societa in Accomandita Giuseppe Citterio Corporation registered "Citterio il Salame Famoso in Tutto Ilmondo" (The Salami Which Is Famous Thgroughout the World) trademark (salamis).

1879 - Rudolph Lindt invented "conching" machine; improved quality, aroma of chocolate confectionery; rocked chocolate for 72 hours; improved flavor, attained high degree of smoothness (vs. coarse, gritty); smooth substance called "fondant" or "melting".

February 4, 1879 - John H. Heinz, of Sharpsburg, PA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Vegetable-Assorters" ("machines for assorting vegetables, fruits, pickles etc. according to their size").

February 27, 1879 - American chemists Ira Remsen, Constantine Fahlberg announced discovery of saccharin, artificial sweetener, at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD.

November 4, 1879 - Thomas Elkins, of Albany, NY, received a patent for a "Refrigerating Apparatus" ("apparatus or devices for chilling or cooling articles liable to decay").

1880 - Samuel Bath Thomas purchased bakery at 163 Ninth Avenue in Manhattan (arrived from England in 1876); featured Thomas' English muffins (unknown in England), baked on griddle instead of in oven; alternative to toast; 1922 - family incorporated S.B. Thomas, Inc. (after his death); August 3, 1926 - registered "Thomas'" trademark firsts used 1894 (bread); 1970 - acquired by CPC, food conglomerate; January 1, 1998 - renamed Bestfoods.

1880 - New York cheese distributor, A. L. Reynolds, began distributing cream cheese, produced by William Lawrence, of Chester, NY (had developed method of producing cream cheese in 1872, under Empire Company, while trying to reproduce French cheese called Neufchatel); 1903 - acquired by Phenix Cheese Corporation (Chicago); January 1928 - acquired by Kraft Cheese Company; 1930 - Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation acquired by National Dairy Products Corporation (formed in 1923 as merger of several dairy companies); 1940 - name changed to Kraft Cheese Company; December 16, 1941 - registered "Philadelphia Brand" trademark first used September 1, 1880 (cream cheese); 1945 - name changed to Kraft Foods Company; 1969 - National Dairy renamed Kraftco Corporation; 1976 - renamed Kraft, Inc.

February 2, 1880 - First shipment of frozen meat (exports of meat had previously been in tins) arrived in London from Melbourne, Australia (departed December 6, 1879); steamship SS Strathleven had been chartered, fitted with Bell and Coleman (of Glasgow) air compression/expansion refrigeration equipment; meat loaded from chill rooms in Sydney and Melbourne and frozen on board; arrived in excellent condition and sold well.

March 23, 1880 - John Stevens of Neenah, WI received patent for a "Grain-Crushing Roll"; grain crushing mill; allowed flour production to increase by 70% and for flour to sell for $2 per barrel.

July 27, 1880 - African-American inventor Alexander P. Ashbourne, of Boston, MA, received patent for "Refining Cocoanut Oil" ("so that it will keep sweet and fresh for many years").

1881 - Mathias Gedney began pickle company in Minneapolis, MN; made recipes for pickles, condiments; 1882 - delivered, sold directly from horse-driven "cash wagons"; 1893 - four sons involved in company; production exceeds annual 30,000 barrels of homemade, sweet, mixed and chow-chow, American and English-style pickles; 1903 - M.A. Gedney Company incorporated; October 30, 1906 - M. A. Gedney Pickling Co. registered "Gedney" trademark first used July 12, 1888 (pickles, [pickled onions, catsup, olives, chow-chow,] mustard, [pepper-sauce, chili sauce,] and vinegar); 1945 - Harry Tuttle II (son-in-law of Mathias Gedney son) became President; 1967 - Gedney Tuttle (son, started with company in 1942) named president of firm; 1992 - product distribution mainly through food brokers to wholesale distributors, chain stores; 1998 - Jeff Tuttle (grandson) named President; 2000 - acquired Cains Foods pickle business, trademark, began producing pickles throughout New England; 2002 - began production of Del Monte, Target Archer Farms pickles; 2008 - produced more than 20 million jars/year of 78 products; state's oldest food company with one primary product.

1881 - Valeriano Lopez Lloret founded small family business, Chocolates Valor, in Spain; 1891- Don Vicente Lopez Soler (son of Done Valeriano Lopez Lloret) took charge, carried on with agriculture activity; 1916 - capstan mill, large wheel moved by team of horses, replaced simple grindstone; 1930 - diesel motor replaced team of horses on capstan mill; sales no longer made directly to families, channelled through shops and businesses; 1935 - electricity; 1942 - Don Pedro Lopez Mayor took over, formed partnership Don Valeriano Lopez (brother); 1950 - Don Valeriano Lopez Lloret, cousin of founders, grandson of first chocolate maker, joined company; 1953 - incorporated "Valeriano and Pedro Lopez SRC; 1963 - built new factory, on 6,000 square meter plot of land, in Les Mediasses, Villajoyosa; 1968 - installed first automatic moulding, demoulding equipment (factory production capacity at 10,000 kilograms per 8-hour day); launched 'Pure Chocolate' to highlight its rejection of use of vegetable fats as substitute for cocoa butter; became key product of company; 1973 - went public; November 27, 1984 - Valeriano Y Pedro Lopez, S.A.b registered "Valor" trademark in U.S. (Chocolates, Candy Bars of Chocolate and Cocoa); September 1987 - invested over 300 million pesetas (over 1.8 million euros) in first phase of modernization plan; opened first Valor Chocolate Shop, start of first chocolate shop franchise in Spain, in Villajoyosa; November 16, 1990 - opened new plant ion second phase of modernization (invested over 400 million pesetas - over 12 million euros); most modern chocolate factory in Spain; September 29, 1995 - added new extension to plant (occupied total surface area of 22,000 square meters); 2002 - launched commercial subsidiary Valor USA Inc. to distribute product in Central, North American markets.

Don Valeriano Lopez Lloret - Valor Chocolates (http://www.valorchocolate.com/img/about/1881.jpg)

July 8, 1881 - Edward Berner, druggist of Two Rivers, WI, served first ice cream sundae -- by acciden; put ice cream in dish, poured flavoring syrup, for soda water, on top (not allowed on Sundays).

1882 - George Weston (18), Toronto baker's apprentice, acquired bread route from his employer for $200; 1896 - established "Weston's Model Bakery"; eventually expanded to Montreal, Winnipeg; 1910 - merged with other major Toronto bakers, formed Canada Bread Company for $1 million Canadian; signed 10-year non-compete agreement; 1921 - reentered bread business with purchase of H.C. Tomlin bread bakery; 1928 - Garfield Weston (son) incorporated company as George Weston Limited, went public; 1935 - established operations in United Kingdom; incorporated Associated British Foods plc (seven bakery subsidiaries); 1938 - facilities, resources to produce 370 varieties of candy, 100 types of biscuits; 1943 - acquired papermaker E.B. Eddy; 1944 - entered food distribution with purchase of Western Grocers; 1953 - gained majority control of Loblaw, food retailer, distributor; 1978 - Loblaw launched No Name private label (low prices, clean and simple packaging, high quality); 1984 - Loblaws introduced premium private label called President's Choice; 1986 - food processing operations consolidated within umbrella subsidiary called Weston Foods Ltd. (baking and milling, biscuits, chocolate, dairy, specialty products, providing food and ingredients both to intermediate processors and directly to consumers); 1990s - divestment, return to core competencies, reduced company to majority ownership of Loblaw and food processing businesses, focused on bakery products, cookies, milk, fish; December 1998 - Loblaws acquired Provigo for $890 million Canadian, gained number one supermarket chain in Quebec, Canada-wide retail network, dominating 40% nationwide market share; 1999 - sales rose 41% to $20.85 billion Canadian; 2003 - sales of $29.2 billion Canadian.

George Weston - George Weston Limited (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/George_weston_1899.jpg)

1882 - William Purvis brought macadamia seeds from Queensland to US Territory of Hawaii, planted seedlings on big island, Hawaii, at Kapulena near Waipi'o Valley; cultivated in Australia during mid 1800s by Scottish doctor (died at sea traveling from Australia to New Zealand), John Macadam; 1857 - botanist friend, Baron Ferdinand von Muller, first described tree botanically; earned right to name it - chose "Macadamia" in honor of his friend, Macadam.

1882 - Lithuanian Jewish immigrants, Isaac (24) and Joseph Breakstone (Breakstone Bros., Inc.), opened small dairy store at 135 Madison Street on New York's lower east side; sold full dairy line including cottage cheese, sour cream, cream cheese; 1896 - started wholesale butter business under name Breakstone Brothers at 29 Jay Street, Brooklyn; 1928 - acquired by National Dairy Products Corporation; 1940 - name changed to Kraft Cheese Company; August 6, 1957 - National Dairy Products Corporation registered "Breakstone's" trademark first used in 1884 (butter, sour cream, cheese); 1976 - renamed Kraft, Inc.

1883 - German immigrant Oscar F. Mayer and his brother, Gottfried, leased Kolling Meat Market, small retail store in German neighborhood on Chicago's near north side; 1904 - branded its meats (put name on products); 1919 - name changed to Oscar Meyer & Co.; 1924 - introduced packaged sliced bacon (December 19, 1967 - patent for "Method of Preparing Packaged Sliced Bacon" assigned to company); May 9, 1939 - registered "Oscar Mayer" trademark first used January 1, 1885 (meats and meat products); September 29, 1942 - registered 'Little Oscar' trademark (meat products -namely, sausage, ham bacon, beef loaves and meat loaves); goodwill ambassador dressed as a chef who would drive his sausage-shaped WIENERMOBILE to store openings, children's hospitals, and other locations throughout the Chicago area; 1963 - "The Oscar Mayer Wiener Jingle" made radio debut; 1981 - acquired by General Foods.

Oscar F. Meyer (http://illinoisreview.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/oscarfmayer88_edited_1.jpg)

1883 - J. Allen Smith (from Elberton, GA), organized, built City Mills, later called J. Allen Smith & Co., grain business, in Knoxville, TN; began milling a soft-wheat flour; named it for his wife, Lillie; produced 100 barrels of flour, 200 bushels of cornmeal a day; became known as the Sunday flour; only major brand in United States milled entirely from soft winter wheat (contains less gluten than hard wheat), flakier biscuits and piecrusts; best-selling flour in southeastern United States; 1920 - Powell Smith (son) became owner; 1968 - acquired by Great Western United Corp.; 1972 - acquired by Dixie-Portland Flour Mills (Memphis); 1988 - 68.5% of retail market in Knoxville, fourth-largest-selling brand of flour nationally; 1989-1995 - five ownership changes; 1995 - acquired by H. Guenther & Son Inc. (San Antonio); 2006 - White Lily brand name acquired by J. M. Smucker Company (H. Guenther & Son Inc. continues as owner of mill, supplier of White Lily products); March 2008 - Smucker ended supply agreement; June 30, 2008 - mill closed.

February 5, 1884 - Black American inventor Willis Johnson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, received patent for an "Egg-Beater"; designed so that eggs, batter and similar ingredients used by bakers or confectioners could be mixed intimately efficiently.

May 20, 1884 - Lockrum Blue, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Hand Corn-Shelling Device" ("for rapidly and effectually removing the grain from ears of corn").

1885 - Brothers Pierre and Marius Barnier established artisan confectionary company in Rouen, France; produced bonbons under name of Bonbons Suisse; 1900 - acquired by Eugene Callet, wholesaler in confections in Nantes, renamed Bonbons Barnier; 1930 - first machines to wrap bonbons; introduced filled candies; 1969 -created 'mini bonbon'; 2007 - managed by fourth Callet generation.

1885 - John Baptist Caito and family started Western Fish Company in Pittsburg, CA; processed salmon caught in in Sacramento River; 1906 - earthquake destroyed production facility; formed California Western Fish Company; 1975 - fourth-generation Caito Brothers (Joe, Jim & John) took over operation; process millions of pounds of crab, cod, snapper, salmon at five locations along West Coast.

1885 - Farmer Arthur Charles Wilkin, two friends formed Britannia Fruit Preserving Company; made first batch of strawberry jam in Tiptree, Essex, UK; 1901 - 8,000 customers; 1905 - renamed Wilkin & Sons Limited; 1911 - King George V awarded Royal Warrant; 1913 - Charles J. Wilkin (son) became Chairman; 1920 - sales exceeded £100,000, over 200,000 customers; 1942 - T.G. Wilkin appointed director, A. F. Wilkin appointed chairman; September 30, 1952 - Wilkin & Sons Limited registered "Tiptree" trademark first used 1904 (fruit conserves, Jams, Marmalades, preserved fruits, fruit preserves, and vegetable preserves and honey and chutney); 1954 - HM the Queen awarded Royal Warrant for supply of Jam & Marmalade; 1971 - Peter Wilkin (great-grandson) appointed director; 1980 - sales exceeded £5million, exports to over 50 countries; 2009 - more than 200 full-time employees.

Arthur Charles Wilkin - Tiptree (http://tiptreegardenclub.com/images/wilkin.jpg)

1886 - Milton Hershey founded Lancaster Caramel Company in Lancaster, PA; 1894 - produced sweet chocolate as coating for caramels; called new subsidiary Hershey Chocolate Company; August 10, 1900 - Lancaster Caramel Company acquired for $1 million by The American Caramel Company; produced low-cost, high-quality milk chocolate in bars, wafers, other shapes; March 2, 1903 - ground breaking for new chocolate factory in Derry Church, PA (renamed Hershey in 1906); 1905 - town of Hershey took shape; June 19, 1906 - Milton S. Hershey (dba Hershey Chocolate Company) registered "Hershey's" trademark first used January 1, 1894 (chocolate, cocoa, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate coatings, chocolate liquors, and chocolate powder); July 1, 1907 - produced flat-bottomed, conical milk chocolate candy, named Hershey's Kisses Chocolates; November 15, 1909 - deeded 486 acres of farm land to Hershey Trust Company for creation of orphan boys' school; November 13, 1918 - gave $60 million in Hershey Chocolate Company stock to trust; March 6, 1923 - Hershey Chocolate Co. registered 'Hershey's Milk Chocolate Kisses' trademark first used July 1, 1907 (chocolates) and Hershey's Kisses" (solid chocolates); 1969 - sales of $334 million; 2004 - sales of $4.4 billion.

Milton Hershey - chocolate (http://www.hersheypa.com/about_hershey/our_proud_history/images/ featureMiltonHershey.jpg)

1886 - Alphonse Biardot, French immigrant, founded Franco-American Food Company with his two sons as commercial kitchen in Jersey City, NJ; featured French foods; line of canned soup and pasta particularly successful; 1921 - acquired by Campbell Soup; November 15, 1955 - registered "Franco-American" trademark first used in May 1911 (spaghetti, spaghetti sauce, macaroni, and beef gravy); November 19, 2004 - name discontinued.

1886 - David L. Clark opened D. L. Clark Company candy business in Pittsburgh, PA; 1917 - introduced first five-cent candy bar, Clark bar; honeycombed ground roasted peanuts, covered with milk chocolate.

1886 - Del Monte Brand first appeared, property of Tillman & Bendel, Oakland-based firm, which used it for blend of coffee prepared for luxury Hotel Del Monte in Monterey, CA; later used by Oakland Preserving Company; 1889 - Marco Fontana, Italian immigrant, Antonio Cerruti founded California Fruit Canners Association (Oakland Preserving Company, San Jose Fruit Packing Company, 15 others); set purchase prices for crops that challenged those set by growers' cooperatives; canneries soon became largest food processing corporation in world; marketed premium brand under Del Monte label; January 1, 1918 - California Packing Corporation registered "Del Monte" trademark first used October 1, 1891 (canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned fish, tomato sauce, catsup, peppers, sauerkraut, dried fruits, raisins).

April 1886 - Charles F. Moore, started St. Clair Rock Salt Co. in St. Clair, MI; May 1886 - renamed Diamond Crystal Salt Company; used Alberger process to make flake salt instead of granule or cube salt (99.99% pure sodium chloride vs. 99.95% for granule salt); produced unique-shaped crystals with numerous facets, extraordinary adherence, blendability, flavor; October 19, 1886 - Horace Williams, John L. Alberger and Louis R. Alberger, of Buffalo, NY, received a patent for the "Manufacture of Salt" ("process of making salt from brine and the apparatus used, it being especially adapted to the manufacture of fine salt and to the saving of fuel usually employed"); April 9, 1889 - received a patent for an "Apparatus for the Manufacture of Salt"; September 19, 1905 - registered "Diamond Crystal Salt" trademark first used November 1, 1886 (table and dairy salt); 1929 - acquired by General Foods; 1953 - reacquired by Moore family; 1987 - acquired by Akzo Nobel Salt; 1997 - acquired by Cargill.

1887 - Southern Cotton Oil Company incorporated in New Jersey to consolidate, carry on business of number of cottonseed crushing works, refineries located in Southern States; 1899 - David Wesson, company chemist, developed process for deodorizing cottonseed oil through high-temperature vacuum process; first commercial all-vegetable shortening marketed as Snowdrift; 1920s - vegetable oil division spun off as Wesson Oil & Snowdrift Company; January 3, 1922 - The Southern Cotton Oil Company registered "Wesson 22" trademark first used September 3, 1903 (prepared fatty oleaginous or unctuous food substances); registered "Wesson 44" first used September 1901 (prepared fatty oleaginous or unctuous food substances); registered "Wesson 77" (prepared fatty oleaginous or unctuous food substances); registered "Wesson 88" first used September 1901 (prepared fatty oleaginous or unctuous food substances); 1960 - merged with Hunt's Foods, Inc., became Hunt-Wesson Foods; acquired by Beatrice Foods; 1990 - acquired by ConAgra.

1887 - E. K. White purchased mill in Chelsea, MI (family had been milling flour in Michigan, Indiana, Kansas as early as 1802); 1901 - incorporated as Chelsea Milling Company; 1908 - acquired by Harmon S. Holmes (H.S. Holmes Mercantile); 1930 - Mabel Holmes (E.K. White's daughter) created new product, premixed blend of flour, baking powder, other ingredients; named "Jiffy"; 1936 - Mabel Holmes, twin sons took over; July 13, 1948 - Chelsea Milling Company registered "Jiffy" trademark first used in 1930 (biscuit mix, pie crust); fourth largest maker of prepackaged baking mixes in United States; Jiffy among top three sellers in every category of mix the company made, captured % of corn muffin mix sales nationwide.

1887 - Don Nicola De Cecco and brothers started pasta enterprise (molino, mill, later pastificio, pasta factory) in small village of Fara San Martino, located at foot of Mount Maiella (Italy); created new "low temperature" pasta (dried in 24 hours, vs. sun dried); 1908 - country girl from Abruzzo with wheat stacks became company's trademark; 1986 - established "Olive Oil Company", first step toward product diversification.

1888 - Rabbi Dov Behr Manischewitz opened small Matzo bakery in Cincinnati, OH; 1932 - built second factory in Jersey City, NJ; 1940 - produced first Tam Tam cracker, initial departure from line of matzo products; signed licensing arrangement, began to sell wines throughout country; July 10, 1956 - B. Manischewitz Company registered "Manischewitz" trademark first used in March 1936 (wines); 1990 - acquired by Kohlberg & Company and Manischewitz management for $42.4 million; 1998 - acquired by R.A.B. Holdings; August 2004 - name changed to RAB Food Group, LLC; August 2007 - acquired by Harbinger Capital Partners.

1888 - Irish immigrant Patrick Cudahy opened Cudahy Bros. Co., meatpacking plant, in Milwaukee, WI; 1957 - name changed; 1971 - Bluebird Inc. Philadelphia, PA); 1980 - Bluebird acquired by England's Northern Foods; 1984 - Patrick Cudahy acquired by Smithfield Foods (Smithfield, VA); January 1987-April 1989 - United Food & Commercial Workers Local P-40, representing more than 700 slaughter, processing, packing employees, went on strike after rejecting contract concessions.

March 6, 1888 - Max Sielaff, of Berlin, Germany, received a U.S. patent (German Letters Patent received on August 18, 1887) for a "Vending Apparatus" ("...apparatuses containing a potable liquor or certain articles-such as cigars, newspapers, and others-and which can be put in operation with the introduction of a coin of determinate size and the subsequent movement of a handle, so as to deliver a measured quantity of the liquor or one of the articles contained in the apparatus"); vending machine.

1889 - Willoughby M. McCormick (25), staff (two girls, boy) founded McCormick & Company in one room, cellar in Baltimore, MD; root beer, flavoring extracts, fruit syrups, juices -first products; 1896 - entered spice market; 1926 - stock offered to wholesale grocers; 1932 - Charles P. McCormick (nephew) elected President, Chairman; 1961 - sales topped $50 million; 1969 - sales surpassed $100 million; 1980 - sales surpassed $500 million; 1987 - Charles P. McCormick, Jr., elected President, CEO; sales of $1 billion; 2003 - added to Standard and Poor's 500 Index; August 2008 - acquired, with Adolph's Meat Tenderizer, Lawry's, dominant in market for branded seasoned salt products, for $605 million (forced by FTC to spin off Season-All line, with $18 million in sales, to Morton International Inc. for $15 million).

