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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Sports Leagues, Franchises
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September 2, 490 B.C.E. - Phidippides of Athens ran first marathon from Marathon to Athens (about 25 miles) to announce defeat of Persian army after Battle of Marathon; 1896 - in his honor, 26-mile marathon became part of Olympic Games.

1754 - Society of St Andrews Golfers founded.

1764 - Standard round of golf established at 18 holes.

1823 - Rugby Football 'invented' at Rugby School.

1829 - First Oxford/Cambridge Boat Race.

June 14, 1834 - Leonard Norcross, of Dixfield, ME, received first U.S. patent for a practical underwater diving suit; called it a "Diving Armor," designed as an airtight leather outfit with a brass helmet connected via a rubber hose to an air bellows pump on a boat; feet were weighted with lead shot to reduce buoyancy; 1829 - Augustus Siebe designed first truly effective diving suit with pump; equipped French Navy until 1857.

June 12, 1839 - According to legend, Abner Doubleday created baseball.

June 14, 1839 - First Henley Regatta held.

November 16, 1841 - Napoleon E. Guerin, of New York City, received a patent for a "Life Preserver"; form of jacket or waistcoat of with 18 to 20 quarts of rasped or grated cork introduced.

July 30, 1844 - New York Yacht Club formed; July 15, 1845 - members of New York Yacht Club met in Hoboken, NJ clubhouse for first time; July 17, 1845 - New York Yacht Club held first regatta.

August 29, 1844 - Indians won first white-Indian lacrosse game in Montreal.

June 3, 1851 - New York Knickerbockers became first baseball team to wear uniforms.

August 22, 1851 - America, U.S.-built schooner America (launched May 3, 1851) beat 14 of Britain's finest ships in 11-hour, 50-mile Hundred Guinea Cup regatta around England's Isle of Wight; won Royal Yacht Squadron Cup, silver trophy, later donated to New York Yacht Club on condition that it be forever placed in international competition; August 1870 - first race for trophy when British ship Cambria competed against 14 American yachts in Lower New York Bay; renamed the America's Cup; schooner Magic won race; 1983 - United States lost trophy for first time in 132 years (Australia II defeated Liberty off Newport, RI).

August 3, 1852 - Harvard beat Yale in eight-oared "Oneida" crew race on Lake Winnipesaukee, NH; first formal intercollegiate athletic competition in America. 

1857 - Brooklyn Sports Writer, Henry Chadwick, of "New York Clipper" paper, devoted to theater sports, theater, grew disgusted with method of scoring a baseball game; designed his own system; assigned numbers to various positions, helped develop easily understood box score; same box score used today (with few minor differences).

March 7, 1857 - Baseball decided 9 innings constituted official game.

April 12, 1858 - Michael J. Phelan won first U.S. billiards championship in Detroit.

1859 - Don Refugio Bernal (son of Spaniard Don Agustin Bernal) organized Floral Fair, built original racetrack on 52,000-acre ranch in Alisal, CA (part of Northern California land grant, Rancho Valle de San Jose; now Pleasanton, CA); Augustin and Antonio Bernal (sons) took over; 1872 - property left to his Frederick Bernal (son of Augustin); 1876 - acquired by Joseph F. Nevis (married Augustin Bernal's widow); improved track to meet regulation specifications, operated it as business; 1882 - acquired by Monroe Salisbury (multi-millionaire Australian horse breeder) for $25,000; operated as Pleasanton Stock Farm; 1911 - acquired by businessman Rodney G. MacKenzie (son of Canadian railroad tycoon); built grandstand, lavish quarters for guests, stables to house 300 horses; June 29, 1912 - Alameda County Fair Association formed; October 23-27, 1912 - first Alameda County Fair in Pleasanton, CA (had approached group of county businessmen and ranchers with proposal to hold county fair on his property - to turn profit on newly acquired racetrack); 1933 - California legalized pari-mutuel betting; 1939 - Alameda County Fair Association established; racing fair boasts livestock and agriculture; 1941 - nine days of races for handle of $432,644 (national record); 2004 - second highest racing handle in Fair history ($35,776,350, up 4% from 2003); July 3, 2004 - highest single day race handle in Northern California Fair history ($4,586,825); oldest one-mile track in America (thoroughbred, quarter horse racing); largest county fair in Northern California, largest public event in Alameda County.

June 28, 1859 - First dog show held, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England.

July 1, 1859 - Amherst beat Williams 73-32 in 25 innings; first intercollegiate baseball game.

May 6, 1860 - San Francisco Olympic Club formed, first U.S. athletic club.

June 19, 1867 - First running of Belmont Stakes at Jerome Park Racecourse; four horses started: Ruthless, DeCourcey, Rivoli, Monday; Ruthless, owned by Francis Morris, ridden by jockey Gilpatrick, won mile and five furlong race in 3:05.

September 8, 1868 - Henry Buermeyer, John Babcock, William Curtis, 11 others, gathered in Knickerbocker Cottage, Manhattan tavern, for first meeting of what would become New York Athletic Club; formed to bring structure to sporting environment lacking in organization, uniformity of measurement; organized first US championships in boxing, wrestling, outdoor track and field.

1869 - Peck & Snyder, first sporting goods store in Manhattan (formed by 1866 merger of Andrew Peck & Co. with W. Irving Snyder), published first true baseball card, Peck & Snyder Cincinnati Red Stockings card (first openly all-professional baseball club in world; Cincinnati Red Stockings had taken field on April 18, 1868 wearing knickers (radical new style of pants, departure from traditional full-length pants); 3-1/4" by 4-1/2", sepia-toned image of ten professional baseball players (signed by Andrew Peck, founder of Peck & Snyder); finished 1869 season undefeated (57 -0); 1892 - retail business acquired by A. G. Spalding & Brothers (remained a sporting goods manufacturer).

1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings Trading Card - front (http://luckeycards.com/pnucpeckandsnyder.jpg)

1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings Trading Card - front (http://luckeycards.com/phuncpeckandsnyderback.jpg)

March 15, 1869 - Cincinnati Red Stockings became first pro baseball team.

November 6, 1869 - First intercollegiate football game took place, between Rutgers University and Princeton University, in New Brunswick, NJ (Rutgers won 6-4).

October 25, 1870 - Pimlico Race Course opened in Baltimore; second oldest race track in U. S., behind Saratoga (1864); constructed by Maryland Jockey Club on 70 acres west of Jones Falls, MD at suggestion of Gov. Oden Bowie; "Pimlico" - name given by English settlers in 1669.

July 20, 1871 - Charles Alcock, Honorary Secretary of Football Association (established 1863 with 11 member teams), proposed "that it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association, for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; October 1871 - competition rules approved (50 member teams); November 11, 1871 - first FA Cup matches ever played (Upton Park 0-Clapham Rovers 3, Crystal Palace 0-Hitchin 0, Maidenhead 2-Marlow 0, Barnes 2-Civil Service 0; first Cup goal scored by Clapham's Jarvis Kenrick); 1871-72 - fifteen entries in first FA Challenge Cup competition final (won 1-0 at Kennington Oval by Wanderers, team formed by ex-public school and university players, against Royal Engineers; crowd of 2,000 paid one shilling/each to attend); first Cup, 'little tin idol', made by Messrs Martin, Hall & Co. at cost £20, stolen on September 11, 1895 from Birmingham, UK shoe shop window belonging to William Shillcock, while held by Aston Villa; never seen again; FA fined Villa £25 to pay for replacement (almost 60 years later, thief admitted that cup had been melted to make counterfeit half-crowns); knockout tournament with pairings for each round (14) drawn at random - no seeds, clubs of all standards play against each other, draw for each round not made until after scheduled dates for previous round (also determines which teams will play at home); most famous domestic cup competition in world; oldest association football competition in world.

Charles Alcock - Honorary Secretary of Football Association (http://www.espn.co.uk/PICTURES/CMS/27000/27043.2.jpg)

November 30, 1872 - First international football (soccer) match played, between Scotland and England in Glasgow; ended with no score.

1873 - English army major Walter Clopton Wingfield first promoted lawn tennis as sport; January 1888 - Lawn Tennis Association founded at Freemasons’ Tavern in Great Queen Street, London; William Renshaw, six times Wimbledon champion, became first president.

May 23, 1873 - First Preakness run; G Barbee aboard Survivor won in 2:43.

October 19, 1873 - Yale University, Princeton University, Columbia University, Rutgers University drafted first code of football rules.

March 2, 1874 - Baseball batter's box officially adopted.

May 27, 1874 - Louisville Courier-Journal reported establishment of track; June 20, 1874 - Col. Merriweather Lewis Clark (29), group of prominent Louisville gentlemen, filed papers of incorporation for Louisville Jockey Club and Driving Park Association; Clark raised $32,000 (sold 320 membership subscriptions at $100 each); leased 80 acres of land from Clark's uncles, John and Henry Churchill, approximately three miles south of downtown; constructed clubhouse, grandstand, porter's lodge, six stables; designed three major stakes races for inaugural meet (Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Oaks, Clark Handicap); May 17, 1875 - track formally opened (four races); Oliver Lewis, aboard Aristedes, 3-year-old chestnut colt, won day's featured race, Kentucky Derby in 2:37:75 (owned by H.P. McGrath, trained, ridden by two African-Americans, Ansel Williamson and Oliver Lewis, respectively); 1883 - Louisville Commercial made first reference of name Churchill Downs; November 24, 1894 - New Louisville Jockey Club incorporated (William F. Schulte appointed president, Clark retained as presiding judge for track); October 1, 1902 - taken over by group headed by former Louisville Mayor Charles Grainger, Charlie Price, Matt J. Winn (amending track's articles of incorporation with no transfer in form of deed); 1903 - reported first profit in 28 years; 1907 - owners joined with nearby Douglas Park, formed Louisville Racing Association to establish race dates, policies for racing in City; February 1919 - Kentucky Jockey Club formed as holding company for Churchill, three other tracks in State; January 16, 1928 - American Turf Association served as new holding company for Churchill Downs; January 28, 1937 - Churchill Downs, Latonia formed Churchill Downs-Latonia Incorporated (separate operating corporation); April 24, 1942 - name was changed to Churchill Downs Incorporated; April 3, 1950 - stockholders voted to dissolve American Turf Association; May 3, 1952 - first national telecast of Kentucky Derby; March 1969 - control acquired by group of Churchill board members, headed by John Galbreath, Warner L. Jones, Jr., Arthur "Bull" Hancock, formed "Derby Protection Group"; (outbid National Industries, moved stock from $22 a share to $35); 1974 - 100th running of Derby, record crowd of 163,628; May 20, 1975 - Churchill Downs Incorporated registered "Churchill Downs" trademark first used 1886 (providing horse race exhibitions); 1984 - two separate takeover attempts foiled; July 2002 - began Phase I of $121 million renovation.

Founder, Churchill Downs (http://www.kentuckyderby.cc/images/gr_clark.gif)

February 2, 1876 - William Hulbert, part owner of Chicago's National Association team, Albert Spalding founded National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs; eight teams: Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Louisville and Hartford. Hulbert credited with establishing respectability, integrity and a sound foundation for the new league with his relentless opposition to betting, rowdiness and other prevalent abuses that threatened sport.

William Hulbert - co-founded National League  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fb/William_Hulbert_Baseball.jpg)

April 1, 1876 - First official NL baseball game (Boston-6, Phila-5).

June 3, 1876 - Lacrosse introduced in Britain and Canada.

1877 - Westminster Kennel Club officially formed; first Annual New York Bench Show of Dogs, hosted by WKC, staged at Gilmore's Garden (forerunner of Madison Square Garden) in New York City; drew entry of 1,201 dogs.

April 12, 1877 - Catcher's mask first used in baseball game.

July 9, 1877 - All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club began its first lawn tennis tournament (had been estasblished in 1868, on 4 acres of meadow land at Wimbledon, to promote croquet); 21 amateur players competed in Gentlemen Singles event; winner won 25-guinea trophy; 200 spectators paid shilling each to see William Marshall, Cambridge tennis "Blue," battle W. Spencer Gore (27), Old Harrovian racket player in 48-minute final; Gore crushed Marshall, 6-1, 6-2, 6-4; 1968 - Wimbledon welcomed pros; quickly regained status as world's top tennis tournament; only major tennis event still played on grass.

1878 - Newton Heath LYR (Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway) football (soccer) team formed; 1900 - John Henry Davies, brewer, invested in club, in return for some interest in running it; April/May 1902 - name changed to Manchester United; September 1903 - Ernest Mangnall appointed secretary, widely acknowledged as club's first manager; 1907-1908 - won Football League Championship for first time; August 30, 1919 - returned to League football after four-year gap caused by WW I; December 1931 - bankruptcy threat; James Gibson, manufacturer of army uniforms, invested £30,000, paid players, got club back on track; May 2005 - control acquired by Malcolm Glazer, owner of Tampa Bay Buccaneers, for $1.47 billion.

February 12, 1878 - Frederick W. Thayer, of Waverly, MA, captain of Harvard University Baseball Club, received a patent for an "Improvement in Masks" ("to protect the face of a player from being hit or injured by a base-ball while in flight toward him, and also at the same time to not materially obstruct his sight. It is usually to be worn by the catcher or person in rear of the striker or bat-wielder"); baseball catcher's mask.

March 13, 1878 - First collegiate golf match played; Oxford defeated Cambridge.

March 31, 1878 - Jack Johnson first black to hold heavyweight boxing title.

May 31, 1879 - Madison Square Garden I opened; 1889 - torn down; June 16, 1890 - Madison Square Garden II opened (designed by Stanford White); capacity of 17,000; December 15, 1925 - Madison Square Garden III opened; February 11, 1968 - Madison Square Garden IV opened.

April 24, 1880 - Amateur Athletic Association, governing body for men's athletics in England and Wales, founded in Oxford, England.

June 12, 1880 - Lee Richmond, of Worcester Ruby Legs, pitched first perfect game in major league history in a 1-0 victory over Cleveland Blues.

September 7, 1880 - George Ligowsky, of Cincinnati, OH, received patent for a "Flying Target"; device to throw clay pigeons for trapshooters.

May 21, 1881 - United States Lawn Tennis Association formed in New York City.

September 10, 1881 - Roger Connor, of Troy City in upstate New York, hit first grand slam of major leagues.

February 7, 1882 - John L. Sullivan won last bare-knuckle heavyweight boxing championship; KOd Paddy Ryan in MS.

