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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Household Appliances
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May 13, 1637 - Cardinal Richelieu in France created table knife; had points rounded off all of knives to be used at his table; daggers had been used to cut meat, to pick teeth.

1649 - Queen Christina of Sweden granted Dutchman Peter Thorw÷ste permission to manufacture cast iron, forged products; received permission to set up Fiskars Ironworks (blast furnace, bar hammer) in town of Fiskars Village, Finland; 1731 - acquired by John Montgomerie; 1750s - acquired by Robert Finlay, John Jennings; 1771 - went bankrupt; taken over by B.M. Bj÷rkman of Stockholm; 1822 - acquired by apothecary Johan Jacob Julin; focused on refining iron; 1853 -  run by guardianship administration (Julin died); 1883 - Fiskars limited liability company founded; 1977 - established scissor-manufacturing plant in United States; 1984 - established Fiskars Brands, Inc. subsidiary; end of 20th century - stake in metal industry, manufactured cranes, flagpoles,  electronic goods; 2008 - leading supplier of branded consumer goods.

June 11, 1742 - Benjamin Franklin invented Franklin stove, free-standing cast-iron stove (wood fuel burned on iron surface over cold air duct, heated air which then passed through baffles in back wall; heated  releairased through vents on each side of stove).

1755 - Charles Fredrick Weisenthal received British patent for first mechanical device for sewing (double pointed needle with eye at one end designed to be passed through cloth by pair of mechanical fingers, grasped on other side by second pair).

July 17, 1790 - Thomas Saint, London cabinet maker, received possibly first patent on sewing machine, fitted with awl that made hole in leather, allowed needle to pass through it; made chain stitch with tambour-type needle to produce mechanical crochet or chain stitch (no evidence that Saint produced a machine, patent specifications failed for others in 1880s).

June 11, 1793 - Robert Heterick, of Pennsylvania, received first American patent for a "Stove of Cast Iron".

March 28, 1797 - Nathaniel Briggs, of New Hampshire, received a  patent for a "Washing Cloths"; washing machine.

May 5, 1809 - Mary Kies of South Killingly, CT, received a  patent for a technique for weaving straw with silk and thread; first woman to receive patent.

December 4, 1812 - Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, PA, received a patent for a "Mowing Machine"; horse-drawn power mower.

February 13, 1822 - Jeremiah Bailey, of Chester County, PA, received a patent for a "Mowing Machine"; first practical grass mowing machine.

February 17, 1827 - Chester Stone, of Middlebury, CT, received a patent for a washing machine.

May 18, 1830 - Edwin Budding, engineer from Stroud, Gloucestershire, England, signed agreement with local engineer, John Ferrabee, owner of Phoenix Foundry at Thrupp Mill, Stroud, for manufacture of reel lawn mower (cast iron with large rear roller, cutting cylinder in front); made machines 'for the purpose of cropping or shearing the vegetable surface of lawns, grass plats, and pleasure grounds'; August 31, 1830 - received British patent for "Machine for Mowing Lawns, etc."

August 15, 1835 - C. H. Farnham received a patent for a "Washing Machine"; hand-turned crank rotated a perforated cylinder within a covered wooden shell. Clothes were put inside the cylinder through a hatch in the shell and a removable panel in the cylinder.

August 17, 1835 - Solymon Merrick, of Springfield, MA, received a patent for a "Wrench".

February 21, 1842 - John J. Greenough, of Washington, DC, received first patent (on record) for a "Sewing Machine" (a "new and useful Machine for Sewing and Stitching all Kinds of Straight Seams etc."); needle was gradually tapered to point at each end, with an eye in the middle; used pairs of pinchers, one on each side of the work, to alternately draw thread back and forth.

April 16, 1842 - Salvin F. Kellogg, of Norwalk, OH, received a patent for a "Air-Heating Stove" (for "an improvement in the Manner of Constructing an Air-Heating Stove, for the Warming of Apartments"); hot air furnace.

June 13, 1844 - Linus Yale, of Springfield, MA, received a patent for a "Door Lock" (a "new and useful Improvement in Door Locks"); 1848 - developed pin-tumbler lock; Linus Yale Jr. later developed cylinder pin-tumbler lock  (used a smaller, flat key with serrated edges).

February 20, 1846 - John Drummond, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Candle-Molding."

September 10, 1846 - Elias Howe, Jr., of Cambridge, MA,  received first American patent for a "Sewing Machine" (a "new and useful machine for sewing seams in cloth or other articles"); used lock stitch.

May 30, 1848 - William C. Young, of Baltimore, MD, received a patent for an "Ice Cream Freezer".

May 14, 1850 - Joel Houghton, of Ogden, NY received first U.S. patent for a "Table Furniture Cleaning Machine" (Improvements in Machines for Washing Table Furniture"); dishwashing machine; design had cylindrical wire basket to contain dishes in tub of boiling water which contained beaters turned by handle to move water against tableware in basket; cylinder could also be rotated to expose its contents evenly to action of the churning water.

July 14, 1850 - Dr. John Gorrie, of New Orleans, LA, made first public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration in the U.S. during a dinner at the Mansion House, Apalachicola; produced blocks of ice the size of bricks; installed system in U.S. Marine Hospital in Apalachicola; May 6, 1851 - received first patent for an "Ice Machine" (a "new and useful Machine for the Artificial Production of Ice and for general Refrigeratory Purposes").

November 12, 1850 - Allen B. Wilson, of Pittsfield, MA, received patent for a an "Improvement in Sewing Machines".

May 6, 1851 - Linus Yale, Jr., of Newport, NY, received first U.S. patent for a "Lock and Key" (a "new and Improved Safety-Lock for Banks, Safes, Vaults, Stores, etc. , called Yale's Self-Detaching and Attaching Key-Lock"); design superceded keyhole lock and first double locks (two locks within one case).

August 12, 1851 - Isaac M. Singer, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Sewing Machine" (a "new and useful Improvements in the Machine for Sewing Seams in Cloth and Other Substances"; first sewing machine with  rocking double treadle; used flying shuttle instead of rotary shuttle with needle mounted vertically, presser foot to hold cloth in place; had fixed arm to hold needle, included basic tensioning system; Elias Howe sued Singer for patent infringement, won; Singer later introduced business innovations - installment buying, after-sale servicing, trade-in allowances = dominated  market.

March 7, 1854 - Charles Miller of St. Louis, MO, received patent for a "Sewing Machine" to stitch buttonholes; adapted to sew the button-hole stitch, the whip-stitch, and the herring-bone stitch, by giving the cloth to be sewed "a movement laterally to the direction of the seam and in opposite directions, alternately, between every two stitches, in addition to the movement commonly given in the direction of the seam."

December 19, 1854 -Allen B. Wilson, of Watertown, CT, received second patent for a "Sewing Machine", with a four-motion feed to enable the sewing of curving seams.

October 9, 1855 - Isaac Merritt Singer, of New York City, received first U.S. patent for a "Improvement in Sewing-Machines"; covered spring and cone pulley device.

June 2, 1857 - James E. A. Gibbs, of Mill Point, VA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Sewing-Machines"; chain-stitch sewing machine; first practical chain-stitch, single-thread, twist-loop, rotary hook sewing machine.

December 29, 1857 - James T. Henry and William P. Campbell, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Closet Cistern" ("...combining the basin of a water closet with a valved chamber, cistern, and communicating pipes...that the soil may be readily and effectually disposed of, and all offensive smells obviated").

February 16, 1858 - William Vandenburg and James Harvey, both of New York, received a patent for an "Ironing Table" (a "new and Improved Ironing-Table, Upon Which to Iron Shirts, Ladies' Dresses and other Articles"); Vandenburg filed additional six ironing board patents over the next four years.

February 21, 1858 - Edwin T. Holmes installed first direct-wire electrical alarm system (electrical burglar alarm) in Boston, MA; spring released, closed electrical circuit when door, window opened; established Holmes Electric Protective Company in New York at 370 Seventh Avenue; 1872 - introduced jewelry cabinet lined with current-carrying foil (led to foil-lined windows, doors); connected by wire to 24-hour monitoring station, agents dispatched in response to alarm (later adapted to travel over telephone lines); 1950 - acquired by Grinnell Corp.; 1968 - divested by order of Supreme Court (monopolistic practices); December 29, 1997 - Holmes Protection Group, Inc. (electronic security systems to over 65,000 commercial, residential customers throughout United States) acquired by Tyco International for $107 million; oldest electronic security company in United States.

October 26, 1858 - Hamilton E. Smith of Philadelphia, PA received U.S. patent for a "Washing Machine" cycling reheated water; reciprocating plunger acts on clothes in a tub by placing two horizontal diaphragms in the tub which moved vertically with the action of the plunge; motion pumped water into the tub from a circuit of pipe that included coils in a heating tank and drained cooler water from the top of the tub.

September 20, 1859 - George B. Simpson, of Washington, DC, received patent for "Electrical Heating Apparatus" (called an "electroheater"); heat generated by passing electricity through wire coils.

March 19, 1861 - Elias Howe sewing machine patent (1846) reissued.

August 9, 1864 - Orrin L. Hopson and Herman P. Brooks, of Waterbury, CT, received a patent for "Improvement in Pointing Wire for Pins" ("new and useful means for pointing wire or rods for pins, etc."); February 6, 1866 - Orrin L. Hopson and Eli J. Manville, of Waterbury, CT, and Herman P. Brooks, of Wolcottville, CT, received a patent for an "Improved Machine for Reducing or Pointing Wires" ("Machine for Compressing Articles of Metal"); organized Excelsior Needle Company in Wolcottville, CT; March 2, 1866 - began making sewing machine needle blanks; sold patent rights for $5,000 in exchange for stock to Achille F. Migeon and Charles Alvord in exchange for 12% ownership in company; mid-1870s - manufactured 30,000 sewing needles a day, six days a week, generated approximately $75,000 a year in sales; 1890 - acquired National Needle Company (Springfield, MA); 1890s - formed Torrington Swaging Company subsidiary to manufacture spokes for bicycle wheels; 1898 - annual sales of $768,000 (25 percent of sales from production of sewing needles); all assets of Excelsior Needle transferred to The Torrington Company of Maine (organized two days prior to transfer for that purpose); 1912 - acquired small ball bearing business through affiliation with automobile ignition coil and spark plug manufacturer; 1917 - The Torrington Company of Connecticut formed; 1935 - acquired Bantam Ball Bearing Company; evolved into company's mainstay product line; 1936 - The Torrington Company of Maine absorbed its assets; 1965 - sales of $93 million (bearings accounted for more than 60 percent, needles, sold primarily to textile, shoe industries, accounting for 30 percent); 1969 - acquired by Ingersoll-Rand; 1980 - needle making business closed; 1985 - acquired Fafnir Bearing Company; largest bearing manufacturing company in U. S., one of the largest in world (total sales of $750 million); Feb 18, 2003 - acquired by The Timken Company (announced October 16, 2002).