1889 - Chris Rutt, newspaperman, Charles Underwood, of Pearl Milling Company, developed Aunt Jemima, first ready-mixed, self-rising pancake flour; 1890 - acquired by R. T. Davis Milling Company; April 29, 1890 - Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Co. (St. Joseph, MO) registered "Aunt Jemima" trademark first used November 27, 1889 (self-raising flour); hired Nancy Green as spokeswoman; 1914 - company renamed Aunt Jemima Mills Company; 1926 - acquired by Quaker Oats Company.

1889 - Alfred E. Green put $16 deposit property on Skeena Slough to participate in salmon boom of late 1800s after Inverness, first cannery, opened in 1876; 1903 - acquired by Cassiar Packing Company (Caspaco); longest consecutively operating cannery on West Coast; 1905 - 12 canneries operated near mouth of Skeena River; 1914 - Grand Trunk Railroad connected Skeena canneries, offered new method of transport from traditional boats or walking, connected Prince Rupert with rest of Canada; 1920s - number of Skeena canneries began to drop; 1959 - Departments of Highways built road terminating at Cassiar, linked canneries with Highway 16; 1960s - only 3 operational canneries left; 1980s - last operating salmon cannery on Skeena River; 2006 - underwent restoration, diversified into conservation economy.

January 5, 1889 - Word hamburger first appeared in print in Walla Walla, Washington, newspaper (according to date given in Oxford English Dictionary); named after German food called hamburg steak (from Hamburg Germany), form of pounded beef; 1902 - first description of hamburg steak close to American conception of hamburger, gave recipe calling for ground beef mixed with onion, pepper.

1890 - Adolphus Green formed American Biscuit & Manufacturing Co. in Chicago (combined approximately 40 midwestern bakeries); William Moore united Pearson, Bent, six other eastern bakeries into New York Biscuit Company; 1898 - Green and Moore merged companies plus United States Baking Company, formed National Biscuit Co. (Nabisco).

1890 - Joseph and William Hunt incorporated Hunt Brothers Fruit Packing Company in Santa Rosa, CA; 1943 - merged Val Vita Food Products, formed new company, Hunt Foods, headed by Norton Simon; 1956 - renamed Hunt Foods and Industries to reflect company's diversification; 1960 - merged with Wesson Oil and Snowdrift Company; 1964 - combined sales exceeded $400 million, company renamed Hunt-Wesson Foods.

1891 - Kennedy Biscuit Works (Cambridge, MA) created "Newtons" in honor of Newton, MA (after Philadelphia baker James Henry Mitchell invented machine which combined hollow cookie crust with jam filling); July 7, 1914 - Kraft Foods Holdings, Inc. registered "Fig Newtons" trademark first used September 1, 1892 (biscuit).

1891 - William Wrigley Jr. (29) sold Wrigley's Scouring Soap in Chicago; 1892 - sold baking powder, offered two packages of chewing gum, as sales incentive, with each can (premium, chewing gum, seemed more promising than the product it was supposed to promote); marketed first two brands of chewing gum, Lotta and Vassar, under his name; 1893 - introduced Juicy Fruit and Spearmint; December 1903 - incorporated in Illinois; November 1910 - reincorporated (under West Virginia law) as Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; 1914 - introduced Doublemint gum (1939 - introduced "Doublemint Twins" in advertising); June 29, 1915 - Juicy Fruit chewing gum trademark registered; 1920 - made 9 billion sticks of gum per year, world's largest advertiser of a single product; 1924 - Wrigley Building on North Michigan Avenue completed; October 1927 - reincorporated under same name under Delaware law; October 6, 2008 - acquired by Mars, Incorporated ($22 billion in sales) for $23 billion (included financing from Berkshire Hathaway, holding company run by Warren Buffett) as separate, stand-alone subsidiary; six core growth categories -- chocolate, non-chocolate confectionery, gum, food, drinks, petcare.

February 7, 1891 - Bartlett Arkell, Walter H. Lipe, David Zielley, Jr., John D. Zielley, and Raymond P. Lipe incorporated Imperial Packing Co. in Canajoharie, NY (latter three left in few months); family business, smoking ham and bacon; products called "Beech-Nut" brand (to evoke feeling of wholesomeness, freshness, purity of the country); 1898 - company reorganized, name changed to Beech-Nut Packing Co.; 1911 - peppermint gum introduced; December 31, 1912 - Beech-Nut Packing Company registered "Beech-Nut" trademark first used in 1899 (cured ham, bacon, beef and myriad other food products); 1931 - 13 varieties of strained baby foods introduced; first company to put baby food in glass jars (vs, lead-soldered metal cans); 1938 - chopped ("junior") foods launched; early 1950s - demand for baby food increased 98% in three years; 1956 - merged with Life Savers; 1968 - merged with Squibb, Inc.; 1973 - acquired by Baker Corporation; 1977 - name changed to Beech-Nut Foods Corporation; November 1979 - acquired by Nestle S.A.; February 1982 - name changed to Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation; 1989 - acquired by Ralston Purina Company; 1994 - spun-off to form Ralcorp Holdings, Inc.; September 1998 - acquired by The Milnot Company (privately held, St. Louis manufacturer of branded and private-label food products).

Portrait of Bartlett Arkell Bartlett Arkell - Beech-Nut Foods (http://www.arkellmuseum.org/sites/default/files/11b30b4bec67e675f0f2a277ce1b3c12.jpg)

June 1891 - F. Schumacher Milling Company (founded 1856 by Ferdinand Schumacher as German Mills American Oatmeal Company) consolidated operations with Hower Oatmeal Company, Quaker Milling company, Cereal Milling Company, Rockford Oatmeal Milling Company, Iowa City Oatmeal Company, formed The American Cereal Company (capitalization of $3.4 million) in Akron, OH; 'oatmeal trust' - represented about 85% of oatmeal output in U.S.; 1901 - Ferdinand Schumacher (The American Cereal Company), Henry Parsons Crowell (Quaker Mill Company, founded in September 1877 by Henry D. Seymour and William Heston [received a patent for an "Oatmeal-Machine" on June 8, 1880], acquired by Crowell, James H. Andrews for $25,000 in 1881), Robert Stuart (Stuart, Higley, Douglas families established North Star Oatmeal Mills in Cedar Rapids. IA in 1874) combined their companies, founded Quaker Oats Company; Robert Stuart as CEO; 1907 - reorganized as operating company; June 26, 1906 - American Cereal Company registered "Quaker" trademark first used in September 1877 (oatmeal, rolled oats, [cracked wheat, rolled wheat,] farina, hominy grits, pearled barley, [prepared rice,] and breakfast foods); 1926 - acquired Aunt Jemima Mills Company; October 16, 1951 - registered "Shot From Guns" trademark first used in 1909 (puffed wheat and puffed rise, for human consumption); August 2001 - acquired by Pepsico.

Ferdinand Schumacher - Quaker Oats (http://www.quakeroats.com/Libraries/articles-about-quaker-oats/callout-about-quaker-history1850.sflb.ashx)

June 16, 1891 - George A. Hormel, son of German immigrants, founded Geo. A. Hormel & Company as small retail store in Austin, MN; first plant in abandoned creamery located on banks of Red Cedar River; 1941 - nearly 4,500 employees, $74.6 million in sales; August 22, 1950 - registered "Spam" trademark first used May 11, 1937 (canned meat product, consisting primarily of pork chopped and molded in loaf form in the can); December 1984 - members of United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW) Local P-9 initiated campaign against wage, benefit concessions demanded by management; 1,700 workers struck; spring 1986 - International union placed local in receivership; 1991 - name changed to Hormel Foods Corporation.

May 31, 1892 - Lea & Perrins Firm registered "Lea & Perrins Worchestershire Sauce" trademark first used 1874 (Sauce for Roast Meats, Steaks, Cutlets, Chops, Fish, Curries, Gravies, Game, and Soup).

1893 - Quaker City Confectionery Company in Philadelphia first produced GOOD & PLENTY candy; oldest branded candy in United States; June 12, 1928 - registered "Good and Plenty" trademark first used September 1908 (candy); 1950 - Choo Choo Charlie, engineer who fueled his train with GOOD & PLENTY Candy, first appeared in advertisements; 1973 - acquired by Warner Lambert; 1982 - acquired by Beatrice Foods; 1983 - acquired by Huhtamaki Oy; 1996 - acquired by Hershey Foods.

1893 - Halls Brothers formed in Britain, originally to sell soap and jams; broadened to candy products.

1893 - Joseph Fralinger, former glassblower and fish merchant, opened retail store on the Boardwalk in Atlantic City, NJ; 1894 - added taffy concession (sold on Boardwalk since 1880), perfected Salt Water Taffy formula (used molasses, then chocolate and vanilla, reached 25 flavors); grew to six locations; packed one pound oyster boxes with Salt Water Taffy (first "Atlantic City Souvenir"); 1905 - Enoch James, former employee of large candy companies throughout country, entered business (had developed high quality recipe that would not pull out teeth, eliminated stickiness that made taffy stick to wrapper); August 28, 1923 - Theo. J. Lapres, Inc. (Fralinger son-in-law) registered "Fralinger's" trademark first used December 1894 (salt-water taffy); January 14, 1930 - registered "Fralinger's Original Salt Water Taffy" first used in 1894 (salt water taffy); January 19, 1932 - James' Inc. Corporation registered "James' Sealed" trademark first used May 24, 1929 (confections-namely, candies); 1947 - James' Candy Co. acquired by Glaser family (owners, operators of Dairy Maid stores); 1991 - Fralinger's Salt Water Taffy acquired by James' Candy Company; fifth generation-owned family business; produce 11,000 pounds of taffy/day in summer.

June 16, 1893 - F.W. (Frederick William) Rueckheim and Brother introduced a popcorn, peanuts, and molasses confection at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago's First World Fair; 1896 - Louis Rueckheim , F.W.'s brother and partner, discovered process for keeping molasses-covered popcorn from sticking together; gave treat to a salesman who exclaimed, "That's crackerjack!"; November 26, 1907 - Rueckheim Bros. and Eckstein Corporation registered "Cracker Jack" trademark first used Januaary 1906 (candied popcorn); 1908 - Jack Norworth wrote lyrics to "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" during a 30-minute subway ride (Albert Von Tilzer composed the music); song's third line immortalized rand: "Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack"; 1912 - introduced "A Prize in Every Box" with toys inserted into every package; June 1919 - Sailor Jack and his dog, Bingo, first appeared on packages (modeled after F.W. Rueckheim's young grandson, Robert); April 14, 1925 - Cracker Jack Co. registered "Cracker Jack" trademark (candies pop corn with sailor and dog logo); 1964 - acquired by  Borden; 1997 - acquired by Frito-Lay.

August 1, 1893 - Henry D. Perky and William H. Ford, of Watertown, NY, received a patent for a "Machine for the Preparation of Cereals for Food" (the economic reduction of cereals in the grain state to desirable forms of food without detracting from their natural nutritious qualities and virtue and for the better preparation of the same for more convenient and general use"); May 29, 1894 - received a patent for a "Machine for the Manufacture of Food Products from Cereals" ("practical and efficient machine for the treatment of cereals whereby they may be economically converted into a wholesome food production a desirable and convenient form"); June 26, 1894 - received a patent for a "Machine for the Manufacture of Food Products from Cereals" ("production of a simple, efficient, and practical machine for the reduction of cereals into an edible, wholesome and palatable food product in a convenient and desirable form"); all patents assigned to The Cereal Machine Company (Colorado).

August 29, 1893 - Sixty independent orange growers formed Southern California Fruit Exchange, union of local associations into general cooperative (at urging of T.H.B. Chamblin, manager of Pachappa Orange Growers Association in Riverside), to market their fruit (citrus acreage grew from 3,000 to more than 40,000 acres between 1880-1893); 1905 - incorporated as California Fruit Growers Exchange; April 1908 - Exchange's advertising agency, Lord & Thomas, adopted 'Sunkist' for new name in ad campaigns; $7,000 advertising campaign launched in Iowa; orange sales increased 50%; January 30, 1912 - California Fruit Growers Exchange Corporation registered "Sunkist" trademark first used on May 10, 1908 (lemons); February 1952 - name changed to Sunkist Growers, Inc.; 2008 - not-for-profit marketing cooperative entirely owned, operated for 6,000 California, Arizona citrus growers; one of ten largest marketing cooperatives in America, largest fruit and vegetable cooperative in world.

October 6, 1893 - Diamond Milling Company, Grand Forks, ND, owned by Emery Mapes, George Bull, George Clifford, created Cream Of Wheat (named by Fred Clifford, Sr. because the product was so white), a hot cereal, a porridge product using farina, during the economic depression of that year; Emery Mapes created Rastus, African American chef used on logo for skillet, woodcut image of Cream of Wheat chef, on box; January 23, 1900 - Cream of Wheat Company (Minneapolis, MN) registered "Cream of Wheat" trademark first used March 1, 1895 (breakfast-foods, including rolled wheat, cracked wheat, wheat grits, wheat-farina, and purified middlings); 1920s - replaced by face of Chicago waiter who was paid five dollars to pose in chef's hat, jacket; 1962 - acquired by National Biscuit Company Grocery Division; 2000 - Nabisco Holdings acquired by Kraft Foods' parent company, Philip Morris Companies, Inc.; February 25, 2007 - acquired (with Cream of Rice) by subsidiaries of B&G Foods, Inc. from Kraft Foods Global, Inc., for $200 million (2006 sales of $60 million).

1894 - William H. Danforth (bookkeeper), George Robinson, William Andrews formed Robinson-Danforth Commission Company, with a capital investment of $12,000, to manufacture horse and mule feed made from crushed grains; May 26, 1896 - tornado destroyed company's milling facility; Danforth borrowing $10,000 to build new mill; became majority shareholder (bought Andrews shares); 1898 - entered human foods market with Purina ( 'Where purity is paramount') Whole Wheat Cereal, line of whole-wheat breakfast cereals; renamed 'Ralston Wheat Cereal' after endorsed by human-diet guru Dr. Ralston (Webster Edgerly - had begun program called Ralstonism, from RALSTON anagram: Regime, Activity, Light, Strength, Temperation, Oxygen and Nature); 1902 - merged with Ralston Cereal Company (founded 1900), renamed Ralston Purina Company, Checkerboard as Ralston's trademark; March 5, 1907 - registered "Purina" trademark first used October 1, 1893 (cornmeal, wheat-flour, cereal breakfast food, and pancake-flour); May 7, 1907 - registered "Ralston" trademark first used March 1, 1895 (cereal breakfast food); December 12, 2001 - merged with Nestle Holdings, Inc. in $10.3 billion transaction.

Albert Webster Edgerly - Dr Ralston (Ralston Purina) (http://oddbooks.co.uk/files/images/edgerly/edgerly.jpg)

1894 - George Everett Haskell, William W. Bosworth formed Haskell & Bosworth in Beatrice, NE; sold poultry, eggs, butter, produce; began producing creamery butter provided by local farmers; 1898 - incorporated as Beatrice Creamery Company in Lincoln, NE; (had been originally founded in  1882 but had failed); 1899 - Bosworth lect company; November 12, 1901 - adopted "Meadow Gold" as trademark; 1913 - moved to Chicago; September 1919 - W. H. ferguson named presidxent; August 7, 1923 - Beatrice Creamery Company registered "Meadow Gold" first used September 28, 1922 (cheese); January 15, 1924 - registered "Beatrice" trademark firt use March 1, 1910 (ice cream); 1943 - acquired La Choy; 1946 - name changed to Beatrice Foods Co.; 1957 - established grocery division; 1973 - acquired Samsonite luggage; 1976 - acquired Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation (acquired in 1982 by group of franchisees, led by Joseph A. McAleer Sr.); 1984 - name changed to Beatrice Companies, Inc.; 1985 - acquired Norton Simon, Inc.; 1990 - acquired by ConAgra.

1894 - Austria-Hungarian immigrants Emil Reichel, Sam Ladany opened first Vienna Sausage Co. store on Chicago's Near West Side at 417 S. Halsted Ave.; 1900 - marketed, sold products to other stores, restaurants around Chicago; 1984 - acquired Chicago Pickle Company, added condiments to product mix; 2004 - entered Guinness Book of World Records with longest hot dog ever-37 feet and 2 inches.

1895 - Charles William (C.W.) Post developed, produced his first product, Postum cereal beverage (coffee substitute); named company Postum Ltd.; 1897 - developed Grape-Nuts cereal (nutty flavor of nuggets), part of new ready-to-eat breakfast food industry in United States; June 14, 1898 - registered "Grape-Nuts" trademark first used December 1, 1897 (cooked or prepared cereal food for human consumption); 1908 - introduced corn flakes product first called Elijah's Manna, later renamed Post Toasties; June 2, 1908 - registered "Post Toasties" trademark first used August 23, 1907 (cereal breakfast-foods); December 31, 1925 - acquired Jell-O Company, Inc.; July 24, 1929 - Postum Incorporated renamed General Foods; 1985 - acquired by Philip Morris Companies for $5.6 billion, largest non-oil acquisition to that time; March, 1989 - combined with Kraft Inc., renamed Kraft General Foods (KGF).

1895 - Wisconsin Cheese Makers Association founded.

June 4, 1895 - Black American inventor Joseph Lee, of Auburndale, MA, received a patent for a "Bread Crumbing Machine" intended "for use in hotels or restaurants, where a large quantity of bread crumbs are used in cooking."

September 17, 1895 - Henry D. Perky, of Denver, CO, received a design patent for "A Design for a Biscuit" ("presents a fibrous interstitial appearance , showing superimposed layers or irregular interlacing threads or filaments which are wound or disposed in such loose relation to each other that the threads or filaments of the inner layers are visible from the surface to a greater or less degree through the interstices of the outer layers"); shredded wheat; October 15, 1895 - received patent for "Bread and Method of Preparing Same"; shredded wheat; founded The Cereal Machine Company to make shredded wheat; pioneer of the "cookless breakfast food" and it was he who first mass produced and nationally distributed ready-to-eat cereal; 1901 - opened factory in Niagara Falls, NY (called 'Palace of Light'); 1908 - renamed Natural Food Company; 1913 - renamed The Shredded Wheat Company; December 1928 - acquired by National Biscuit Company (Nabisco); 1941 - product name changed to Nabisco Shredded Wheat.

Henry D. Perky Henry D. Perky - Shredded Wheat (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/11/Henry_Perky.jpg/200px-Henry_Perky.jpg)

1896 - P.G. Molinari (26) opened salame store and factory at 433 Broadway, San Francisco; 1950 - Peter Giorgi (son's son-in-law) joined business; 1978 - Frank Giorgi, great grandson, joined company.

P.G. Molinari - Molinari & Sons (http://www.molinarisalame.com/images/company/trad_02.jpg)

February 23, 1896 - Austrian immigrant Leo Hirshfield brought recipe for chocolaty, chewy candy to U. S., produced it in small store in New York City; candy named for his five-year-old daughter (nickname of "Tootsie"); September 14, 1909 - Stern & Saalberg Company, New York, NY, registered "Tootsie" trademark first used September 1908 (chocolate candy); 1917 -name changed to Sweets Company of America; advertised nationally; 1922 - went public; June 16, 1925 - registered "Tootsie Rolls" trademark first used in September 1908 (candy); 1931 - introduced Tootsie Pop; 1966 - name changed to Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc.; 1978 - Ellen Gordon named President, second woman elected president of company listed on New York Stock Exchange; 1988 - acquired Charms Company, became world's largest lollipop producer; 2003 - production reached more than 60 million Tootsie Rolls, 20 million Tootsie Pops each day.

April 14, 1896 - John Harvey Kellogg, of Battle Creek, MI, received a patent for "Flaked Cereals and Process of Preparing Same" ("to provide a food product which is in a proper condition to be readily digested without preliminary cooking or heating operation, and which is highly nutritive and of an agreeable taste, thus affording a food product particularly well suited for sick and convalescing persons"); to improve vegetarian diet of his hospital patients with digestible bread-substitute made by boiling wheat (easy to prepare breakfast when milk added).

August 29, 1896 - Chinese-American dish chop suey invented in New York City by chef to visiting Chinese Ambassador Li Hung-chang.

December 8, 1896 - Black-American inventor John T. White, of New York, NY, received patent for a "Lemon-Squeezer"; made squeezing lemons, straining juice easy; kept hands clean while juicing.