1884 - John Andrew ‘‘Bud’’ Hillerich (father established J.F. Hillerich, Job Turning in downtown Louisville in 1859) turned a wooden baseball bat for either Pete Browning (the "Louisville Slugger" of Louisville Eclipse baseball team of American Association) or Arlie Latham of St. Louis Browns; believed to be company’s first baseball bat for professional player); changed face of baseball; 1897 - name changed to J.F. Hillerich & Son; 1905 - Honus Wagner (Pittsburgh Pirates) signed deal with company to use his autograph on Louisville Slugger bats, first baseball player to officially endorse a bat; 1916 - Frank Bradsby, salesman for company since 1911, became partner, name changed to Hillerich and Bradsby; July 26, 1949 - registered "Louisville Slugger" trademark first used November 1, 1893  (bats used in playing or practicing baseball and softball, and for miniature bats); 2007 - contracts with 60%-70% of MLB players (35-40% of market for aluminum bats.

John Andrew "Bud" Hillerich - Louisville Slugger (http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:p4JsoVPLfFrlsM:http://www.sluggermuseum.org/filedownload.aspx?f=gdfJoCh94I2hdiF0WvyJ6H9WsbA9I/bT&t=1)

May 5, 1884 - Brooklyn Atlantics (owned by Charles Byrne, Joseph Doyle, Ferdinand Abell) played first professional game in American Association; 1885 - renamed Brooklyn Grays; 1888 - renamed Brooklyn Bridegrooms; April 28, 1890 - played first National League game in Brooklyn; 1900 - acquired by Charles Ebbets; 1908 - 50% of team acquired by Ed and Steve McKeever; April 9, 1913 - Dodgers dedicated 18,000-seat Ebbets Field in game against Phillies; 1941 - Walter O'Malley appointed team's attorney; October 1950 - O'Malley became president, chief stockholder; May 28, 1957 - National League approved Dodgers's, Giants's moves to California; April 18, 1958 - opening day at L.A. Memorial Coliseum, 78,672 fans; April 10, 1962 - opening day at Dodger Stadium (56,000-seat capacity); March 17, 1970 - Peter O'Malley named club president; March 19, 1998 - Major League Baseball owners approved sale of Dodgers to The FOX Group; April 20, 1999 - surpassed 100 million mark in home attendance since Dodger Stadium opened in 1962 (drew at least 2 million fans for record 27 consecutive seasons); October 28, 1999 - Robert A. Daly, Chairman and Co-CEO of Warner Bros., Warner Music Group since 1980, minority owner of Dodgers, became Chairman and CEO, club's managing partner; January 29, 2004 - Major League Baseball unanimously approved sale of Dodgers to Frank and Jamie McCourt (from Fox Entertainment Group, Robert Daly).

Charles Ebbets - Brooklyn Dodgers (http://losangeles.dodgers.mlb.com/la/photo/history/ph_history_timeline_ebbets.jpg)

March 2, 1887 - American Trotting Association organized in Detroit.

June 3, 1888 - Ernest Lawrence Thayer published ''Casey at the Bat'' in San Francisco Daily Examiner.

March 30, 1889 - John T. Reid opened first U.S. golf course in Yonkers, NY.

August 29, 1889 - First American International pro lawn tennis contest (Newport RI).

June 6, 1890 - United States Polo Association formed in New York City.

August 6, 1890 - Denton True 'Cy' Young, Hall-of-fame pitcher, made major league debut with Cleveland Spiders of National League.

November 29, 1890 - First Army-Navy football game played at West Point, NY; Navy won 24-0.

December 1, 1891 - James Naismith, Canadian physical education teacher at YMCA in Springfield, MA, created indoor sport of basketball; December 21, 1891 - introduced first game of Basket Ball to class of secretaries; game was a hit.

  James Naismith - creator of basketball (http://www.ymca.int/uploads/pics/naismith.jpg)

January 15, 1892 - Rules of basketball published in Springfield, MA; January 21, 1892 - James Naismith introduced game of basketball in Springfield, Massachusetts meeting hall.

March 18, 1892 - Canada's Governor General, Lord Stanley, presented silver challenge cup for hockey (Stanley Cup); March 22, 1894 - Hockey's first Stanley Cup championship game played, Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated Ottawa Capitals 3-1 in Montreal.

Photograph of Lord Stanley of Preston Lord Stanley - NHL's Stanley Cup  (http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/024002/f1/c023542-v2.jpg)

April 29, 1892 - Charlie Reilly baseball's first pinch hitter.

September 7, 1892 - First heavyweight-title boxing match fought with gloves under Marquis of Queensbury rules ended when James J. Corbett knocked out John L. Sullivan in the 21st round at Olympic Club in New Orleans, LA. 

March 22, 1893 - First women's collegiate basketball game played at Smith College in Massachusetts.

March 13, 1894 - J L Johnstone of England invented horse racing starting gate.

December 22, 1894 - United States Golf Association (USGA) founded.

February 9, 1895 - First college basketball game played as Minnesota State School of Agriculture defeated Porkers of Hamline College, 9-3.

February 9, 1895 - William G. Morgan, instructor at Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in Holyoke, MA, invented Volleyball (called mintonette); blended elements of basketball, baseball, tennis, handball to create a game for his classes of businessmen which would demand less physical contact than basketball.

http://www.spfldcol.edu/home.nsf/YMCA_01_WilliamMorgan.jpg William G. Morgan - invented Volleyball (http://www.volleyhall.org/images/photos/morgan.jpg)

October 4, 1895 - First U.S. Open golf tournament held, at Newport Country Club in Rhode Island.

January 18, 1896 - First college basketball game played, between University of Iowa and University of Chicago.

February 8, 1896 - Midwestern colleges formed Western (football) Conference; later renamed Big 10 Conference.

April 6, 1896 - Eight nations competed in first modern Olympic games in Athens, Greece -- reinstated 1500 years after being banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.

November 26, 1896 - Amos Alonzo Stagg, of University of Chicago, created football huddle.

 1897 - Crawford, MacGregor and Canby (Dayton, OH), manufacturer of lathe-turned wood products (shoe lasts), began producing wooden golf clubs under 'J. MacGregor' brand (first company to make golf clubs; Archibald and Ziba Crawford had begun with manufacture wooden shoe pegs in 1829, established Dayton Shoe Last Company; Charles Henry Crawford. nephew, became third owner in 1842; joined, in about 1875, by investors, Edward Canby, owner of Dayton Coffee Company, and John McGregor, Scotsman,  formed The Crawford, McGregor and Canby Co.; Canby bought out McGregor in 1895, eventually, bought out Crawford brothers); 1902 - placed new mark on MacGregor clubs (concentric circles with shamrock in center surrounded by words "Guaranteed Hand Forged"); 1920s - one of first to offer steel-shafted clubs; 1927 - first "Harmonized" club set (included both wood, steel shafts); 1933 - converted fully to steel shaft production; 1930s - name changed to MacGregor Golf Co.; 1940s - dominant maker of golf clubs; Charles H. Rickey; 1949 - introduced its first matching set of four "woods" (for long shots), nine "irons" (for shorter shots; sand wedge included with irons in set for first time); 1942-1952- sales increased eightfold; June 16, 1953 - MacGregor Sport Products, Inc. registered "MacGregor" trademark first used March 1, 1897 (paraphernalia for all kinds of athletic contests, etc.); 1967 - acquired by Brunswick Corporation; 1979 - acquired by Wickes Corporation; 1982 - acquired by Jack Nicklaus-led group; 1986 - acquired by Amer Sport (Finnish conglomerate); 1997 - acquired by consortium led by Masters International (UK); 1999 - acquired by Parkside Group (Barry Schneider); May 20, 2009 - full intellectual property rights to MacGregor Golf brand throughout North and South America, Europe, Australia/New Zealand, Africa acquired by Golfsmith International Holdings, Inc. (Austin, TX).

March 20, 1897 - First intercollegiate basketball game to use five players per team held; Yale beat Pennsylvania (32-10).

April 19, 1897 - First Boston Marathon run; won by John McDermott of New York in 2:55:10.10).

1898 - George and Alfred Rawlings established Rawlings Manufacturing Co. in St. Louis, MO, in partnership with Charles W. Scudder (put up money); 1902 - introduced first shoulder pads (fiber-and-felt) for football players; 1906 - outfitted baseball's St. Louis Cardinals with team uniforms; 1919 - manufactured Bill Doak's first modern baseball glove (separated thumb, forefinger with few strands of rawhide to form deep pocket); best-seller for more than 25 years; 1954 - fourth largest sporting goods company in United States; 1955 - acquired by A.G. Spalding & Bros., Inc., second largest sporting goods company in nation; 1957 - introduced Rawlings Golden Glove Award to recognize fielding excellence for best major league baseball players at each position; 1963 - Rawlings Sporting Goods Co. (renamed) acquired by group of private investors for about $10.3 million; renamed Rawlings Corp., only privately owned sporting goods manufacturer in United States; 1967 - acquired by Automatic Sprinkler Corp. of America (name changed to A-T-O Inc. in 1969, to Figgie International in 1981); 1977 - replaced Spalding as supplier of baseballs to major leagues (30,000 dozen Haitian-produced balls a year); took lead from Wilson Sporting Goods Co. in baseball glove business (market share between 28- 30%, more than 50% of gloves sold to professional players); 1987 - selected as "Official Basketball and Football for NCAA Championships"; 1994 - went public; 1997 - signed five-year contract with Host Communications Inc., nation's leading sports marketer.

1898 - A.E. Wickett built first Old Town Canoe in Ild Town, ME, on Penobscot River (frst wood-and-canvas canoe, more durable, lower maintenance improvement on Native American birch bark canoe); 1903 - incorporated as Old Town Canoe Co.; 1906 - built about 400 boats per month; 1910 - Old Town, ME labeled itself as Canoe Center of the World (built 3,500 canoes); 1940 - rendering traditional seal-skin kayak design in more durable wood-and-canvas; 1950s-1960s - introduced lightweight fiberglass versions of kayaks, canoes; November 22, 1955 - Old Town Canoe Company registered "Old Town" trademark first used January 26, 1906 (canoes, bats, skiffs, and the various types of each, and structural parts thereof; paddles and/or oars, backrests for the same; boat and canoe sails and lee-boards); 1974 - acquired by Sam Johnson of S. C. Johnson Wax (became subsidiary of Johnson Wax Associates; later renamed Johnson Outdoors Inc.); gave birth to plastic boat industry; global leader in kayaks, canoes. 

December 12, 1899 - George F. Grant, dentist of Boston, MA, received patent for a "Golf-Tee" ("a simple, cheap, and effective tee for use in the game of golf, obviating the use of the usual conical mounds of sand or similar material formed by the fingers of the player on which the ball is supported when driving off. While the tee must firmly, yet lightly, support the ball until hit by the player's club, the tee must be so constructed that it will not in any manner interfere with the swing or 'carry through' of the club in making the stroke"); wooden tee with a tapered base and a flexible, tubular, concave shoulder to hold golf ball; didn't market his tees, but gave some away.

January 29, 1900 - Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson, president of Western League (faltering minor league) since 1893, changed league name, founded The American League; consisted of eight baseball teams; January 28, 1901 - claimed major league status; declared American League would operate as major league; opposed by National League owners; proved its competitiveness on field, at gate. Johnson became most significant member of National Commission, baseball's ruling body, until 1920.

Byron "Ban" Johnson Byron "Ban" Johnson - founder MLB's American League  (http://www.davidpietrusza.com/JohnsonBan.JPG)

February 9, 1900- American collegian Dwight Filley Davis (won intercollegiate tennis singles championship in 1899) challenged British tennis players to compete against his Harvard team; won support of U.S. National Lawn Tennis Association, personally spent $750 on construction of elegant silver trophy bowl (International Lawn Tennis Challenge Trophy), 13 inches high, 18 inches in diameter; August 8, 1900 - three top British players came to Longwood Cricket Club in Brookline, MA, to compete against Davis and his all-Harvard team; three-day format for event still exists; first Davis Cup ended with 3-0 Harvard sweep.

1902 - Group of fans in Madrid, Spain founded Madrid Foot Ball Club (later known as Real Madrid) in Spanish League, known as La Liga; first coach, Englishman Arthur Johnson; 29 La Liga championships through 2006; 2000 - selected by FIFA, international governing body, as best football team of 20th century; still owned, operated by its members.

1902 - Hoyt Buck, young Kansas blacksmith apprentice, produced first Buck Knife as better way to temper steel to hold an edge longer; made each knife by hand, used worn-out file blades as raw material; 1947 - set up shop as H.H. Buck & Son in San Diego; 1964 - revolutionized knife industry with Model 110 Folding Hunter (folding "lockblade" knife); made Buck industry leader; June 14, 1983 - Buck Knives, Inc. registered Buck" trademark first used in 1945 (hunting knives).

January 1, 1902 - University of Michigan (10-0) crushed Stanford (3-1-2) by score of 49-0 in first Tournament East-West football game (Rose Bowl); game discontinued; 1916 - game resumed.


1903 - First squash courts in US built, opened at New York Athletic Club.

January 9, 1903 - Frank Farrell (pool hall, gambling impresario), Bill Devery (former New York City police chief) bought Baltimore's defunct American League baseball franchise for $18,000, moved team to New York City; named team "Highlanders"; March 12, 1903 - New York Highlanders (Yankees) approved as members of AL; April 23, 1903 - first win in franchise history; April 11, 1912 - pinstripes appeared on uniforms; April 1913 - name changed to Yankees; January 11, 1915 - team sold to Col. Jacob Ruppert and Col. Tillinghast L´Hommedieu Huston for $460,000;  January 3, 1920 - bought Babe Ruth's contract from Red Sox for $125,000, $350,000 loan against mortgage on Fenway Park; September, 1921 - Yankees clinched first of 37 pennants; April 18, 1923 - played first game at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx (4-1 win over Boston Red Sox, Babe Ruth made an error, hit three-run homer).

March 24,1903 - Arthur F. Knight, of Schenectady, NY, received patent for a "Golf Club" (" the object being to provide a club in which the chance of error on the part of the player in driving, approaching, or putting is greatly reduced"); Schenectady mallet-headed, center-shaft putter; 1905 - Walter Travis used the club to win the British Amateur.; 1910 - USGA rule banned center-shafted putters; 1952 - rule rescinded; November 22, 1910 - received patent  for a "Golf-Club" ("in which the line of flight of the ball may more truly conform to the direction of the blow delivered by the player"); seamed, tubular, steel golf shaft; failed to gain mass appeal due to the USGA’s and R&A’s refusal to legalize the use of steel shafts in play.