December 26, 1865 - James H. Nason, of Franklin, MA, received a patent for a "Coffee Percolator".

August 6, 1867 - Sheldon B. Everitt, of Ansonia, CT, received a patent for a "Tea Kettle" (an "improvement in the manufacture of cooking utensils made of "pressed tin" or iron"); the indented kettle.

January 28, 1868 - Amariah M. Hills, of Hockanum, CT, received a patent for an "Improvement in Lawn-Mowers" ("new and improved [cutting] device for mowing grass by hand, and is more especially designed for mowing lawns"); first reel lawn mower patent in US; formed Archimedean Lawn Mower Co.

July 14, 1868 - Alvin Fellows, of New Haven, CT, received a patent for a "Tape Measure" (a "new and useful Improvement in Spring Measuring Tapes").

June 8, 1869 - Ives W. McGaffey, of Chicago, IL, received patent for a "Sweeping Machine" (a "new and useful Improvement in a Machine for Sweeping Floors"); "whirlwind" vacuum cleaner; first suction-type vacuum cleaner was light hand-powered device for surface cleaning; consisted of a handle to turn a pulley which used a belt to drive a fan in a casing, thus produced a strong current of air, "controlled to take up dust and dirt, and carry the fine particles into a porous air-chamber, so constructed as to allow the air to escape while the dust is retained"; started American Carpet Cleaning Co.

August 24, 1869 - Cornelius Swartwout, of Troy, NY,  received first a patent for a "Waffle Iron" ("handle, connected with and forming part of a waffle-iron, by means of which the same may be readily turned over without danger of slipping and without the possibility of burning the hand").

September 13, 1870 - Daniel C. Stillson, of Charlestown, MA, received a patent for a "Wrench" ("Improved Screw-Wrench").

April 4, 1871 - Mary Florence Potts of Ottumwa, IA, received a patent for a "Sad Iron"; detachable handle for pressing irons; widely manufactured, licensed in U.S. and Europe with advertising featuring her picture; body of iron cast hollow, later filled with an insulating material (plaster of Paris) cement or clay); patent claimed that this material held the heat longer so that more garments could be ironed without reheating the iron.

1873 - Austrian immigrant John Michael Kohler (29) purchased Sheboygan Union Iron and Steel Foundry to produce cast iron, steel implements for farmers, castings for city's furniture factories, ornamental iron pieces (cemetery crosses, urns, settees); 1883 - applied baked enamel coating to a Kohler horse trough/hog scalder, created Kohler Co.'s first bathtub; put company in plumbing business (enameled cast iron plumbing fixtures); 1902 - company renamed J.M. Kohler Sons Co., headed by three sons of founder (Robert, Walter and Carl); 1908 - plumbing fixtures for use in hospitals, nursing homes, institutions added; 1926 - introduced electric sink (forerunner of automatic dishwasher); 1941 - awarded world's largest plumbing contract for more than 50,000 products to provide "wholesome living facilities" for Parkchester Development (largest residential development in American history); 1964 - introduced self-rimming vitreous china lavatory (eliminated need for metal frame or rim on countertop: 1984 - acquired Sterling Faucet Co.; 1987 -  acquired Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp.; 1991 - Fortune magazine named Kohler faucets as one of 100 best made products in America; 1993 - Sterling Plumbing Group became third largest full-line plumbing manufacturer in United States.

John Michael Kohler - J.M. Kohler Sons Co. (http://i.pga.com/pga/images/pgachampionship/2004/news/john_michael_kohler.jpg)

March 25, 1873 - Josiah George Jennings, sanitary engineer from Palace Wharf, Stangate, England, received a patent for "Water Closets" (...in which the pan discharges itself by a side opening into the upright limb of a siphon-trap").

May 13, 1873 - Ludwig M. N. Wolf of Avon, CT received a patent for "Lamp-Brackets for Sewing Machines", sewing machine lamp holder; 1876 - introduced by Singer Sewing Machine Co. to meet need of those who wished to sew at night (lamp would not "jar off the table or upset", could be moved "without soiling the fingers").

November 4, 1873 - Anthony Iske, of Lancaster, PA,  received first U.S. patent for "Machines for Slicing Dried Beef" (to obviate the objections to knives set in frames and used horizontally"); meat-slicing machine; used an oblique knife in a vertical sliding frame for slicing dried beef.

May 12, 1874 - Elijah McCoy, of Ypsilanti, MI, received a patent for "Improvement in Ironing-tables" ("construction and arrangement of a folding ironing-table").

1875 - Francis Torrance, James W. Arrott, John Fleming acquired manufacturing plant in Pittsburgh, PA (enameled iron goods); named Standard manufacturing Company; made cast-iron bathtubs, washstands and water closets; 1883 - perfected process of enameling cast iron to form smooth easy-to-clean surface for bathtubs; 1899 - merged with several small plumbing manufacturers, formed Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company; pioneered one-piece toilet, built-in tubs, combination faucets (mix hot and cold water to deliver tempered water), tarnish-proof, corrosion-proof chrome finishes for brass fittings; 1929 - world's largest producer of bathroom fixtures; merged with American Radiator Company, formed American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation; 1967 - name changed to American Standard; leading producer of bathroom, kitchen fixtures and faucets, chiller equipment; 1984 - acquired by American Standard Companies; November 28, 2007 - American Standard separated three business units: Vehicle Control Systems (WABCO) spun off, Bath and Kitchen acquired by Bain Capital Partners, Air Conditioning Systems and Services retained, American Standard Companies changed name to Trane; 2007 - acquired by Ingersoll-Rand for $10.2 billion.

September 19, 1876 - Melville R. Bissell, of Grand Rapids, MI, received U.S. patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper "; attempt to eradicate effect on his wife's health of dust from packing materials at his crockery shop; hog bristles bound with string were dipped in hot pitch, inserted in brush rollers, trimmed with scissors; January 29, 1878 - received a patent for "Improvement in Carpet-Sweepers" ("to construct a simple and efficient noiseless carpet-sweeper, which will readily adapt itself to uneven surfaces"); July 8, 1879 - received a patent for an "Improvement in Carpet-Sweepers"; July 18, 1879 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; July 29, 1879 - received a patent for "Improvement in Carpet-Sweepers"; October 12, 1880 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; October 26, 1880 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; April 19, 1881 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; May 17, 1881 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; 1883 - Melville and Anna Bissell incorporated Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company; February 13, 1883 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; September 18, 1883 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; October 27, 1885 - received a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; January 26, 1886 - received (with Walter J. Drew, of Grand rapids, MI) a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; September 28, 1886 - received (with Walter J. Drew) a patent for a "Carpet-Sweeper"; 1889 - Anna Bissell became chief executive officer (death of Melville); August 26, 1890 - Anna Bissell (Executrix of Melville R. Bissell), received a patent for a "Brush-Making Machine"; June 29, 1937 - Wadsworth Bissell, of Grand Rapids, MI, received a patent for a "Dustpan Dump for Carpet Sweepers"; assigned to Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company; May 24, 1960 - Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company registered "Bissell" trademark used since January 1, 1954 (carpet sweepers); expanded beyond carpet sweeper, introduced products that helped people clean better while saving time.

(http://www.google.com/url?source=imglanding&ct=img&q=http://canada.bissell.com/images/ Anna_and_Melville.gif&sa=X&ei=8ObWTun1MNTciQLTo-jICQ&ved=0CAsQ8wc4Fg&usg=AFQjCNHeB5tRyrzCnJZ1RDRq2QmV-gjbvwg)

December 5, 1876 - Daniel C. Stillson, of Somerville, MA, received a patent for a "Wrench" ("class of wrenches adapted to be used either as a pipe or screw wrench"); first practical pipe wrench.

1877 - Carl von Linde received a patent for refrigerator (world's first) from German Imperial Patent Office; 1879 - founded Gesellschaft fur Lindes Eismachinen (now Linde), in Wiesbaden, Germany; May 12, 1903 - received two U.S. patents for a "Process of Producing Low Temperatures, the Liquefaction of Gases, and the Separation of the Constituents of Gaseous Mixtures"; 1902 - began constructing first air separation unit (ASU), more than 2,700 constructed around world to-date; 2006 - acquired The BOC Group; 2007 - gases, engineering sales of approximately 12 billion euros, more than 51,000 employees in around 70 countries.

November 4, 1879 - Black American inventor Thomas Elkins, of Albany, NY, received patent for a "Refrigerating Apparatus" for "food or corpses," which provides a convenient container and method of chilling using the evaporation of water.

April 26, 1881 - John Reece, of Boston, MA, received patent for a "Button Hole Sewing Machine"; assigned to The Reece Button-Hole Sewing Machine Co. (Portland, ME).

1882 - Francesco Bertazzoni started to make weighing machines for dairies, offices, pharmacies around Guastalla (90 miles southeast of Milan); name first became well known in Italy as producer of fine wood-burning cooking stoves; 1906 - Antonio Bertazzoni (son) exhibited at 1906 Milan International Exhibition; 1909 - wood-burning stoves won Grand Cup of Honor and Gold Medal at fair in Florence; built first factory near Guastalla railroad station;1923 -Ettore, Attilio, Napoleone, Arturo Bertazzoni (Antonio's sons) adopted logo FBG (Fratelli Bertazzoni Guastalla), launched new brand name, La Germania, for their stoves; 1953 - introduced first gas table-top units; 1955 - production of first gas stoves began; 1960 - Francesco Bertazzoni began to export stoves in Mediterranean area, then Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal; 1981 - Paolo (son) joined company, replaced products’ utilitarian looks with Italian designers' sense of elegance, finesse.

June 6, 1882 - Henry W. Seely, of New York, received a patent for an "Electric Flat-Iron" ("to utilize electric currents derived from any suitable source of electric energy for the purpose of heating flat-irons, fluting-irons, or other similar utensils"); weighed almost 15 pounds, took long time to warm up.