1897 - Dr. John Thompson Dorrance (24) joined uncle's company, Joseph A. Campbell Preserve Co., producer of canned tomatoes, vegetables, jellies, soups, condiments, minced meats (father, Arthur Dorrance, general manager); invented condensed soup by eliminating water in canned soup; lowered the costs for packaging, shipping, storage; made it possible to offer 10-ounce can of Campbell's condensed soup for a dime, versus more than 30 cents for a typical 32-ounce can of soup; introduced tomato soup; 1905 - name changed to Joseph Campbell Company; 1915 - acquired Franco-American Food Company; 1922 - incorporated as Campbell Soup Company; 1934 - introduced Cream of Mushroom, Chicken Noodle soups; 1955 - acquired C.A. Swanson & Sons, originator of TV dinner, takes Campbell into frozen foods; 1961 - acquired Pepperidge Farm, Incorporated; 1974 - acquired full control of Godiva Chocolatier, Inc.; 1978 - acquired Vlasic Foods, Inc.; 1981 - acquired Prego spaghetti sauces; 1998 - spun off specialty foods unit (Vlasic pickles, Swanson frozen foods); focused on soups, sauces, beverages, biscuits, confectionery, foodservice.

1897 - Jerome Monroe Smucker opened cider mill in Orrville, OH; prepared apple butter, sold it from back of a horse-drawn wagon; each crock had hand-signed seal as personal guarantee of quality; 1921 - J. M. Smucker Company incorporated; 1923 - introduced preserves, jelllies; February 22, 1949 - registered "Smucker's" trademark first used in 1900 (fruit preserves, jellies, jam, marmalade, and apple butter); 1962 - introduced slogan: "With a name like Smucker's it has to be good"; June 4, 2008 - announced acquisition of Folgers coffee business from Procter & Gamble for $3.3 billion; biggest U.S. producer of coffee; seventh acquisition in two years, boost annual sales to $4.7 billion (2.15 billion in 2007).

1897 - Isaac VanWestenbrugge (23), Dutch immigrant, borrowed $300 from older brother Martin, started business delivering butter and eggs in Grand Rapids, MI; 1916 - Ben Gordon (high school senior) joined company; 1921 -married Isaac's daughter; brought in brother (Frank); 1942 - company renamed Gordon Food Service; 2007 - #46 largest privately-owned company in U. S. (estimated 2006 sales of $5.9 billion); largest independent foodservice distributor in North America.

February 2, 1897 - Alfred L. Cralle of Pittsburgh, PA, received a patent for an "Ice-Cream Mold and Disher" ("may be conveniently operated with one hand"); able to keep ice cream and other foods from sticking; constructed in almost any desired shape (cone or mound) with no delicate parts that could break or malfunction.

May 28, 1897 - Pearle Wait, carpenter in LeRoy, NY, adapted 1845 Peter Cooper portable gelatine patent to fruit flavored gelatin dessert; his wife, May, named product Jell-O; September 9, 1899 - sold formula to Orator Frank Woodward, founder of Genesee Pure Food Co. for $450; 1902 - launched first advertising campaign in Ladies' Home Journal, sales eventually reached $250,000; September 22, 1908 - Genesee Pure Food Company (LeRoy, NY) registered "Jell-O" trademark first used in March 1897 (compound used in the preparation of jellies, desserts, pastries and ice cream); November 5, 1923 - reorganized, renamed Jell-O Company, Inc; December 31, 1925 - acquired by Postum Cereal.

August 3, 1897 - Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer, of Reading, PA, received two design patents for a "Design for Fuel" ("form of two truncated pyramids placed base to base and separated by a flat rectangular body and furnished with rounded corners and slightly rounded or convex tops"); charcoal.

1898 - American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company (formed in 1830 from 40 Midwestern bakeries), New York Biscuit Company (seven eastern bakeries), United States Baking Company merged, formed National Biscuit Company (114 bakeries across United States); introduced first product, Uneeda Biscuit; created first "inner-seal package" (inter-folded layers of wax paper, cardboard, one of first self-service packages for cracker products);
December 27, 1898 - National Biscuit Company registered "Uneeda" trademark first used September 6, 1898 (biscuits, crackers); March 28, 1899 - Frank M. Peters, of Chicago, IL, Nabisco designer, received a patent for a "Method of and Means for Packing Biscuit, Crackers, or the Like" ("to provide an inexpensive package whereby bakery goods...may be kept fresh and in proper condition for consumption by effectually excluding moisture therefrom and whereby the goods will be firmly packaged and held and thereby prevented from rattling and breaking in the package"); 'In-Er-Seal' wax paper wrapper to keep crackers fresh.

1898 - Augustus Eugene (Gene) Staley bought bulk starch for two cents a pound, repackaged it under his own Cream Starch (cornstarch) label, sold it for profit of five cents a pound in Baltimore, MD; 1906 - incorporated A E Staley Manufacturing Company when his suppliers realized he was serious competition; 1909 - moved to Decatur, IL; March 12, 1919 - bought starch plant in Illinois, began processing, ground 1000 pounds of corn; March 1920 - hired George Halas as starch-maker by day, manage Decatur Staleys football team on side; played 13 games, finished 10-1-2 (1922 - renamed Chicago Bears, continued to use Staley da Bear as mascot); September 30, 1922 - first soybean crushing plant went into operation; 1932 - A E Staley Jr. (Gus) became President; 1988 - 90% North American AE Staley Manufacturing Co. acquired by Tate & Lyle (2000 - acquired balance).

A E Staley's 1920 Decatur Staleys (1922 - renamed Chicago Bears) (http://www.bearshistory.com/images/20bears.jpg)

1898 - William Entenmann opened bakery in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York; delivered cakes, breads, rolls door-to-door in horse-drawn buggy; 1961 - built largest baking facility of its kind in United States on five acres in Bay Shore, long Island; acquired by George Weston Bakeries.

1898 - Joseph Walker (21) opened bakery in Torphins with a loan of 50 pounds and dream of making the finest shortbread in the world; 1970s - grandchildren exported Walkers shortbread to over 60 countries around the world - still baked to his original recipe; within decade won the first of three Queen's Awards for Export Achievement - highest accolade given to British exporters.

March 30,1898 - Minor C. Keith, Andrew Preston founded United Fruit Company.

1899 - 7 canners in Astoria, OR formed Columbia River Packers Association to fish, process Salmon successfully; 1910 - albacore tuna discovered in seasonal abundance off Oregon coast; Bumble Bee Brand made first appearance; January 22, 1952 - registered "Bumble Bee" trademark first used in 1896 (canned, fresh and fresh frozen fish); 1961 - 61% ownership acquired by Castle and Cooke; renamed Bumble Bee Seafoods, Inc. as wholly owned subsidiary; 1997 - acquired by International Home Foods Inc.; 2000 - acquired by Conagra Foods; 2003 - renamed Bumble Bee Seafoods, LLC; 2004 - merged with Connors Bros. Income Fund, became largest branded seafood company in North America; 2005 - name changed to Bumble Bee Foods, LLC.

1899 - Franklin V. Canning, New York druggist, created Dentyne gum (combination of "dental" and hygiene"); 1916 - acquired by American Chicle Company; May 19, 1925 - registered "Dentyne" trademark first used January 1, 1901 (chewing gum).

1899 - Richard Lindsey, operator of Royal Flour Mill in Nashville, TN, named his company's finest flour for his three-year-old daughter, Martha White; 1941 - Cohen E. Williams and sons acquired Royal Flour Mill and Martha White name; 1975 - Martha White merged with Beatrice Companies; 1994 - acquired by Pillsbury Company.

1899 - Ichitaro Kanie began growing tomatoes in in his garden in Japan; first to do so; 1903 - produced tomato sauce; 1908 - produced tomato ketchup, Worcestershire sauce; 1933 - introduced tomato juice; 1949 - five companies merged, formed Aichi Tomato Co., Ltd.; 1963 - name changed to Kagome Co., Ltd. now one of largest producers of tomato products in Japan; 1966 - introduced ketchup in world's first plastic tube; 1978 - went public; December 20, 1983 - Kagome Co., Ltd. registered "Kagome" trademark in U.S., first used in 1974 (vegetable based sauces); 1988 - established U.S. subsidiary, Kagome Inc.; sales of 100 billion yen.

1900 - Carl A. Swanson, Swedish immigrant, formed partnership with John Hjerpe, Frank Ellison in Omaha, NE; named Jerpe Commission Company; 1905 - incorporated; focused on butter production, poultry; 1928 - Swanson bought out Hjerpe's interest (Ellison died in 1918); 1944 - renamed C.A. Swanson & Sons; 1949 - Gilbert and Clarke Swanson (sons) took over; October 11, 1949 - C.A. Swanson & Sons registered "Swanson" trademark first used in 1928; 1954 - introduced TV dinner; Gerry Thomas, sales executive, redesigned single-compartment aluminum trays, used to keep food hot in airline food kitchens of Pan American Airways in Pittsburgh into 'segmented plat' (three-compartment tray) for packaging 520,000 pounds of leftover Thanksgiving poultry into 10 refrigerated railroad cars (not enough storage in warehouses); first Swanson TV Dinner - turkey with corn bread dressing, gravy, sweet potatoes, buttered peas (sold for $.98, cooked in 25 minutes at 425 degrees); first production order for 5,000 dinners (thought to be a big gamble); sold more than 25 million TV dinners; 1955 - acquired by Campbell Soup Company.

Gilbert and W. Clarke Swanson - TV Dinner (http://www.omahachamber.org/admin/remoteuploads/279.jpg)

1901 - James Drummond Dole, son of pastor of First Church in Jamaica Plain, MA, began growing pineapple on 60 acres on Wahiawa, north of Oahu; incorporated Hawaiian Pineapple Company, first successful pineapple growing, canning operation; advertised with recipes in ladies magazines; 1903 - packed 1,893 cases of canned pineapple; January 30, 1912 - Hawaiian Pineapple Company registered "JDDole" trademark first used in March 1910 (canned pinepapple); 1915 - Hawaii's second largest industry; owned 29 patents covering machines, processes in pineapple industry (represented virtually all of specialized pineapple canning machinery, most of which developed by employees of the Company); 1932 - Castle & Cooke acquired ownership of 21% of Hawaiian Pineapple Company; 1933 - company first used "DOLE" on cans of pineapple, pineapple juice; April 19, 1949 - Hawaiian Pineapple Company registered "Dole" trademark first used in 1927 (canned fruit canned fruit juices for food purposes and frozen fresh fruit); 1961 - merged with Castle & Cooke; 1991 - shareholder resolution approved to change name of Castle & Cooke to Dole Food Company, Inc.; world's largest producer, marketer of fresh fruit, vegetables with major line of packaged products; 1995 - separated food, real estate businesses; 2003 - Dole Food Company acquired by David H. Murdock, former CEO of Flexi-Van Corporation, transportation equipment leasing company (merged with Castle & Cooke in 1985).

James Drummond Dole - Dole Pineapple (http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/images/dole6.jpg)

1901 - New England Confectionery Company (NECCO) formed from merger of Chase and Company (1847), Forbes, Hayward and Company (1848) Wright and Moody (1856); incorporated with capital of $1,000,000.00; trade name NECCO Sweets, derived from its title, adopted; January 30, 1906 - registered "NECCO" trademark first used January 25, 1903; registered "NECCO Sweets" trademark first used June 1, 1904; 1912 - NECCO Wafer, Hub Wafer widely advertised; 1927 - largest factory in world devoted to manufacture of candy; March 8, 1938 - registered "Sky Bar" trademark first used August 26, 1837 (molded chocolate bar with four distinctly different centers encased in chocolate covering); 1963 - acquired by UIS, Inc. (New York); period of restructuring under seven presidents; 1999 - acquired assets of Clark Bar America, Inc., maker of Clark bar (introduced in 1917), chocolately coated peanut butter crunch candy.

October 8, 1901 - American Sugar Refining Co., New York, NY, registered "Domino" trademark first used August 1, 1900 (hard sugar).

November 12, 1901 - National Biscuit Company registered "Nabisco" trademark first used June 28, 1901 (biscuits, crackers, bread); December 1902 - introduced Barnum's Animal Crackers; 1912 - introduced Lorna Doone, Oreo cookies; April 22, 1913 - registered "Lorna Doone" trademark first used June 12, 1912 (biscuit); August 12, 1913 - registered "Oreo" trademark first used March 6, 1912 (biscuit); July 7, 1914 - registered "Fig Newtons" trademark first used September 1, 1892 (biscuit); 1952 - first used red triangular logo; May 4, 1954 - registered "Barnum's Animals" trademark first used in December 1902 (bakery products, namely biscuits); 1971 - name changed to Nabicso; 1981 - merged with Standard Brands (Planters Nuts), acquired LifeSavers Candies; renamed Nabisco Brands, Inc.; 1985 - acquired by R.J. Reynolds, formed RJR Nabisco; 1988 - acquired by Kolberg Kravis Roberts (biggest leveraged buyout in history); 2000 - acquired by Philip Morris Companies.

1902 - John W. Daniels, George A. Archer founded Daniels Linseed Company in Minneapolis, MN; 1903 - Archer joined company; February 17, 1903 - first bottle of flax linseed oil made; February 1905 - name changed to Archer Daniels Linseed Company; May 23, 1923 - acquired Midland Linseed Products Company, formed Archer-Daniels-Midland Company; 1947 - sales of $297 million; 1952 - more than 5,000 employees; 1962 - logo created to represent chemical molecules coming from natural resource; 1980 - sales of $2.8 billion; 1981 - 50 years of uninterrupted stock dividends.

1902 - Jacob Leander Loose, Joseph Schull Loose, John A. Wiles formed Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company in Kansas City, MO; 1908 - introduced Hydrox cookie (name combined water's atomic elements--hydrogen and oxygen); April 15, 1913 - registered "Hydrox" trademark first used January 1, 1910 (biscuits, cakes, cookies); May 4, 1937 - Sunshine Biscuits, Inc. registered "HI-HO" trademark first used December 1931 (crackers, biscuits, and cakes); 1947 - name changed to Sunshine Biscuits (better known than Loose-Wiles); March 27, 1951 - registered "Vienna Fingers" trademark first used January 1915 (biscuits - namely cookies); January 28, 1958 - registered "Sunshine Krispy" trademark first used in 1908 (crackers), saltines; July 25, 1967 - registered "Sunshine" trademark first used in August 1908 (crackers e al); April 18, 1988 - acquired by G. F. Industries, Inc.; 1995 - sales of about $500 million; June 4, 1996 - merged into Keebler Company (leader in supplying biscuits to food service industry, more than $2 billion in annual sales, combined market share of about 23% by volume, vs. 36% held by Nabisco Biscuit Co.); 2003- Hydrox discontinued (1998 sales of $16 million vs. $374 million for Oreos); 2008 - Hydrox reintroduced by popular demand (more than 1,300 phone inquiries, online petition with more than 1,000 signatures, Internet chat sites).

Jacob Leander Loose - Sunshine Biscuits (http://www.astorialic.org/images/loosej.jpg)

1902 - Otosaburo Noda, immigrant Japanese farmer, labor contractor, businessman, began canning abalone and salmon on rocky shoreline of Monterey, CA; with partner, Harry Malpas, constructed Monterey Fishing and Canning Company on Ocean View Avenue (later known as "Cannery Row"), first canning operation located on "Street of the Sardine"; 1903 - Frank Booth, "Father of the Sardine Industry," constructed F.E. Booth Company, Monterey's first large-scale cannery; 1907 - Maplas business acquired by James A. Madison, Joseph A. Nichols, Bernard Senderman; became Pacific Fish Company; July 7, 1916 - Norwegian fishery engineer Knut Hovden opened Hovden Food Products Corporation; revolutionized canning industry; 1926 - Pacific Fish Co. became California Packing Corp. ("Cal-Pac"); 1945 - 19 canneries.

1902 - First Stone-Buhr mill built in Seattle, WA; 1914 - Charles E. Young, former real estate broker and carpenter, opened Young-Stone Buhr Milling Co in Fremont neighborhood in Seattle; 1969 - acquired by Orowheat Foods; 1981 - acquired by Bestfoods / Corn Products Co. (CPC); 2002 - acquired by JOG Distribution, Inc.

February 1902 - National Starch Manufacturing Company, Glucose Sugar Refining Co., Illinois Sugar Refining Company, 49% of New York Glucose Co. merged, formed Corn Products Company; produced about 84% of American corn starch; May 13, 1902 - introduced Karo Light and Dark Corn Syrup; September 15, 1903 - registered "Karo" trademark first used in July 1902 (syrup); February 1906 - merged with New York Glucose Company, Warner Sugar Refining Company, St. Louis Syrup & Preserving Company, formed Corn Products Refining Company; Edward T. Bradford (former President of New York Glucose) as president; October 3, 1911 - registered "Mazola" trademark first used June 5, 1911 (edible corn-oil); April 1958 - acquired KNORR GmbH of West Germany, maker of bouillon, dehydrated soups; May 1959 - merged with The Best Foods, Inc., formed Corn Products Company; April 1969 - name changed to CPC International Inc.; 1980 - sales over $4 billion; 1986 - fought off takeover attempt by Ronald O. Perelman (chairman of Revlon Group); restructured; December 31, 1997 - corn-refining business spun off to shareholders, named Corn Products International, Inc.; January 2, 1998 - renamed Bestfoods; October 2000 - acquired by Unilever PLC for $24.3 billion; world's largest food conglomerate (ranked by total sales), combined annual revenue of $52.3 billion, annual profits of $6.2 billion; June 23, 2008 - acquisition of Corn Products International (35 facilities, 15 countries, fourth-largest maker of high-fructose corn syrup in U.S.) for $4.4. billion announced by Bunge Group (foothold in syrups, sweeteners business); third largest agribusiness company in U. S. by revenue (Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland).

August 23, 1902 - Fanny Farmer, among first to emphasize relationship of diet to health, opened her School of Cookery in Boston.

August 26, 1902 - Alexander P. Anderson, of New York, NY, received a patent for the "Art of Treating Starch Material" ("a dry method of swelling starch materials of all kinds to render them porous, thereby enhancing their nutritive value and rendering them more readily and completely digested than when used in their present form"); invented 'puffed wheat" and 'puffed rice"; patent acquired by Quaker Oats.

Alexander P. Anderson - invented "puffed wheat", "puffed rice" with above canon (http://www.minnesotainventors.org/inductees/images/alexander-p-anderson.jpg)

September 1902 - Small group of local investors bought Hoerner & Knopf Bakery in Richmond, IN (founded in 1855 by David Hoerner, took on partner named Knopf in 1881); renamed Richmond Baking Co.; William H. Quigg became general manager; 1918 - Eugene K. Quigg (son) succeeded; 1950 - J. Robert Quigg (brother) took over; 1969 - James R. Quigg Jr. (son) took over; 2010 - under fifth generation management (Bill Quigg, Rob Quigg); nation's oldest family-owned cookie and cracker company.

1903 - James L. Kraft (29) began a wholesale cheese business in Chicago with $65 in capital; 1909 - J. L. Kraft & Bros. Co. incorporated; June 6, 1916 - received patent for "Process of Sterilizing Cheese and an Improved Product Produced by Such Process"; process cheese; August 24, 1920 - received a patent for a "Process for Sterilizing and Packaging Cheese" ("apples more specifically to the treatment of cheese of the Cheddar genus"); 1927 - acquired Velveeta Cheese Company; 1930 - acquired by National Dairy Products Corporation; 1937 - Macaroni & Cheese Dinner debuted; 1945 - name changed to Kraft Foods Company; 1952 - Cheez Whiz introduced; June 9, 1953 - John H. Kraft, of Chicago, IL, received patent for the "Manufacture of Soft Surface Cured Cheese" ("soft, surface cured, mold ripened cheeses, such as Camembert, Brie, and the like and in particular, to the provision of a soft, surface cured cheese whose mold pad may be readily removed"); assigned to Kraft Foods Company; 1969 - National Dairy renamed Kraftco Corporation; 1976 - name changed to Kraft Inc.; 1980 - merged with Dart Industries; formed Dart & Kraft; 1986 - Kraft split off; October 30, 1988 - acquired by Philip Morris Companies Inc. for $13.1 billion; January 27, 2003 - Philip Morris name changed to Altria Group, Inc.; March 30, 2007 - Kraft Foods Inc. spun off from Altria; January 19, 2010 - agreed to acquire Cadbury plc for about $19.5 billion; created world's largest confectioner (more than $500 billion in sales).

James L. Kraft -  Kraft Foods (http://illinoisreview.typepad.com/illinoisreview/images/jameskraft_1.jpg)

1903 - Minnesota Valley Canning Company established; only product - white cream-style corn (shipped 12,000 cases); 1907 - produced Early June Peas; 1925 - "Green Giant" created (to describe larger, sweeter pea; white, wore bearskin); July 12, 1927 - registered "Green Giant" trademark first used on January 1, 1926 (canned peas); 1932 - more trial acres of corn hybrids than all research acres at nation's colleges combines; 1950 - company changed name to Green Giant Company.