July  1, 1903 - First Tour de France Bicycle Race with 60 participants - created by Henri Desgranges and George Lefevre (editor and journalist, respectively, of newspaper L'Auto); July 19, 1903 - Maurice Garin won race.

October 1, 1903 - Visiting Pittsburgh Pirates defeated  Boston Americans 7-3 in game 1 of first World Series; October 13, 1903- Boston Americans defeated Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 3 in baseball's first World Series.

January 28, 1904 - First college sports letters given to Seniors who played on University of Chicago's football team; awarded blankets with letter "C" on them.

March 2, 1904 - "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" adopted.

May 5, 1904 - Denton T. "Cy" Young, of Boston Americans, pitched baseball's first perfect game since 1880, 3-0 victory over the Philadelphia Athletics.

May 14, 1904 - Third Olympiad of modern era, first Olympic Games held in United States, opened in St. Louis, Missouri (initially awarded to Chicago, later given to St. Louis to be staged in connection with St. Louis World Exposition); few entrants other than Americans in various events; U.S. athletes won majority of competitions, unofficial team championship.

May 4, 1905 - Belmont Park opened; estimated 40,000 horse racing enthusiasts watched clock-wise races (opposite direction today); top race - $10,000 Metropolitan Handicap = dead heat finish between Sysonby and Race King; 1930 - Charles Hatton, of Daily Racing Form, coined term "Triple Crown" after Gallant Fox won Kentucky Derby, Preakness, Belmont Stakes (feat first achieved in 1919 by Sir Barton but not recognized at time). 2004 - 120,000 attended Belmont Stakes.

1906 - Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States, forerunner of NCAA, founded in New York City.

March 18, 1892 - Hugh Locke King volunteered to build, at his own expense (£150,000), on his own land (Weybridge, Surrey, 20 miles south west of London), world's first purpose-built motor-racing track (3¼ miles, two huge banked sections nearly 30 ft. high, 100 ft. wide, hard-surfaced, two long straights); first ever oval style race track built for cars; June 17, 1907 - Brooklands Motor Course opened; July 6, 1907 - first official race; birthplace of British motorsport; 1908 - Alliott Verdon-Roe [A.V.] Roe made first flight in a British-built aeroplane; birthplace of British aviation; August 1914 - taken over by war office, Military Flying School formed, employed instructors and aeroplanes from many existing schools; 1915 - Vickers started aircraft manufacturing, took over 'Itala Motor Works' (premises on edge of the Track); 1920 - track re-opened for new season of motor racing; September 1939 - closed at outbreak of war; February 2002 - English Heritage formally scheduled whole of remaining original track at Brooklands as Historic Monument (legal protection against damage).

Hugh Locke King - Brooklands  (http://images2.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20061028120346/ uncyclopedia/images/thumb/b/b1/L0100006.jpg/144px-L0100006.jpg)

April 22, 1906 - New rule put umpire in sole charge of all game balls.

June 26, 1906 - Automobile Club of France staged first French Grand Prix (first race of that type held anywhere) in Le Mans; won by Hungarian driver Ferenc Szisz in a 90hp Renault; race covered 1,200 kilometers over two days, run under new set of rules that would become a standard element of Grand Prix racing; all cars were to weigh no more than 1,000 kg; 1908 - minimum weight of 2,425 pounds and a maximum engine displacement of 13 liters (imposed a limit of around 105hp on the cars of that time).

April 11, 1907- New York Giant Roger Bresnahan became first catcher to wear shin guards.

1908 - Johns Hopkins University lacrosse club played first game on Homewood Field under coach William C. "Father Bill" Schmeisser; shared national championship with Harvard.

William C. "Father Bill" Schmeisser - Johns Hopkins Lacrosse (http://webapps.jhu.edu/jhuniverse/information_about_hopkins/ about_jhu/chronology/images/schmeis.gif)

1908 - Robert Winterhalder built first ski tow, powered by water wheel, at Schollach in Black Forest of Germany; 1933 - Alec Foster built first ski tow in North America at Shawbridge in Laurentian Mountains in Quebec, Canada; 1934 - Engineer Ernst Constamm of Zurich built Bolgen lift at Davos Switzerland (prototype of surface ski tows); spring 1936 - James Curran, Union Pacific engineer, designed small chair seat to be suspended from overhead cable (raised anxieties of superiors that hoisting paying customers six or more feet off ground would be hazardous; Averill Harriman approved plan); December 1936 - Proctor Mountain chairlift at Sun Valley, one of first two in world, opened; 1938 - first in east was opened at Belknap Recreation Area (now Gunstock) in Gilford, NH; 1980s - standard configuration - detachable quad chairlift.

Robert Winterhalder - first ski tow (http://www.nevasport.com/fotos/buzon/53070.jpg

April 2, 1908 - Mills Committee declared baseball invented by Abner Doubleday.

October 10, 1908 - Baseball Writers Association formed.

December 26, 1908 - Jack Johnson knocked out Tommy Burns in 14th round in championship bout at Rushcutter's Bay, near Sydney, Australia; first black heavyweight boxing champion; reviled by whites for defiance of "Jim Crow" racial conventions of early 20th-century America.

February 9, 1909 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation incorporated with Carl G. Fisher as president; built on 328 acres of farmland five miles northwest of Indiana's capital city; financed by four local businessmen: Carl Fisher, James Allison, Frank Wheeler, Arthur Newby; August 19, 1909 - first race on original surface of crushed rock and tar; December 14, 1909 -the famous brick surface of Indianapolis Motor Speedway (the "Brickyard") was finished; 3,200,000 paving bricks imported by rail from the western part of state, laid on their sides in bed of sand, fixed with mortar; inspired nickname "The Brickyard"; December 17 - grand opening when brickwork was ceremoniously completed by Governor Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana, cemented last "golden" brick.

  Carl G. Fisher - Indianapolis Speedway first president (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/images/lincoln1s.jpg)

May 13, 1909 - La Gazzetta dello Sport (in competition with rival Corriere della Sera) organized first Giro d'Italia of cycling; 127 participants, (123 Italians, four French cyclists); May 30, 1909 - race ended (8 stages, 49 finished); won by Luigi Ganna.

August 31, 1909 - Benjamin F. Shibe, of Bala, PA (principal owner of the Philadelphia Athletics, partner in A.J. Reach sporting goods company,), received a patent for a "Base-ball" ("in which the center is formed of a resilient sphere, upon which the ball is constructed to the desired diameter of yarn or other thread tightly wound theron and secured by a binder of adhesive plastic composition upon its surface adjacent to the outer cover of horsehide or other material"); cork-centered baseball vs. solid indian-rubber core surrounded by layers of yarn; invented machinery that made possible the manufacture of standard baseballs.

December 4, 1909 - J. Ambrose O'Brien, sportsman from Ottawa, owner of Renfrew Creamery Kings, founded Club de Hockey Le Canadien, with financial support from another magnate, T.C. Hare (provided $1,000 required for league entry, $5,000 to guarantee players' salaries); played; January 5, 1910 - played first game in newly formed National Hockey Association (had been rejected for membership in Canadian Hockey Association), beat Cobalt Silver Kings 7-6 in overtime before 3,000 spectators at Jubilee Rink (nullified when NHA absorbed CHA teams, created new schedule); February 7, 1910 - first official win against Haileybury Hockey Club; finished season with 2-10 record; November 2, 1910 - acquired by George W. Kendall (Kennedy), owner of "Club Athletique Canadien" (founded 1905); claimed rights to 'Canadien' name, paid $7500 for team; sweaters changed from blue to red during improved 8-8 season (finished 2nd in NHA); 1914 - first winning season, finished 2nd (13-7 record); 1916 - defeated  Portland Rosebuds (PCHA) for first Stanley Cup victory (3-2); players received $238 for winning cup; 1917 - jerseys changed (H, for Habitants, replaced A); became one of most familiar insignias in world of sport; 1918 - owners of NHA teams formed new league (National Hockey League); 1922 - acquired by Leo Dandurand, Jos Cattarinich, Louis A Letourneau for $11,500; 1924 - first game ever at Montreal Forum, Habs beat Toronto St. Patricks 7-1; 1945 - Maurice Richard becames first player to score 50 goals in single 50-game season; 1952 - Jacques Plante made NHL debut; 1953 - Jean Beliveau played first full season; 1956 - first 100-point season; 1957 - acquired by Tom, Hartland Molson (Molson Brreweries); November 1, 1959 - Plante became first goalie to wear facemask in NHL game; 1971 - Guy LaFleur became instant fan favorite in rookie season; 1975 - won newly established Norris Division; 1977 - Steve Shutt scored 60 goals, record for Left Wingers; Guy LaFleur won Hart Trophy (amassed 1936 points, new franchise record); 1981 - Canadiens shifted to Adams Division; 1984 - first losing season in 33 years; 1985 - Goalie Patrick Roy (20) played first full season; 1986 - won 23rd Stanley Cup, professional team sports record for most championships; 1992 - 100th Anniversary of dedication of Stanley Cup; June 2001 - 80.1% interest acquired by George N. Gillett, Jr. for $275 million (Canadian) plus right of first refusal upon team resale; 2004 - Season Cancelled Due to Lock Out.

J. Ambrose O'Brien - Montreal Canadiens (http://assets.sbnation.com/imported_assets/52037/obrien_ambrose_large.jpg)

1910 - Jacob (17) and Hannah Golomb established Everlast as swimsuit manufacturer in Bronx, NY (guarantee that outfits would last entire summer); 1916 - future heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey turned to Golomb for boxing equipment; July 4, 1919 - Dempsey wore Everlast boxing gloves on day he became heavyweight champion (defeated Jess Willard); freely endorsed Everlast products for years; mid-1920s - introduced trunks with elastic waistband; 1950s - David Golomb (son) took over; May 9, 1950 - Everlast World's Boxing Headquarters Corp. registered "Everlast" tradermark first used in 1914 (ear and eyebrow protectors for boxers, boxing masks, odontoguards,. boxing gloves, striking bags, fighting gloves, training ummies, striking-bag platforms, etc.); 1958 - half-interest acquired by Ben Nadorf; 1983 - first licensed Everlast name (Gerson & Gerson, apparel maker, licensed label to market line of novelty women's shorts and robes); 1995 - Nadorf (80) acquired remaining half of business; October 24, 2000 - acquired by management, shareholders of Active Apparel Group in $60 million cash and stock deal; name changed to Everlast Worldwide (Georeg Horowitz as chairman, CEO); September 20, 2007 - Everlast Worldwide Inc. acquired by UK based company Brands Holdings.

April 1910 - Boston Arena opened on campus of Northeastern University; first indoor site for hockey in Boston; original home of Boston Bruins (1923), NHL's first American franchise; first home of New England Whalers (World Hockey Association; now Carolina Hurricanes); oldest indoor hockey arena still in use.

April 13, 1910 - 82 athletes (from four local colleges, three high schools), 100 spectators attended first "Drake Relay Carnival" at Drake University  (Iowa's largest private university) in blizzard on dirt track on outskirts of fledgling Des Moines (proposed by John L. Griffith, Director of Athletics at Drake University); 1911 - hosted dinner for visiting coaches, officials to build relationships, exchange ideas; 500 spectators watched more than 250 athletes compete in second Relay; 1915 - recognized as third-largest track and field event in world; 1922 - expanded to 2-day meet (700 athletes, 10,000 spectators); first track and field meet to be broadcast live on radio; 1923 - moved to last week in April to compete with Penn Relays; 1936 - attendance reached 20,000; 1961 - women's competition introduced; 1976 - oval converted to 400 meters (from 440 meters), all timing became electronic; one of largest, most important track meets in United States (more than 600,000 athletes have competed over 99 years; every Saturday session sold out since 1966; estimated 2.3 million spectators since 1910).

April 14, 1910 - President William Howard Taft began tradition of throwing out ball on opening day of baseball season; threw pitch to Washington Senator's Opening Day pitcher, Walter Johnson, from his seat in stands.

President William Howard Taft (http://tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:OLSb2v2uAt1dHM:http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/baseball/ photoessay/images/prestaft-pd-398h.jpg)

November 22, 1910 - Arthur F. Knight, of Schenectady, NY, received a patent for a "Golf Club" ("in which the line of flight of the ball may more truly conform to the direction of the blow delivered by the player"); steel-shafted golf club formed from tempered high-carbon steel tubing, in which the volume of metal decreases toward the head.

April 4, 1911 - Hugh Chalmers, automaker, suggested idea of baseball MVP.

May 30, 1911 - First Indianapolis 500 auto race run; Ray Harroun won 200 lap race in Marmon Wasp after 6 hours, 42 minutes, 8 seconds, average speed of 74.59 miles per hour; $14,250 to winner; 1912 - total prize money of $50,000, highest paying sporting event in world.

1913 - Ashland Manufacturing Company founded to develop innovative ways of using slaughterhouse by-products of meat packing firm Schwarzchild and Sulzberger (original product line include surgical sutures, inexpensive tennis racquets, tennis racquet string, two models of baseball shoes); 1914 - Thomas E. Wilson (former president of Chicago-based Morris & Co. packinghouse) named president, company became separate operating subsidiary to focus on sports oriented products; 1915 - added football jerseys, basketballs, indoor baseballs to line, advertised Star tennis racquet at $.75; 1916 - Ashland Manufacturing renamed as Thomas E. Wilson Co.; 1918 - $1 million in sales; 1925 - name changed to Wilson-Western Sporting Goods Company; 1931 - name changed to Wilson Sporting Goods Co.; 1941 - made official manufacturer of NFL footballs (only major sports league to use balls manufactured in U.S., in Ada, OH plant since 1955 - 4,000 balls/day, 700,000/year, every Super Bowl since 1969);  1967 - Wilson meat packing acquired by Ling-Temco-Vought; Wilson Sporting Goods restructured as subsidiary; 1970 - acquired by Pepsico; 1975 -tennis sales volume surpassed golf sales for first time; 1989 - acquired by Amer Group Ltd. of Helsinki, Finland.

July 11, 1914 - Babe Ruth made major league debut with Boston Red Sox.

April 22, 1915 - New York Yankees wore pinstripes, hat-in-the-ring logo for first time.