1883 - Thomas J. Clark, John K. Stewart developed hair, wool clipping machines for shearing sheep, grooming horses in Dundee, IL; 1897 - incorporated as Chicago Flexible Shaft Company; leading manufacturer of sheep shearing equipment in United States; 1910 - diversified into small electrical appliances to offset seasonality of sheep shearing industry; launched Princess electric iron, laid foundation for small appliance industry; 1921 - Sunbeam brand name first appeared in national advertising campaign; company shifted primary focus to electrical appliances; August 2, 1921 - registered "Sunbeam" trademark first used March 1, 1921 (electric flatirons); 1929 - introduced Mixmaster; March 17, 1931 - registered "Mixmaster" trademark first used September 1, 1930 (electric food mixers); 1946 - name changed to Sunbeam Corporation; 1960 - acquired John Oster Manufacturing Company, introduced Osterizer« blender (completely automatic); 1981 - acquired by Allegheny International Inc.; 1988 - Allegheny filed for bankruptcy; 1990 - Sunbeam division acquired by Michael Price, Michael Steinhardt, Paul Kazarian; renamed Sunbeam-Oster Company; 1992 - went public; 1995 - name changed back to Sunbeam Corporation; July 1996 - hired Al Dunlap to turn company around; June 1998 - ousted for accounting manipulation, corporate fraud (reported profits for 1996, 1997, 1998 lowered by more than $90 million); February 6, 2001 - filed for bankruptcy protection; December 2002 - emerged from bankruptcy, renamed American Household, Inc.; September 2004 - acquired by Jarden Corporation.

May 1, 1883 - Jonas Cooper, of Washington, DC received a patent for a "Shutter and Fastening Therefor" ("Inside Shutters for Windows and and means for Operating and Fastening the Same").

April 22, 1884 - John F. Golding, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for "Slashed Metallic Screening" ("sheet metal slashed or cut...so as to produce a wide range of patterns, ornamental or otherwise").

1885 - James Trane, Norwegian immigrant, opened plumbing shop in La Crosse, WI; invented low-pressure heating system (Trane Vapor Heating System); 1910 - Reuben Trane (son) joined company; 1913 - incorporated as The Trane Company; 1923 - invented convector radiator; 1982 - acquired General Electric's Central Air Conditioning Division; 1984 - acquired by American Standard Companies; November 28, 2007 - American Standard separated three business units: Vehicle Control Systems (WABCO) spun off, Bath and Kitchen acquired by Bain Capital Partners, Air Conditioning Systems and Services retained, American Standard Companies changed name to Trane.

James Trane - Trane Company (http://www.tranenynj.com/images/1tc/james.jpg)

November 17, 1885 - Rufus M. Eastman, of Boston, MA, received a patent for a "Mixer for Cream, Eggs, and Liquors"; electric mixer.

November 17, 1885 - Alexander Frazier, of West Haven, CT, received a patent  for a "Machine for Making Brushes" ("improvement in machines for setting the tufts in...brushes, in which the fiber for the tuft is doubled. a staple placed around the tufts at the bend, the bend of the tuft and the staple inserted into the hole in the block, and then the staple driven into the block as a means for securing the tuft in place").

January 12, 1886 - Lewis H. Lattimer, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Cooling and Disinfecting" ("useful Improvements in Devices for Cooling, Deodorizing, or Disinfecting Apartments, etc.").

December 28, 1886 - Josephine G. Cochran, of Shelbyville, IL, received patent for a "Dish Washing Machine"; April 1, 1889 - marketed first dishwashing machine; 'wash cycle' began when the device was lowered by levers into the machine, and soapy water was hand-pumped onto the dishes; 'drying cycle' consisted of raising the racks and pouring boiling water from a tea kettle onto the dishes, then allowing them to air dry; 1920's - sold company to Hobart Corporation; 1949 - introduced "KitchenAid" brand name.

1888 - Edward Katzinger founded commercial baking pan company in Chicago, IL; April 18, 1916 - Edward Katzinger Company registered two "ECKO" trademarks, first used November 7, 1904 and October 23, 1908, respectively (metallic bowls, pans, pots, kettles, and cakestands, funnels, strainers, mugs, dippers, jelly-molds, spoons, hooks, and metal doughtroughs); became known as EKCO« Housewares Co.; mid 1960s - largest non-electric housewares manufacturer in U. S.

January 14, 1890 - George K. Cooke, of Jamaica, NY, received patent for a "Gas-Burner"; ("class of gas-burners known as 'self-lighters', having a main and auxiliary jet").

April 15, 1890 - Rober Frame and Charles A. Neff, of Newport, RI, received a patent for a "Water Closet"; siphonic wash-down closet; November 28, 1893 - Frame received a second patent for a "Water Closet".

May 27, 1890 - Frank J. Ferrell, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Melting Snow" "to provide a simple and efficient means of melting snow; and it consists of a box [preferably made of cast metal]...provided with a duct for heated fluid and openings leading from the duct to the interior of the box...steam is used as the melting fluid").

June 10, 1890 - Black American inventor Daniel Johnson received a patent for "Grass-Receiver for Lawn-Mowers"; consisted of a means for suspending the receiver from the mower-handle and enabling the weight of the receiver to be equally distributed; side of receiver is covered with woven wire netting; sliding bottom provided, operated with a foot stirrup, for purpose of dumping the contents.

November 11, 1890 - Daniel McCree, of Chicago, IL, received patent for a "Portable Fire-Escape".

May 15, 1891 - Gerard Philips (Philips and Co.) began operations at Eindhoven in Holland; first products were light bulbs; 1895 - Anton Frederik Philips joined company as a salesman; 1912 - company named N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken; 1922 - Anton served as CEO until 1939.

July 14, 1891 - John Stanard, of Newark, NJ, received a patent for a "Refrigerator" ("certain novel arrangements and combinations of parts").

September 8, 1891 - Cyrenus Wheeler, Jr., of Auburn, NY, received patent for a "Clothes-Wringer".

April 26, 1892 - Sarah Boone, of New Haven, CT,  received a patent for an "Ironing Board"; ironing board for sleeves.

June 7, 1892 - George T. Sampson, of Dayton, OH, received patent for a "Clothes Drier".

1893 - Frederick Louis Maytag joined his two brothers-in-law and George W. Parsons to start Parsons Band-Cutter & Self Feeder Company (each contributed $600 - total of $2,400); manufactured threshing machines, band-cutter, self-feeder attachments invented by one of founders of company; 1902 - largest feeder manufacturer in world.

May 16, 1893 - Black American inventor Lyde W. Benjamin, of Boston, MA,  received patent for "Broom Moistener and Bridle" ("to keep the broom moist while sweeping without being so wet as to drip, and to prevent the dust from rising, also to bind together the straws of the broom").

June 13, 1893 - Black American inventor Thomas W. Stewart, of Detroit, MI, received patent for a "Mop" ("improved means for holding the mop rags in a mop").

December 12, 1893 - Black American inventor Fredrick J. Loudin, of Revanna, OH, received patent for a "Fastener for the Meeting-Rails of Sashes"; permitted window to be locked when either closed or partially opened. 

May 22, 1894 - Simeon Newsome, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for an "Oil Heater or Cooker" ("oil stove designed to be used for heating, cooking or lighting").

January 9, 1894 - Frederick J. Loudin, of Ravenna, OH, received a patent for a "Key-Fastener" ("attached to the knob-shaft or door-handle above the key-hole and engage with the eyed-end of the key to keep it from being turned in te lock"); prevented a burglar from disengaging the key from outside of door by inserting something through the key-hole.

November 27, 1894 - Mildred Lord, of Milwaukee, WI, received a patent for a "Washing Machine" ("in which a suds box is used with a swinging agitator").

April 9, 1895 - Robert H. Gray, of Lexington, KY, received a patent for a "Cistern-Cleaner" ("simple and efficient means for removing mud, sediment and other impurities from the bottom of ordinary cisterns without unnecessarily agitating or stirring up the mud and so forth").

June 30, 1896 - William. S. Hadaway, Jr., of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Electric Heater" ("Improvement in Electric Heating-Devices and Apparatus"); electric stove provided uniform surface distribution of heat from a one-ring spiral coiled conductor. 1910 - designed first toaster made by Westinghouse, a horizontal combination toaster-cooker.

1897 - Thomas B. Crary incorporated Nineteen Hundred Washer Company; merged with Binghamton Washing Machine Company; 1929 - merged with Upton Machine Company; 1950 - name changed to Whirlpool.

1898 - Russian immigrant Conrad Hubert founded American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company (AENMC) to market battery powered novelties; 1902 - first Ever Ready trademark appears on end caps of flashlights; 1905 - AENMC changed its name to American Ever Ready, focused on dependability of its flashlight products; sold half-interest to National Carbon Company for $200,000 (founded 1886 by W. H. Lawrence, former Brush Electric Company executive; 1896 - marketed first battery for consumer use, "The Columbia," six inches tall, used to power home telephones); 1906 - product name changed from Ever Ready to Eveready«; 1914 - became part of National Carbon Company, formed only manufacturer specializing in both batteries and lighting products; 1917 - National Carbon Company merged with Union Carbide Company; 1956 - Eveready Battery Company introduced first 9-volt battery; 1958 - introduced first batteries for use in transistor radios and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries; 1959 - first standard alkaline battery; 1960 -first silver oxide button cell for use in miniature hearing aids and watches; 1963 - developed lithium battery technology; 1986 - Ralston Purina, Co. (St. Louis, M) acquired Eveready Battery Company, holding company of Energizer brand batteries and flashlights; April 2000 - Energizer spun off from the Ralston Purina, Co.; world's largest manufacturer of batteries and flashlights, dedicated to predicting and meeting needs of the consumer.

March 1, 1898 - Benjamin F. Jackson, of Cambridge, MA, received a patent for a "Heating Apparatus" ("for heating water, primarily to cause its circulation through a system of heating-radiators"); April 4, 1899 - Benjamin F. Jackson, of Cambridge, MA, received a patent for a "Gas-Burner" ("air is supplied under pressure and in which all parts of the burner-tube...get the same amount of air and consequently maintains an even combustion, thereby producing a more efficient burner and one having a longer life").