December 15, 1903 - Italo Marchiony, of New York, NY, received U.S. patent for a "Mold" ("particularly such molding apparatuses as are used in the manufacture of ice cream sups and the like"); ice cream cup mold; sold ice cream and lemon ice on Wall Street served in baked waffles, folded by hand while warm into shape of a cup; built chain of 45 carts; met need for mass production with invention of a multiple recess mold based on a waffle-iron; produced 10 cups at a time; April 30, 1904 - took confection to Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, got idea for a cone shape.

1904 - Emil J. Brach (45), son of German immigrants who had invested in failed candy factory, founded Brach's Palace of Sweets in Chicago; first product was caramels; end of 1930s - leading maker of fresh bulk candy; 1966 - acquired by American Home Products; 1987 - Brach's division acquired by Jacobs Suchard, European candy and coffee company; 1990 - Jacobs Suchard acquired by Phillip Morris except for Brach's (retained by Klaus J. Jacobs); 1994 - merged with Brock Candy Co., new company called Brach & Brock Confections Inc., based in Chattanooga, TN; 2003 - Brach's Confections Holding Inc. acquired by Barry Callebaut AG (Zurich), world's leading manufacturer of cocoa and chocolate products.

1904 - Dairy farmers in Lucerne Township in Kings County, CA established cooperative creamery named Lucerne Cream & Butter Co.; built plant in Hanford, CA; 1929 - acquired by Safeway, became dairy label; 1945 - Lucerne Milk Company established within Safeway; 1982 - Safeway operated 30 dairy plants in United States and Canada, processed fluid, cultured, frozen desserts, cheese, powder; 1980s - reduced number of plants to14.

July 1904 - Ice cream cone invented during 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (known as St. Louis World's Fair); several credited with invention of first edible cone: David Avayou, Abe Doumar (Lebanese immigrant recognized by Smithsonian), Arnold Fornachou, Ernest Hamwi, Albert and Nick Kabbaz, Charles E. Menches - all made, sold confections at 1904 Fair.

1905 - Cadbury introduced liquid milk into chocolate, launched Cadbury Dairy Milk (CDM) chocolate; used full cream milk (vs. powdered milk often used in products of Swiss rivals); outsold traditional continental dark chocolate in Britain within few years; broke Swiss chocolate monopoly by end of first decade.

1905 - German immigrant Richard Hellmann sold first ready-made mayonnaise at New York deli; 1912 - designed "Blue Ribbon" label placed on larger glass jars; 1932 - acquired by Best Foods; August 23, 1949 - registered "Hellmann's" trademark first use August 1, 1926 (mayonnaise).

1905 - Frank Epperson (11) invented popsickle; glass filled with soda- water powder and water with stirring stick froze on back porch overnight; 1922 - introduced Popsicle at a fireman's ball; August 19, 1924 - received a patent for a ''Frozen Confectionery" ("...a method or process for making a frozen confection of attractive appearance, which can be conveniently consumed without contamination by contact with the hand or without the need for a plate, spoon, fork or other implement, which process can be expeditiously carried out at small expense with simple apparatus, without the need for expert care and in a thoroughly sanitary manner"; 1929 - patent acquired by Popsicle Corporation.

August 8, 1905 - Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills Company registered "Pillsbury's Best" trademark first used in January 1, 1873 (flour made from wheat); November 19, 1940 - Pillsbury Flour Mills Company registered "Pillsbury Best XXXX" trademark first used on January 1, 1873 (flour made from wheat); February 11, 1941 - registered "Pillsbury's Best XXXX Flour" trademark first used in April 1924 (flour made from wheat).

October 31, 1905 - Joseph Campbell Company (Camden, NJ) registered "Campbell's" trademark (for baked beans); January 9, 1906 - Joseph Campbell Company registered "Campbell's" trademark for condensed soups.

December 5, 1905 - Frank H. Fleer and Company, Philadelphia, PA, registered "Chiclets" trademark first used October 1, 1899 (chewing-gum).

1906 - Amedeo Voltejo Obici, Mario Peruzzi founded Planters Peanut Company in Wilkes-Barre, PA; 1908 - incorporated as Planter Nut & Chocolate Co.; 1916 - schoolboy Antonio Gentile (14) won Planters Contest for brand icon in Suffolk, VA with sketch of Mr. Peanut (graphic artist later added top hat, monocle and cane); 1918 - first salted nut ever advertised in Saturday Evening Post; 1928 - introduced Planters Cocktail Peanuts in 8-oz. vacuum-sealed can; March 5, 1935 - Planters Nut & Chocolate Co. registered "Planters" trademark first used in 1906 (roasted peanuts, salted peanuts, peanut butter, peanut candy bars).

Amedeo Obici - Planters Peanuts (http://image1.findagrave.com/photos250/photos/2009/322/11511003_125864785072.jpg)

1906 - Perry Bernstein owned small New York delicatessen; created Bernstein's salad dressings for vegetables and salads; second generation took over, moved business to California; moved operations to Tacoma, WA; 1974 - acquired by Nalley's Fine Foods (division of W.R. Grace); July 1975 - acquired by Curtice-Burns; September 1997 - renamed Agrilink Foods, Inc.; 1998 - acquired Dean Foods Vegetable Company; February 10, 2003 - name changed to Birds Eye Foods Inc. to reflect company's largest brand.

1906 - Suyeichi Okamura opened Benkyodo Company, one of original businesses in Japantown (on San Francisco's Geary Boulevard); 1940s - forced to close temporarily when the family was interned during World War II; 1951 - Hirofumi (son) took over; 1990 - grandsons took over.

February 19, 1906 - Will Keith (W.K.) Kellogg and Charles D. Bolin, St. Louis insurance man and former patient at Kellogg's sanitarium, incorporated Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Co. in Michigan, with $35,000 raised by Bolin in St. Louis, to produce Kellogg's Corn Flakes (after having purchased right to make flakes from Dr. John Harvey Kellogg); began manufacture of Sanitas Corn Flakes, cereal products to former sanitarium patients; name changed later to Toasted Corn Flake Company, then to Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Company, finally to Kellogg Co. Dr. Kellogg as majority stockholder; distributed part of this stock among the Sanitarium doctors in lieu of salary increases; W. K. bought all of stock Dr. John had given to Physicians in aggressive effort to become majority shareholder; April 1 1906 - company started production of Kellogg's Toasted Corn Flakes; October 1906 - company began using phrase, "The Original Has This Signature - W.K. Kellogg" (remained a prominent feature on cereal packages, in advertisements for years; (about) May 1, 1907 - first use of Kellogg's logo (stylized version of W.K.'s last name) placed on the top of cereal packages; June 1907 - 300 employees on the payroll, workers' paid $2 a day; 1909 - annual sales exceeded a million cases; 1909 - company introduced second product, Kellogg's Toasted Rice Flakes; 1912 - one of first organizations to use large-scale outdoor advertising display; erected a 106-foot-wide, 80-foot-tall billboard on top of Mecca Building at 48th Street and Broadway in Times Square, New York City; billed as world's largest advertising sign; 1914 - introduced "Waxtite", thick, smooth envelope of paraffin (waxed paper) that encased Kellogg's cereal boxes after they were opened (liners inside the packages were added a few years later).

February 28, 1906 - New York Glucose Company (1901), Corn Products Company (incorporated in February 1902 from reorganized National Starch Co., New York Glucose Co., Illinois Sugar Refining Co., Charles Pope Glucose Co.. 49% of Glucose Sugar Refining Co.), St. Louis Syrup & Preserving Company, Warner Sugar Refining Company, Cereal Sugar Company (corn refiners) merged, incorporated Corn Products Refining Company; Edward T. Bradford (of NY Glucose) first president; June 27, 1911 - registered "Cerelose" trademark first used January 5, 1911 (corn-sugar); October 23, 1923 - William B. Newkirk, of Edgewater, NJ, received a patent for a "Method of making Grape Sugar" ("...to make possible the production, on a commercial scale and by methods which are economically feasible, of a crystalline dextrose which will be to all intents and purposes pure"); assigned to Corn Products Refining Company; 1958 - merged with Best Foods, Inc.; renamed Corn Products Company; 1969 - renamed CPC International; 1997 - Corn Products International, Inc. spun off; June 23, 2008 - acquisition of Corn Products International (35 facilities, 15 countries, fourth-largest maker of high-fructose corn syrup in U.S.) for $4.4. billion announced by Bunge Group (foothold in syrups, sweeteners business); third largest agribusiness company in U. S. by revenue (Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland).

March 1906 - California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining Company began refining pure cane sugar in Crockett, CA (near San Francisco) to compete with sugar Trust on West Coast (started in 1897 as California Beet Sugar Refining Company at site of former flour mill; 1903 - failed, couldn't process enough beets; Claus Spreckels granted three year lease on plant, docks; 1905 - acquired by Sugar Factors Co. Ltd. of Hawaii commission company for handling output for several Hawaii sugar plantations; controlled by Alexander & Baldwin, Castle & Cooke, C. Brewer & Co., Amfac, Theo H. Davies & Co. - Hawaii's 'Big Five'), Makee Sugar Company (Col. Z. S. Spalding); name changed to California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining Company; employed 490 people, produced 67,000 tons of refined cane sugar; 1921 - reorganized as agricultural cooperative marketing association owned by owned by fourteen sugar plantations in Hawaii; one of 50 largest U.S. cooperatives, second largest U.S. refined sugar marketing organization; January 14, 1936 - registered "C & H" trademark first used August 4, 1934 (sugar); June 1993 - acquired by Alexander & Baldwin, Inc.; August 5, 1998 - 60% interest in recapitalized company acquired by investment group (including Citicorp Venture Capital, Ltd.).

March 31, 1906 - Slade Gorton & Co., John Pew & Son (founded 1849), David B. Smith & Co., Reed & Gamage combined to form Gorton-Pew Fisheries Co.; fleet of 39 vessels; largest fleet of fishing vessels operated by any company on Atlantic coast; 1922-23 - Italian government bought million dollar cargo of salted cod; government overthrown by Mussolini, confiscated entire cargo, never paid the bill; sent Gorton-Pew was into bankruptcy; reorganized by William Lowell Putnam; October 23, 1923 - Gorton-Pew Fisheries Company registered "Mother Ann" trademark first used on January 17, 1899 (salt codfish); August 23, 1949 - registered "Gorton's" trademark first used in December 1929 (frozen fish); 1954 - renamed Gorton's of Gloucester, Inc.; May 30, 1961 - registered "Gorton's" trademark fist used in 1875 (canned fish); 1965 - company officially became The Gorton Corporation; December 12, 1967 - registered "Gorton's of Gloucester" trademark first used on August 26, 1966 (frozen seafood-namely fish sticks, fish steaks, filets of fish...); 1968 - acquired by General Mills; May 18, 1995 - acquired by Unilever; August 2001 - acquired by Nippon Suisan (USA), Inc., a subsidiary of Nippon Suisan Kaisha (one of Japan's three largest seafood conglomerates).

Captain John Pew - John Pew & Son (Gorton's) (http://www. shuteandmerchant.com/pew1.jpg)

April 20, 1906 - J. Lloyd Ford purchased small barn-like milling operation in Shawnee, OK, named it Shawnee Milling Company (75 barrels of flour a day); 2005 - produces over 2 million pounds per day of consumer and food service products, wide variety of quality animal feed products.

May 22, 1906 - Wheatena Corporation (Rahway, NJ) registered "Wheatena" trademark first used in 1879 (wheat breakfast food).

May 22, 1906 - Natural Food Company (Niagara Falls, NY), maker of shredded wheat, registered "Triscuit" trademark first used January 1, 1903 (biscuit or crackers).

June 19, 1906 - Milton S. Hershey registered "Hershey's" trademark first used January 1, 1894 (chocolate, cocoa, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate coatings, chocolate liquors, and chocolate powder).

June 26, 1906 - Bon-Bon Company, New York, NY, registered "Dentyne" trademark first used January 1, 1901 (chewing-gum)

June 30, 1906 - Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (The "Wiley Act") became law (Meat Inspection Act was companion measure with Pure Food and Drug Act); prevented the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes" (named for Harvey W. Wiley, leader of "pure food crusade" -  chemist and physician, State chemist of Indiana, professor at Purdue University; had gone to Washington in 1883 as chief chemist of Department of Agriculture; made study of food adulteration bureau's principal business).

1907 - Hershey Company introduced "Kisses" milk chocolate candy; popular theory - candy named for sound or motion of chocolate being deposited during manufacturing process; August 1921 - single channel wrapper developed, flag added to product (2006 - wrapping machines wrap up to 1,300 KISSES a minute); March 6, 1923 - Hershey Foods Corporation registered "Hershey's Kisses" trademark first used July 1, 1907 (solid chocolates); 1942-1949 - not produced due to rationing of silver foil during and after World War II; 1990 - KISSES Brand Chocolates with Almonds introduced; 2006 - 80 million KISSES Brand Chocolates made every day; 99 HERSHEY'S KISSES Brand Chocolates equals one pound of chocolate.

1907 - Nathan Radutzky (24), Russian immigrant from Kiev, Ukraine, produced first batch of Halvah ("sweet meat" in Turkish), 3,000-year-old Turkish confection (made with crushed sesame seeds, honey, soya protein), one of oldest in world, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan; 1908 - founded Independent Halvah and Candies, ethnic and specialty food manufacturer, to sell Halvah to delicatessens and street peddlers; after WW II, name changed to The Joyva Corporation; July 2, 1974 - registered "Joyva" trademark (logo) first used in another form as early 1940 (candy); owned, operated by third-generation of family.

1907 - Giovanni Buitoni, young heir to Perugina, Luisa Spagnoli, confectioner , established Perugina Chocolates in ancient Umbrian hill town of Perugia, in central Italy; 1922 - Luisa created Perugina's signature chocolate, Baci or "kisses" in Italian; 1939 - introduced to U.S.A at 1939 World's Fair in New York; April 7, 1964 - Societa per Azioni Perugina registered "Perugina" trademark (translated as "The girl from Perugia") first used January 1, 1957 (candies of various kinds); 1988 - Buitoni-Perugina Pasta Company acquired by Nestle.

April 2, 1907 - Washburn-Crosby Company, Minneapolis, MN, registered "Gold Medal" flour trademark first used January 1, 1888 (wheat flour).

August 17, 1907 - Seattle established Pike Place market on nine acres; eight farmers brought their wagons to corner of First Avenue and Pike Street; quickly overwhelmed by estimated 10,000 shoppers; sold out by 11:00 am; proposed by Seattle City Councilman Thomas Revelle as public street market that would connect farmers directly with consumers who could "Meet the Producer" directly; December 1907 -first Market building opened, every space filled; 2007 - home to nearly 200 year-round commercial businesses; 190 craftspeople, 120 farmers rent table space by the day; 240 street performers, musicians; 300 apartment units (low-income elderly people); attracts 10 million visitors a year.

1908 - Theodore Tobler introduced triangle-shaped Toblerone ("Tobler" with "torrone," nougat candy) chocolate bar; 1909 - first patented milk chocolate candy containing honey and almonds; 1970 - A.G. Chocolat Tobler and Chocolat Suchard S.A., another Switzerland-based chocolate manufacturer, joined forces as Suchard Tobler to enable Toblerone chocolates to broaden distribution.

1909 - Harry V. Warehime established Hanover Pretzel Company with a single recipe, Hanover Olde Tyme Pretzels; 1923 - William and Helen Snyder opened first pretzel bakery with sons Edward and Bill; 1961 - Snyder's family distribution business (sales of $400,00), acquired by Hanover Canning; 1963 - acquired Bechtel Pretzel Company (recipe for Sourdough Hard Pretzels); 1977 - company focused on pretzels, potato chips as core products; 1980 -Snyder's of Hanover Snack Operation (sales of $15.8 million) spun off from Hanover Brands.

1909 - M. B. Moraghan obtained permit for harvesting oysters from Tomales Bay (entered trade in oysters from Shoalwater Bay, Washington in 1868, introduced Pacific oysters to San Francisco in 1896; planted oyster beds in Tamales Bay, founded Tomales Bay Oyster Company in 1906); 1936 - last commercial oysters harvested from San Francisco Bay; Company acquired by Gretchen and Drew Alden, partners; 2009 - acquired by Tod Friend, owner of Marshall (CA) Store since 2006; California's oldest continuously run shellfish farm; oysters, mussels, clams - $2.6 million business in Marin County (4% of county's $67 million agricultural yield, according to Marin County Department of Agriculture).

1909 - P. Edward Pearson, with assistance of his brothers, John Albert and Oscar F. Pearson, founded Pearson Candy Company as candy distribution firm; 1912 - began manufacturing candy; Waldemar and C. Fritz Pearson (brothers) joined company; introduced Nut Goodie Bar (premium 5-cent candy bar), one of company's first manufactured products; 1933 - introduced Salted Nut Roll (name changed to Choo Choo Bar to distinguish it from competitors; name dropped, Pearson's name prominently displayed on wrapper); end of World War II - concentrate solely on candy manufacturing; 1944 - William Henning Pearson (youngest brother), George Pearson (son of founder P. Edward Pearson) joined family business; 1951 - acquired Trudeau Candy Company (Saint Paul, MN), known for Seven-Up Bar, Mint Pattie; 1968 - acquired by ITT/Continental Baking; 1979 - acquired by confectionery partnership; 1985 - acquired by former employees, Larry Hassler (CFO), Judith Johnston; manufactured 1.5 million General Mills Nature Valley Granola Bars/day; 1986 - General Mills pulled out; 1998 - acquired Bun Bar trademark (first manufactured in early 1900's) from Clark Bar America; 2009 - 28th largest candy company in America; produces 35,000 Nut Goodie and Bun Bars, 225,000 Salted Nut Rolls, 2.1 million Mint Patties daily.

1909 - H. J. Heinz opened production facility in Leamington, ON; moved seven staff to Leamington, hired 60 employees for first harvest; 1910 - made ketchup; 1940 - incorporated as Canadian company; 1960s - average tomato yield rose to 700 or 800 bushels per acre (vs.100 bushels in 1920s); 1961 - company payroll was around $9 million, paid Ontario farmers $23 million for their production; 2009 - 48 tomato growers deliver from more than 5,000 acres, many other farmers are involved; 1,300 full-time employees in Canada, about 800 in Leamington (second largest Heinz facility in world); produces over 650 million bottles of ketchup/year; Canada - 2nd largest consumer per capita of ketchup in world (behind Finland), 1.4 liters per person/year).

January 1, 1909 - John J. and Peter Schmid (brothers) used $500 they had saved, $300 they borrowed from neighbor, bought two horses, two wagons, some milk bottles, cans, dippers, hand-cranked freezer to begin daily deliveries to Orrville, OH homes; customers called them "Smith" brothers, easier to pronounce than Schmid; established Smith Dairy Products Company; June 24, 1997 - Smith Dairy Products Company registered "Smith's The Dairy in the Country" trademark; 2009 - still family owned; Steve and John Schmid (grandsons) as president, vice president, respectively; manufactures full line of quality dairy, beverage, ice cream, foodservice products.

John, Peter Schmid - Smith Brothers Dairy Products (http://www.smithdairy.com/images/earlyyears-2.gif)

1910 - Francis Atherton Bean Sr. introduced Robin Hood Flour (former President of Polar Star Milling Company of Fairbault, MN, which had declared bankruptcy in 1891 due to rising railroad freight rates, plunging flour prices, and New Prague Flouring Mill Company, rented in New Prague, MN in 1892, been reclaimed by former owner in 1896; had leased McLean Mill in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan in 1909, renamed Saskatchewan Flour Mills Ltd. (parent company became International Milling); 50 workers, 12 field salesmen; 1911 - repaid principal, interest (more than $200,000) to Polar Star Milling creditors; 1912 - produced 1600 barrells of flour/day; renamed Robin Hood Flour Mills, Ltd. (brand name flour introduced around 1910 exclusively for Canadian markets); February 1, 1916 - Robin Hood Flour Mills, Ltd. registered "Robin Hood" trademark first used June 1, 1911 (farina, rolled oats, and oatmeal); 1938 - Francis Atherton Bean, Jr. named president; 1945 - leading consumer flour in Canada; 1964 - International Milling went public; 1970 - renamed International Multifoods; 1980 - revenues exceeded $1 billion; 1980s - transformed from flour milling, consumer foods company into food service distribution, manufacturing company; 1984 - acquired Vendors Supply of America, vending distributor with $900 million in annual sales; April 25, 2010 - U.S. flour milling operations acquired by ConAgra Inc.

July 1, 1910 - Ward Baking Company of Chicago opened first completely automatic bread plant in U.S.; dough not touched, not handled until placed on wrapping machine.