January 17, 1916 - Rodman Wanamaker (son of founder of Wanamaker’s department stores) invited group of golf professionals, several leading amateur golfers to Taplow Club in New York City, April 10, 1916 -  The Professional Golfers' Association of America (PGA) officially established with 35 charter members; October 1916 - first annual PGA Championship took place at Siwanoy Country Club in Bronxville, NY; James M. Barnes defeated Jock Hutchinson, won trophy and purse of $2,580.

April 20, 1916 - Wrigley Field opened in Chicago.

March 27, 1917 - Seattle Metropolitans became first U.S. team to win Stanley Cup, defeated Montreal Canadiens.

November 22, 1917 - Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Maroons, Toronto Arenas, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs formed National Hockey League; National Hockey Association disbanded.

June 11, 1919 - Sir Barton won Belmont Stakes, became horse racing's first Triple Crown winner (though not officially recognized).

August 11, 1919 - Curly Lambeau (shipping clerk for $250/month at Indian Packing Company), George Calhoun gathered husky young athletes in editorial room of Green Bay (WI) Press-Gazette building on Cherry Street; organized football team; talked Indian Packing Company into putting up money for jerseys, permitting use of its athletic field for practice; executives identified club in early publicity as project of company, team named "Packers" (Indian Packing Company practically faded from picture before first season half over); August 27, 1921 - Lambeau, J. E. Clair, of Acme Packing Company, obtained franchise in new national pro football league (formed in 1920); forfeited at year's end as cash customers didn't cover costs of team; 1922 - Lambeau attracted other backers, bought franchise back for $250, including $50 of his own money; A.B. Turnbull, Green Bay Press-Gazette general manager, advanced Lambeau, lobbied town businessmen ("The Hungry Five") behind team, formed Green Bay Football Corporation; 1923 - publicly-owned nonprofit corporation, 4,750,934 shares outstanding, 112,015 shareholders (no dividends; 200,000 shares = maximum ownership limit); January 31, 1950 - Lambeau resigned (ended 31-year run), became Chicago Cardinals head coach; April 3, 1956 - voters approved referendum to fund construction of new stadium; September 29, 1957 - facility dedicated; 1965 - renamed Lambeau Field.

Curly Lambeau -  Green Bay Packers  (http://www.profootballhof.com/assets/hof/Lambeau_Curly_Induction_180-220.jpg)

Curly Lambeau, George Calhoun - Green Bay Packers  (http://www.wisconsinstories.org/images/thumbnails/greenbay/video7_littlecity.jpg)

October 30, 1919 - Baseball league presidents called for abolishment of spitball.

February 10, 1920 - Baseball outlawed all pitches involving tampering with ball.

February 13, 1920 - Rube Foster organized Negro National Baseball League.

Andrew Rube Foster - Negro National League  (http://pittsburgh.pirates.mlb.com/pit/images/community/legacysquare/foster_275.jpg)

February 22, 1920 - First artificial rabbit used at dog race track in Emeryville, CA.

September 6, 1920 - Station WWJ in Detroit broadcast first prizefight on radio; Jack Dempsey knocked out Billy Miske in third round of bout in Benton Harbor, MI.

September 17, 1920 - Ralph Hay, Jim Thorpe, George Halas, Leo Lyons, others formed American Professional Football Association (NFL) in Ralph E. Hay's Hupmobile showroom in Canton, OH; Jim Thorpe first president; 1922 - name changed to National Football League.

September 27, 1920 - Eight Chicago White Sox players charged with fixing 1919 World Series.

November 12, 1920 - Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis  elected baseball's first commissioner.

February 5, 1921 - Yankees purchased 20 acres in Bronx for Yankee Stadium.

March 1, 1921 - Harry Houdini, of Brooklyn, NY, received a patent for a "Diver's Suit" ("arranged to permit the diver in case of danger for any cause whatever, to quickly divest himself of the suit while being submerged and to safely escape and reach the surface of the water").

July 5, 1921 - After Judge Hugo Friend denied motion to quash indictments against major league baseball players accused of throwing 1919 World Series, trial began with jury selection; Chicago White Sox players, including stars Shoeless Joe Jackson, Buck Weaver, Eddie Cicotte, became known as "Black Sox" after scandal revealed (White Sox, easily favored at start of World Series, had been seriously underpaid, mistreated by owner Charles Comiskey; conspiracy to fix games most likely initiated by New York gambler Arnold Rothstein, who used  discontent to his advantage - offered, through intermediaries, relatively small sums of money for players to lose some games intentionally; scandal came to light when gamblers did not pay players as promised, thought that they had no recourse; when players openly complained, story became public , authorities forced to prosecute); August 2, 1921 - jury acquitted all accused former members of Chicago White Sox, two others of conspiring to defraud public by throwing World Series, then celebrated with them at nearby restaurant; height of hypocrisy surrounding entire matter came when Shoeless Joe sued Comiskey for unpaid salary; Comiskey's lawyers suddenly produced confessions that had disappeared during criminal trial, offered no explanation as to how they had been obtained; other baseball owners hired Judge Kennisaw Mountain Landis to be new commissioner of baseball (hard-liner, virulent racist prevented blacks from playing in major leagues during his reign into 1940s); August 3, 1921 - Baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis refused to reinstate former Chicago White Sox players implicated in "Black Sox" Scandal; permanently barred implicated Black Sox players from baseball; Buck Weaver, by all accounts, had refused to take any money offered by gamblers, purportedly banned from baseball for refusing to turn his teammates in; Shoeless Joe Jackson probably accepted some money, his statistics show that he never truly participated in throwing games (had best batting average of either team in series).

August 5, 1921 - KDKA, Pittsburgh broadcast first baseball game on radio, Pirates beat Phillies, 8-0; October 5, 1921 - World Series broadcast on radio for first time.

1922 - John Tate Riddell, former Head Football Coach,  Athletic Director of Evanston (IL) Township High School, created, developed removable cleat (vs. leather cleats nailed to sole of shoe); February 1929 - founded John T. Riddell, Inc. to produce shoes; added baseball, track shoes; 1939 - invented, perfected first plastic suspension helmet; granted U. S. government license to use suspension in production of military helmets, liners; 1946 - launched RT-2 mode suspension helmet; 1979 - shoe line discontinued due to competition of foreign-made athletic shoes; 1988 - acquired Power Athletic Company, manufacturer of ultra-high quality professional shoulder pads; 1989 - negotiated agreement with National Football League, allowed Riddell brand prominent display in televised NFL games in exchange for Riddell helmets, Power shoulder pads for NFL players.

John Tate Riddell (https://shop.riddell.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/jtriddell_trans.png)

May 21, 1922 - Colonel Jacob Ruppert, colonel in seventh regiment of National Guard, bought Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston's interest in Yankees for $1.2 million (both had acquired Yankees for $450,000 in 1914).

May 29, 1922 - U.S, Suprme Court ruled in Federal Baseball Club v. National League ('Federal Baseball Ruling') that Major League Baseball was exempt from provisions of Sherman Antitrust Act (suit had been brought by owner of defunct Baltimore Terrapins of Federal League, started in 1914; accused major leagues of conspiring to crush MLB's one remaining competitor); exemption meant that Supreme Court or Congress would have had to say otherwise before it could be legally voided); November 9, 1953 - antitrust exemption upheld in George Earl Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc.; first challenge to reserve clause which prevented free agency.

June 24, 1922 - American Professional Football Association changed name to National Football League.

July 2, 1922 - Ralph W. Samuelson (19) became first person to ride on water skis (he had made), as they are used today, at Lake Pepin, MN; had tried few days earlier with barrel staves and snow skis, with no real success; used two boards, eight feet long and nine inches wide, with curved tips; boiled tips in his mother's copper kettle and, using clamps and braces, curved tips of boards, let them set for two days; binders made from scrap leather held skis to his feet; towed behind launch (top speed 14 knots) with 100-foot sash cord and iron ring as a tow line; July 31, 1922 - demonstrated first water skis.

August 28, 1922 - First Walker Cup: U.S. beat England 8-4.

April 13, 1923 - Army won first college three-weapon fencing championships.

April 18, 1923 - First game played at Yankee Stadium in New York City; Yankees beat Boston Red Sox 4-1; 74,000 (62,281 paid) attendance.

May 27, 1923 - First Le Mans 24-Hour race (world's longest-running 24-hour event) concluded; Winners Andre Lagache and Renee Leonard covered 1,372.928 miles in a Chenard-Walker car. 

1924 - Anton Kästle produced first pair of full ash skis in his coaches- workshop in Hohenems, Austria (heart of Austria’s Arlberg region); 1929 - began batch production (full ash skis made in small batches); 1937-1939 - developed top-quality Arlberg Ski; 1972 - renamed Kästle Ltd.; 1976 - introduced new logo ("double arrows"); 1978 - most successful ski brand at Alpine World Championship in Garmisch-Partenkirchen; 1991 - acquired by Benetton Sportssystem, subsidiary of Benetton Group; 1996 - production at Hohenems, Austria shut down; 1999 - brand abandoned; 2007 - small group of passionate Austrian skiers, designers, entrepreneurs re-launched storied Kästle ski brand to manufacture a limited line of high performance skis (with support from strategic partners, investors Cross Industries Inc., owners of KTM motorcycles; almost 10 years of dormancy).

January 25, 1924 - First Winter Olympics at Chamonix, in French Alps (16 events in six sports; 16 nations, 258 athletes - 11 women, 247 men); Norway won unofficial team competition with 17 medals (all but one of nine skiing medals).

April 10, 1924 - Tubular steel golf club shafts approved for championship play.

April 11, 1924 - First men's college swimming championships began.

November 1, 1924 - Charles Francis Adams founded first U.S. NHL franchise, Boston Bruins; first home game - victory at Boston Arena against Montreal Maroons, 2-1; 11 straight losses, 6-24 season; finished last in six-team league; 1951 - acquired by Walter A. Brown, owner of National Basketball Association's Boston Celtics, Boston Garden; 1964 - reaqcuired by Weston Adams.

1925 - Tim Mara, bookmaker (legal at time), successful businessman and promoter, purchased New York Giants team for reported $500; October 1925 - lost opener to Frankford Yellow Jackets by score of 14-0; 1927 - won first title; 1930s - control of franchise transferred to his two sons, Jack Mara (22), Wellington (14); 1970s - finished in last place or next-to-last eight times; 1986 - first Super Bowl appearance, first world championship since 1956; February, 1991 - 50% interest in franchise acquired by Preston Robert Tisch.

Tim Mara - New York Giants (http://store.profootballhof.com/assets/item/thumbnail/01217_3276.jpg)

October 27, 1925 - Fred Waller, of New York, NY, received patent for an "Aquaplane" ("of the type designed to be ridden when drawn through water"); water skis.

1926 - National Hockey League franchise to Detroit; acquired roster of Victoria Cougars of Western Hockey League; team known as Detroit Cougars, changed to Falcons; 1933 - Olympia Stadium, Falcons franchise acquired by James E. Norris; changed name to Red Wings (version of Montreal Athletic Association cycling 'Winged Wheelers' logo); 1936 - won first Stanley Cup.

Norris Sr., James James E. Norris, Sr. - Detroit Red Wings  (http://www.legendsofhockey.net/LegendsOfHockey/members/splash/B195802S.jpg)

March 3, 1926- International Greyhound Racing Association formed (Miami, Florida).

September 25, 1926 - Major Frederic McLaughlin, coffee tycoon, acquired Chicago hockey franchise from Lester and Frank Patrick of Pacific Coast Hockey Association; led consortium of Chicago businessmen which purchased  Portland Rosebuds of Western Canada Hockey League (folded previous season), served as team's first president; renamed Black Hawks in honor of Black Hawk regiment commanded by McLaughlin in WW I (also in honor of Illinois Chief Black Hawk of Sauk Indians); McLaughlin's wife designed Indian head featured on Chicago Black Hawk jerseys; November 17, 1926 - Chicago Black Hawks played first game at Chicago Coliseum against Toronto St. Pats (won 4-1); March 1929 - Chicago Stadium opened; 1936 - stadium acquired by Detroit Red Wings owner James E. Norris; 1944 - McLaughlin estate sold team to syndicate headed by team president Bill Tobin (puppet for Norris); 1952 - James D. Norris (son) and Red Wings minority owner Arthur Wirtz bought floundering club; 1954 - Wirtz family (Arthur and two sons, Michael and William) gained control of franchise; 1966 - William Wirtz named President of Chicago Black Hawks (for next 41 years).

Major Frederic McLaughlin - founder, Chicago Black Hawks (http://www.blackhawkzone.com/images/history/McLaughlin.jpg)

June 4, 1927 - First Ryder Cup: U.S. beat England, 9 -2 at Worcester (MA) CC.

September 22, 1927 - Jack Dempsey, "Manassa Mauler," missed opportunity to regain heavyweight boxing title when he failed to return to neutral corner after knocking down champ Gene Tunney in title match in Chicago; Dempsey waited five seconds before heading to neutral corner, at which point referee began 10-count as rules dictated; as referee reached nine seconds, Tunney got back up to his feet (had been down for what amounted to 14 seconds);  Tunney won bout in decision after 10 rounds.

September 30, 1927 - Babe Ruth, of New York Yankees, hit his 60th home run of season, broke his own major-league record.

October 1, 1927 - Michigan Wolverines opened Michigan Stadium against Ohio Wesleyan Bishops, defending champion of Ohio Conference; Michigan won 33-0; stadium built on 16 acres and 119 city lots (acquired in 1925 for $239,000) at cost of $950,000; 44 sections with 72 rows seating 72,000; official attendance of 17,483 on opening day; October 22, 1927 - crowd of 84,401 packed stadium for dedication game against Ohio State, a 21-0 Michigan victory.

February 5, 1929 - George T. Bresnahan, of Iowa City, IA, University of Iowa coach interested in sports science, received a patent for a "Foot Support"; starting block for track and field; provided adjustment of tilt to better match an individual's foot and a cork or rubber surface to provide a firm foot-hold; intended to be connected to track surface with suitable spikes or nails.

April 16, 1929 - New York Yankees became first team to wear uniform numbers.

1930 - Bobby Jones won golf's grand slam--victories in one year in United States Open, British Open, United States Amateur, British Amateur championships; Lloyds of London quoted odds of 50 to 1 against his winning.

1931 - Baseball attendance declined for 3 seasons then increased slowly, steadily; 1932 - 10% federal amusement tax added to ticket prices; only Yankees, Cubs made money; 1933 - bank holidays left many fans short of cash.; 23-man rosters (vs. 25); pay cuts (including Babe Ruth); only NY Giants, Phillies made money; 1934 - Blue Laws in Pennsylvania ended, allowed Phillies, Pirates to schedule home games on Sunday; 1935 - Cincinnati Reds hosted first night game; no teams folded, moved during Depression (2 sold, including Red Sox).