1899 - James Henry Atkinson invented prototype mousetrap (named "Little Nipper" in 1909 - classic snapping mousetrap with small flat wooden base, spring trap, wire fastenings); slammed shut in 38,000s of second (record never beaten); 1913 - mousetrap patent acquired for 2,000 pounds by Procter Brothers (November 6, 1894 - William C. Hooker, of Abingdon, IL, received a patent for an "Animal-Trap" [sprung mousetrap]; marketed as "Out O' Sight' [trademark featured mouse peering out of middle "O"]; (March 8, 1898 - John M. Mast, of Lancaster, PA, received a patent for an "Animal-Trap" [snap-trap mousetrap]; November 17, 1903 - received a second patent for an "Animal-Trap" ["...spring-actuated striker...readily set or adjusted with absolute safety to the person attending thereto, avoiding the liability of having his fingers caught or injured by the striker when it is prematurely or accidentally freed or released"]; assigned to John M. Mast Manufacturing Company, Lititz, PA; second patent aquired in 1907 by Oneida Community Ltd.).

May 9, 1899 - John Albert Burr, of Agwam, MA, received a patent for a "Lawn-Mower" ""to provide a casing which wholly incloses the operating-gearing so as to prevent it from being choked by the grass or clogged by obstructions of any kind"); improved rotary blade lawn mower.

July 1, 1899 - Carl Miele, Reinhard Zincann started production of cream separators, used on farms to separate cream from milk, in saw and corn mill in Herzebrock, Germany (11 employees; had established Miele & Cie. in June 1898); 1901 - introduced Meteor butter churn; 1903 - launched Modell A washing machine (flyweights simplified working central agitator); 1911- introduced washing machine with electrtic motor; 1915 - sold handcarts; 1924 - began manufacture of bicycles; 1925 - introduced coal and gas-fired, high capacity, drum-type washing machines (used in hotels, restaurants, hospitals); 1931 - launched first canister vacuum cleaner; 1949 - introduced washing machine with lid-mounted agitator, galvanized steel tub; 1953 - sold first front-loading washing machine; 1954 - bicycle production peaked; 1958 - offered first domerstic tumble dryer; August 26, 1958 - registered "Miele" trademark (water motors and vacuum, dish washing machines, bread cutting machines, meat grinding machines, meat cutting machines, and parts thereof; milking installations such as malking machines; small dairy machinery such as milk centrifuges, and butter kneaders and parts thereof); 1974 - launched line of built-in ovens; 1977 - introduced counter-top microwave oven; 1987 - world's first dishwasher with cutlery tray; 2001 - introduced honeycomb drum in tumble dryers.

Carl Miele, Reinhard Zincann - Miele & Cie. (http://mielewashingmachines.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/philosophy.jpg)

August 8, 1899 - Albert T. Marshall, of Brockton, MA, received a patent for an "Automatic Refrigerating Apparatus" ("relates to the class of refrigerating-machines which ordinarily employ anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerating medium"); a household refrigerator. 

October 3, 1899 - John S. Thurman, of St. Louis, MO, received a patent for a "Pneumatic Carpet-Renovator" ("whereby carpets may be thoroughly renovated and cleaned without removal from the floor"); the gasoline powered, motor-driven vacuum cleaner; offered invention of the horse drawn (door to door) vacuum system in newspaper advertisements for $4 per visit; 1906 - Thurman offered built-in central vacuum systems using compressed air and no dust collection.

December 19, 1899 - Jerome Bonapart. Rhodes, of Shreveport, LA, received a patent for a "Water-Closet" ("does not so much apply to the closet itself as to an attachment thereto").

1901 - Hubert Cecil Booth, a bridge engineer, developed first power-driven vacuum cleaner, "Puffing Billy" (after an early steam locomotive), dust removing suction cleaner (prior machines using compressed air created clouds of dust, no means of removal, dirt simply settled again); started a mobile cleaning service built on a horse-drawn cart; vacuum machine had an engine driving a pump provided with a long hose to extend into a house to be cleaned; cleaned the great blue coronation carpet in Westminster Abbey for Edward VII's coronation; July 17, 1902 - received British patent for "Improvements Relating to the Extraction of Dust from Carpets and Other Materials"; vacuum cleaner (electric vacuum), founded The British Vacuum Cleaner Company Ltd. to manufacture and market it.

Hubert Cecil Booth - patented vacuum cleaner (http://www.gloucestershire.gov.uk/media/images/r/6/hubertcecilbooth.jpg)

July 17, 1902 - Willis Haviland Carrier, Chief Engineer of Buffalo Forge Company from 1902 to 1915, completed drawings (with cooling coils) for what came to be recognized as world's first scientific air conditioning system; installed at  Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing Co. printing plant in Brooklyn, but retrofitted to an existing hot-blast heating system instead of being properly designed from scratch as total system; January 2, 1906 - received a patent for an "Apparatus for Treating Air" ("apparatus for treating air previous to its use for ventilating and heating buildings or for other commercial purposes...which will thoroughly separate all solid impurities, floating particles, and noxious material from the air either with or without altering its temperature and humidity"); May 21, 1907 - received a patent for a "Method of heating and Humidifying Air" ("to automatically regulate the temperature and humidity of the air regardless of external atmospheric conditions within limits...and without the use of direct radiation, by introducing into the air, water at properly regulated temperatures below the boiling point"; August 18, 1908 - received a patent for a "Differential Thermostat"; August 3, 1909 - received a patent for a "Thermostatic Regulating Device"; 1914 - first residential application of air conditioning; February 3, 1914 - received patent for a "Method of Humidifying Air and Controlling the Humidity and Temperature Thereof" - "dew point control", led to automatic controls for air conditioning systems;  all patents assigned to Buffalo Forge Company; 1915 - Carrier, several Buffalo Forge Company employees formed Carrier Engineering Corporation to engineer, install air conditioning systems; 1924 - first department store air conditioning installed in J. L. Hudson's in Detroit; February 18, 1930 - Carrier Engineering Corporation registered "Carrier" trademark first used in 1916 (air conditioning and drying, ventilating, heating, cooling, humidifying, and dehumidifying apparatus and systems, unit air conditioners, and air washers, and control devices and panels therefor); 1979 - acquired by United Technologies,





Willis Haviland Carrier (http://www.twistedhistory.com/image/willis_carrier.jpg)

Founders - Carrier Corporation  (http://www.hevac-heritage.org/hall_of_fame/air_conditioning_&_refrigeration/carriercorp_group_s1.jpg)

1904 - Earl H. Richardson, meter reader for Ontario (CA) Electric Company, formed Pacific Electric Heating Company in Ontario, CA; 1905 - introduced first electric iron hotter at its point instead of its center (concentrated heat at forward point of soleplate to better iron buttonholes, pleated materials); made, sold more irons with "hot point" than any other company in America; first electric iron to have commercial success; January 9, 1906 - received a patent for an "Electric Laundry-Iron" ("...to heat the toe of the iron to an operative degree sufficient to enable pressing to be performed by the toe and yet not excessively heat the main part of the of the sole [or the iron]"; 1907 - formally named 'Hotpoint' iron; 1912 - company name changed to Hotpoint Electric Heating Company; January 1, 1918 - merged with Hughes Electric Heating Company, heating device section of General Electric, formed Edison Electric Appliance Company; laid foundation for billion-dollar household appliance industry; 1920 - entered UK market; established joint venture with US competitor General Electric, formed Hotpoint Electric Appliance Company Limited (HEAC) to market GE (USA) branded goods in UK; 1927 - Edison Electric Appliance Company acquired by GE, became division (renamed Edison General Electric Company in 1931); 1929 - HEAC joined Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) group; 1945 - introduced first domestic appliances (washing machines, irons, water heaters, refrigerators for British Government’s post-war housing program); 1952 - Hotpoint became division of GE; 1967 - HEAC became part of The General Electric Company (GEC group - distinct from General Electric); 1989 - merged into new division of GEC (General Domestic Appliances, 50% owned by General Electric); 1989-2008 - UK Hotpoint UK 50% owned by General Electric; December 21, 2001 - 50% interest in GEC (renamed Marconi plc) acquired by Merloni lettrodomestici (now Indesit) for ú121 million; 2008 - balance of GEC acquired from General Electric by Indesit Company $ 57,120,000.

1905 - Northwestern Steel and Iron Works founded in Eau Claire, WI; manufactured industrial-size pressure canners, known as "canner retorts," for commercial canneries; major producer of fifty gallon capacity pressure canners; 1915 - installed aluminum foundry to manufacture large-size pressure canners for home use; became one of largest manufacturers of cast aluminum cooking utensils in world (United States Department of Agriculture determined in 1917 that pressure canning was only safe method of canning low-acid foods without risking food poisoning); marketed under trade name "National"; name Changed to "National Pressure Cooker Company"; 1939 - introduced first saucepan-style pressure cooker, trade name "Presto" (American housewife could cook in one third the time while maintaining vitamin, mineral content of foods, saving both food flavor and color); 1941 - Presto cooker ranked among largest producers of housewares dollar volume in leading stores throughout country; 1942 - controlling interest acquired from late President Everett Hamilton's widow by Lewis E. and Jay Phillips, Eau Claire businessmen; 1949 - introduced its first electric appliance, Presto« vapor steam iron; May 1, 1953 - name changed to National Presto Industries, Inc.; 1956 - introduced Control Master« heat control concept, revolutionary new concept in electric cooking (complete line of fully immersible electric cooking appliances employing removable heat control); 1958 - introduced world's first automatic, submersible stainless steel coffee maker; March 3, 1969 - began trading on New York Stock Exchange; 1974 - introduced PrestoBurger« hamburger cooker; 1976 - launched FryBaby deep fryer; 1978 - launched The PopCornNow« continuous corn popper; 1988 - SaladShooter« electric slicer/shredder; 1994 - PowerPop« microwave multi-popper; 2000 - Pizzazz« pizza oven cooked regular or rising crust pizza, fresh or frozen, to perfection in minutes.

January 1, 1906 - Alfred C. Fuller (21), entrepreneur from Nova Scotia, invested $375, founded Fuller Brush Company; May 31, 1921 - The Fuller Brush Company registered "Fuller" trademark first used October 4, 1919 (brush-holding racks in the form of clips to receive whisk-brooms and other clothes-brushes], toothbrush-holding racks [,rubber-tube and bath-brush holding racks, and manicure and dresser trays].