1911 - Frank and Ethel Mars made, sold variety of butter-cream candies from kitchen of their home in Tacoma, WA; 1913 - rented first factory, Mars Candy Factory, Inc.; 1914-1915 - moved to another factory; 1916 - moved to third factory, 125 employees; business failed; 1920 - returned to Minneapolis, MN, started Nougat House basket candies business; 1922 - introduced Mar-O-Bar, changed name to Mar-O-Bar Company to manufacture chocolate candy bars (later incorporated as Mars, Inc.); 1923 - sales of $69,000; introduced Milky Way; March 10, 1925 - Frank C. Mars, doing business as Mar-O-Bar Company, registered "Milky Way" trademark first used in 1922 (candy); 1926 - name changed to Mars Candies; February 28, 1928 - Mars Incorporated dba Mar-O-Bar Company registered "Snickers" trademark first used in April 1923 (candy comprising candy bars); 1929 - known as Mars, Incorporated (200 employees); 1930 - sales of $26.7 million; Snickers Bar introduced; June 20, 1933 - registered Mars" trademark first used May 1, 1932 (candy); 1941 - introduced M&Ms Plain Chocolate Candies; August 11, 1942 - M. & M. Limited Partnership registered "M&Ms" trademark first used March 3, 1941 (candy); 1954 - introduced M&Ms Peanut Chocolate Candies; 1967 - Forrest Mars (son) took over; April 28, 2008 - $22 billion in sales; agreed to acquire Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company for $23 billion (included financing from Berkshire Hathaway, holding company run by Warren Buffett); Wrigley (founded 1891, $5.4 billion in sales, world leader in gum and confections) will become separate, stand-alone subsidiary of Mars (Berkshire Hathaway will make minority equity investment in Wrigley subsidiary); combined company would have strong foundation of established brands in six core growth categories -- chocolate, non-chocolate confectionery, gum, food, drinks, petcare.

August 15, 1911 - Procter & Gamble Company introduced Crisco as economical alternative to animal fats, butter = first solidified shortening product made entirely of vegetable oil, result of hydrogenation, new process which produced shortening that would stay in solid form year-round, regardless of temperature; July 24, 1917 - registered "Crisco" trademark first used June 1, 1911 (cooking-fat).

October 3, 1911 - Corn Products Refining Company registered "Mazola" trademark first used June 5, 1911 (edible corn-oil).

1912 - Clarence A. Crane invented Life Savers candy in Cleveland, OH; needed new candy to supplement chocolate business (sales fell in hot weather); developed line of hard mints; contracted with a pill manufacturer to press the mints into shape; pressing process worked much better when the had mints were stamped out with hole in the middle; new candy called "Cranes Life Savers" because they looked like miniature life preservers; introduced Pep O Mint flavor; August 19, 1913 - Clarence Crane registered "Life Savers" trademark first used February 28, 1913 (candy); sold rights to Life Savers for $2900 to Edward J. Noble; mints became known as Pep-O-Mint Life Savers; mints packaged into rolls wrapped in tin foil to keep them fresh-tasting; March 20, 1917 - Mint Products Company, Incorporated (New York, NY) registered "Life Savers" trademark; 1925 - aluminum foil used for the first time; candy promoted at cash registers of saloons, cigar stores, drug stores, barbers shops, restaurants.

Clarence Crane (left) -  Life Savers (http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/crane/images/father.jpg)

1912 - Three Sicilian immigrants, Gaetana LaMarca, Guiseppe Seminara, Michele Cantella, started small spaghetti manufacturing company, Prince Macaroni Mfg. Co., on Prince Street in Boston; November 30, 1920 - registered "Prince" trademark first used on December 14, 1912 (macaroni"); 1941 - Guiseppe Pellegrino (34), another Sicilian immigrant, joined company; soon bought controlling interest; 1953 - Boston advertising firm of Jerome O'Leary created famous slogan "Wednesday is Prince Spaghetti Day"; 1987 - acquired by Borden Inc.; July 11, 1997 - Prince Pasta Company ceased production.

1912 - California Associated Raisin Company formed; 1915 - Sun-Maid brand launched; now world's largest producer and processor of raisins, other dried fruits; 1916 - Lorraine Collett Petersen (Fresno, CA) became brand's original trademark Sun-Maid girl; April 30, 1918 - California Associated Raisin Co. (Fresno, CA), registered "Sun Maid" trademark first used April 19, 1915 (dried fruits).

March 6, 1912 - National Biscuit Company introduced Oreo cookies (two embossed chocolate-flavored wafers with a rich vanilla frosting in between); origin of name unclear; August 12, 1913 - registered "Oreo" trademark first used March 6, 1912 (biscuit); November 20, 1913 - National Biscuit Company introduced Mallomars, chocolate covered marshmallow cookies (not sold in the Summer); April 7, 1914 - registered "Mallomars" trademark first used November 20, 1913 (biscuit).

1913 - Fred H. Wells paid $250 to Ray Bowers (LeMars, IA dairy farmer) for a horse, delivery wagon, few cans and jars, good will of the business in Iowa; original contract granted milk distribution route, guaranteed source of raw milk from Bowers's herd of 10 to 15 milk cows; became Wells' Dairy, Inc.; 1925 - began manufacturing ice cream; 1928 - ice cream distribution system in Sioux City, IA, right to use Wells' name acquired by Fairmont Ice Cream; 1935 - held "Name that Ice Cream" contest The Sioux City Journal; awarded $25 prize for submitting "BLUE BUNNY"; 1950s - Harold, Mike, Roy, Fay Wells (sons of original founder), Fred D. Wells (son of Harry C. Wells) formed partnership; 1994 - Iowa State Legislature officially designated Le Mars, IA as Ice Cream Capital of the World; more ice cream produced in Le Mars by Wells' Dairy, Inc. than in any other city in world; world's largest family-owned, managed dairy processor; world's largest manufacturer of ice cream in one location.

1914 - Charles N. Miller named bite-size peanut butter, molasses candy for his favorite aunt, Mary Jane.

1914 - John E. Cain opened John E. Cain Co., cheese distribution company at Fanueil Hall, Boston, MA; 1924 - introduced Cains All Natural Mayonnaise (did not separate, kept creamy smooth texture, appearance); 1932 - acquired Sunrise Food Company (great tasting Potato Chips); 1939 - renamed Cains Potato Chips (exited potato chip business in 1981); 1950 - Robert Cain (son) took control; October 10, 1950 - John E. Cain Co. registered "Cain's" trademark first used in 1924 (mayonnaise, sandwich spread, sweet relish, horseradish with and without beets, tartar sauce, russian dressing, piccalilli, french dressing, mustard pickle, vegetable relish, olives, pickles, prepared mustard, grated cheese, and pickle chips); 1955 - acquired Jewett Pickle Company, Oxford Pickle Company; 1970 - direct delivery to grocery warehouses (instead of store-door delivery); 1986 - acquired by BolsWessanen (Heluva Good Cheese, Kemps Frozen Yogurt); renamed Cains Foods; 1995 - acquired by Denis J. Keaveny (private investor); 1998 - acquired Olde Cape Cod Company; 2000 - sold pickle division to M. A. Gedney Co.

1914 - Harry and David Holmes inherited 240-acre Bear Creek Orchards (father's death); grew Cornice pears (much sought by European grand hotels, restaurants); named their variety Royal Riviera; 1934 - mail-order business; 1938 - introduced "Fruit of the Month Club"; February 9, 1943 - Holmes Brothers d.b.a. Bear Creek Orchards registered "Harry and David" trademark first used September 5, 1942 (Fresh Fruits-Namely, Nectarines, Grapes, and Pears); 2009 - 136 stores across United States; world's leading catalog mail-order company of fruit, confections, roses.

Harry and David Holmes - Harry and David (http://www.hndcorp.com/overview/images/harryanddavid.jpg)

January 7, 1914 - Heath brothers confectionary opened in Robinson, IL; sold fountain drinks, ice cream, homemade candies; 1928 - developed formula for "English Toffee" (Hearth Toffee Bar); 1946 - L.S. Heath and Sons Inc. incorporated; 1989 - acquired by Leaf, Inc., division of Hutamaki Oy of Helsinki, Finland.

1915 - Emanuele Ronzoni founded Ronzoni Macaroni Company (had started small macaroni company in 1892; created Atlantic Macaroni Company in 1895 - in charge of production for 19 years); December 13, 1949 - registered "Ronzoni" trademark first used on May 1, 1919 (alimentary pastes, spaghetti sauce, and cereal food for infants, children, or convalescents).

1915 - Alfred E. Haigh established chocolate shop in Beehive Building in Adelaide, Australia; 1933 - Claude Haigh (son) took over (six shops); 1946 - John Haigh (grandson) joined company; 1960s - expanded to Melbourne; 2009 - 12 stores.

January 19, 1915 - Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company registered "Doublemint" trademark first used July 28, 1914 (chewing-gum); June 29, 1915 - registered "Juicy Fruit" trademark first used January 1, 1894 (chewing gum).

November 9, 1916 - California Packing Company (Calpak) created from merger of California Fruit Canners Association (formed in 1899 by merger of 18 canneries; comprised approximately half of entire California canning industry; largest canner of fruits and vegetables in world), Griffin & Skelley, Central California Canneries, J.K. Armsby Company, Alaska Packers Association; consolidated control over canning, drying, packing houses, brokers who sold products, farmers who grew them; April 1917 - first national advertising campaign featuring Del Monte (full color ads in national magazines like Good Housekeeping and the Saturday Evening Post); January 1, 1918 - registered "Del Monte" trademark first used October 1, 1891 (canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned fish, tomato sauce, catsup, peppers, sauerkraut, [baked beans, marmalades, jams, preserves, jellies, honey, maraschino cherries] dried fruits, and raisins); 1967 - name changed to Del Monte Corporation; 1979 - acquired by R.J. Reynolds Industries.

1917 - J. J. and B.A (son) Simon, Latvian immigrants, established Table Supply Meat Company in Omaha, NE; 1952 - first mail order venture (meats shipped in dry ice-filled, wax lined, cardboard cartons - by train); aided by direct parcel shipping, polystyrene shipping coolers, vacuum packaging; 1961 - Nebraska Governor Frank B. Morrison sent Table Supply Meat Company steaks to all U.S. Governors and President Kennedy; 1963 - first direct mail flyers and catalogs sent to customers; 1966 - name changed to Omaha Steaks International; 2006 - two fifth-generation family members now play major roles in managing the company.

May 1, 1917 - Prune, apricot growers of San Joaquin Valley, CA formed California Prune and Apricot Growers Association, Inc. as agricultural marketing cooperative to offer crops of its members to consumers at better prices than were offered by individual growers; membership of about 7,000 controlled about 75% of apricot-bearing acreage, 80% of prune-bearing acreage in California; May 14, 1918 - registered "Sunsweet" trademark first used July 7, 1917 (dried apricots and prunes); April 1921 - reincorporated; 1960 - name changed to Sunsweet Growers, Inc.

December 1917 - Eight family companies (branches of the Mogi family) merged to form Noda Shoyu Co., Ltd. (predecessor of Kikkoman Corporation), with capital of 7 million yen; April 1925 - merged with Noda Shoyu Jozo Co., Ltd., Manjo Mirin Co., Ltd., Nippon Shoyu Co., Ltd.; June 1957 - Kikkoman International Inc. established in San Francisco, CA; July 1961 - Kikko Food Industries Co., Ltd. establishe (July 1991 - became Nippon Del Monte Corporation.); October 1964 - Noda Shoyu Co., Ltd. renamed Kikkoman Shoyu Co., Ltd.; October 1980 - Kikkoman Shoyu Co., Ltd. renamed Kikkoman Corporation; 2007 - 17th generation of family ownership; oldest among large industrial companies in Japan.

1919 - Isaac Carasso, doctor and member of prominent Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Ottoman Selanik, founded yogurt factory in Barcelona, Spain; opened small yogurt business named "Danone" (variation on Catalan nickname of his son, Daniel); perfected first industrial process for making yogurt, combined traditional method of making yogurt with pure cultures isolated in Paris (lactic ferments from the Pasteur Institute); 1929 - Daniel Carasso (son) established Danone in France; 1942 - founded first American yogurt company, Dannon Milk Products, Inc., in Bronx, NY (name changed to DANNON to make the brand sound more American); January 12, 1943 - Dannon Milk Products Inc. registered "Dannon" trademark first used June 25, 1942 (Milk Products-Namely, Yogurt); 1947 - introduced yogurt with strawberry fruit on bottom; 1959 - Dannon Milk Products Inc. acquired by Beatrice Foods; 1979 - first perishable dairy product sold coast to coast; 1967 - Danone merged with Gervais, leading fresh cheese business in France; formed Gervais Danone; 1973 - merged with BSN (formed in 1966 by merger of Glaces de Boussois, Souchon-Neuvesel), leading glass container, beverages company; renamed SN Gervais Danone, one of world's largest food manufacturers present in 30 countries worldwide; 1994 - renamed Groupe Danone; 2007 - acquired Numico, Dutch baby food and clinical nutrition company; became world's second largest manufacturer of baby food.

Isaac Carasso - Danone Group (http://www.dannon.com/Images/ad_herit_carasso.gif)

1919 - Henry Glade Milling Company, Ravenna Mills, Hastings Mills, Blackburn-Furry Mill merged, incorporated as Nebraska Consolidated Mills (NCM) in Grand Island, NE; 1941 - expanded outside Nebraska, built flour mill in Alabama; 1969 - acquired Montana Flour Mills Company, flour milling business spanned U. S.; flour made up 40% of sales; 1971 - renamed ConAgra, Inc.; 1980 - acquired Banquet Foods from RCA, entered frozen food market; 1982 - acquired Peavey Company, became largest publicly-held grain merchandiser; 1988 - acquired Lamb Weston, largest U. S. frozen potato processor; 1990 - acquired Beatrice Foods; 1991 - merged with Golden Valley Microwave Foods; 1993 - acquired Hebrew National Foods; 1994 - acquired Marie Callender (frozen meats, pot pies); 1995 - acquired Knotts Berry Farm Foods; 2006 - divested meat, seafood, cheese businesses.

1919 - Peter Paul Halajian, five Armenian associates, joined to expand Halajian's home-made chocolate business, open small shop; formed Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Company; first product - Konabar (blend of coconut, fruits, nuts, chocolate); made at night when air coolest, sold fresh, door-to-door following day"; 1920 - introduced Mounds candy bar; December 12, 1922 - Peter Paul Candy Mfg. Co., Inc. registered "Mounds" trademark first used May 1, 1920 (candy); 1946 - introduced Almond Joy (sold for ten cents); March 7, 1950 - Peter Paul, Inc. registered "Almond Joy" trademark first used December 10, 1945 (candy); April 11, 1950 - Peter Paul, Inc. registered "Peter Paul Distinctive Candies" first used May 1, 1920 ([chewing gum] and candy); September 30, 1952 - York Cone Company registered "York" trademark first used January 28, 1922 (peppermint pattie mint); 1972 - acquired York Cone Company (York Peppermint Pattie); 1978 - acquired by Cadbury; 1988 acquired by Hershey Foods.

August 19, 1919 - William B. Ward, Buffalo, NY, registered "Hostess" trademark first used January 3, 1919 ("Bread, Biscuits, and Cakes").

1920 - Arthur W. Perdue founded backyard table egg business in Salisbury, MD; 1925 - built company's first hatchery, began selling layer chicks to farmers; 1930 - Frank Perdue (19) left college, joined father's business; 1950s - incorporated as A.W. Perdue & Son, Frank Perdue took over leadership; 1968 - began operating its first poultry processing plant; 1970 - began now-famous TV commercials, Frank Perdue became one of first corporate leaders to serve as advertising spokesperson (filmed more than 150 TV commercials); November 19, 1974 - Perdue Farms Incorporated registered 'Perdue' trademark first used in 1968 (chicken and parts thereof); 1974 - introduced PERDUE Oven Stuffer Roaster, proprietary breed; Jim Perdue (son) assumed leadership.

  Frank Perdue - Perdue Farms (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/ 2005/04/01/national/01cnd-perd.184.jpg)

1920 - Harry R. Burt, Youngstown OH candy maker, created the Jolly Boy Sucker, a lollypop on a stick; created first ice cream on a stick; October 9, 1923 - received patent for "Process of Making Frozen Confection" (not for confection itself); Good Humor Ice Cream Bar (name came from the belief that a person's "humor" or temperament was related to the humor of the palate); sent out a fleet of 12 chauffeur-driven trucks with bells to make door-to-door deliveries; October 21, 1924 - registered "Good Humor" trademark (used in another form in December 1921; ice cream suckers); 1930 - M.J. Meehan, New York businessman and investor, acquired the national rights to the company (bought 75% of the shares.); 1961 - acquired by Thomas J. Lipton Company, U.S. operating subsidiary of Unilever; 1993 - name changed to Good Humor-Breyers Ice Cream.

Harry Burt - Good Humor (http://www.goodhumor.com/Images/519/519-114290.png)

1920 - Donley Cross, Charlie Fox opened Fox-Cross Candy Company in Emeryville, CA with candy bar called the Nu Chu; 1922 - introduced Charleston Chew, named after dance craze; vanilla-flavored nougat covered with milk chocolate; one of earliest candy bars to capitalize on use of freezer in home refrigerator; 1957 - acquired by Nathan Sloane; February 1, 1972 - registered "Charleston Chew" trademark first used April 1, 1924 (candy); 1980 - acquired by Nabisco; 1988 - acquired by Warner Lambert; 1993 - acquired by Tootsie Roll Industries.

1920 - E.K Pond label of Swift & Company (acquired in 1904 from Henry Clay Derby, Derby Foods name adopted) introduced introduced peanut butter; later adopted patented Rosefield hydrogenation technology; became first emulsified peanut butter sold to public; 1928 - changed name to Peter Pan Peanut Butter; originally packaged in tin can with a turn key, re-closable lid, switched to glass during World War II; September 12, 1933 - Leo C. Brown, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for "Peanut Butter" ("improvements in food products of paste-like consistency of the character of nut butter, such as peanut butter or the like"); assigned to E. K. Pond Company; 1955 - glass jar with screw-off cap introduced; April 14, 1970 - Derby Foods, Inc. registered "Peter Pan" trademark first used March 1, 1927 (peanut butter); 1984 - acquired by Beatrice/Hunt-Wesson product group; 1990 - acquired by Conagra, Inc.

1920 - Ilhan New, Wally Smith canned bean sprouts at Detroit grocery store; 1922 - incorporated La Choy Food Products Company; August 20, 1929 - La Choy Food Products, Inc. registered "La Choy" trademark first used in 1922 (canned food product, the principal ingredients of which are water chestnuts, bamboo shoots, and vegetable sprouts); November 1943 - acquired by Beatrice Food Company; 1984 - fully integrated into Hunt-Wesson division; 1986 - Beatrice acquired by Kohlberg, Kravis, Roberts; 1990 - acquired by ConAgra, Inc.

1920s - Caesar Gardini invented caesar salad in Tijuana, Mexico.

1920s - Harry Burnett Reese formed H.B. Reese Candy Company, began manufacturing candy, first in basement of his home, later in basement of  restaurant; 1928 - created Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, peanut butter-filled chocolate cups; 1963 - acquired by Hershey.

1920s - Robert Welch founded Oxford Candy Company in Brooklyn, NY; 1925 - introduced Papa Sucker, flat piece of caramel on a stick so it could be eaten like a lollipop; licensed to Brach's candy company in Chicago; 1932 - name changed to Sugar Daddy (popular expression at time); joined brother's company, James O. Welch Company; 1935 - introduced Sugar Baby, spin-off from success of Sugar Daddy (young women on whom middle-aged "Sugar Daddies" spent money); created Junior Mints, and Pom Poms.

August 10, 1920 - Vermont Maple Syrup Company, Inc., Essex Junction, VT, registered "Vermont Maid" trademark first used April 22, 1919 (blended cane and maple table syrup).

1921 - Washburn Crosby's Home Services Department created "Betty Crocker" to respond to cooking, baking questions received from Gold Medal flour advertisement in Saturday Evening Post ("Crocker" chosen in honor of recently retired company director, "Betty" chosen for friendly sound); 1924 - Betty Crocker given voice (Blanche Ingersoll) on Gold Medal Flour Home Service Talks on WCCO radio station owned by Washburn Crosby; 1936 - given a face (created by Neysa McMein, commercial artist); January 16, 1951 - General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, registered "Betty Crocker" trademark first used September 20, 1924 (wheat flour, prepared cake mixes, pie crust mix); 1955 - image updated by Hilda Taylor portrait; March 19, 1996 - image updated in John Stuart Ingle portrait.