February 4, 1932 - First Winter Olympic Games in United States held at Lake Placid, NY.

May 14, 1932 - First electrical timing device tested at track meet for three events between Columbia, Syracuse at Baker Field, New York City.

December 8-9, 1932 - 13 members west, south of  Appalachian Mountains reorganized as Southeastern Conference. at annual Southern Conference meeting in Knoxville, TN; November 30, 1933 - Alabama defeated Vanderbilt 7-0 to finish 5-0-1 in conference, captured SEC's first football title; August 21, 1940 - Martin S. Conner, former governor of Mississippi, took office in Jackson, MS as first commissioner of SEC; October 20, 1951 - Alabama-Tennessee football game, played at Birmingham's Legion Field, first televised event in SEC history; January 1, 1977 - began long-standing agreement with Sugar Bowl to send its champion to New Orleans (Georgia faced Pittsburgh); September 25, 1990 - South Carolina accepted invitation to become 12th member of SEC; June 1, 2007 - SEC announced it would distribute league-record $122.0 million to 12 member institutions under the 2006-2007 revenue sharing plans.

1933 - Commendatore Tullio Campagnolo founded Campagnolo S.r.l. in Vicenza, Italy; products made from carbon fibre, titanium, aluminium alloys; dominated aluminium to produce, distribute Campagnolo-branded technical garments for cycling; July 2004 - founded Fulcrum Wheels S.r.l.; initially completed range of high-end Campagnolo wheels in racing bike sector; expanded to Mountain Bikesector with full range of high-performance wheels; 2009 - designed, produced, distributed high-end components for racing bikes; present in over 30 countries with five branches, nine agencies, about 700 employees.

May 18, 1933 - First major league All-Star Game announced for July 6 at Comiskey Park; played as part of Chicago World's Fair; July 6, 1933 - baseball's first all-star game held, American League beat National League 4-2.

July 8, 1933 - Arthur Joseph Rooney purchased NFL franchise for city of Pittsburgh, named Pirates; member of Eastern Division of 10-team NFL; fifth-oldest NFL franchise; 1938 - signed Colorado All-American Byron "Whizzer" White for $15,800; 1940 - name changed to Pittsburgh Steelers; 1943 - merged with Philadelphia Eagles; January 27, 1969 - Chuck Noll hired as coach (23 year tenure) AFC Central Division from NFL Century Division; moved into Three Rivers Stadium (from Pitt Stadium); 1972 - won first division title in franchise history; 1974 - won first Super Bowl (IX); 1975 - third team in NFL history to win consecutive Super Bowls; Dan Rooney (son) named president; 1978 - first team to win three Super Bowls; 1979 - first team in NFL history to win four Super Bowls; considered "Team of the Decade" in 1970s; 1992 - Bill Cowher (32) hired as coach; October 7, 2001 - Steelers opened Heinz Field; 2005 - captured fifth Super Bowl (XL); logo belonged to American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), created by U.S. Steel Corp., contains three hypocycloids (diamond shapes); only NFL team that sports logo on only one side of helmet (right).

Art Rooney - founder Pittsburgh Steelers  (http://www.steelersfever.com/images/players/art_rooney03.jpg)

January 1934 - O. G. Schmidt launched first electric gear-driven (trolling) motor (added flexible shaft, propeller to starter motor from Model A Ford); established Minn Kota Manufacturing Company (on Minn-esota/North Da-kota border); 1935 - introduced first electric flexible cable motor; 1965 - introduced first electric motor with reverse switch; 1968 - launched first remote control adaptable to other brand motors; 1970 - acquired by Johnson Outdoors (founded in 1970 by Samuel C. Johnson); 1985 - sold first electronic speed control (as an accessory); 1986 - launched first built-in electronic/variable speed control; May 10, 1988 - Johnson Fishing, Inc. registered "Minn Kota" trademark first used in 1932 (electric fishing motors and parts thereof); 1995 - sold first all-direction breakaway mounting system; 1999 - introduced first fully automatic trolling motor; 2002 - launched first wireless remote that allows trolling motor control from fishing rod, wrist or belt; 2010 - launched first wireless GPS trolling system; became $100 million dollar global brand.

January 28, 1934 - First ski tow rope in U.S., built by Robert Royce, used for first time in Woodstock, VT; about 2500 feet of 7/8-inch manila rope spliced in loop, passed over pulleys, around wheel attached to Model T ford engine, extended up hill 900 feet; hauled skier holding it up slope in minute, could pull as many as 5 skiers at time.

March 25, 1934 - First Golf Masters Championship: Horton Smith won, shot 284.

August 19, 1934 - First All-American Soap Box Derby held in Dayton, OH; organized by newsman Myron Scott (had covered race of boy-built cars, so impressed that he began  similar program on national scale); event moved to Akron, OH because of hilly terrain.

September 13, 1934 - Judge Landis, baseball commissioner, sold World Series broadcast rights to Ford for $100,000.

September 30, 1934 - Babe Ruth played last game for New York Yankees.

1935 - Downtown Athletic Club (New York, NY) awarded first Heisman trophy to University of Chicago's Jay Berwanger; named for John William Heisman, football coach at number of leading colleges for more than thirty-five years; 1888 -  member of Brown football team; 1889 - member of  Pennsylvania varsity football eleven; 1892 - began coaching career at Oberlin College; 1893 - coached all sports at University of Akron; 1895-1900 - coached football, baseball at Alabama Polytechnic Institute; 1900-1904 - coach at Clemson College; 1908 - director of athletics at  Atlanta Athletic Club; 1910 -1914 - president of Atlanta Baseball Association; 1920 - coached football at University of Pennsylvania; 1923 - filled same position at Washington and Jefferson College; 1924-1927 - head football coach, director of athletics at Rice Institute, Houston, TX; 1961 - first Heisman Trophy awarded to black player (Ernie Davis, Syracuse).

John William Heisman






John William Heisman - Heisman Trophy (http://www.oberlin.edu/ heisman/graphics/johnheisman.jpg)

May 19, 1935 - National Football League adopted annual college draft; began in 1936.

May 23, 1935 - First major league night baseball game played under lights in Cincinnati OH between Cincinnati Reds, Philadelphia Phillies.

May 25, 1935 - Babe Ruth hit 714th, final home run of his career, for Boston Braves, in game against Pittsburgh Pirates.

1936 - George Nissen, Larry Griswold (gymnastics and diving competitor, tumbler on gymnastics team, respectively, both at University of Iowa) built first trampoline; name came from Spanish 'trampolín' (diving board); formed traveling acrobatics act called the Three Leonardos, used Nissen’s bouncing machine to perform in Texas and in Mexico; 1942 - created Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company in Cedar Rapids, IA, began making trampolines commercially; 1943 - Nissin incorporated Nissen Trampoline Corporation; March 6, 1945 - George P. Nissen, of Cedar Rapids, IA, received a patent or a "Tumbling Device" )"...related to gymnastic equipment and has particular relation to 'Trampolins' or equiipment for use in tumbling"); 1947 - national "rebound tumbling" competitions began.

http://www.iowavarsityclub.com/dynamic/photos/162871-photo.jpg George Nissen - Invented trampoline (http://www.usghof.org/files/bio/g_nissen/g_nissen.jpg)

http://www.education.uiowa.edu/edatiowa/fall07/features/images/Headshot-1.gif Larry Griswold - Trampoline (http://www.ishof.org/Honorees/2010/photos/griswold1.jpg)

January 16, 1936 - First photofinish camera installed at U.S. racetrack at Hialeah, FL.

January 29, 1936 - First members of baseball's Hall of Fame named in Cooperstown, NY, included Ty Cobb and Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, Walter Johnson.

1936 - W. Averell Harriman (son of Edward H. Harriman), chairman of Union Pacific Railroad, founded Sun Valley, ID, first western ski resort; featured nation's first ski lift with chairs, invented by railroad Union Pacific personnel in Omaha, NE.

February 8, 1936 - First National Football League draft held;  Philadelphia Eagles selected Jay Berwanger.

1937 - Japanese professional baseball began with one league of 8 teams (Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club formed in 1934; Japan Occupational Baseball League had been established on February 5, 1936); 1937-1938 - played fall, spring seasons; 1939 - renamed Japanese Baseball League; 1950 - league reorganized, formed Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB); expanded to 14 teams, divided into two leagues (Central League, Pacific League), some teams from original league went to each new league; usually play 130-140 games per season; game tied after 12 innings remains a tie; average game has 7.81 runs scored by two teams (vs. average 8.81 runs in Major League Baseball); 2005 - interleague play began.

March 16, 1938 - Temple defeated Colorado to win first NIT.

April 1, 1938 - Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, NY.

October 11, 1938 - Joseph H. Pilates, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Exercising Apparatus" ("for use by individuals in correcting physical faults and developing personal physique").

March 27, 1939 - Oregon won first NCAA men's basketball tournament with 46-33 victory over Ohio State in Evanston, IL.

May 2, 1939 - New York Yankees first baseman Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 consecutive games played ended.

May 17, 1939 - First sports telecast-Columbia vs. Princeton-college baseball.

June 12, 1939 - National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum dedicated in Cooperstown, NY.

July 4, 1939 - Baseball player Lou Gehrig, afflicted with fatal illness, bid tearful farewell at Yankee Stadium in New York, told fans, "Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the Earth."

August 26, 1939 - Major league baseball televised for first time; experimental station W2XBS broadcast doubleheader between Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field.

April 26, 1941 - First organ played at Cubs game at Wrigley Field in Chicago. 

May 31, 1941 - High-jumping standards using electric eye detectors first used at Schenectady Patrolman's Association interscholastic track meet; consisted of four parallel beams of light, one inch apart, to record 'high' of each jump.

September 28, 1941 - Ted Williams ended baseball season with .406 batting average.

March 13, 1943 - Baseball approved official ball (with cork and balata).

April 7, 1943 - NFL adopted free substitution rule.

January 25, 1945 - Dan Topping, Del Webb, Larry MacPhail purchased New York Yankees for $2.8 million from Colonel Jacob Ruppert estate.

August 15, 1945 - Albert "Happy" Chandler, baseball commissioner, sold World Series radio rights for $150,000 to Gillette; Ford had been World Series sponsor since 1934, paid $100,000 annually.

May 7, 1945 - Branch Rickey announced formation of U.S. Negro Baseball League.

October 30, 1945 - Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson to Montreal Royals.

November 14, 1945 - Tony Hulman purchased Indianapolis Motor Speedway from Edward Rickenbacher for $750,000; in deplorable condition after four years of disuse during World War II; May 1946 - American Automobile Association ran first postwar 500-mile race, won by George Robson, driving pre-war Adams-Sparks automobile, with average speed of 114.82mph.

1946 - Francois Salomon (saw blade manufacturer), Georges Salomon (son) opened workshop at Côte-Saint-Maurice in Annecy; 1947 - started supplying ski edges to fast expanding European Alpine ski market; 1955 - introduced the Skade, one of first releasable toe-pieces; 1957 - perfected cable binding heel; 1962 - introduced Allais safety binding; 1972 -  world's largest binding maker (sold more than million sold annually); August 28, 1973 - Francois Salomon & Fils S.A. registered "Salomon" trademark first used in 1947 (ski equipment-namely, edges, bindings, antifriction sole plates and safety straps); 1997 - acquired by Adidas in deal valued at $1.5 billion; 2005 - acquired by Finland-based Amer Sports.

September 29, 1946 - Los Angeles Rams (previously Cleveland) played first NFL game in LA.

1947 - Howard Head (32), aircraft engineer, developed first laminated metal ski, strong as wooden skis, half as heavy; 1950 - founded Head Ski Company, Inc.; 1968 - one-third of top 10 finishers in World Cup used Head skis; 1969 - acquired by AMF for $16 million (500 employees, world’s largest ski manufacturer, sold more than 300,000 pairs a year); September 1995 - control acquired by Swedish businessman Johan Eliasch (grandson of G.A. Svensson, prominent Swedish businessman).






Howard Head - Head Ski Co. (http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:59o0Vve9_DbZBM:http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/images/d8589-1.jpg)

1947 - La Spirotechnique Corporation formed to develop patent for first Aqualung regulator invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Emile Gagnan; CG45 - first regulator model; followed by simplified, more reliable Mistral series (manufactured La Spirotechnique Royal Mistral, single-stage twin hose regulator, from early 1960s through 1980s); pioneered underwater equipment; manufactured scuba diving equipment; September 29, 1964 - registered "Mistral" trademark (underwater breathing apparatus, pressure regulators, demand valve regulators, for underwater breathing apparatus, etc.).

April 10, 1947 - Brooklyn Dodgers president Branch Rickey announced he had purchased contract of Jackie Robinson (28-year-old infielder) from Montreal Royals (of International League); baseball, football, basketball, track star at University of California at Los Angeles, entered armed service as  private, emerged lieutenant; October 1945 - signed to  Montreal contract; led International League in batting last season with average of .349; last Negro to play in majors was Moses Fleetwood Walker (caught for Toledo of major-league American Association in 1884); April 15, 1947 - debuted with Brooklyn Dodgers; became baseball's first black major-league player.

July 5, 1947 - Larry Doby signed with Cleveland Indians; first black player in AL.

October 2, 1947 - Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition for first time (for cars of 1,500cc supercharged,  4,500cc unsupercharged); minimum race distance reduced from 500km to 300km (allowed famous Monaco Grand Prix to be reintroduced into official Grand Prix racing); 1950 - Giuseppe "Nino" Farina, drivingAlfa Romeo 158, won first Formula One World Championship at Silverstone British Grand Prix.

December 14, 1947 - National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) founded at Streamline Hotel in Daytona Beach, FL; first formal organization for stock-car racing; season began with 160-mile race at Daytona Beach; February 21, 1948 - NASCAR officially incorporated as National Association for Stock Car Racing, race promoter Bill France as president (had formed National Championship Stock-Car Circuit in 1946); June 19, 1949 - NASCAR staged first Grand National event on three-quarter-mile dirt track at Charlotte Fairgrounds; only late-model, strictly stock cars allowed in Grand National class; crowd of 13,000 watched as Jim Roper won inaugural event; marked birth of NASCAR racing; Grand Nationals later became Winston Cup Series events; 1953 - major automakers invested heavily in racing teams, produced faster cars; good results on stock-car circuit believed to mean better sales on showroom floor; 1957 - rising costs, tightened NASCAR rules forced factories out of sport, modern era of NASCAR superspeedway began.