1907 - James M. Spangler, asthmatic janitor at W. R. Zollinger Deptartment Store (Canton, OH),  invented vacuum- first to use both cloth filter bag, cleaning attachments; June 2, 1908 - James M. Spangler, of Canton, OH, received a patent for a "Carpet Sweeper and Cleaner"; patent offered for sale to, rejected by Zollinger; September 16, 1913 - received a patent for a "Suction Carpet Sweeper" ("...to generally improve devices [for brushing an pneumatically cleaning floors and floor coverings and similar surfaces and objects] and in a portable, self-contained device, to combine a motor driven suction creating device with a brushing device mechanically operated by contact with the surface to be cleaned while the device is moved over such surface, the suction creating device and brushing device being preferably independent in operation; and to so construct the brush and brush operating mechanism that the same will operate with the least resistance and will not hinder the free and easy movement of the device over the surface to be cleaned"); assigned to Hoover Suction Sweeper Company (William H. Hoover, cousin's husband); 1922 - name changed to Hoover from Electric Suction Sweeper Company; January 1989 -  Chicago Pacific Corporation, Hoover division, acquired by Maytag.

James M. Spangler - "Carpet Sweeper and Cleaner" patent (http://www.invent.org/images/images_hof/induction/lores/Spangler_James190h.jpg)

1907 - Maytag introduced first wringer washing machine, "Pastime Washer" (wooden tub with hand crank that turned dolly inside with wooden pegs, pulled clothes through water, against corrugated tub sides), as means of keeping agricultural implement company profitable during slow season; F. L. Maytag became sole owner of company; 1919 - cast first aluminum washer tub; 1920 - L. B. Maytag (son) became president; 1922 - introduced "Gyrafoam" wringer washers; new washing method forced water through clothes with vained agitator mounted in bottom of tub; one of most significant inventions in laundry appliance history; put company exclusively laundry appliance business, exited farm equipment manufacturing; 1925 - went public; July 9, 1935 - Maytag Corporation registered "Maytag" trademark first used November 15, 1914 (clothes washing machines and agitators therefor); 1949 - first automatic washer, AMP, introduced; , 1958 - began manufacturing washers, dryers for commercial self-service laundries, commercial route operators; 1983 - discontinued production of wringer washers ( 11.7 million units produced in 76 years); May 30, 1986 - Magic Chef merged into company; January 1989 -  acquired Chicago Pacific Corporation and its Hoover division; June 9, 1992 - registered "Maytag 'Ol Lonely" trademark (Maytag repair man) first used March 1, 1989 (dishwashers, food waste disposers, clothes washers, clothes drying machines and parts therefor).

1907 - Two appliance companies widely marketed electrically-powered laundry machines: Nineteen Hundred Washer Company sold Standard Electric Washer and Thor Appliance Company (Hurley Machine Division of Electric Household Utilities Corporation); introduced Thor Automatic Clothes Washer.

1907 - The Oneida Community acquired John M. Mast's 1903 patent for mousetrap; October 8, 1907 - Oneida Community Ltd. Corporation registered "Victor" trademark first used in 1886 (animal traps); 1924 - trap business (Animal Trap Company of America) acquired by C. M. Woolworth and relatives; formed Oneida Victor Company; October 16, 1928 - Animal Trap Company of America (founded 1896 as Animal Trap Company) registered "Oneida Victor" trademark first used February 1, 1926 (animal traps); 1935 - name changed to Oneida Ltd.; 1966 - name changed to Woodstream Corporation; 1989 - acquired by Ecko Group; December 1999 - acquired in management buyout; largest maker of snap mousetraps in U.S.

1908 - George A. Hughes, founder of electric light and power company in Fargo, ND, founded Hughes Electric Heating Company in Chicago, IL; 1910 - introduced first "electric cook stove" at National Electric Light Association convention in St. Louis MO; first to integrate burners, oven into single, free-standing major appliance; January 7, 1913 - received a patent for an "Electrical Heating Device" ("...to provide a heating unit which has a maximum heating efficiency with a minimum of volume and surface"); 1918 - merged with Hotpoint Electric Heating Company, heating device section of General Electric, formed Edison Electric Appliance Company to produce Hotpoint brand name products (Hughes as first president).

1904 - Earl H. Richardson, meter reader for Ontario (CA) Electric Company, formed Pacific Electric Heating Company in Ontario, CA; 1905 - introduced first electric iron hotter at its point instead of its center (concentrated heat at forward point of soleplate to better iron buttonholes, pleated materials); made, sold more irons with "hot point" than any other company in America; first electric iron to have commercial success; January 9, 1906 - received a patent for an "Electric Laundry-Iron" ("...to heat the toe of the iron to an operative degree sufficient to enable pressing to be performed by the toe and yet not excessively heat the main part of the of the sole [or the iron]"; 1907 - formally named 'Hotpoint' iron; 1912 - company name changed to Hotpoint Electric Heating Company; January 1, 1918 - merged with Hughes Electric Heating Company, heating device section of General Electric, formed Edison Electric Appliance Company; laid foundation for billion-dollar household appliance industry; 1920 - entered UK market; established joint venture with US competitor General Electric, formed Hotpoint Electric Appliance Company Limited (HEAC) to market GE (USA) branded goods in UK; 1927 - Edison Electric Appliance Company acquired by GE, became division (renamed Edison General Electric Company in 1931); 1929 - HEAC joined Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) group; 1945 - introduced first domestic appliances (washing machines, irons, water heaters, refrigerators for British Government’s post-war housing program); 1952 - Hotpoint became division of GE; 1967 - HEAC became part of The General Electric Company (GEC group - distinct from General Electric); 1989 - merged into new division of GEC (General Domestic Appliances, 50% owned by General Electric); 1989-2008 - UK Hotpoint UK 50% owned by General Electric; December 21, 2001 - 50% interest in GEC (renamed Marconi plc) acquired by Merloni lettrodomestici (now Indesit) for ú121 million; 2008 - balance of GEC acquired from General Electric by Indesit Company $ 57,120,000.

1909 - Fred Wardell developed lighter weight, aluminum vacuum cleaner with removable wheels (vs. wood and tin portable cleaners); founded The Eureka (Greek for 'I found it') Company in Detroit, MI; October 18, 1910 - registered "Eureka" trademark first used January 1, 1910 (vacuum cleaners); 1913 - made 6 models with variety of attachments to clean difficult areas; 1919 - capacity of Detroit factory 2000 cleaners/day; 1927 - door-to-door sales force sold one-third of all vacuums in U.S.; 1941 - discontinued commercial production of vacuum cleaners; 1945 - merged with Williams Oil-O-Matic (Bloomington, IL), name changed to Eureka-Williams; 1957 - exited heating/air conditioning market, focused on floor care products; 1960 - merged with National Union Electric Corporation, began manufacture of school furniture; 1961 - manufactured battery-operated car (Henney Kilowatt); 1968 - began manufacture of thermal battery for use in NASA space systems; 1974 - acquired by Electrolux AB (Sweden), world's largest home appliance manufacturer; name changed to The Eureka Company; 2003 - began to sell Electrolux brand products; 2004 - name changed to Electrolux Home Care Products North America.

1910 - Louis H. Hamilton, Chester Beach, Fred Osius formed Hamilton Beach Manufacturing Co. to develop "universal" motor-driven appliances (could run on AC or DC power, fractional horsepower motor); introduced first product, electric hand-held massager; cyclone Drink Mixer introduced; 1913 - Beach and Hamilton left company, later formed Wisconsin Electric Co.

August 9, 1910 - Alva J. Fisher of Chicago, IL received a patent for a "Drive Mechanism for Washing Machines" ("for rotating the operating or clothes cleaning member of a washing machine"); electric washing machine. 

November 8, 1910 - William M. Frost, of Eureka, MT, received first U.S. patent for an "Electric Insect Destroyer."

1911 - Louis Frederick, Emory Upton founded Upton Machine Company in St. Joseph, MI to produce electric, motor-driven wringer washers; became Whirlpool Corporation; October 1916 - Sears was selling washers faster than Upton Machine Co. could manufacture them; mid 1920s - exclusive supplier for Sears electric, gasoline powered washing machines (2007 - largest North American supplier of major appliances to Sears under Kenmore brand); 1929 - merged with Nineteen Hundred Washer Company (Binghamton, NY); 1936 - distributed internationally; late 1940s - introduced world's first top-loading automatic washer; 1948 -  marketed Whirlpool brand automatic washer (dual distribution — Sears, Nineteen Hundred); 1950s - name changed to Whirlpool Corporation, added automatic dryers, refrigerators, ranges, air conditioners; 1989 - formed European joint venture company with N.V. Philips (Netherlands), named Whirlpool Europe B.V.

1916 - Group of investors and Alfred Mellowes, engineer, founded Guardian Refrigerator Company in Fort Wayne, IN; hand made, took 2 weeks; 1918 - acquired by General Motors; 1919 - name changed to Frigidaire Corporation; November 23, 1920 - Frigidaire Corporation registered "Frigidaire" trademark first used September 21, 1918 (alloy iron rolls for use in rolling mills of all sorts); 1926 - became subsidiary of GE; May 10, 1932 - Kinetic Chemicals, Inc. (formed by General Motors and DuPont in 1930) registered "Freon" trademark first used December 1, 1931 (fluorinated hydrocarbons used as refrigerants. propellants); introduced more efficient sealed compressor, called Meter Miser; 1949 - produced 1 million/year; 1979 - acquired by White Consolidated Industries for about $120 million.

1917 - Kazuchika Okura founded TOYO TOKI CO., Ltd. in Kokura, Japan (had set up laboratory in 1912 to develop sanitary ceramics common in Europe, America vs. wooden toilet bowls, no sewage system in Japan); first producer of vitreous china sanitary ware; 1923 - sewage system is built after Tokyo's Great Kanto Earthquake; 1946 - began manufacture of metal fittings, faucets, ceramics; 1964 - supplied modular prefabricated bathrooms for 1,044 rooms in Tokyo's Hotel New Otani for Olympic Games; 1970 - renamed TOTO, Ltd.; October 7, 1980 - TOTO, Ltd. registered "TOTO" trademark in U.S. first used July 1, 1969 (fittings for suppying and draining water); 1988 - introduced low volume 1.6 GPF toilet; 1989 - entered U.S. market; 2004 - introduced full line of bathroom suites, faucets, accessories, luxurious Air Bath products; world's largest plumbing products manufacturer.