Marjorie Child Husted - home economist, radio voice of Betty Crocker until 1950 (http://books.google.com/books?id=jViWRdeJ1DkC&pg=PA120&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&ots=NyOdnyAi8I&sig=ACfU3U3t-duvRXrS7UpKV8pB5TJGJ2hFVQ&w=685)

Adelaide Hawley Cumming - original Betty Crocker from 1952 -1964 on TV (http://www.rochester.edu/pr/Review/V61N3/photos/59-2.JPG)

1921 - Earl Wise. Sr., owner of Wise Delicatessen in Berwick, PA, made potato chips from excess potato inventory; founded Wise Potato Chip Company; leading potato chip company in eastern United States; July 23, 1935 - registered "Wise Potato Chips" trademark first used January 1935 (potato chips); 1964 - acquired by Borden; 1969 - name changed to Wise Foods, Inc. to reflect wide variety of snacks sold; 1990's - acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.); 2000 - acquired by Palladium Equity Partners, private investment firm; number three in national market share in potato chips at 3.1%, (private-label chips 6.4%, Frito-Lay with 68% share); 2005 - Official Potato Chip of New York Mets.

1921 - Henry Ford applied existing technology to convert wood waste (hardwood chips) from sawmills (used in production of Model T's) into charcoal briquettes (charred, ground, mixed with starch, compressed into pillow-shaped briquettes patented in 1897 by Ellsworth Zwoyer); relied on E.G. Kingsford (Ford dealer, married to Ford's cousin) to select site ( 313,447 acres) for wood production, charcoal processing plant in Iron Mountain area of Michigan's Upper Peninsula; December 29, 1923 - charter for newly formed Village of Kingsford approved (city charter approved August 7, 1947); 1924 - chemical plant reclaimed 610 pounds of charcoal per ton of scrap wood, produced 55 tons of briquettes each day, sold as Ford Charcoal Briquets ($25/bag) to industry (meat, fish smokehouses, foundries, tobacco-curing plants), to car customers through Ford dealerships; 1951 - acquired by local investment group; renamed The Kingsford Chemical Company; Ford Charcoal renamed Kingsford Charcoal; September 22, 1953 - registered "Kingsford" trademark first used December 17, 1951 (charcoal briquettes); 1973 - acquired by The Clorox Company; 1999 - controlled about half of $455 million market.

E.G. Kingsford (top frame, far right) - Kingsford Charcoal (http://www.creativepro.com/files/story_images/20060904_fg17.jpg)

1921 - Norman Nash "brewed" sauce in his kitchen in Shooter's Hill, Jamaica; combination of tomatoes, onions, mangoes, raisins, garlic, thyme cloves, some secret ingredients; cooked, stored in oak barrels for year before being separated and bottled (bottled sauce has shelf life of five years); 1945 - rights acquired by Joseph Lyn Kee Chow; July 24, 1973 - Pickapeppa Company, Ltd. registered "Pickapeppa" trademark first used April 7, 1943 (sauce, hot pepper sauce, manho chitney, white veinegar, cane vinegar).

May 21, 1921 - Taggart Baking Company of Indianapolis, IN introduced Wonder bread; red, yellow and blue logo conceived by Taggart Vice President Elmer Cline (inspired by International Balloon Race at Indianapolis Speedway); 1925 - acquired by Continental Baking; July 13, 1926 - Taggart Baking Company registered "Wonder" trademark first used May 1, 1921 (bread and cake); 1930s - began shipping Wonder Bread in sliced form; 1960s - advertised with slogan "Helps build strong bodies in 12 ways" (referred to number of added nutrients); 1986 - lower-calorie Wonder Light bread introduced; 1995 - acquired by Interstate Brands Corporation; "Remember the Wonder" ad campaign launched.

July 8, 1921 - Minnesota Cooperative Creameries Association incorporated; 1924 - Mrs. E.B. Foss and Mr. George L. Swift won contest to choose brand name, trademark for its butter; April 7, 1925 - registered "Land O' Lakes" trademark (butter, dressed poultry, cheese, eggs); 1926 - cooperative changed corporate name to Land O' Lakes Creameries, Inc. (later to Land O' Lakes, Inc.); 1928 - painting of Indian maiden began facing viewer, holding butter carton and surrounded by lakes, pines, flowers, grazing cows placed on packaging; reflected Native American heritage of Upper Midwest; 1939 - simplified, modernized.

July 19, 1921 - Breyer Ice Cream Company, Philadelphia, PA, registered "Breyers" trademark first used in May 1912 (ice-cream).

July 13, 1921 - Christian K. Nelson, chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement in Des Moines, IA to produce, market Nelson's "I-Scream Bar"; name changed to Eskimo Pie ("coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally"); decided to sell manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold; first 250,000 pies produced sold within 24 hours; January 24, 1922 - Nelson, of Onawa, IA, received patent for a "Confection"; Eskimo Pie; ice cream centre covered in chocolate; described: "in its simplest form, a block or brick or frozen confection within an edible container or shell. The core or center may be an ice cream, sherbet, sorbet, ice, or other material congealed by refrigeration"; shell was described as "like that used in coating chocolate candies, although preferably modified to harden at a lower temperature," and not too brittle; half patent assigned to Russell Stover (Chicago, IL); 1922 - Stover sold his share of the company; spring 1922 - 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day; 1924 - acquired by United States Foil Company, supplier of Eskimo Pie wrapper (later known as Reynolds Metals Company); October 3, 1929 - U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals declared 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention"; April 13, 1943 - registered "Eskimo Pie" trademark first used October 3, 1921 (ice cream); 1992 - Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals.

  Christian K. Nelson - Eskimo Pie (http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/images/d8553-2.jpg)

November of 1921 - Charles See, his mother, his wife, Florence, opened first See's Candies shop and kitchen on Western Avenue in Los Angeles; mid-1920s - twelve shops; 1936 - opened in San Francisco; 1972 - acquired by Berkshire Hathaway; 2007 - over two hundred shops throughout West.

September 1922 - Clarence Birdseye started Birdseye Seafoods Inc. to process chilled fish fillets at plant near the Fulton Fish Market in New York City (former U.S. field naturalist near the Arctic, learned technique of flash freezing from Labrador Inuit); 1924 - filed for bankruptcy; July 3, 1924 - organized General Seafood Corporation (began frozen foods industry); October 14, 1924 - received a patent for a "Method of Preserving Piscatorial Products" ('improved process for the preservation of fish and sea-foods in general"); November 30, 1926 - received a patent for a "Method in Preparing Foods and the Product Obtained Thereby" ("which will render the same more readily handles without damage, and more permanent in form when sliced, cooked or otherwise treated after purchase and in preparation for eating"); June 1929 - Postum Company acquired General Seafood Corporation for $22 million; later renamed General Foods Corporation; Birdseye relinquished all patents related to quick-freezing process, remained head of Research and Development (Birds Eye Frosted Foods division).

Clarence Birdseye - frozen foods (http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bpp/Newsletters/ClarenceBirdseye.JPG)

1923 - Russell and Clara Stover began candy business in their home in Denver, CO (had sold interest in Eskimo Pie); marketed as "Mrs. Stover's Bungalow Candies"; 1941 - name changed to Russell Stover Candies; October 16, 1962 - registered "Russell Stover" trademark first used in 1941 (candy); 1969 - acquired by Louis Ward (made boxes for Stover chocolates; 35 retail stores, more than 2,000 agencies); March 1993 - acquired Stephen F. Whitman & Son ($85 million in sales), America's oldest continuous producer of boxed chocolates, for $35 million.

Russell Stover - Russell Stover Candies (http://www.newton.k12.ks.us/tech/russellstover250.jpg)

February 13, 1923 - Joseph Rosefield, of Alameda, CA, received a patent for "Peanut Butter and Process of Manufacturing the Same"; process to prevent oil separation in peanut butter (hydrogenated peanut butter); used finer grinding, hydrogenation, emulsifier to keep oil from separating; shelf-stable peanut butter would stay fresh for up to a year because oil didn't separate from peanut butter.

February 14, 1923 - Velveeta (smooth as velvet) Cheese Company incorporated in Monroe, NY; packaged using 1921 invention of tinfoil lining that could house cheese inside wooden box; special cooking properties - would never curdle when heated; November 27, 1923 - Max O. Schaefer (d.b.a. Velveeta Cheese Company) registered 'Velveeta' trademark (cheese); 1927 - acquired by Kraft.

1924 - Ettore (Hector) Boiardi, formerly of Plaza Hotel in New York, Greenbriar in West Virginia, Hotel Winton in Cleveland, opened Il Giardino d'Italia restaurant in Cleveland; packaged pasta and sauce for customers to take home; 1930s - began selling pasta, sauce in cans; food distributor convinced him to change spelling of his name to 'Boyardee' to make it easier for Americans to pronounce; during World War II - largest supplier of rations for U.S. and Allied Forces; 1946 - acquired by conglomerate American Home Foods (now International Home Foods). for $6 million; September 28, 1965 - American Home Products registered "Chef Boyardee" trademark first used September 1929; 2000 - acquired by ConAgra.

Ettore (Hector) Boiardi - Chef Boyardee (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/15/Chefboyardeepic.jpg/250px-Chefboyardeepic.jpg)

1924 - Johnson Company of Chicago produced Bit-O-Honey candy bar; almond bits embedded in honey-flavored taffy; July 14, 1925 - Schutter-Johnson Candy Co. registered "Bit-O-Honey" trademark first used October 1924 (candy); now owned by Nestle.

1924 - California Avocado Growers Exchange founded as grower-member-owned cooperative; packing volume of approximately 180,000 pounds; 1926 - renamed Calavo; 1928 - built first grower-owned packinghouse in Vernon, CA; 1931 - diversified product line with limes, avocado oil (Company's first processed food); 1943 - 31 sales offices nationwide; 1949 - began marketing papaya under Calavo Gold name; 1964 - expand internationally, beginning with Japan; 1965 - launched first processed consumer product, one pound can of "Avocado Dip" (guacamole); 1974 - sales of $25 million; 1990 - gross sales exceeded $150 million; 2001 - member-shareholders voted overwhelmingly to convert to for-profit status, became publicly traded company; 2004 - annual packing volume exceeded152 million pounds; 2009 - nation's largest avocado packer.

1924 - Benjamin Tillman “Pop” Byrd founded Byrd Cookie Co. in Savannah, GA; made cookies by hand in small building behind Norwood Avenue home, packed them in wooden boxes, delivered them in Model-T Ford to businesses around Savannah; one-man operation to international player in gourmet food industry; 2011 - fourth generation management.

January 29, 1924 - Carl R. Taylor, of Cleveland, OH, received patent for a "Cone-Rolling Machine"; ice cream cone rolling machine; described as a "machine for forming thin, freshly baked wafers while still hot into cone shaped containers" for ice-cream.

November 1924 - Ready-to-eat cereal, known as Washburn’s Gold Medal Whole Wheat Flakes, introduced; created when Minneapolis health clinician preparing wheat bran mixture accidentally spilled some on hot stove, created tasty wheat flakes; George Cormack, head miller at Washburn Crosby Company (General Mills's predecessor), perfected process for producing wheat flakes; name shortened to "Wheaties" as result of employee contest won by Jane Bausman, wife of company executive; June 9, 1925 - Washburn Crosby Company (Minneapolis, MN) registered "Wheaties" trademark first used November 12, 1924 (cereal food product); 1933 - brand's sports association began with sign on left field wall at Nicollet Park in south Minneapolis, home of Minneapolis Millers, minor league team; Minneapolis advertising man Knox Reeves created slogan: "Wheaties - The Breakfast of Champions"; 1934 - Lou Gehrig first athlete to appear on Wheaties box (back); August 29, 1939 - sponsored first televised commercial sports broadcast of game between Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers for some 500 owners of television sets in New York City; 1958 - Bob Richards, Olympic decathlon gold medalist, first athlete to appear on front of Wheaties box; 1984 - Mary Lou Retton, gold medal gymnast, first woman to appear on front of Wheaties box.

December 9, 1924 - Wm. Wrigley, Jr. Company, Chicago, IL, registered "Wrigley's" (chewing gum) trademark first used January 1, 1892 (chewing gum).

December 1, 1925 - Planters Nut & Chocolate Company, Suffolk, VA, registered "Mr. Peanut" trademark first used June 1916 (Candy, Salted Peanuts, Peanut Meal, Peanut Butter, and Candies Peanuts); March 5, 1935 - registered "Planters" trademark first used in 1906 (roasted peanuts, salted peanuts, peanut butter...").

1926 - Joseph Draps founded chocolate company in Belgium named in honor of legend of Lady Godiva; 1974 - acquired by Campbell Soup Company.
December 7, 1926 - Keebler Weyl Baking Co., Philadelphia, PA, registered "Keebler" trademark first used 1860 (cookies, cakes, crackers and fancy grade of biscuit-like articles coated with chocolate, fondant, and marshmallow).

1927 - Dorothy Gerber hand-strained solid food for her seven-month-old daughter; 1928 - became first baby food analyst at Fremont Canning Company (family produced line of canned fruits, vegetables); strained peas, prunes, carrots. spinach, to beef vegetable soup ready for national market; launched advertising campaign featuring coupon and Gerber Baby in publications from The Journal of the American Medical Association to Good Housekeeping; grocers placed orders by dozen; within six months, Gerber Baby Foods on grocery store shelves across nation; March 4, 1952 - Gerber Products Company registered "Gerber" trademark first used October 12, 1928 (canned foods for infants); 1994 - merged with Sandoz Ltd.; December 1996 - part of Novartis group of companies (formed by merger of Ciba-Geigy Ltd. and Sandoz Ltd.).

Dorothy Gerber - Gerber Baby Foods (http://www.nestlebaby.com/NR/rdonlyres/9B0D51F9-DCE2-4601-9FEF-0106310B66A4/0/dorothy.jpg)

1927 - Austrian candy executive Eduard Haas (Vienna-based Haas Food Manufacturing Corporation) invented Pez candy (abbreviation of the German word for peppermint, PfeffErminZ); originally marketed as an adult mint for people trying to quit smoking; 1947 - Pez dispenser designed, looked like a cigarette lighter (patented in 1949); 1952 - exporting Pez candies to the United States; May 27, 1952 - registered "Pez" trademark (sweets).

1927 - Vincent Taormina's New York business merged with his cousin's business [Guiseppe] Uddo & Taormina Corporation of New Orleans, formed Progresso Italian Food Corporation of New York City; December 1, 1942 - Uddo Taormina Corp. registered "Progresso" trademark first used in 1922 (canned vegetables); 1949 - first Progresso premium soup was introduced (first canned, ready-to-serve soup in America).

1927 - Cal Stinson Sr. founded Stinson Seafood plant in Prospect Harbor, Maine; 1951 - Maine State Legislature established Maine Sardine Council; May 19, 1964 - Stinson Seafood Company L.P. registered "Beach Cliff" trademark first used in 1929 (canned sardines); 2001 - former Stinson Seafood plant acquired by Connors Bros.; 2004 - acquired by Bumble Bee Foods (federal limit on Atlantic herring - 180,000 metric tons); 2010 - New England Fishery Management Council reduced quota on Atlantic herring to 91,000 metric tons; America's largest producer of canned herring products; 500 employees at three modern canning facilities on coast of Maine; vertically integrated: fishing fleet, processing plants, automated factory that produces cans; April 18, 2010 - last remaining sardine cannery United States closed.

1928 - William Dreyer, former manager of National Ice Cream plant in Oakland, CA, partnered with candy-maker Joseph Edy (Edy's Character Candies Shop), opened Grand Ice Cream Company on Grand Avenue in Oakland; 1929 - Rocky Road flavor debuts; July 1947 - partnership dissolved; 1953 - William Dreyer, Jr. took over; name changed to Dreyer's Grand Ice Cream; 1963 - acquired by Al Wolff, Bob Boone and Ken Cook (company officers); May 20, 1977 - acquired by T. Gary Rogers, William F. Cronk (former classmates at Berkeley) for $1.1 million; leading manufacturer and distributor of packaged ice cream in the West; 1981 - went public; 1994 - #1 packaged ice cream in U.S., largest share in premium ice cream market; 2003 - 67% acquired by Nestle; January 2006 - 100% control acquired by Nestle ($2 billion in sales, more than 6,000 employees); world's biggest ice cream maker.

Dreyer's Grand Ice Cream (http://www.dreyersinc.com/ images/ad_history_founders.gif)

1928 - Milton J. Holloway took over F. Hoffman & Company of Chicago, original manufacturer of Milk Duds chocolate covered caramels; named because original idea of perfectly round piece was impossible, word "duds" used; "milk" used to reflect large amount of milk in product.

June 20, 1928 - General Mills incorporated; result of James Ford Bell's merging of Red Star Milling Company, Royal Milling Company, Kalispell Flour Mills Company; Rocky Mountain Elevator Company, Washburn Crosby Company; June 22, 1928 - came into existence; November 30, 1928 - stock first traded on New York Stock Exchange; 2001 - acquired The Pillsbury Company.

November 27, 1928 - Kellogg Company registered "Rice Krispies" trademark first used February 29, 1928 (breakfast food).

November 27, 1928 - Kellogg Company registered "Rice Krispies" trademark first used February 29, 1928 (breakfast food).

1929 - Alfred Nef and Alfred Gonzenbach, Swiss immigrants with knack for cheese making, established Valley Queen Cheese Factory, Inc. in Milbank, SD; farmers learned of many advantages of selling their milk rather than marketing their cream; 2009 - over 100 employees; Rudy Nef (son) Chairman; Max Gonzenbach (son) President; April 2009 - named South Dakota Business of the Year by South Dakota Chamber of Commerce and Industry; May 13, 2009 - Rudy and Marilyn Nef provided a gift of undisclosed amount to Augustana College to create the Nef Family Chair of Political Economy (college's first endowed faculty chair); Robert Wright, 40, associate professor in economics department at New York University's Stern School of Business, held chair.

1930 - Marcus L. Urann, two other cranberry growers formed Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc.; first introduced Ocean Spray Cranberry Juice Cocktail; June 2, 1931 - Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. (Lakeville-Middleboro, MA) registered "Ocean Spray" trademark first used October 1921 (fresh cranberries, canned cranberries, and cranberry syrup); 1963 - introduced juice industry's first juice blend--CranApple Cranberry Apple Juice Drink; 1976 - expanded co-op to include grapefruit growers from Florida's Indian River region; 1991 - introduced Ocean Spray Ruby Red Grapefruit Juice Drink.

1930 - Oscar Benson, Colonel ‘Bertie’ Dickson acquired small confectionery business at 164 Church Street, in Kensington, London; named Bendicks (combined first syllables of each last name; made chocolates in tiny basement); 1931 - Lucia Benson (sister-in-law) created mint chocolate recipe (mint fondant enrobed in 95% cocoa solids’ chocolate); named Bittermint; 1933 - opened store in heart of Mayfair (London); became known as Bendicks of Mayfair; 1962 - awarded Royal Warrant: “By Appointment of Her Majesty the Queen"; June 25, 1968 - Bendicks (Mayfair) LLC registered "Bendicks Bittermints" trademark fist used 1919 (mint flavored chocolates).

1930s - Ruth Wakefield, of Whitman MA, is credited with inventing chocolate chip cookies at her Toll House Restaurant; August 27, 1940 - Societe des Produits Nestle S.A. registered "Toll House" trademark first used April 10, 1940 (cookies); 1941 - Nestle began marketing her chip cookies to public; April 17, 1956 - Nestle S.A. Company, Inc. (White Plains, NY) registered "Toll House" trademark (cookie mix).

March 6, 1930 - Clarence Birdseye conducted (via General Foods) "Springfield Experiment Test Market" in Springfield, MA ((had invested $7 in 1923, purchased electric fan, buckets of brine, some ice, invented system of packing, flash-freezing waxed cardboard boxes of fresh foods); sold 26 different (first) frozen vegetables, fruits, fish, meats at 18 retail stores to see how consumers would react to frozen foods; birth of retail frozen foods; May 20, 1930 - Clarence Birdseye, of Gloucester, MA, received a patent for a "Method of Preparing Consumer Packages" ("practiced most advantageously when it includes as one characteristic step the quick-freezing of the product"); August 12, 1930 - received a patent for a "Method of Preparing Food Products" ("treating food products by refrigerating same, preferably by "quick" freezing the product into a frozen block in which the pristine qualities and flavors of the product are retained for a substantial period after the block has been thawed"); packaged frozen food; assigned to Frosted Foods Company, Inc. (General Foods subsidiary); September 9, 1930 - received a patent for a "Method of Packaging Fruit Juices" ('without deterioration in flavor or composition...by freezing with sufficient rapidity to avoid such separation"); July 7, 1931 - Frosted Foods Company, Inc. registered "Birds Eye" trademark first used February 15, 1930 (frozen food products); November 3, 1952 - marketed first frozen peas in Chester, NY; 1961 - incorporated as producer, marketer of processed food products; 1983 - General Foods acquired by Philip Morris; 1993 - Birdseye acquired by Dean Foods Vegetable Company for about $140 million; 1998 - acquired by Agrilink Foods; February 10, 2003 - name changed to Birds Eye Foods Inc. to reflect company's largest brand.