October 2, 1948 - Watkins Glen, in New York Finger Lakes region, hosted first post-World War II road race in United States, under the guidance of Cameron Argetsinger (law student), Sports Car Club of America (SCCA); Frank Griswold, driving 2.9 liter prewar Alfa Romeo, won both events offered,  26.4-mile Junior Prix, 52.8-mile Grand Prix.

1949 - Frank J. Zamboni, inventor and mechanic, received patent for "Model A Zamboni Ice Resurfacer"; 1939 - Zamboni and brother, Lawrence, built 20,000-square-foot enclosed ice skating rink in Paramount, CA; 1942 - transformed tractor to scrape, smooth ice in single pass; May 4, 1965 - Frank J. Zamboni & Company, Inc. registered "Zamboni" trademark first used in July 1962 (resurfacing machines machines and dump attachments therefor).

February 7, 1949 - Joe DiMaggio became first $100,000/year baseball player (New York Yankees).

August 3, 1949 - National Basketball Association formed.

November 24, 1949 (Thanksgiving Day) - Alexander C.  Cushing, former Wall Street lawyer, with $400,000 of his own money , investment from few friends, opened Squaw Valley Development Company, "uphill transportation business" (first visited in 1946); May 1, 1949 - John Buchman, former taxi-driver from Morristown, NJ, became company's first employee "at the business end of a shovel" (over period of 45 years became General Manager, President, Director of the Company); 1960 - hosted VIII Olympic Winter Games (beating internationally regarded resorts such as Innsbruck, Austria, St. Moritz, Switzerland, Garmisch-Partenkirschen, Germany).



Alexander C. Cushing - Squaw Valley (http://skiinghistory.org/classic/alex_cushing.gif)


1950 - Thirteen members formed The Ladies Professional Golf Association of America (LPGA) in New York City, dedicated to golf as game and career; Patty Berg elected first president.

August 22, 1950 - Officials of United States Lawn Tennis Association (USLTA) accepted Althea Gibson into annual championship at Forest Hills, NY; first African-American player to compete in U.S. national tennis competition.

October 31, 1950 - Earl Lloyd became first black to play in NBA when he took floor for Washington Capitols.

April 17, 1951 - Baseball hall-of-famer Mickey Mantle made major league debut with New York Yankees.

July 14, 1951 - Citation became first horse to win $1,000,000 in races.

October 3, 1951 - New York Giants third baseman Bobby Thomson hit three-run home run in bottom of ninth inning to win deciding game of three-game playoff series against Brooklyn Dodgers, sent Giants into World Series.

February 20, 1953 - U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Organized Baseball was a sport, not a business, affirmed 25-year-old Supreme Court ruling.

March 18, 1953 - Major League Baseball announced first team relocation since 1903: Boston Braves to Milwaukee, WI.

May 29, 1953 - Edmund Hillary of New Zealand, sherpa Tenzing Norgay of Nepal, conquered Mount Everest, first climbers to reach summit.

September 16, 1953 - AL approved St. Louis Browns move Baltimore, MD; became Baltimore Orioles.

November 9, 1953 - Supreme Court upheld 1922 ruling that major league baseball did not come within scope of federal antitrust laws.

May 6, 1954 - Roger Bannister (25, medical student) broke four-minute mile barrier, in 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds; ran for Amateur Athletic Association against alma mater, Oxford University; world record for mile had been 4 minutes and 1.3 seconds, set by Gunder Hagg of Sweden in 1945.

August 5, 1954 - Boxing Hall of Fame's first election selected 24 modern, 15 pioneers.

September 29, 1954 - New York Giants centerfielder Willie Mays made running catch with his back to home plate on 450-foot blast by Cleveland Indians batter Vic Wertz in opening game of World Series; widely considered to be greatest catch ever made.

April 14, 1955 - Elston Howard became first black to wear Yankee uniform.

September 27, 1955 - Elisa Elsener, dba Messerfabrik Carl Elsener registered "Victorinox" trademark first used in 1930 (cutlery-name;y pocket knives, razors, carvers, table knives, kitchen knives, slicing knives, paring knives, hunting knives, putty knives, linoleum knives, wallscrapers, spatulas, baker knives, gardener knives, pruning knives, and claw tongs and knives, farriers' knives, tobacco knives, boning knives, sticking knives, steak knives).

April 27, 1956 - Heavyweight champ, Rocky Marciano, retired undefeated from boxing (49 Wins...0 Losses...0 Ties).

July 6, 1956 - Ford Frick inaugurated Cy Young Award, to honor outstanding pitcher.

October 8, 1956 - Don Larsen pitched only perfect game in  World Series history; threw 97 pitches (three balls on only one hitter, Pee Wee Reese in first inning); New York Yankees beat Brooklyn Dodgers 2-0.

October 23, 1956 - John Zuercher, of Buffalo, NY, received a patent for a "Pin Distributing and Spotting Mechanism for Bowling Pin Spotting Machines"; automatic bowling pin spotter.

October 30, 1956 - Dodgers sold Ebbets Field to real estate group; agreed to stay until 1959, with option to stay until 1961.

February 25, 1957 - Supreme Court decided 6-3, baseball was only antitrust exempt pro sport.

May 28, 1957 - National League approved move of Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Giants baseball teams to Los Angeles, San Francisco, respectively.

July 6, 1957 - Althea Gibson became first black tennis player to win Wimbledon singles title; defeated fellow American Darlene Hard 6-3, 6-2; won doubles championship paired with Hard, beat Mary Hawton and Thelma Long of Australia, 6-2, 6-1.

August 1957 - Olympic runner H. Browning Ross (1948 U.S. Olympic team) proposed development of organization for American distance runners in editorial of "Long Distance Log" (evolved into Runner’s World magazine) which would encourage run, meet regularly, raise money, coordinate schedules, promote competition in long distance races (similar to UK Road Racers Club founded in 1952); December 1957 - meetings held; February 22, 1958 - Ross, nine others determined direction, structure of Road Runners Club of America; first RRCA National Championship races awarded, Ross ("father of long distance running in America") named provisional President; Middle Atlantic Road Runners Club established; April 1958 - 29 members established New York Road Runners Club.

H. Browning Ross - Road Runners Club of America  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7d/H._Browning_Ross.jpeg)

August 19, 1957 - New York Giants voted 8-1 to move franchise to San Francisco in 1958.

September 16, 1957 - LA City Council approved 300-acre site in Chavez Ravine for Dodgers; September 24, 1957 - Brooklyn Dodgers played last game at Ebbets Field, defeated Pittsburgh Pirates 2-0.

September 29, 1957 - New York Giants played last game at Polo Grounds, lost to Pittsburgh Pirates 9-1.

October 8, 1957 - Walter O'Malley announced Dodgers were moving from Brooklyn, NY to Los Angeles, CA; February 7, 1958 - Dodgers officially became Los Angeles Dodgers, Inc.

April 6, 1958 - Arnold Palmer won first major golf tournament-Masters.

August 14, 1958 - Canadian Football League played first game (Winnipeg 29, Edmonton 21).

February 22, 1959 - Daytona International Speedway hosted first Daytona 500; posted awards for "500-Mile International Sweepstakes" totaled $67,760.; field of 59 cars started 200-lap race; crowd of 41,000; finish too close to call, 61 hours after finish clip of newsreel footage proved that Lee Petty was winner by few feet; averaged 135.521 miles per hour in Oldsmobile; won $19,050 (2007 winner - $1,510,469).

July 27, 1959 - William Shea announced plans to have baseball team in New York City in 1961 (Mets).

August 14, 1959 - AFL organized with NY, Dallas, LA, Minneapolis, Denver and Houston.

November 2, 1959 - NHL goalkeeper Jacques Plante played with protective face mask for first time in professional play, after struck in face with puck.

February 23, 1960 - Demolition began on Brooklyn's Ebbets Field (opened in 1913).

April 19, 1960 - Baseball uniforms displayed player's names on backs.

September 16, 1960 - College football coach Amos Alonzo Stagg announced retirement after 71 years of coaching (40 at University of Chicago).

October 29, 1960 - Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) won first professional fight in Louisville, KY.

1961 - Joe Lesik built Utica-Rome Speedway, quarter mile short-track asphalt oval, on farmland just off Route 5 in Vernon, NY (replaced Vernon Speedway, early stock car track that was sold, converted into Vernon Downs horse racing facility); Rene Charland - track's first champion; 1964 - acquired by Dick and Dorothy Waterman, partner Bernie Ingersoll; February 1979 - acquired by Dick Waterman, converted from 1/3 mile paved circuit to 5/8 mile dirt oval; 1981-1982 - run by Fonda Speedway promoter Ron Compani under DIRT Motorsports Sanction for first time; late 1984 - acquired by Jack Johnson, Jim Beachy, Fred Burrows; renamed The New Venture International Speedway; 1989 - leased by Millard "Bub" Benway (Fulton Speedway), Gisele (niece) and Eric Kingsley; renamed "New" Utica-Rome Speedway; 1992 - acquired by Kingsleys; late 1995 - acquired by group of partners, operated under NASCAR Winston Racing Series; June 1998 - reacquired by former owner Eric Kingsley; 2002 - acquired by Gene and Gloria Cole (Gates-Cole Insurance Company). February, 1961 - Bill and Don Kirschner produced first pair of fiberglass skis in Vashon Island, WA shop; convinced they would be lighter, stronger, more lively than wood or metal skis; founded K2 Sports; 1970 - acquired by Cummins Engine; 1976 - acquired by Kirschner, group of Seattle investors.

1961 - Don Hansen established Hansen Surfboards on on Kawela Bay on North Shore of Oahu, HI; mid-1960s - shipped surfboards to many parts of world; early 1970s - transitioned to retail business, quickly became one of most popular, well-known surf shops in Southern California; April 29, 2003 - Don Hansen registered "Hansen Surfboards" trademark first used in 1961 (surfboards); 2011 - single location in Encinitas, CA largest surf shop in San Diego County.

April 27, 1961 - NFL officially recognized Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio.

October 1, 1961 - Roger Maris, of New York Yankees, hit 61st home run during 162-game season (Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs during 154-game season).

January 24, 1962 - Jackie Robinson first Black elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.

March 2, 1962 - Wilt Chamberlain, of Philadelphia Warriors, scored NBA record 100 points in game against New York Knicks.

July 3, 1962 - Jackie Robinson became first African American inducted into National Baseball Hall of Fame.

December 15, 1962 - Earl Eaton, Pete Seibert opened Vail Resorts with two chairlifts, one gondola, $5 lift ticket (March 1957 - first climbed future Vail Mountain, realized potential for world-class ski area; January 1961 - US Forest Service issued final approvals, permits to begin building ski area; January 1962 - work began; Vail Associates, Inc. established); mountain recorded 55,000 skiers in 1962-1963 season; January 1966 -Town of Vail established; December 1968 - first snowmaking systems installed; achieved one million cumulative skier days; 1969 - most popular ski area in Colorado; 1972 - in statewide referendum voters chose not to host 1976 Olympic Games Games, though chosen by IOC; August 1985 - George Gillett acquired Vail Associates; May, 1992 - Apollo Partners acquired Vail Associates; January 1997 - Vail Associates renamed Vail Resorts, Inc.; merger with Keystone and Breckenridge approved; Vail Resorts acquired ski areas of Keystone, Breckenridge, Arapahoe Basin (formerly owned by Ralcorp Holding); November 2001 - acquired majority interest in RockResorts, luxury resort hotel company; June 2002 - Vail most visited ski resort in U.S., more than 1.5 million visits (Breckenridge second with over 1.4 million visits); April 2003 - exceeded 1.6 million skier visits for 4th time in 40 year history; 2006 - 5,000 acres of terrain, 33 lifts, largest single mountain in North America.



Earl Eaton - co-founder Vail Resorts (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/ 2008/05/31/us/31Eaton.190.jpg)

Pete Siebert - co-founder Vail Resorts  (http://www.vaildaily.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=VD&Date=20110605&Category=NEWS&ArtNo=110609907&Ref=AR&MaxW=550&title=1)

January 29, 1963 - First members of Football Hall of Fame named in Canton, OH.

February 26, 1963 - Hobart L. Alter (doing business as Hobie-Surfboard Shop in Dana Point, CA) registered "Hobie" trademark first used February 1, 1954 (surfboards and the like). 

Hobart L. Alter - surfboards  (http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-gKaGxcHoZLU/TaF_rqCjAYI/AAAAAAAAAZU/_bJDZrqTK_k/s1600/ hobie+alter+moto+surfboard.jpg)

November 7, 1963 - New York Yankee Elston Howard first black voted AL MVP.

December 7, 1963 - Videotaped instant replay used for first time in live sports telecast; CBS re-played touchdown run during Army-Navy football game.

1964 - H. William Kirschner, maker of animal cages, splints for fractured animal bones, started K2 in shed on Vashon Island, WA; developed ''wet-wrap'' process, wound fiberglass fabric around wooden core, baked ski into shape; first to make mass-producible fiberglass skis; 1970 - acquired by Cummins Engine Company; February 19, 1974 - K-2 Corporation registered "K2" trademark first used August 3, 1972 (ski boots and hiking and climbing boots); 1976 - acquired by Kirschner, group of Seattle investors; at peak - employed 750 people on Vashon Island, skis were Vashon’s biggest export.

February 25, 1964 - Cassius Clay dethroned world heavyweight boxing champ Sonny Liston in seventh-round technical knockout.

April 10, 1964 - Demolition began on Polo Grounds to clear way for housing project.

September 11, 1964 - Gillette's 20 year contract with MSG,  ABC to televise fights for free ended as Dick Tiger defeated Don Fullmer at Cleveland Auditorium.

November 2, 1964 - CBS purchased 80% of Yanks for $11,200,000, later bought remaining 20%; January 3, 1973 - acquired by group of investors led by George Steinbrenner, minority partner Michael Burke, for $8.7 million.