August 29, 1919 - Axel Wenner-Gren, Swedish businessman, changed name of Svenska Elektron AB to AB Elektrolux, sales company with mission to launch new Swedish vacuum cleaner manufactured by Lux on world market (had seen Santo Staubsauger vacuum cleaner in shop window in Vienna in 1908; offered to act as Santo's general agent in Europe; Aktiebolaget Elektromekaniska [founded 1910 by Sven Carlstedt] and Aktiebolaget Lux [1901, manufacturer of kerosene lamps for outdoor use] had started manufacturing copies of American Santo vacuum cleaner in Sweden in 1912; signed agreement with Lux in December 1912 to serve as general agent for new Swedish Lux vacuum cleaner in Germany; made company's agent in United Kingdom, France in 1913; sold first model, ''Lux I' [stationary model with range limited to hose length]; proposed new portable model to Lux, rejected); established Svenska Elektron AB in 1915 to sell new portable vacuum under Elektron name); October 30, 1916 - Elektron [Wenner-Gren largest shareholder] bought major block of Elektromekaniska shares; Wenner-Gren became member of Elektromekaniska's board, Carlstedt joined Elektron's board; April 10, 1918 - merged with AB Lux [bought 49% of shares]; made Lux most powerful partner, owned manufacturing, sales rights to vacuum cleaners; 1919 - sold 572 cleaners in France, 442 in Denmark, 472 in UK);  August 1, 1919 - new contract between AB Lux and Svenska Elektron AB [effective through 1929]; gave Elektron all sales rights to vacuum cleaners, right to use the Lux trademark, obligation to buy its vacuum cleaners from Lux; 1921 - introduced vacuum cleaner model V, first vacuum cleaner on runners, adapted for use in homes; 1925 - introduced its first refrigerators; 1927 - Severel Incorporated (American company) began to manufacture Elektrolux refrigerators under license for American market; 1928 - Wenner-Gren vacated presidency, took over as chairman; 1930 - introduced first built-in refrigerator; 1931 - established production for American market in Old Greenwich, CT; 1936 - manufactured its one millionth refrigerator; 1957 - spelling of Group's name changed worldwide from Elektrolux to Electrolux; 1962 - acquired Elektro Helios, entered food service equipment product market; phased in new logo; 1963 - established established a design department; 1964 - launched Luxomatic vacuum cleaner (first of new generation of vacuum cleaners - cord winder, self-sealing paper dust bags, dust indicator that showed when bag full); 1967 - annual sales of vacuum cleaners, floor polishers exceeded one million units; Hans Werth├n assumed presidency; acquired ASEA-owned Elekta stove factory in Norway; strategy - grow through acquisitions, diversification (more than 200 acquisitions in just over 20 years); 1968 - 38% share of American Electrolux Corporation acquired by Consolidated Foods; 1970-1979 - acquired 59 companies; vacuum cleaners, white goods accounted for two-thirds of total sales; 1977 - introduced READY vacuum cleaner (only purchased in Electrolux shops); broke with door-to-door sales strategy in place since 1919; end of 1970s - 250 operating companies in some 40 countries, over 100 production plants in 20 countries, sales approached SEK 15 billion kronor, some 80,000 employees; 1980 - acquired Gr├nges Group (mines, steel mills, manufactures of car safety belts and more); represented quarter of sales; 1984 - acquired Zanussi (Italy); leading position in European market for white goods, food-service equipment; 1986 - acquired White Consolidated Industries (Frigidaire, Westinghouse, Kelvinator); third largest white goods company in US; annual sales of SEK 53 billion; 1987 - acquired white goods division of British company, Thorn-EMI; 1989 - signed agreement with Sharp Corporation to sell Electrolux white goods in Japanese market; 1993 - sales exceeded SEK 100 billion; 2000 - reacquired rights to Electrolux brand in North America, (sold in 1968); 2001 - introduced self-going vacuum cleaner (navigated by ultrasound, turned itself off, recharged when vacuuming finished); 2003 - launched Electrolux-branded floor-care products in US; 2004 - introduced Electrolux-branded appliances in North America; 2006 - spun off Electrolux Outdoor subsidiary to shareholders; 2008 - launched premium appliance line in US.

Axel Wenner-Gren - Electrolux (http://www.google.com/url?source=imglanding&ct=img&q=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/ Wennergren.jpg&sa=X&ei=uOrWTvXFK6HniALoj8yFCg&ved= 0CAsQ8wc&usg=AFQjCNFSR39pCtVT4m_bfdjx4UPJ0oxmJAg)

1917 - Kazuchika Okura founded TOYO TOKI CO., Ltd. in Kokura, Japan (had set up laboratory in 1912 to develop sanitary ceramics common in Europe, America vs. wooden toilet bowls, no sewage system in Japan); first producer of vitreous china sanitary ware; 1923 - sewage system is built after Tokyo's Great Kanto Earthquake; 1946 - began manufacture of metal fittings, faucets, ceramics; 1964 - supplied modular prefabricated bathrooms for 1,044 rooms in Tokyo’s Hotel New Otani for Olympic Games; 1970 - renamed TOTO, Ltd.; October 7, 1980 - TOTO, Ltd. registered "TOTO" trademark in U.S. first used July 1, 1969 (fittings for suppying and draining water); 1988 - introduced low volume 1.6 GPF toilet; 1989 - entered U.S. market; 2004 - introduced full line of bathroom suites, faucets, accessories, luxurious Air Bath products; world’s largest plumbing products manufacturer.

October 18, 1921 - Charles Strite of Minneapolis, MN received a patent for a "Bread Toaster" as a way of toasting bread that did not depend on human attention; pop-up toaster with variable timer; 1925 - Toastmaster Company began to market first household toaster that could brown bread on both sides simultaneously, set the heating element on a timer, eject the toast when finished; 1926 -Toastmaster available to the public, huge success.

1922- Steven J. Poplawski, owner of Stevens Electric Company, invented drink mixer to make Horlick's malted milk shakes in drug stores.

April 18, 1922 - John A. Johnson, of Leavenworth, KS,, received a patent for a "Wrench"; adjustable wrench.

1924 - John Oster marketed hand-operated hair clipper designed to cut,  style women's hair; 1928 - introduced motor-driven clipper; John Oster Manufacturing Company became manufacturer of choice for professionals in grooming industry; 1946 - diversified into small house electrical appliances, acquired Stevens Electric (invented liquefier blender in 1923); first Osterizer« blender introduced; 1960 - acquired by Sunbeam Corporation.

April 22, 1924 - Harry E. Soref, a locksmith from Milwaukee, WI, received a U.S. patent for a "Lock Casing" ("an improved structure of the casing of a lock"); laminated (vs. stamped metal sheets) padlock (had established Master Lock company in 1921); 1935 - introduced the Master combination padlock.

1925 - Armand Desaegher and Octave Aubecq introduced Le Creuset cocotte (French oven; metal is melted in furnace, poured into melting pot - the creuset; cast iron made from 15% pure pig-iron, 35% recycled steel from car industry, 50% recycled iron); 1934 - launched signature Volcanic orange (owner fell in love with Scandinavian cooker in same color); November 18, 1952 - Le Creuset Corporation registered "Le Creuset" trademark first used in 1926 (household iron ware, cooking iron ware, household enameled iron ware, cooking enameled iron ware, etc.); 1961 - stocked by Selfridges UK); 1960s - launched first blue; 2010 - more than 100 retail stores worldwide, produces stoneware, textiles, stainless steel, non-stick and ceramics.

1926 - Walter Ringer, Sr. bought Foley Manufacturing Company (Minneapolis, MN), small company that made machine to sharpen handsaw blades; 1933 - introduced first kitchenware product, food mill licensed from French/U.S. patent (August 8, 1933 - Jean Mantelet, of Bagnolet, France, received a U. S. patent for a "Masher" ['includes in combination the advantages of known mashers having a conical bottom and of the mashers, also known, having a helical compressing surface"]; assigned to Mantelet et Boucher); manufactured tri-blade chopper, blender ("Gravy Fork"), kitchen tools, gadgets, cookware; post WW II - acquired Meets-A-Need Co. (Sift-Chine flour sifter); 1960s - introduced handheld juicers, shredders, measuring tools; 1984 - Foley-ASC, Inc. acquired by Newell Companies, Inc.; production continued as Foley-Martens Co.

December 7, 1926 - Balttzar Carl von Platen and Carl Georg Munters, of Stockholm, Sweden, received a patent for "Refrigeration" ("refrigerating apparatus of the absorption type...wherein evaporation is effected by diffusion of one substance into another"); gas-heat driven absorption refrigerator (avoided use of toxic gases, such as sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, ammonia gases, used in mechanical compressor home refrigerators); assigned to Electrolux Servel Corporation; tiny gas flame and a tiny flow of water in the refrigerator took the place of all moving parts, circulated a liquid refrigerant which was hermetically sealed in rigid steel; 1927 - Electrolux-Servel refrigerator became sole gas refrigerator on US market until 1950s.

January 1, 1928 - The Milam Building, first high-rise office building in world with air-conditioning installed during construction, opened in San Antonio, TX; air-conditioning designed by the Carrier Engineering Corporation to provide 300 tons of refrigeration capacity with chilled water, piped to air-handling fans serving all floors; high-rise required preparing in advance the design to incorporate ducts and air-handling and control equipment planned with the structure.

November 11, 1930 - Albert Einstein, of Berlin, and Leo Szilard, of Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Germany, received patent for "Refrigeration"; servel gas refrigerator; assigned to Electrolux Servel Corporation.

September 1, 1931 - Emanuel Nielsen, of Racine, WI, received a patent for a "Hair Drier"; assigned to Hamilton Beach manufacturing Company.

March 10, 1936 - Sears, Roebuck and Company registered "Kenmore" trademark first used in March 1934 (electric and non-power sewing machines).