April 6, 1930 - Continental Baking Company executive Jimmy Dewar invented (Hostess) Twinkies; used machines for cream filled strawberry shortcake, idle after strawberry season, to make snack cake filled with banana filling, charged nickel for package of 2; came up with name when driving by a billboard that had an ad for shoes from the "Twinkle Toe Shoe Company", shortened name to ....Twinkies; June 20, 1961 - Continental Baking Company registered "Twinkie" trademark first used June 25, 1930 (cake); 1995 - acquired by Interstate Bakeries Corporation.

April 28, 1931 - Automotive pioneer, industrialist, philanthropist Charles Stewart Mott (largest GM shareholder) acquired lands, sugar mill, other assets of bankrupt Southern Sugar Company in Florida; renamed United States Sugar Corporation; 1941 - Florida sugar industry profitable; early 1980s - largest sugar-producing state in country (U.S. Sugar Corporation largest sugar producer in state - internal transportation system, railroad with over 120 miles of track, 1100 railcars linking sugarcane fields with mills, extensive research facility); mid 1980s - employees became largest shareholders in Company through ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan); 2008 - one of country's largest privately held agricultural firms, farms nearly 187,858 acres of most productive farmland in United States, mills can process nearly 45,000 tons of sugarcane per day, produce over 700,000 tons of sugar per year.

November 24, 1931 - General Mills, Inc. registered "Bisquick" trademark first used July 16, 1931 (biscuit flour).

November 24, 1931 - Thomas Midgley, Jr., of Worthington, OH), Albert L. Henne (of Columbus, OH) and Robert R. McNary (of Dayton, OH) received a patent for "Heat Transfer" ("...to provide a process of refrigeration and, generically, a process of heat transfer in which...non-inflammability and non-toxicity are obtained in combination with the desired boiling points"); flurocarbon refrigeration (Freon).

1932 - Charles Elmer Doolin of San Antonio, TX, operator of the Highland Park Confectioner, purchased rights to unknown corn chip product to diversify his ice cream business; spent $100 for corn chip recipe, 19 retail accounts, manufacturing equipment (converted hand-operated potato ricer); established new business venture in his mother's kitchen; 1933 - increased Fritos production from 10 pounds to nearly 100 pounds an hour; August 29, 1933 - Daisy D. Doolin (dba FRITO Company) registered FRITOS trademark first used March 27, 1932 (cakes); 1939 - Herman W. Lay, former major distributor of Gardner's Potato Chips for Barrett Food Products Company, formed H.W. Lay Corporation in Atlanta, GA as a distributor of potato chips; 1944 - changed product name to Lay's Potato Chips; 1945 - first of  FRITOS franchises offered to The H.W. Lay Company of Atlanta, GA; 1950 - FRITOS sold in all 48 states; 1954 - Frito sales of $21 million; 1956 - H.W. Lay & Company & Company largest manufacturer of potato chips, snack foods in United States; more than 1,000 employees, plants in eight cities, branches or warehouses in thirteen others; LAY'S Potato Chips is America's favorite potato chip; January 12, 1971 - Frito-Lay Inc. registered "Lays" trademark first used May 1, 1938 ([snack foods-namely,] potato chips [and sticks, popcorn, nuts (shelled and unshelled), and cookie sandwiches]).

Charles Elmer Doolin - Fritos (http://media.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2007/oct/frito/doolin_family200.jpg?t=1248631062)

Herman W. Lay - Lay's Potato Chips (http://www.fritolay.com/assets/images/head/au-how-it-all-CEDoolin.gif)

1932 - Rosefield Packing Co. (Alamada, CA) introduced Skippy Peanut Butter (based on February 13, 1923 patented manufacturing process); first use of "Skippy" as trademark for peanut butter (apparently taken from Percy Crosby cartoon character of same name, invalidated in 1934); canceled exclusive licensing agreement with Swift & Co., makers of Peter Pan Peanut Butter, following a dispute; February 1, 1933 - began selling Skippy; introduced chunk-style peanut butter; December 21, 1948 - registered "Skippy" trademark first used February 1, 1933 (peanut butter); April 18, 1950 - Fitzhugh L. Avera, of Alameda, CA, received patent for a "Process of Manufacturing Stabilized Nut Butters" ("improved process of with hydrogenated stabilizers to afford end products substantially devoid of taste sensations of waxiness or unctuosity"); new type of cold-processed hydrogenated peanut oil; assigned to Rosefield Packing Co.; 1954 - company had nearly 25 percent of U.S. peanut butter market; 1955 - company acquired by BestFoods; June 6, 2000 - British-Dutch food giant Unilever NV agreed to buy BestFoods in deal worth $24.3 billion; April 5, 2004 - U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear trademark infringement suit by Joan Crosby Tibbetts, daughter of Percy Crosby, against Skippy's manufacturer, BestFoods division of multinational conglomerate Unilever; [may have] ended 39-year quest to invalidate Skippy trademark registered by CPC International.

November 15, 1932 - MARS, Incorporated registered "3 MUSKETEERS" trademark first used May 1, 1932 (candy); third brand produced, manufactured by company; named for original design of product (three pieces, three flavors: vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry).

February 16, 1932 - James E. Markham, of Xenia, IL, received a patent for a "Peach" ("cross of the J. H. Hale peach and an unknown yellow variety of a strong and vigorous character, the object in view being by reproduction to combine and improve the good characteristics of the two varieties so as to obtain a better tree, large in size, bearing good quality fruit and possessing other characteristics which go to make a good commercial or marketable peach"); assigned to Stark Bro's Nurseries and Orchards Company of Louisiana, MS; first patent for fruit tree, seventh plant patent in U.S.

July 12, 1932 - Otto Frederick Rohwedder, of Davenport, IA, received a patent for a "Machine for Slicing an Entire Loaf of Bread at a Single Operation"; first loaf-at-a-time bread-slicing machine with multiple cutting bands; 1928 - Chillicothe Baking Company (Chillicothe, MO) installed first machine; July 7, 1928 - first sliced bread produced ("Kleen Maid Sliced Bread"); 1929 - Rohwedder sold invention to Bettendorf (Iowa) Company (acquired by Micro-Westco., Inc. of Davenport); served as vice-president, sales manager of company for many years.

Otto Frederick Rohwedder - invented sliced bread (http://www.albionmich.com/history/histor_notebook/images/sRohwedderOtto.jpg)

1933 - Harry and Pat Olivieri made first version of Philadelphia cheese steak in their corner hot dog stand nera the Italian market in South Philadelphia (Pat's King of Steaks); piled sliced, grilled beef with onions on rolls; decades later - Cheez Whiz added to steak and onions; provalone, American cheese, pizza sauce became options.

November 13, 1933 - First sit-down strike in American history held by workers at packing plant of George A. Hormel and Company in Austin, MN.

1934 - Norton Simon started Val Vita Food Products; built business from annual sales of $45,000 to $9 million company in less than a decade; became something of star in California canning business; 1943 - merged Val Vita Food Products, formed new company, Hunt Foods, headed company.

1934 - O.D. and Ruth McKee bought small, three-employee bakery in downtown Chattanooga, TN; converted cookie shop into a 5-cent cake bakery; 1950s - named McKee Baking Company; 1960 - introduced "Little Debbie" snack cakes (his granddaughter’s name); first bakery to sell individually wrapped cakes in multipack carton; July 31, 1962 - McKee Baking Company registered "Little Debbie" trademark first used August 23, 1960 (oatmeal cream pie); 1963 - used bow-tie logo; 1991 - name changed to McKee Foods Corporation; 2010 - more than $1 billion in annual sales, more than 6,000 employees nationally.

Little Debbie (serving samples) - Snack Cakes (http://media.timesfreepress.com/img/photos/2010/01/22/0123_web_lb_little_debbie_t305.jpg?ba7ba0dd8d7f1e464d5eb01fb9ba8c10bd9c61fe)

October 2, 1934 - Dale W. McMillen founded, incorporated Central Soya Company in Decatur, IN (livestock feeds and soybeans); June 1985 - acquired by Shamrock Holdings Inc. (privately owned by Roy E. Disney family); October 1987 - acquired by Ferruzzi Finanziaria SpA in Ravenna, Italy; October 2002 - acquired by Bunge Limited.

1935 - Nabisco launched Ritz Crackers in US; January 5, 1937 - National Biscuit Company registered "Ritz" cracker trademark first used November 1, 1934 (bakery products-namely biscuit).

1936 - Joseph W. Luter, Sr. and his son, Joseph W. Luter, Jr., opened Smithfield Packing plant in Smithfield, VA; 1969 - acquired by Liberty Equities; 1981 - first major acquisition, Gwaltney of Smithfield, local rival and well-established pork products company; 1984 - acquired 80% of Patrick Cudahy for $27.5 million (100-year-old Wisconsin company that was losing money but famous for its sweet apple-wood smoked sausages, bacon and ham); 1995 - acquired John Morrell & Co., largest acquisition to date, allowed Smithfield Foods to expand throughout Midwestern United States; October 2003 - won Farmland Foods, sixth-largest U.S. pork processor, in court-supervised bankruptcy auction; 2006 - sales exceeded $11 billion, 24 percent average annual compounded rate of return to investors since 1975, world's largest pork processor and hog producer, largest turkey producer in U. S., fifth-largest U.S. beef processor.

1937 - Margaret Rudkin, Connecticut woman who began baking preservative-free bread for her son who had allergy to commercial breads with preservatives, artificial ingredients; began small business out of her kitchen, sold "Pepperidge Farm" bread to local grocers; named for family's farm in Fairfield, CT; September 20, 1938 - registered "Pepperidge Farm" trademark first used September 1, 1937 (bread and cereal food products, particularly breakfast cereals, cracked wheat flour and corn meal); July 4, 1947 - opening of company's first modern bakery in Norwalk, CT; 1955 - launched Distinctive line of European-style cookies (reached agreement with Delacre Company in Brussels); 1961 - acquired by Campbell Soup Company.

Margaret Rudkin - Pepperidge Farm (http://www.pepperidgefarm.com/Images/photo-margaret5.jpg)

1937 - Necco introduced Sky Bars; first molded chocolate bar with 4 distinctly different centers (caramel, vanilla, peanut or fudge); first advertised to public in sky-writing campaign.

January 1, 1937 - At a party at the Hormel Mansion in Minnesota, a guest won $100 for naming a new canned meat -- Spam (originally called HORMEL Spiced Ham); August 22, 1950 - Geo. A. Hormel & Co. registered "SPAM" trademark first used May 11, 1937 (canned meat product, consisting primarily of pork chopped and molded in loaf form in the can); 1959 - produced one-billionth can of SPAM Luncheon Meat.

March 25, 1937 - Quaker Oats paid Babe Ruth $25,000 per year for ads.

July 13, 1937 - Vernon Rudolph bought secret yeast-based doughnut recipe from French chef from New Orleans, rented building in Old Salem (Winston Salem), NC, began selling Krispy Kreme doughnuts to grocery stores; March 13, 1951 - Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation registered "Krispy Kreme" trademark first used August 1934 (doughnuts and the mix for making same).

1938 - Abram, Ira, Philip, Joseph Shorin established Topps Chewing Gum, Inc. in Brooklyn, NY; 1947 - incorporated, developed Bazooka bubble gum; named after humorous 1930's musical instrument made from two gas pipes and a funnel by Bob Burns; 1951 - baseball cards introduced; 1953 - Bazooka Joe comics introduced; January 27, 1959 - registered "Bazooka Joe" trademark first used in August 1954 (comic strip in sheet form); 1972 - went public; 1984 - acquired in leveraged buyout led by Forstmann Little & Company; 1987 - went public again; September 19, 2007 - shareholders approved sale of company for $385.4 million to Tornante Co. investment firm (Michael Eisner), Madison Dearborn Partners LLC.

1938 - Samuel Isaac Greenberg, Jewish immigrant from Poland, began smoking turkeys, rubbed with spice mix attributed to his mother, Jennie Greenberg, over hickory logs in Tyler, TX; sold smoked kosher turkeys to Jews, non-Jews alike from metal shebang with sand-covered floor in back corner of milking barn; June 23, 1987 - Greenberg Smoked Turkeys, Inc. registered "Greenberg" trademark first used in october 1938 (smoked meat, namely, smoked turekey); 2010 - managed by Sam Greenberg (grandson); 20 brick-lined, hardwood-fired pit houses (not in use 9 months/per year) smoke more than 200,000 turkeys per year (about 20,000 turkeys sold to to walk-in customers during TYhanksgiving this season, priced at a little more than $4 a pound).

1938 - Lawrence Frank and Walter Van de Kamp opened Lawry's The Prime Rib in Beverly Hills, restaurant with single entree, prime rib; introduced Lawry's Seasoned Salt (blend of salt, spice, herbs); shakers disappeared from tables; introduced to marketplace in response to popular demand; Lawry's Seasoned Salt rapidly became best-selling bottled spice blend in world (annual sales $150 million); September 4, 1962 - Lawry's Foods, Inc. registered "Lawry's" trademark first used August 8, 1939 (Powdered Dip Mixes, Seasoned Salt, Salt Substitute, Sauce Mixes, Seasoning Mixes, Dressing Mixes for Salads, Garlic Spread Concentrate, Salad Dressings, All Purpose Dressings, Bleu Cheese Dressings); dominates market for branded seasoned salt products; August 2008 - acquired, with Adolph's Meat Tenderizer, by McCormick for $605 million (forced by FTC to spin off Season-All line, with $18 million in sales, to Morton International Inc. for $15 million).

Lawrence Frank - Lawry's Foods (http://www.lawrys.com.tw/images/lawryw_photo2c.jpg)

1939 - Nathan Cummings (43) acquired C.D. Kenny Company, small wholesale distributor of sugar, coffee and tea in Baltimore (net sales of $24 million); 1942 - acquired Sprague, Warner & Company; changed name to Sprague Warner-Kenny Corporation; 1954 - company's name changed to Consolidated Foods Corporation to emphasize its diversified role in food processing, packaging and distribution; 1956 - acquired Kitchens of Sara Lee (originally called Community Bake Shops, named for Sara Lee Lubin, daughter of entrepreneur Charles Lubin), entered retail food business by acquiring 34 Piggly Wiggly supermarkets; 1985 - changed name to Sara Lee Corporation to reflect consumer marketing orientation of company, high-quality, well-known branded products marketed around world.

Nathan Cummings - Sara Lee (http://www.nathancummings.org/nathancummings.jpg)

1939 - Henry Blommer, Sr., Al, Bernard Blommer (brothers), founded Blommer Chocolate in Chicago, IL; 1948 - branched out nationally, added Blommer Chocolate Factory of California in Los Angeles; 1952 - acquired Boldemann Chocolate of San Francisco; 1970 - consolidated southern California, San Francisco operations; February 8, 2000 - Blommer Chocolate Company registered "Blommer" trademark first used in 1939 (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, chocolate liquor, chocolate liquor wafers, flavored confectioner coatings, etc.); largest processor of cocoa beans in country; one of largest chocolate manufacturers in North America.

1940 -Henry C. Kessler, of York Cone Company in York, PA, introduced York Peppermint Pattie; September 30, 1952 - York Cone Company registered "York" trademark first used January 28, 1922 (peppermint pattie mint); 1972 - acquired by Peter Paul Inc.;

June 11, 1940 - Ada Walker (Wyoming, OH) registered "Butterball" trademark first used September 1, 1938 (live and dressed poultry); February 1951 - trademark acquired by Leo Peters; licensed name to Swift and Co.; 1960s - name acquired by Swift and Co.; 1989 - Swift acquired by ConAgra; October 2006 - Butterball branded turkey business acquired by Carolina Turkeys (North Carolina), renamed Butterball LLC.

September 24, 1940 - French Sardine Company of California registered "Star-Kist" trademark first used April 30, 1940 (canned fish-namely canned tuna).

1941 - General Mills introduced Cheerioats as first read-to-eat oat cereal; 1942 - introduced Cheeri O'Leary, cereal's first mascot; 1945 - name changed to Cheerios in response to competitor lawsuit over use of "oats"; June 5, 1945 - registered "Cheerios" trademark first used on January 9, 1945 (read-to-eat cereal); 1954 - number one selling cold cereal at General Mills.

1941 - Frank Dulcich Sr., Dominic Dulcich (son) started Pacific Seafood, retail seafood shop, in Portland, OR; went from 18 employees to over 2,500 at 37 facilities; 2011 - Frank Dulcich (grandson) as CEO of seafood processing, distribution company.

December 1, 1942 - Joseph A. Numero and Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for an "Air Conditioner for Vehicles" ("air conditioners for compartments of vehicle carriers...to provide...a means of conditioning the air within the compartment of sdaid carrier tempering, humidifying and circulating the air therein, which means shall be conveniently attachable to and removable from such carrier and which shall automatically effect the desired air conditioning within he compartment of the carrier"); first reliable system for refrigerating trucks; assigned to U. S. Thermo Control Company; became springboard for launching Thermo King Corporation.

1943 - John Tyson purchased first company-owned broiler farm, located in Springdale, AR; 1947 - incorporated Tyson Feed and Hatchery; provided three services: sale of baby chicks, sale of feed, transportation of chickens to market; 1950 - processed about 96,000 broilers a week; 1963 - changed name to Tyson's Foods; 1971 - name changed to Tyson Foods, Inc.; end of 1970s - produced 4.5 million birds per week (234 million per year), nation's largest hog producer; 1989 - acquired Holly Farms - doubled size of Tyson Foods, about 48,000 people employed, sales more than $2.5 billion.

January 18, 1943 - Wartime ban on sale of pre-sliced bread in U.S. went into effect; aimed at reducing bakeries' demand for metal replacement parts.
1945 - Maxson Food Systems, Inc., introduced "Strato-Plates" (18 different individual three-part frozen meals on tray) for military, civilian airplane passengers; 1947 - left business after war, death of founder.

1945 - Robert E. Rich, Sr. discovered that soy beans could be frozen, thawed and whipped; immediately hailed as "the miracle cream from the soy bean," revolutionized food processing, opened new world of non-dairy products to the growing frozen food industry; founded Rich Products Corporation; became nation's largest ($1.7 billion in sales) family-owned frozen foods manufacturer.

Robert E. Rich, Sr. - Rich Products (http://www. foodengineeringmag.com/FE/2003/09/ Files/Images/88275.jpg)

1945 - Phillip Sollomi opened "The Wishbone" restaurant in Kansas City, MO; 1948 - created "The Kansas City Wishbone Famous Italian Style Dressing". (based on his mother's Sicilian recipe; 1957 - acquired by Lipton.

December 2, 1945 - Lorenzo Servitje, Jaime A. Sendra, Jose T. Mata, and Jaime Jorba opened first plant of Panificación Bimbo, S.A. in Santa María Insurgentes area in Mexico City (one office area, one courtyard, warehouse, production room); offered Bimbo Bear Products (large bread, small bread, toast); January 1946 - bread production began; end of 1947 - introduced cupcake, pound cake; December 10, 2008 - acquired \Weston Foods Inc. subsidiary of George Weston Ltd. for $2.38 billion, became largest bakery company in USA; 2010 - markets more than 7,000 products, manufactured in 98 plants, distributed over 39,000 routes to more than 1,800,000 points of sale around world; world's largest bread manufacturing company; 2011 - acquired Sara Lee's North American Fresh Bakery business for $925 million; world's leading bread maker.

May 22, 1946 - Frances Roth, Katharine Angell opened New Haven Restaurant Institute as vocational training school for World War II veterans; storefront cooking school with enrollment of 50 students, faculty consisting of a chef, a baker, a dietitian; offered 16-week program, featured instruction in 78 popular menus of the day; 1951 - name changed to The Culinary Institute of America; educational program expanded to two years, continuing education courses for industry professionals introduced; 1965 - 400 students enrolled, operated a $2 million facility; 1970 - acquired five-story, 150-room building, on 80 acres of land overlooking Hudson River in Hyde Park, NY for $1 million; 1972 - new school opened; 1981 - only school authorized to administer American Culinary Federation's (A.C.F.) master chef certification exam; 2006 - physical assets valued at $101 million, annual budget in excess of $86 million; more than 2,400 students enrolled in degree programs, more than 130 chef-instructors. and other faculty members representing 16 countries employed.