1965 - Joe Gold, son of junk dealer, created his first gym, Dugout Athletic Club, in junior high school, in back room of auto repair shop, opened Gold's Gym, modest fitness center, in Venice, CA; became landmark for bodybuilders; 1968 - aspiring Arnold Schwarzenegger made first visit; 1970 - acquired by two investors; 1977 - body-building cult classic documentary film "Pumping Iron" filmed there; acquired by bodybuilder, fitness expert Ken Sprague; Gold established World Gym chain (grew to 250 gyms by 2005); 1979 - acquired by Pete Grymkowski, Tim Kimber, Ed Connors; 1980 - began licensing clubs across country; July 27, 1982 - Gold's Gym Enterprises, Inc. registered "God's Gym" trademark fist used in February 1974 (Gymnasium Services); 1999 - acquired by Brockway Moran & Partners for $50 million ( 538 Gold's Gyms around world) ; 2001 - franchisees formed Gold's Gym Franchisee Association (GGFA); 2004 - acquired by TRT Holdings, founded in 1989 by Texas oil explorers Reese and Robert (son) Rowling (2.5 million members, 56% women); 2008 - 600 locations across the globe.

Joe Gold - Gold's Gym (http://www.nndb.com/people/760/000052604/joe-gold-crop.jpg)

January 2, 1965 - New York Jets signed University of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for reported $400,000.

February 7, 1965 - Cassius Clay became Muslim, changed name to Muhammad Ali; May 25, 1965 - KO'd Sonny Liston in first round for heavyweight boxing title.

February 11, 1966 - San Francisco Giant Willie Mays signed highest contract, $130,000 per year.

February 14, 1966 - Rick Mount of Lebanon, IN became first high school male athlete pictured on cover of "Sports Illustrated."

March 19, 1966 - Texas Western, with five black starters coached by Don Haskins, defeated heavily favored, all-white Wildcats of University of Kentucky, coached by basketball legend Adolph Rupp, for NCAA Men's Basketball Championship at College Park, MD (72-65).

April 11, 1966 - Emmett Ashford became first black major league umpire; reached American League after 14 seasons in minor leagues.

April 18, 1966 - Bill Russell became first black coach in NBA history (Boston Celtics).

November 8, 1966 - President Lyndon Johnson signed into law an antitrust exemption, allowed National Football League to merge with American Football League.

January 15 1967 - First Super Bowl played; Green Bay Packers of National Football League defeated Kansas City Chiefs of American Football League, 35-10.

February 2, 1967 - American Basketball Association formed.

April 28, 1967 - Muhammad Ali refused induction into US Army, stripped of his boxing title.

August 5, 1967 - AFL team beat an NFL team for first time, Broncos beat Detroit 13-7.

August 21, 1967 - Ken Harrelson became baseball's first free agent; August 28, 1967 - signed for $75,000 bonus.

September 26, 1947 - Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler announced Ford, Gillette to sponsor World Series.

October 18, 1967 - AL voted to allow Athletics to move from Kansas City to Oakland; 1971 - expanded league to 12 teams with Kansas City, Seattle teams.

August 25, 1968 - Arthur Ashe became first black to win U.S. singles championship.

October 18, 1968 - U.S. Olympic Committee suspended two black athletes for giving "black power" salute during victory ceremony at Mexico City games.

October 18, 1968 - Bob Beamon set world record of 8.90m in  long jump at Mexico City games; became longest unbroken track and field record in history (23 years); later named by Sports Illustrated magazine as one of five greatest sporting moments of 20th century.

November 17, 1968 - NBC outraged football fans, cut away from final minutes of Oakland Raiders's come from behind victory over New York Jets 43-32 to air, as scheduled, TV special, ''Heidi.''

January 12, 1969 - New York Jets defeated Baltimore Colts 16-7 in Super Bowl III at Orange Bowl in Miami; Joe Namath had predicted AFL's first victory over NFL team.

April 14, 1969 - First major league baseball game played outside U.S. (Montreal, QU).

June 3, 1969 - Madison Square Garden Corporation registered "New York Rangers" trademark first used in 1964 (entertainment services).

December 24, 1969 - Curt Flood, outfielder for St. Louis Cardiinals, wrote to Baseball Commissioner, Bowie Kuhn; challenged baseball's 'reserve clause': individual team owned his contract for life, prevented from negotiating with another team for year after his contract expired (had been traded on October 7, 1969 to to Philadelphia Phillies; had refused to report; cited team's poor record, dilapidated Connie Mack Stadium, racist fans.); Kuhn denied request; cited propriety of reserve clause, its inclusion in Flood's 1969 contract; January 16, 1970 - Flood filed $1 million lawsuit (automatically tripled under Sherman Act) against Kuhn and Major League Baseball; alleged that Major League Baseball had violated federal antitrust laws; January 16, 1970 - seven-time Golden Glove-winning center fielder Curt Flood filed $1 million suit in New York federal court against Commissioner Bowie Kuhn, presidents of American and National Leagues, all 24 teams in Major League Baseball (MLB); argued, in Flood v. Kuhn, that reserve clause violated antitrust laws, violated 13th Amendment (barred slavery, involuntary servitude); August 12, 1970 - Flood lost  $41 million antitrust suit against baseball; U.S. district court judge rejected Flood’s claim; went to U.S. Supreme Court; no active players agreed to testify on his behalf; June 19, 1972 - U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-3, in Flood vs. Kuhn, in favor of baseball (professional baseball was interstate commerce under Sherman Antitrust Act, responsibility to end or modify antitrust exemption unique among professional sports belonged to legislative branch of government); ; upheld antitrust exemption first granted to Major League Baseball (MLB) in Federal Baseball Club v. National League (decided May 29, 1922); 1973 - National Labor Relations Board voted that baseball came under its jurisdiction; Major League Baseball agreed to federal arbitration of players’ salary demands; December 23, 1975 - Peter Seitz, labor relations arbitrator hired by baseball owners to settle disputes with players, ruled that pitchers Andy Messersmith and Dave McNally were free to sign with any team as reserve clause did not bind them to their teams forever, just one year; effectively nullified baseball's reserve clause; began era of baseball free agency.

1970 - Bob McClure invented Little Prince, first tennis ball machine for home court use; founded Prince Manufacturing Co. (named after town of Princeton, NJ); control acquired by Howard head; 1976 - Head invented first patented Prince oversized racquet, Prince Classic (110 square inches, changed the game, became most successful racquet of its time); 1977 - introduced Prince Graphite, established company as material technology leader; 1982 - acquired by Chesebrough- Ponds, Inc.; Head sold his shares in company for $62 million, moved to Vail, CO; August of 1987 - acquired by management, in conjunction with Brentwood Associates,  private investment firm; 1990 - acquired by Italy-based Benetton Group SpA; April 30, 2003 - acquired by partnership consisting of senior management of Prince business,  Lincolnshire Equity Fund II, L.P., renamed named Prince Sports, Inc.

1970 - Arthur Jones introduced "Blue Monster" at Los Angeles weight-lifting convention; August 27, 1974 - registered "Nautilus" trademark first used December 11, 1972 (manually activated exercise machines for physically exercising parts of the human body); 1986 - sold interest in company for $23 million; June 6, 1989 - received a patent for an "Apparatus for Exercising Muscles of the Lower Trunk of the Human Body"; February 20, 1990 - received a patent for a "Machine for Exercising and/or Testing Muscles of the Lower Trunk, and Method"; 1999 - acquired by Direct Focus, Inc. (Vancouver, WA); 2002 - name changed to Nautilus, Inc.; variable resistance weight machines, bridge between free weights and high-tech resistance equipment; employed system of pulleys that ensured constant resistance on muscles during entire range of exercise's motion.

January 6, 1970 - Hoyle Schweitzer, of Pacific Palisades, CA, and Jim Drake, of Santa Monica, CA, received a patent for a "Wind-Propelled Apparatus"; windsurfboard - the "windsurfer"; Schweitzer incorporated Windsurfing International to promote the sport, manage the patent; 1973 - bought rights to patent from Drake; 1980's - S. Newman Darby filed "prior art" patent suit (1965 - published his designs for "sail boarding " in Popular Science Monthly magazine, never sought patent protection); Windsurfer's original patent voided, lost use of "windsurfer" as a trademark; 1987 - reissued patent expired.

March 15, 1970 - Boston Bruin Bobby Orr became first defenseman in NHL history to score 100 points in season; scored four goals in one game against Detroit Red Wings; finished 1969-70 season with 120 points, record for defensive player that cemented his status as best offensive defenseman in NHL history.

September 13, 1970 - Gary Muhrcke won first New York City Marathon in 2:31:38.

January 12, 1971 - Coast Catamaran Corp. registered "Hobie Cat" trademark first used July 30, 1968 (sailboat).

February 5, 1972 - Bob Douglas became first black man elected to Basketball Hall of Fame; coached, owned New York Renaissance, all-black team which won 88 consecutive games in 1933.

February 7, 1972 - Title IX passed, U.S. law guaranteed gender equality in federally-funded school programs, including athletics.

September 1, 1972 - American Bobby Fischer won international chess crown in Reykjavik, Iceland, defeated Boris Spassky of Soviet Union.

September 4, 1972 - Swimmer Mark Spitz became first person to win seven gold medals at single Olympic Games.

September 5, 1972 - Palestinian terrorists attacked Israeli Olympic team at summer games in Munich; killed 11 Israeli athletes, coaches, five terrorists, police officer.

January 11, 1973 - Owners of American League baseball teams voted to adopt designated-hitter rule on trial basis (remains in effect).

April 5, 1973 - NFL adopted jersey numbering system (ie QBs, 1-19).

April 6, 1973 - Yankee Ron Blomberg became first designated hitter (walked).

June 9, 1973 - Secretariat became horse racing's first Triple Crown winner since Citation in 1948.

April 4, 1974 - Hank Aaron of Atlanta Braves tied Babe Ruth's career home run record, hit his 714th n Cincinnati; April 8, 1974 - hit 715th career home run.

October 3, 1974 - Frank Robinson named major league baseball's first black manager, put in charge of Cleveland Indians.

July 5, 1975 - Arthur Ashe became first black man to win  Wimbledon singles title, defeated Jimmy Connors 6-1, 6-1, 5-7, 6-4, over 125 minutes; received $23,000, loser $13,800.

July 15, 1975 - John E. Fetzer, Inc., Detroit, MI, registered  "Detroit Tigers" trademark first used in 1963 ("entertainment services in the nature of baseball games and exhibitions rendered live and through the media of radio and television broadcasts").

July 20, 1976 - Hank Aaron hit 755th, last home run off Angels Jerry Augustine.

June 11, 1977 - Seattle Slew won Belmont Stakes, captured Triple Crown.

August 23, 1977 - Cincinnati Bengals, Inc. registered "Cincinnati Bengals" trademark first used September 27, 1967 ("Educational and Entertainment Services in the Form of Professional Football Games and Exhibitions").

1978 - First Ironman held in Kona, HI (hatched as bet over whether swimmers, cyclists or runners were most fit); 15 participants; 2011 - just under 1,900 competitors (nearly all of whom qualified by placing near top of their age group in tuneup races over last year).

December 30, 1978 - Ohio State University fired Woody Hayes as football coach, one day after Hayes punched Clemson University player during game.

January 26, 1980 - At the request of President Jimmy Carter, U.S. Olympic Committee voted to ask International Olympic Committee to cancel, move upcoming Moscow Olympics (response to Soviet military invasion of Afghanistan in previous month); Soviets ignored vote, ultimatum; U.S. Olympic Committee decided to boycott games; first time in modern history of Olympics that United States refused to participate; decade passed before Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan.

February 22, 1980 - United States Olympic hockey team (youngest team of all American squads, average age 22) defeated Soviets at Lake Placid, NY, 4-to-3; Mike Eruzione (Winthrop, MA), team captain, former player with Toledo Blades of the International League, scored midway through final period to break 3-3 tie; went on to win  gold medal (originally seeded 7th).

April 18, 1981 - AAA Pawtucket Red Sox, Rochester Red Wings (Baltimore Orioles) played 8 hours, 25 minutes, longest game in history of professional baseball: 33 innings, 882 pitches, 156 baseballs; April 19 - tie game (2-2) halted at 4:09 AM on Easter morning; June 23 - game concluded (Wings back in Providence, RI). Pawtucket won, 3-2.

June 12, 1981 - Major League Baseball players began 49-day strike over issue of free-agent compensation.

November 28, 1981 - Bear Bryant won 315th game, passed Alonzo Stagg as college football's winningest coach.

April 5, 1984 - Kareem Abdul-Jabbar became highest-scoring player in NBA history with 31,421 career points (31,421); Wilt Chamberlain (31,419).

May 8, 1984 - Soviet government announced boycott of 1984 Summer Olympic Games held in Los Angeles, CA; cited fears for safety of its athletes in what it considered hostile, anti-communist environment; 13 other communist nations issued similar statements, refused to attend games;United States swept Olympic record of 83 gold medals.

June 27, 1984 - Supreme Court ended NCAA monopoly on college football telecasts.

September 11, 1985 - Pete Rose of Cincinnati Reds recorded his 4,192nd hit, broke Ty Cobb's career record.

April 2, 1986 - NCAA introduced 3-point shooting line in Division I men's basketball, 19'9' from basket; 2008 - moved to 20'9" from basket.

July 27, 1986 - Greg Lemond became first American to win Tour de France.

November 14, 1986 - New York Mets acquired from Doubleday Publishing by Nelson Doubleday, Fred Wilpon.

February 7, 1987 - Dennis Conner, Stars and Stripes won America's Cup.

April 6, 1987 - Al Campanis, Los Angeles Dodgers executive for 40 years, said on ABC's ''Nightline'' that blacks ''may not have some of the necessities'' to hold managerial jobs in major-league baseball; April 7, 1987 - resigned.

February 23, 1988 - Chicago gave Cubs right to install lights, play up to 18 night games.

August 24, 1989 - Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti banned Pete Rose from game for gambling.

October 3, 1989 - Art Shell became first African-American to coach professional football team, Los Angeles Raiders.

October 21, 1989 - Betram Lee, Peter Bynoe acquired Denver Nuggets for $65 million; first black owners of major sports team.

February 5, 1990 - Notre Dame became first team to sell broadcast rights to games to major network (NBC).

July 19, 1990 - Baseball's all-time hits leader Pete Rose sentenced in Cincinnati to five months in prison for tax evasion.

February 23, 1991 - North Carolina first NCAA basketball team to win 1,500 games.

May 19, 1991 - Willy T. Ribbs became first African-American driver to qualify for Indy 500.

July 11, 1991 - Calumet Farm, home to 8 Kentucky Derby winners, filed for bankruptcy.

August 17, 1993 - Thomas Welsh, of San Diego, CA, received a patent for a "Platform Steerable Skateboard".