1938 - Earl S. Tupper, formerly of plastics division of Du Pont, created plastic Wonderbowl, formed Earl S. Tupper Company in Leominster, MA; advertised design, engineering of industrial plastics products; 1946 - introduced airtight seals patterned after inverted rim on can of paint (prevented food from drying out, wilting or losing flavor in refrigerator); 1947 - Tupperware sales of $5 million; 1948 - first Tupperware Home Party held; 1950 - sales of $25 million; Brownie Wise, former top saleswoman of cleaning aids, brushes for Stanley Home Products (pioneer in direct selling) established Patio Parties in Florida, social network to sell household products (including Tupperware with "burping seal"); sold far more Tupperware in homes than in stores; 1951- Wise called Tupper factory to complain about late delivery of an order, advised change in selling tactics; April 1951 - recruited to be general sales manager of Tupperware Home Parties Incorporated (oversee all Tupperware sales operations); Florida became home of sales force; took products out of hardware stores, department stores; sold exclusively at 'home parties'; Tupperware Home Demonstration system became primary distribution channel (retail discontinued); sparked cultural revolution in post World War II America; April 17, 1954 - first woman to make cover of Business Week; started annual "Jubilee," four-day sales meeting designed to build loyalty of Tupperware Ladies; August 28, 1956 - Tupper Corporation registered "Tupperware" trademark first used March 3, 1950 (molded plastic tumblers, canisters, pitchers, dispensers); 1958 - Wise fired; company acquired by Justin Dart (Rexall Drug Company) for $16 million; 1980 - Dart Industries merged with Kraft Inc.; 1986 - Dart and Kraft reversed merger; Dart renamed Premark International Inc.; May 31, 1996 - spun off Tupperware business

February 24, 1942 - Ivar Jepson, of Chicago, IL, received a patent for a "Motor for Food Mixers and the Like" ("fractional home power motors constituting the prime mover of domestic appliances"); assigned to Chicago Flexible Shaft Company; 1948 - Chicago Flexible Shaft Company re-named Sunbeam Corporation.

1943 - Westye F. Bakke built first freestanding freezer in basement of his Madison, WI, home; 1945 - founded Sub-Zero Freezer Company in an two-car garage; became industry’s most recognized manufacturer of premium built-in home refrigerators; 1972 - son took over; 1972 - Bud (son) assumed presidency of company; 1990s - Jim Bakke (grandson) became President, CEO; March 2000 - acquired Wolf, synonymous with professional cooking equipment for restaurants, hotels.

October 9, 1946 - The Simmons Company of Petersburg, VA., manufactured first electric blanket (regulated by "electronic" thermostatic control); priced at $39.50. 

January 24, 1950 - Perry L. Spencer, of West Newton, MA, received a patent for a "Method of Treating Foodstuffs" ("to provide an efficient method of employing electromagnetic energy for the cooking of foodstuffs"); microwave oven; assigned to Raytheon Manufacturing Company.

August 11, 1953 - Dorothy F. Rodgers, of New York, NY, received patent for a "Cleaning Swab for Toilet Bowls and the Like"; improved Jonny mop.

October 13, 1953 - Samuel Bagno, of Astoria, NY, received a patent for a "Method and Apparatus for Detecting Motion in a Confined Space" ("relates to the use of high frequency sound vibrations to detect either motion of an intruder or acceleration of the air in said confined space and for operating the alarm in response to the detection"; burglar alarm operated by ultrasonic sound.

January 19, 1954 - Frederick M. Jones, of Minneapolis, MN, received a patent for a "Method and Means of defrosting a Cold Diffuser"; method to defrost using heating medium when surface of diffuser has accumulated layer of frost or ice which would otherwise reduce its heat transfer capacity.

July 20, 1954 - Hamilton Metal Products Company (Hamilton, OH) registered "Skotch Cooler" (insulated, portable bucket) trademark; invented by Petra Cabot as insulated pail covered in plaid (held 4 gallons, had three layers of insulation).

January 15, 1955 - First solar-heated, radiation-cooled house in U.S. started its system; built by Raymond W. Bliss in Tucson, Arizona at cost of nearly $4,000 for labor and materials; made using a large slanting slab of steel and glass that converted sunlight into heat which was ducted into the house; cooling used the same ducts and associated fans and controls.

October 25, 1955 - Tappan Stove Company (Mansfield, OH, founded by W. J. Tappan in 1881 in Bellaire, OH as Ohio Valley Company, renamed in 1920) introduced RL-1, electronic oven (household microwave), at media event in New York (Raytheon had demonstrated "Radarange," world's first microwave oven in 1947 priced between $2,000 and $3,000; entered into licensing agreement with Tappan Stove Company in 1952); 1956 - began selling domestic microwave ovens (more compact , less powerful, air-cooled microwave generating system, size of conventional oven, priced at $1,200); 1979 - acquired by AB Electrolux.

March 20, 1956 - Candido Jacuzzi, of Lafayette, CA, received a patent for a "Hydrotherapy Apparatus" ("improved circulator pump assembly adapted to be employed in both tanks and tubs for the treatment of patients and to be used by non-patients for the therapeutic effects to be derived from hydro-massage"); assigned to Jacuzzi Bros., Inc.; J-300, portable pump, sold to hospitals and schools for treatment of arthritis symptoms; March 15, 1966 - Jacuzzi Bros., Incorporated registered "Jacuzzi" trademark first used in October 1958 (skimmers and fittings, pumps, filters); April 19, 1966 - Jacuzzi Research, Inc. registered "Jacuzzi Whirlpool Bath" trademark first used November 1, 1957 (whirlpool bath equipment and associated items-namely, carrying cases, filter pads, and bath essence).

February 10, 1976 - Sidney Jacoby, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Combination Smoke and Heat Detector Alarm".

October 12, 1983 - Maytag made last hand-operated wringer-washer.

January 18, 1994 - U.S. Department of Energy announced production of solar panels (made by United Solar Systems of Troy, MI), gave  nearly twice efficiency of existing panels; used new thin-film photovoltaic technology.

February 21, 1994 - Whirlpool Corporation began production of energy efficient refrigerator that did not use freon (had efficiency 25% better than U.S. law required); eliminated destructive effect on ozone in atmosphere by that chemical.

August 13, 2005 - Board of Maytag announced it backed  $2.6 billion takeover offer from Whirlpool (withdrew its earlier recommendation to accept $2 billion bid from group led by  private equity firm Ripplewood Holdings LLC). 

December 15, 2007 - Ingersoll-Rand agreed to acquire Trane Inc. (former American Standard) for $10.2 billion; world's second largest maker of climate control systems; largest diversified industrial transaction since Allied Signal's $15 billion acquisition of Honeywell in 1999.

(Bookshelves), Henry Petroski (1999). The Book on the Bookshelf. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 290 p.). Bookshelf, Design. 

(Carrier), Margaret Ingels (1972). Willis Haviland Carrier, Father of Air Conditioning. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 170 p. [orig. pub. 1952]). Carrier, Willis Haviland, 1876-1950; Air conditioning--History.

(Dyson Appliances), James Dyson (1998). Against the Odds: An Autobiography (London, UK: Orion Business Books, 292 p.). English Inventor, Entrepreneur. Dyson, James; Dyson Appliances Limited; Electric household appliances industry--Great Britain; Vacuum cleaners--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography. Inventor of Dual Cyclone Vacuum Cleaner.

(Fiskars), C.E. Carlson; bildkavalkad, Erik Bruun (1999). Fiskars 350. (Helsingfors, Finland: F÷rlagsaktiebolag Otava, 245 p.). Fiskars--History; Cutlery trade--Finland--History.

(Fuller Brush), Alfred C. Fuller as told to Hartzell Spence (1960). A Foot in the Door; The Life Appraisal of the Original Fuller Brush Man. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 250 p.). Fuller Brush Company.

Photo of Alfred C. Fuller






Alfred C. Fuller (http://www.myfullerbrush.com/images/founder.gif)

(Guo mei dian qi), Wu A’lun zhu (2005). 105 yi chuan qi : Huang Guangyu he ta de Guo mei di guo. (Beijing Shi, China: Zhong xin chu ban she, 289 p.). Huang, Guangyu, 1969-; ???, 1969-; Guo mei dian qi (Corporation); ???? (Corporation); Businesspeople --China --Biography; Electric household appliances industry --China. Peak - China's largest retail appliance chain (1,350 stores in 200 cities); nation's richest man  in 2008.

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2006-11/03/xin_3611030315289993192630.jpg Huang Guangyu - Gome ('gwo-may') (http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2006-11/03/xin_3611030315289993192630.jpg)

(Haier Corporation), Jeannie Jinsheng Yi & Shawn Xian Ye (2003). The Haier Way: The Making of a Chinese Business Leader and a Global Brand. (Dumont, NJ: Homa & Sekey Books, 280 p.). Haier (Corporation); Electric household appliances industry--China--History; International business enterprises--China--Management--History. Leading world brand with over US $8 billion in revenues.

(Holmes Electric Protective Co.), Edwin T. Holmes (1917). A Wonderful Fifty Years, by Edwin T. Holmes, President Holmes Electric Protective Co., New York. (New York. NY: Watkins Press, 133 p.). Holmes Electric Protective Co., New York; Electric apparatus and appliances.

(Hoover), Frank G. Hoover [in collaboration with William D. Ellis and Frank Siedel (1955). Fabulous Dustpan: The Story of the Hoover. (Cleveland, OH: World Pub. Co., 250 p.). Hoover Company.

(Jacuzzi), Ken Jacuzzi (2005). Jacuzzi: A Father's Invention to Ease a Son's Pain. (Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 534 p.). Jacuzzi, Inc.; hydro-therapy' whirlppl baths. Memoir of growing up disabled in family of Italian inventors (from first enclosed cabin monoplane to world’s most recognized brand of whirlpool baths).

Jacuzzi Brothers  (http://www.jacuzzi.co.uk/~/media/Images/Jacuzzi_World/History/Jacuzzi-Brothers.jpg)

(Jacuzzi), Remo Jacuzzi (2007). Spirit, Wind and Water: The Untold Story of the Jacuzzi Family. (New York, NY: Welcome Rain, 227 p.). Jacuzzi, Inc.; hydro-therapy; whirlpool baths. Family of prolific innovators in several industries (wineries, olive groves, restaurants, successor company in field of hydrotherapy).

(Kohler), Walter H. Uphoff (1966). Kohler on Strike; Thirty Years of Conflict. (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 449 p.). Kohler Strike, Kohler, Wis., 1934; Kohler Strike, Kohler, Wis., 1954-1960.

(Kohler), Richard Blodgett (2003). A Sense of Higher Design: The Kohlers of Kohler. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Publishing Group. Kohler Company; Kohler Family. 