1948 - Lloyd E. Rigler and Lawrence E. Deutsch, partners in Rigler & Deutsch Food Brokers, bought recipe, name Adolph's Meat Tenderizer from Adolph Remp, Santa Barbara restaurant owner; 1950 - formed Adolph's Ltd.; February 26, 1974 - registered "Adolph's" trademark first used June 4, 1949 (meat tenderizer in solid form, consisting of salt, spices, dextrose, tri-calcium phosphate and vegetable enzyme made from the tropical papaya melon); 1974 - acquired by Chesebrough-Ponds (later part of Lever Brothers, Unilever Best Foods; 2007 - acquired, with Lawry's seasonings, by McCormick for $605 million.

Lloyd E. Rigler - Adolph's Ltd. (http://www.classicartsshowcase.org/images/ler.jpg)

1948 - Momofuku Ando founded small family-run company producing salt; 1958 - changed name to Nissin Food Products Co., Ltd.; August 25, 1958 - perfected flash-frying method, invented instant noodle (chicken-both noodles in cellophane bags) market; 1964 - founded Instant Food Industry Association which set guidelines for fair competition, product quality, introduced several industry standards (inclusion of production dates on packaging); September 18, 1971 - developed "Cup Noodle", world's first cup-type instant noodle product; 2006 - company sold 46.3 billion packs and cups , generated $131 million in profits.

March 9, 1948 - Gordon L. Harwell, Forrest E. Mars, of Converted Rice, Inc., registered "Uncle Ben's" trademark first used in 1937 (rice for food); named for Texas rice grower; January 19, 1954 - Converted Rice, Inc. (Houston, TX) registered "Uncle Ben's Converted" trademark first used on January 24, 1947 (rice); trademark consisted in part of picture of Frank C. Brown, of Chicago, IL, who consented to use of his picture.

July 10, 1948 - Aaron "Bunny" Lapin, St. Louis, MO, put whipped cream in  spray can, called it "Reddi Wip" (had sold Sta-Whip, wartime substitute for whipping cream); sold through milkmen; turned dessert topping into symbol of postwar America's drive for convenience; July 1, 1952 - Reddi-Wip, Inc. registered "Reddi-Wip" trademark first used March 15, 1948 (cream containing vanilla, sugar, and stabilizer and in which cream whipping gas is dissolved under pressure, for use as a food topping); 1954 - national distribution; March 15, 1955 - received a patent for "Dispensing Valves for Gas Pressure Containers"; assigned to Reddi-Wip Corporation; established Clayton Corp. to make valves for cans; 1963 - lost control of company, post as president; acquired by Norton Simon, Inc.; 1985 - acquired by Beatrice Foods; 1990 - acquired ny ConAgra; 1998 - Time magazine listed Reddi-wip as one of century's 100 great things for consumers (along with pop-top can, Spam); now a brand of Con Agra's Beatrice Foods.

Aaron "Bunny" Lapin - "Reddi-Wip" (http://www.todayinsci.com/L/Lapin_Aaron/LapinAaronThm.jpg)

1949 - Peggy and Lawton Wolf, owned luncheonette called The Sampler in Dedham Square, MA; fudge brownie recipe always sold out; established baked goods company; first Peggy Lawton shop opened at 252 Bussey Street in East Dedham (rent of $20 a month); February 27, 1979 - PEGGY LAWTON KITCHENS, INC.registered "PEGGY LAWTON"trademark cirst used in 1949 (bakery goods).

October 11, 1949 - C.A. Swanson & Sons registered "Swanson" trademark first used in 1928.

January 31, 1950 - Isaly Dairy Company registered "Klondike" trademark first used January 1, 1928 (chocolate covered ice cream slice).

May 23, 1950 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "System for Controlling the Operation of Refrigeration Units" ("the circulation of refrigerant medium and air are simultaneously stopped at periodic intervals and definite steps are taken to improve the removal and disposal of accumulated frost or ice during the defrosting operation").

1952 - Kellogg developed "Tony the Tiger" and three other characters as part of a contest for packages of Kellogg's Sugar Frosted Flakes of Corn; proved to be most popular with consumers, all of other characters were removed from the packaging; 1953 - Kellogg's advertising agency developed first four-color ad with Tony the Tiger, published in August issue of Life Magazine; April 4, 1961 - Kellogg registered "Tony" trademark first used October 25, 1957 (Ready-to-Eat Cereal Foods).

January 22, 1952 - Columbia River Packers Association, Inc., Astoria, OR, registered "Bumble Bee" trademark first used 1896 (canned, fresh and fresh frozen fish).

1953 - Jose Batista Sobrinho began operations at small slaughtering plant, in Anapolis (state of Goias), Brazil, with 5 head/ day capacity; 1968 - acquired first slaughtering plant in Planaltina (Distrito Federal); 1970 - slaughtering capacity increased to 500 head of cattle per day; 1981-2002- operations expanded, acquired slaughtering plants, fresh and processed beef production plants; slaughtering capacity reached 5.8 thousand head/day; 2005 - Grupo Friboi restructured, formed JBS S.A.; acquired Swift Armour S.A., Argentina's largest beef producer, exporter; 2006 - slaughtering capacity grew to 22.6 thousand head/day at total of 21 plants in Brazil, Argentina; April 2007 - went public; 2008 - acquired National Beef, Smithfield Beef, Australian company Tasman; world's largest beef producer (slaughtering capacity of 51.4 thousand head/day (not including National Beef, Smithfield Beef , Tasman group); largest beef exporter in world (operations in 22 countries).

September 26, 1953 - Sugar rationing in Great Britain ended after almost 14 years.

1954 - Harry Brownstein established Acme Smoked Fish Corporation (name chosen to appear first in phone book) in Brooklyn, NY; became largest producer, distributor of smoked fish in U. S.; under fourth-generation management.

June 15, 1954 - American Chicle Company (Long Island City, NY) registered "Trident" trademark first used August 26, 1953 (chewing Gum and candy lozenges); 1962 - Trident Original launched as first nationally distributed sugar-free product, first product promoted not to cause tooth decay.

July 13, 1954 - Edwin Traisman, of Des Plaines, IL (leader of Kraft Foods processed-cheese group), and Wallce Kurtzhalts, of Wheeling, IL, received a patent for a "Process of Making Grated Cheese" ("method of making grated cheese of the high-fat type wherein all of the constituents are comminuted cheese particles, the finished grated cheese being resistant to caking or agglomeration under ordinary atmospheric conditions"); assigned to Kraft Foods Company.

1955 - Hawaii set pineapple production record at 1.5 million tons.

1955 - Procter & Gamble entered peanut butter business; acquired W.T. Young Foods (Lexington, KY), makers of Big Top Peanut Butter; 1956 - introduced Jif Peanut Butter; March 26, 1957 - registered "Jif" trademark first used January 24, 1956 (salted shelled nuts, candies nuts, and nut [butters] spreads); June 1, 2002 - acquired (with Crisco brand) by J.M Smucker Company for $1 billion.

September 27, 1955 - Knott's Berry Farm Partnership registered "Mrs. Knott's" trademark first used July 1, 1940 (pancake flour, French dressing, and barbecue sauce); February 28, 1956 - registered "Knott's Berry Farm" trademark first used November 1, 1928 (bread, table syrups, jellies, jams, fruit and berry preserves, etc.).

March 17, 1956 - James and William Conway founded Mr. Softee ice cream company; put a Sweden Freezer machine into a truck and drove it through Philadelphia, gave away green ice cream; went into business, at first as the Dairy Van; currently among the largest franchisers of ice cream trucks in the country, with more than 600 trucks in 15 states.

1957 - Burger King Corporation introduced the WHOPPER at first Burger King restaurant in Miami; nine special ingredients (sesame seed crown, beef patty, pickles, ketchup, onions, tomatoes, lettuce, mayo and bun heel) and three optional ingredients (cheese, bacon and mustard); erected sign proclaiming the restaurant "HOME OF THE WHOPPER(R)"; January 5, 1965 - Burger King of Florida, Inc. registered "Home of the Whopper" trademark first used January 12, 1958 (drive-in restaurant services); mid-1970s - introduced "HAVE IT YOUR WAY" advertising tagline.

1957 - Francois Boursin, cheesemaker in Normandy, France, created Boursin cheese; first variety, Boursin Garlic & Fine Herbs, inspired by long-standing traditional dish: fromage frais (fresh cheese) served with bowl of fine herbs (allowed each person to create his or her own personally seasoned cheese); first flavored fresh cheese sold throughout France; 1989 - acquired by Unilever.

1957 - Vincent DeDomenico, President of Golden Grain Macaroni Corporation (San Leandro, CA), introduced Rice-A-Roni 'kitchen helper', version of chicken broth (dried soup) mixed with rice and vermicelli; August 25, 1959 - Golden Grain Macaroni Corporation registered "Rice-A-Roni" trademark first used December 11, 1957 (prepared packaged ric and vermicelli dinner); 1986 - acquired by Quaker Oats for $250 million.

February 12, 1957 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "Method and Means of Preserving Perishable Foodstuffs in Transit" ("construction of transport vehicles such as trucks and railway cars and a mode for controlling atmospheric conditions therein to preserve the natural body and flavors of fresh produce").

June 24, 1958 - E. J. McAleer & Co., Inc., Philadelphia, PA, registered "Mrs. Paul's" trademark first used April 1, 1946 (frozen foods-namely fish).

August 4, 1958 - First potato-flake plant established in U.S. at Grand Fork, ND.

1959 - Reuben Mattus (45) created first national brand of premium ice cream (high butter-fat, all natural ingredients); manufactured at family's ice cream factory, Senator Frozen Products, in Bronx; 1961 - called new brand Danish-sounding Haagen-Dazs (appreciated Dane's treatment of Jews during WW II); conveyed aura of old-world traditions, craftsmanship; formed company of same name to distribute it; introduced three flavors - vanilla, coffee, chocolate packed in cartons with map of Scandinavia; September 4, 1962 - Rose Mattus registered Haagen-Dazs trademark first used October 24, 1960; 1976 - product took off; 1983 - acquired by The Pillsbury Company for more than $70 million.

Reuben Mattus - Haagen Dazs ((http://www.journaldunet.com/management/0708/fondateurs-entreprises/images/4.jpg)

February 23, 1960 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "Thermostat and Temperature Control System" ("concerned with vehicles in which perishable products are transported and must be maintained at desirable temperatures throughout the extent of the journey by mechanical means capable of maintaining a substantially constant temperature, by either cooling or heating the space n which the products are stores"); assigned to Thermo King Corporation.

July 22, 1960 - Cuba nationalized all U.S. owned sugar factories.

June 20, 1961 - Continental Baking Company, Rye, NY, registered "Twinkies" trademark first used June 25, 1930 (cake).

September 1961 - Frito Company merged with H. W. Lay & Company to form Frito-Lay, Inc., largest snack selling company in United States; June 8, 1965 - shareholders approved merger of Frito-Lay, Pepsi-Cola Company, new company called PepsiCo, Inc.; formed (Frito-Lay owned 46 manufacturing plants nationwide, more than 150 distribution centers across the United States); September 9, 1969 - FRITO-LAY, Inc. registered "FRITO LAY'S" trademark first used November 1967 (potato chips).

August 21, 1962 - Edwin Traisman, of Madison, WI (McDonald's franchisee), received a patent for a "Method for Preparing Frozen French Fried Potatoes" ("a frozen French fried potato which can, on short notice, be quickly converted into a high quality hot French fried potato with a minimum of effort...which will compare favorably in body, flavor and eating quality to a freshly prepared French fried potato...which can be stored indefinitely to be available in quantity for quick use when wanted"); eliminated problem of soggy, non-uniform fries; 1972 - adopted system-wide by McDonald's.

March 5, 1963 - Cherry-Levis Food Products Corporation registered "Slim Jim" trademark first used in December 1953 (sausage).

1964 - Frank Bellissimo, founder of Anchor Bar, on Main Street, Buffalo, NY, invented Buffalo chicken wings (had received delivery of chicken wings, instead of backs and necks that were ordinarily used in making spaghetti sauce; Teressa Bellissimo [wife] made some hors d’oeuvres for bar; chopped each wing in half, served two straight sections that regulars at bar could eat with their fingers; “deep-fried” them, applied some hot sauce, served them on plate that included some celery from Anchor Bar’s regular antipasto, some blue-cheese dressing normally used as house dressing for salads); immediate success, famous throughout Buffalo within weeks); July 29, 1977 - City of Buffalo proclaimed 'Chicken Wing Day' (“WHEREAS, the success of Mr. Bellissimo’s tasty experiment in 1964 has grown to the point where thousands of pounds of chicken wings are consumed by Buffalonians in restaurants and taverns throughout our city each week. . .”).

1964 - Louis Flores Ruiz and son, Fred, founded Ruiz Foods in warehouse in Tulare, CA; cooked his mother's Mexican food recipes in morning, sold enchiladas to local businesses in afternoon; largest Latino-owned manufacturing company in California (2005 revenue of $326 million); sells about 200 products, 'El Monterey' accounts for 4.30 of every dollar spent on frozen Mexican food.

May 16, 1965 - Spaghetti-O's first sold; variously-sized rings of cooked pasta in a sweet tomato and cheese sauce, sold in cans.

June 22, 1965 - Kellogg Company registered "Pop-Tarts", trademark first used July 14, 1964 (fruit preserve filled pastry bakery product).

July 13, 1965 - MIitsubishi Shojikaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, registered "Three Diamonds" trademark (frozen fish, shrimp, crab, and other shellfish).

October 1965 - Pillsbury debuted 14-ounce, 8 3/4-inch Poppin' Fresh Doughboy character in a Crescent Roll commercial; actor Paul Frees performed original voice of the Doughboy ( (voice of Boris Badenov in "The Adventures of Bullwinkle and Rocky"); conceived by Rudy Perz, copywriter at Leo Burnett advertising agency; August 4, 1970 - Pillsbury registered "Poppin' Fresh" trademark first used June 1966 (dolls); 1972 - named "Toy of the Year" by Playthings Magazine.

1968 - McDonald's introduced The Big Mac systemwide; created by Jim Delligatti, Pittsburgh-area McDonald's franchisee (one of Ray Kroc's earliest franchisees); added lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions, and most important, the "special sauce," to create one of world's best-known hamburgers in Uniontown, PA.

1968 - Hunt-Wesson Foods, Canada Dry Corporation, McCall Corporation consolidated, formed Norton Simon, Inc., $1 billion corporation; 1979 - Hunt-Wesson sales topped $1 billion; 1983 - Norton-Simon Inc. acquired by Chicago-based Esmark, Inc.; 1984 - Esmark acquired by Beatrice Companies, Inc.; 1985 - Beatrice went private in leveraged buyout by Kohlberg, Kravis, and Roberts (KKR); renamed BCI Holding Company.

October 18, 1969 - Federal government banned artificial sweeteners known as cyclamates because of evidence they cause cancer in laboratory rats (non-caloric sweetener had been discovered in 1937; widely used as tabletop sweetener, in sugar-free beverages, in baked goods, other low-calorie foods, particularly in combination with saccharin); June 1985 - National Academy of Sciences affirmed the FDA's Cancer Assessment Committee's latest conclusion: "the totality of the evidence from studies in animals does not indicate that cyclamate or its major metabolite cyclohexylamine is carcinogenic by itself"; approved for use in more than 50 countries.

August 4, 1970 - Cumberland Packing Corp. registered "Sweet'n Low" trademark first used June 1958; December 17, 1974 - Cumberland Packing Corp. registered 1,000,000th trademark, G clef and staff design used on "Sweet'n Low".

1972 - Ruth M. Siems, home economist on staff of General Foods, invented Stove Top stuffing (now owned by Kraft Foods); made stuffing without a turkey possible; about 60 million boxes sold at Thanksgiving; July 23, 1974 - General Foods registered "Stove Top" trademark (stuffing mix); March 11, 1975 - received a patent for an "Instant Stuffing Mix" ("prepared from dried yeast-leavened corn bread crumb or a mixture of dried yeast-leavened white bread crumb and a member selected from the group consisting of dried yeast-leavened whole wheat bread crumb, corn bread crumb and mixtures thereof"); assigned to General Foods Corporation.

Ruth M. Siems - Stove Top Stuffing (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2005/11/23/national/siems_184.jpg)

March 7, 1972 - Star-Kist Foods, Inc. registered "Charlie the Tuna" trademark first used November 1970 (canned fish).

June 26, 1974 - first bar-code scanned in Troy, OH; Norman Joseph Woodland, one of inventors of Universal Product Code (UPC) symbol, got idea by scratching elongated Morse code symbols into sand on beach.

October 22, 1976 - US Food and Drug Administration banned red dye #4 after discovery that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs; still used in Canada.

August 1977 - Debbi Fields, a young mother with no business experience, opened first cookie store in Palo Alto, CA; 1990 - began to sell franchises; 2007 - nearly 390 location in U.S., over 80 locations internationally.

May 5, 1978 - With a $12,000 investment ($4,000 of it borrowed), Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield opened Ben & Jerry's Homemade ice cream scoop shop in renovated gas station in downtown Burlington, VT; 1980 - began packing ice cream in pints to distribute to grocery, Mom & Pop stores along restaurant delivery routes Ben services from back of old VW Squareback wagon; 1981 - first Ben & Jerry's franchise opened in Shelburne, VT; 1984 - Haagen-Dazs tried to limit distribution of Ben & Jerry's in Boston; prompted Ben & Jerry's to file suit against parent company, Pillsbury, in famous "What's the Doughboy Afraid Of?" campaign; sales exceeded $4 million; 1987 - Haagen-Dazs again tried to enforce exclusive distribution, Ben & Jerry's filed second lawsuit against the Pillsbury Company; sales just under $32 million; 1988 - more than 80 Ben & Jerry's ice cream scoop shops open in 18 states; 1991 - introduced Low Fat Frozen Yogurt; 1996 - introduced Sorbets; September 1999 - Harris Interactive poll of the public's perceptions of corporate reputability Ben & Jerry's ranked #5 in 'Reputation Quotient' (responsibility, emotional appeal, innovation) out of top 30 Most Reputable US companies, earned #1 ranking in "Social Responsibility" category; net sales of $237,043,000; April 12, 2000 - acquired by Unilever for $326 million.

April 21, 1981 - Swift & Company registered "Butterball" trademark first used in 1962 (Poultry and Poultry Parts Including Frozen Dressed Whole Turkey, Stuffed Turkey, and Frozen Turkey Breast).

1985 - Philip Morris acquired General Foods for $5.7 billion; became largest U.S. consumer products company; R. J. Reynolds acquired Nabisco Brands for $4.9 billion; name changed to RJR Nabisco.

October 10, 1988 - CEO F. Ross Johnson offered $75 per share for a leveraged buyout of RJR/Nabisco (stock at $56 per share); November 30, 1998 - Special Committee recommended acceptance of $109 per share buyout ($25.07 billion) by Kohlberg, Kravis, Roberts & Co. to board of directors.

October 30, 1988 - Philip Morris paid $13.1 billion for Kraft foods; became world's single biggest producer of consumer goods.

February 21, 1989 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Simplesse, low-calorie substitute for fat; February 28, 1989 - Nutrasweet Company registered "Simplesse" trademark first used January 20, 1988 (fat substitute).

March 27, 1990 - Harold Osrow, Zvi Bleier received a patent for a "Portable Ice Cream Machine"; assigned to NEC Corporation.

April 5, 1990 - Paul Newman won court victory over Julius Gold to keep giving all profits from Newman foods to charity.

August 1990 - ConAgra Inc. completed $1.34 billion acquisition of BCI Holding Company (Beatrice Company).

1991 - Hawaii set record for highest sales of pineapples, $107.8 million.

August 21, 1997 - Hudson Foods Co. closed plant in Nebraska, agreed to destroy some 25 million pounds of hamburger after largest meat recall in U.S. history.

October 31, 2003 - The U.S. Food and Drug administration released summary of draft report concluding that cloned farm animals and their offspring posed little scientific risk to food supply.

May 2005 - Jelly Belly Candy Company's factory tour in Fairfield, CA named "Best of America" by editors of Reader's Digest magazine; tours first offered in 1986 at request of local groups; more than 400,000 people tour facility annually.

February 3, 2006 - Fresh Del Monte Produce Inc. announced it would cease pineapple operation in two years, no longer economically feasible to grow pineapple in Hawaii because it can be produced for less elsewhere (increased planting of pineapple at lower costs in other parts of the world, "...cheaper for Del Monte to buy pineapples on the open market than for the company to grow, market and distribute Hawaiian pineapple"; Del Monte, called California Packing Corp., had begun pineapple operations in Hawaii in 1916; two remaining pineapple companies in Hawaii - Dole Food Hawaii, Maui Pineapple Co.; Hawaii produced 212,000 tons of pineapples in 2005 worth estimated $79 million; top pineapple producers - Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, China, India, Costa Rica [source: USDA]).

March 15, 2011 - Consuming meat

(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/03/15/science/15food_graphic/15food_graphic-popup.jpg)

 

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