(Magic Chef), John Longwith (1988). The Spark of Enterprise: A History of Dixie Foundry-Magic Chef, Inc. (Cleveland, TN: Magic Chef, Inc., 148 p.). Magic Chef, Inc.--History; Dixie Foundry--History; Electric household appliances industry--United States--History; Cookware industry--United States--History; Stove industry and trade--United States--History.

(Maytag), Robert Hoover, John Hoover (1993). An American Quality Legend: How Maytag Saved Our Moms, Vexed the Competition, and Presaged America's Quality Revolution. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 239 p.). Maytag Company--History; Electric household appliances industry--United States--History; Quality of products--United States--History.




Frederick Louis Maytag (http://www.maytagclub.com/images/ifred1.gif)

(Moulinex), Tristan Gaston-Breton, Patricia Defever Kapferer (1999). La Magie Moulinex: La Conquŕte des Femmes. (Paris, FR: Cherche Midi, 128 p.). Moulinex (Firm)--History; Kitchen appliances industry--France--History.

(Nordic Ware), H. David Dalquist (2006). The Nordic Ware Saga: An Entreprenuer’s [sic] Legacy. (Minneapolis, MN: Kirk House Publishers, 232 p.). Dalquist, H. David (Henry David), 1918-2005; Nordic Ware (Firm)--History; Northland Aluminum Products--History; Cookware industry--Minnesota--History; Family-owned business enterprises--Minnesota--History; Baking pans--History.

(Pampered Chef Ltd.), Doris Christopher (2005). The Pampered Chef: The Story Behind the Creation of One of Today's Most Beloved Companies. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 288 p.). Founder and Chairman. Christopher, Doris; Pampered Chef, Ltd.--History; Kitchen utensils industry--Illinois--History. 

(Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken), P. J. Bouman [translated from the Dutch] (1970). Growth of an Enterprise The Life of Anton Philips. (London, UK: Macmillan, 272 p. [2nd ed.]). Philips, Anton Frederik, 1874-1951; Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken.

Gerard Philips (http://www.hupse.eu/radio/images/ gerard_philips.jpg)

Anton Philips  (http://www.hupse.eu/radio/images/ antonphilips.jpg)

(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), Frederik Philips (1978). 45 Years with Philips: An Industrialist's Life. (Poole: Blandford Press, 280 p.). Philips, Frits, 1905- ;Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken -- History; Businessmen -- Netherlands -- Biography.

(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), A. Heerding (1986). The History of N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Volume 1: The Origin of the Dutch Incandescent Lamp Industry. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 329 p.). Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken -- History; Electric lamp industry -- Netherlands -- History. 

(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), A. Heerding; translated by Derek S. Jordan (1989). The History of N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Volume 2: A Company of Many Parts. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 329 p.). Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken -- History; Electric lamp industry -- Netherlands -- History.    

(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), Pieter Lakeman (1991). 100 Jaar Philips: de Officieuze Biografie. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Lakeman Publishers, 240 p.). Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken--History; Electric lamp industry--Netherlands--History; Electronic industries--Netherlands--History.

(Rolls Razor Washing Machine Company), John Bloom (1971). It's No Sin to Make a Profit. (London, UK: W. H. Allen, 251 p.). Rolls Razor Washing Machine Company.

(Rubbermaid), Donald E. Noble (1996). Like Only Yesterday: The Memoirs of Donald E. Noble. (Wooster, OH: Wooster Book Co.,, 266 p.). Former CEO, Rubbermaid. Noble, Donald E.; Rubbermaid Incorporated--History; Executives--United States--Biography; Rubber industry and trade--United States--History.

(Seeger Refrigerator Company), James B. Bell (2007). From Arcade Street to Main Street: A History of the Seeger Refrigerator Company, 1902-1984. (St. Paul, MN: Ramsey County Historical Society, 234 p.). Seeger Refrigerator Company -- History; Refrigerator industry -- United States -- History; Saint Paul (Minn.) -- History -- 20th century. Produced iceboxes, later refrigerators, freezers (sold by Sears, Roebuck under Coldspot label); 1984 - merged with Whirlpool Corporation, RCA’s Appliance Division.

(Singer), Ruth Brandon (1977). A Capitalist Romance: Singer and the Sewing Machine. (Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 244 p.). Singer, Isaac Merritt, 1811-1875; Sewing-machine industry--United States--History; Inventors--United States--Biography.

Isaac Merritt Singer (http://www.sewalot.com/ images/isaac_merritt_singer.jpg)

(Singer), Fred V. Carstensen (1984). American Enterprise in Foreign Markets: Studies of Singer and International Harvester in Imperial Russia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 289 p.). "Kompaniia Zinger (Firm)--History; International Harvester in Russia--History; Corporations, American--Soviet Union--History--Case studies; International business enterprises--United States--History--Case studies; International business enterprises--Soviet Union--History--Case studies.

(Singer), Don Bissell (1999). The First Conglomerate: 145 Years of the Singer Sewing Machine Company. (Brunswick, ME: Audenreed Press, 239 p.). Singer Sewing Machine Company--History; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Sewing-machine industry--United States--History.

(Sub-Zero Company), Ellen D. Langill (1995). Sub-Zero at Fifty: A History of the Sub-Zero Company, Incorporated, 1945-1995. (Madison, WI: Sub-Zero Freezer Co., 183 p.). Sub-Zero Co.; Refrigeration.

(Sunbeam), John A. Byrne (1999). Chainsaw: The Notorious Career of Al Dunlap in the Era of Profit-At-Any-Price. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness. Sunbeam Corporation

(Tappan), W.R. (Dick) Tappan (1986). Cooking with the Tappans. (New York, NY: Vantage Press, 91 p.). Tappan family; Tappan, W. R.--Family; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Stove industry and trade--Ohio--Mansfield--History; Mansfield (Ohio)--Biography.

(Tupperware), Brownie Wise (1957). Best Wishes, Brownie Wise: How To Put Your Wishes to Work (Podium Pub. Co., 183 p.). VP of Tupperware Home Parties Incorporated. Wise, Brownie; Tupper, Earl Silas; Tupperware Corporation --History; selling--home parties. Feminine knowledge, converting 'wishes' into pragmatism.

Earl Tupper - Tupperware  (http://www.ideafinder.com/images/inventors/tupper.jpg)

Brownie Wise - Tupperware  (http://www.tvarkoslinija.lt/uploads/images/apie_kompanija/img_005.jpg)

(Tupperware), Alison J. Clarke (1999). Tupperware: The Promise of Plastic in 1950s America. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 241 p.). Tupperware (Firm)--History; Plastic container industry--United States--History; Tableware industry--United States--History; Plastic tableware--United States--History. Subject of 2/9/04 PBS documentary ("American Experience"): "Tupperware!"  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tupperware

(Tupperware), Bob Kealing (2008). Tupperware, Unsealed: Brownie Wise, Earl Tupper, and the Home Party Pioneers. (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 250 p.). Reporter (NBC's WESH-TV in Orlando, FL). Wise, Brownie; Tupper, Earl Silas; Tupperware Corporation --History; Tupperware Home Parties --History; Home parties (Marketing) --United States --History; Plastic container industry --United States --History; Plastic tableware --United States --History. Rise and fall of Brownie Wise, driving force behind making Tupperware household name, created Tupperware "home party" phenomenon in 1950s, first woman to appear on cover of Business Week (April 17, 1954); her relationship with eccentric Earl Tupper; fired in 1958, written out of Tupperware history, died in obscurity.

(Whirlpool), Rosalyn M. Reeder (1999). Divorcing the Corporation: One Woman's Fight To Save Her Family from Multinational Maneuvers. (St. Joseph, MI: Hapi Haus, 282 p.). Reeder, Rosalyn M.--Marriage; Reeder, Rosalyn M.--Trials, litigation, etc.; Whirlpool Corporation--Trials, litigation, etc.; Executives' spouses--Biography; Corporate culture.

(Whirlpool), Nancy Tennant Snyder and Deborah L. Duarte (2008). Unleashing Innovation: How Whirlpool Transformed an Industry. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 272 p.). Chief Innovation Officer at Whirlpool Corporation; Consultant. Whirlpool Corporation --Management; Washing machine industry --Technological innovations --United States --History; Household appliances industry --Technological innovations --United States --History. One of largest change efforts in corporate history; how innovation was embedded throughout the company, ultimately led to bottom-line results.

Grace Rogers Cooper (1976). The Sewing Machine: Its Invention and Development. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 238 p.). Sewing machines--History.

Steven Gdula (2008). The Warmest Room in the House: A Cultural History of the American Kitchen in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 256 p.). Kitchens--United States--History; Cookery--United States--History; United States--Social life and customs. Relationship between trends, innovations in kitchen, cultural attitudes beyond its four walls; over 350 years of American domestic life; major historic themes (procurement in 17th century, preservation in 18th century, industrialization and enlightenment in 19th century, modernization in 20th); evolution of American foods, recipes, trends, styles of cooking.

Frank P. Godfrey (1982). An International History of the Sewing Machine. (London, UK: R. Hale, 320 p.). Sewing machines--History.


Business History Links

From Domesticity to Modernity: What Was Home Economics?       Http://Rmc.Library.Cornell.Edu/Homeec/Default.Html                 

A joint effort of Cornell's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections and students of a course in Cornell's Human Development department, this Website tells the history of home economics through a showcase of archival material. The exhibit makes the argument that Home Economics played a progressive role in the history of women's education, bringing "science to the farm home and women into higher education and leadership positions in public education, academia, government and industry." The exhibit itself is divided into a number of topical sections, each with a brief introduction and a series of photos, documents, and other artifacts. The site also includes a biographies section, a timeline, and a couple of video interviews. Researchers will appreciate the bibliography and the location section, which gives the location for each of the artifacts in the archive. This is a rich site, with much to interest both researchers and the general public.

Flashlight Museum                                                                                               http://www.geocities.com/~stuarts1031/flashlight.html        

Lock Museum of America
Museum boasts eight display rooms;  The Eagle Lock Company Room contains over 1,000 locks and keys manufactured from 1854 to 1954; Antique Lock Room contains a large display of colonial locks and Ornate European Locks dating back to the 1500's.

Toaster Museum Foundation                                        http://www.toaster.org/                                                     

A site devoted to educating, entertaining, and enlightening visitors about the history and cultural importance of the bread toaster.


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