June 30, 1994 - U.S. Figure Skating Association stripped Tonya Harding of national championship, banned her from organization for life for attack on rival Nancy Kerrigan.

September 14, 1994 - Acting commissioner Bud Selig announced cancellation of rest of baseball season on 34th day of strike by players.

January 29, 1995 - San Francisco 49ers became first team in NFL history to win five Super Bowl titles, beat San Diego Chargers 49-26 in Super Bowl XXIX.

September 6, 1995 - Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Gehrig's record, played in 2,131 straight games.

November 26, 1996 - Baseball owners approved interleague play, 26-4.

April 13, 1997 - Tiger Woods (21) became youngest person to win Masters Tournament, first person of African heritage to claim major golf title.

April 15, 1997 - Jackie Robinson's No. 42 retired, 50 years after he became first black player in major league baseball.

June 12, 1997 - Major league baseball began interleague play.

June 21, 1997 - Women's National Basketball Association made debut.

July 5, 1997 - Martina Hingis (16) became youngest Wimbledon singles champion in 110 years, beat Jana Novotna in women's final.

September 20, 1998 - Cal Ripken Jr. of Baltimore Orioles sat out game against New York Yankees, had played in record 2,632 consecutive games over 16 seasons, 

January 8, 1999 - Top two executives of Salt Lake City's Olympic Organizing Committee resigned after disclosures that civic boosters had given cash to members of International Olympic Committee; March 17, 1999 - International Olympic Committee expelled six of its members in wake of bribery scandal.

September 18, 1999 - Sammy Sosa of Chicago Cubs became first player in major league baseball history to hit 60 home runs in season twice.

July 9, 2000 - Pete Sampras won seventh Wimbledon singles title; tied record for men at All England Club.

July 23, 2000 - Tiger Woods (24) became youngest golfer to complete career Grand Slam; won British Open.

December 11, 2000 - Shortstop Alex Rodriguez agreed to  $252 million deal with Texas Rangers, most lucrative sports contract in history.

April 14, 2002 - Tiger Woods became only third golfer in history to win back-to-back Masters titles.

October 27, 2002 - Dallas Cowboys running back Emmitt Smith broke NFL career rushing yardage record of 16,726 held by Walter Payton. (finished career with 18,355 yards rushing.).

December 25, 2002 - Katie Hnida became first woman to play in Division I football game, attempted extra point for New Mexico against UCLA in Las Vegas Bowl.

July 29, 2003 - Boston Red Sox batter Bill Mueller became  first player in major league history to hit grand slams from both sides of plate in single game in 14-7 win at Texas.

October 25, 2003 - Florida State's Bobby Bowden became  winningest coach in major college football history with his 339th victory; Seminoles beat Wake Forest 48-24.

December 6, 2003 - Army became first team to finish 0-13 in major college football history after a 34-6 loss to Navy.

January 5, 2004 - Pete Rose publicly admitted that he'd bet on baseball while manager of Cincinnati Reds; had denied doing so for 14 years.

April 6, 2004 - University of Connecticut became first school to win NCAA Division I men's, women's basketball titles in same season; women's team beat Tennessee 70-61 for third consecutive championship.

September 15, 2004 - National Hockey League owners agreed to lock out players.

October 1, 2004 - Seattle Mariners outfielder Ichiro Suzuki made his 258th hit of season; broke George Sisler's 84-year-old single-season record.

July 24, 2005 - American cyclist Lance Armstrong won record-setting  seventh consecutive Tour de France, retired from sport; October 22, 2012 - International Cycling Union stripped Armstrong of seven Tour de France titles from 1999-2005 (based on 202-page report, produced by United States Anti-Dopimg Agency, made public two weeks earlier, citing Armstrong for doping, playing instrumental role in team-organized doping of his cycling squad); January 18, 2013 - Armstrong admitted, for first time, that he took EPO, testosterone, cortisone, human growth hormone to help him to seven Tour de France victories.

December 26, 2004 - Peyton Manning of Indianapolis Colts broke Dan Marino's single-season touchdown pass record, threw 48th, 49th of season in victory over San Diego.

February 16, 2005 - NHL canceled what was left of decimated schedule after round of last-gasp negotiations failed to resolve differences over salary cap.

November 15, 2005 - Baseball players, owners agreed on tougher steroids-testing policy.

May 8,  2006 - Forbes Magazine's 2006 Survey of Major League Baseball's 30 franchises estimated that baseball team values increased average of 15% for second consecutive year, to $376 million; overall operating income increased to $360 million ($12.1 million per team) from $132 million ($4.4 million per team) previous year, revenue increased faster than player salaries. The Survey ranked Yankees as most valuable team in professional baseball, worth an estimated $1.026 billion; Red Sox were second most valuable franchise at $617 million; New York Mets ($604 million); Los Angeles Dodgers ($482 million); Chicago Cubs ($448 million); Washington Nationals ($440 million); St. Louis Cardinals ($429 million); Seattle Mariners ($428 million); Philadelphia Phillies ($424 million); $Houston Astros ($416 million).

July 9, 2006 - Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal met in men's singles final at Wimbledon; first time in 52 years that finalists in French Open faced each other in Wimbledon's final.

March 25, 2007 - Son of a Final Four coach got his team into Final Four in college basketball for the first time in NCAA history; John Thomspon III's Georgetown University team defeated North Carolina 96-84; John Thompson Jr.'s Georgetown teams made it into Final Four in 1982 (lost 83-82 to North Carolina), 1984 (lost to Villanova) and 1985;1984 -  won NCAA title, beat University of Houston.

June 29, 2008 - MLB pitching: complete games by pitchers; ERAs.



November 10, 2008 - NCAA moved 3-point shooting line to 20'9", one foot further from the basket; 3-point attempts more than doubled between 1986 (line's debut) and 2008; 2007 - Division I teams averaged 19.1 attempts/game, highest ever with a 35.23% success rate (highest since 1993).


April 2009 - Most Valuable Sports Franchises: Manchester United ($1.83 billion), Dallas Cowboys ($1.65 billion), New York Yankees ($1.6 billion) - below: George Steinbrenner acquired Yankees from CBS for for $10 million in 1973.


Historical Snapshot


1Value of team based on current stadium deal (unless new stadium is pending) without deduction for debt (other than stadium debt). 2Current team value compared with latest transaction price. 3Includes stadium debt. 4Net of stadium revenues used for debt payments. 5Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. 6Includes benefits and bonuses. 7Includes club seats. 8Compares the number of wins per player payroll relative to the rest of the MLB. Postseason wins count twice as much as regular season wins. A score of 120 means that the team achieved 20% more victories per dollar of payroll compared with the league average. 

(Arizona (Alameda County Fair), Victoria Christian (2011). Alameda County Fair. (Chaleston, SC Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Editor-in-Chief (Sunolian newspaper). Alameda, CA -- history; County Fair -- Alameda, CA. 

(Arizona Diamondbacks), Len Sherman (1998). Big League, Big Time: The Birth of the Arizona Diamondbacks, the Billion-Dollar Business of Sports, and the Power of the Media in America. (New York, NY: Pocket Books, 335 p.). Arizona Diamondbacks (Baseball team), Bank One Ballpark (Phoenix, Ariz.)--History, Baseball--Arizona--History, Baseball fields--Arizona--Phoenix--History. 

Jerry Colangelo - Arizona Diamondbacks and Phoenix Suns (http://i.cdn.turner.com/dr/nba/teamsites-nbateams/release/suns/sites/suns/files/imagecache/suns_standard/ colangelo_081110_300.jpg)

(Arizona Diamondbacks), Jerry Colangelo with Len Sherman (1999). How You Play the Game: Lessons for Life from the Billion-Dollar Business of Sports. (New York, NY: Amacom, 255 p.). Colangelo, Jerry; Phoenix Suns (Basketball team; Arizona Diamondbacks (Baseball team); Sports team owners--United States--Biography; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States.

(Atlanta Braves), John Schuerholz with Larry Guest (2006). Built To Win: Inside Stories and Leadership Strategies from Baseball’s Winningest GM. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 288 p.). Schuerholz, John; Atlanta Braves (Baseball team)--Management. 14 straight National League East titles; anti-Moneyball philosophy kept Braves among elite teams in baseball for over decade.

(Baltimore Orioles), James Edward Miller (1990). The Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in Baltimore. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 382 p.). Baseball--Maryland--Baltimore--Finance--Case studies; Baseball--Economic aspects--Maryland--Baltimore--Case studies. 

(Baseball), Ralph Andreano. With a foreword by Jim Brosnan (1965). No Joy in Mudville; The Dilemma of Major League Baseball. (Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co., 191 p.). Baseball--History.

(Baseball), Gerald W. Scully (1989). The Business of Major League Baseball. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 212 p.). Baseball teams -- Economic aspects -- United States.

(Baseball), James Edward Miller (1990). The Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in Baltimore. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 382 p.). Baseball--Maryland--Baltimore--Finance--Case studies; Baseball--Economic aspects--Maryland--Baltimore--Case studies.

(Baseball), Marvin Miller (1991). A Whole Different Ball Game: The Sport and Business of Baseball. (Seacaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 430 p.). Baseball--United States--Finance--History; Baseball players--Labor unions--United States--History.

(Baseball), Andrew Zimbalist (1992). Baseball and Billions: A Probing Look Inside the Big Business of Our National Pastime. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 270 p.). Baseball -- United States -- Finance; Baseball -- Economic aspects -- United States; Baseball -- United States -- Management.

(Baseball), Robert F. Burk (1994). Never Just a Game: Players, Owners, and American Baseball to 1920. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 284 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States--History--19th century; Baseball players--United States--Economic conditions; Industrial relations--United States--History.

(Baseball), John Helyar (1994). Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball. (New York, NY: Villard Books, 576 p.). Baseball--United States--History.

(Baseball), Robert F. Burk (2001). Much More Than a Game: Players, Owners, & American Baseball Since 1921. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 372 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States--History--20th century; Baseball players--United States--Economic conditions--20th century; Baseball team owners--United States--Economic conditions--20th century; Industrial relations--United States--History--20th century. 

(Baseball), Charles C. Alexander (2002). Breaking the Slump: Baseball in the Depression Era. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 337 p.). Distinguished Professor of History (Ohio University). Baseball --United States --History --20th century. Professional baseball remained king of American sports during Great Depression, in terms of both spectators, participants;  persistence as truly "National Pastime"; what it meant to millions of Americans who could no longer afford to attend games on regular basis.

(Baseball), Michael Lewis (2003). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--Scouting--United States; Baseball players--Salaries, etc.--United States.

(Birdhouse Skateboards), Tony Hawk and Pat Hawk (2010). How Did I Get Here?: The Ascent of an Unlikely CEO. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). Put Skateboarding on the Map (first to land 900 - two and a half full rotations - on July 27, 1999). Hawk, Tony; Skateboarders --United States --Biography. From skateboarder to CEO; action sports company, clothing line, video game series bearing his name sold over $1 billion worldwide (biggest selling action sports game franchise in game history); secured endorsement deals with major brands (McDonalds, Intel, T-Mobile, Kohl's); started Boom Boom HuckJam action sports tour; achieved worldwide acclaim from ESPN X Games.

  Tony Hawk - Birdhouse Skateboards (http://www.tonyhawkfoundation.org/images/about/springfield-oregon.jpg)

(Brooklands), David Venables (2007). Brooklands: The Official Centenary History. (Newbury Park, CA: Haynes North America Inc., 256 p.). Former Solicitor General. Brooklands; motor sport--history--Great Britain; aviation--history--Great Britain. Surrey landmark celebrated as British institution of great importance to  history of car racing and aviation. 

(Calumet Farm Inc.), Ann Hagedorn Auerbach (1994). Wild Ride: The Rise and Tragic Fall of Calumet Farm, Inc., America's Premier Racing Dynasty. (New York, NY: Holt, 438 p.). Calumet Farm--History; Thoroughbred horse--Breeding--Kentucky.

(Dallas Cowboys), Bob St. John (1988). Tex! The Man Who Built the Dallas Cowboys. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 363 p.). Columnist (Dallas Morning News). Schramm, Texas E., 1920- ; Dallas Cowboys (Football team)--History; Football team owners--United States--Biography.

Jerry Jones - Dallas Cowboys (http://s.wsj.net/media/Jerry_Jones_art_257_20080225104731.jpg)

(Dallas Cowboys), Jim Dent (1995). King of the Cowboys: The Life and Times of Jerry Jones. (Holbrook, MA: Adams Pub., 277 p.). Jones, Jerry, 1942- ; Dallas Cowboys (Football team); Football team owners--Biography.

(Del Mar Racetrack), Hank Wesch (2011). Del Mar: Where the Turf Meets the Surf. (Charleston, SC History Press, 112 p.). Former Sports Reporter (San Diego Union-Tribune). Del Mar Racetrack (Del Mar, Calif.) --History. 1937 - founded by by Bing Crosby, Hollywood friends; hosted some of thoroughbred racing's finest (dancing Zenyatta, scrappy Seabiscuit, Hall of Famers Best Pal and Azeri); noted jockeys, infamous matchups.

(Golf), Robert H. Dedman, with Debbie DeLoach (1999). King of Clubs. (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub., 212 p.). Dedman, Robert H.; Success; Businessmen--United States--Biography. Largest operator of golf clubs in U.S.

(Great White Shark Enterprises), Greg Norman with Donald T. Phillips (2006). The Way of the Shark: Lessons on Golf, Business, and Life. (New York, NY: Atria Books, 336 p.). Norman, Greg, 1955- ; Golfers--Australia--Biography; Success in business. Journey from Queensland, Australia, to the World Golf Hall of Fame to chairman and CEO of a global business.

(Hood Sailmakers), Ted Hood and Michael Levitt (2006). Ted Hood: Through Hand and Eye. (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport, 200 p.). Founder, Hood Sailmakers; Director of Communications (New York Yacht Club). Hood, Ted; Hood Sailmakers; Sails; Sailing; Sailboat racing; America’s Cup--History. World's largest sailmaker in 1960's and 1970's.

Ted Hood (left) - Hood Sailmakers (http://www.tedhood.com/images/ted_at_sewing_mcahine.jpg)

(Horrow Sports Ventures), Rick Horrow, Lary Bloom (2003). When the Game Is on the Line: From the Man Who Brought the Heat to Miami and the Browns Back to Cleveland, An Inside Look at the High-Stakes World of Sports Deal Making. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 224 p.). Founder, Horrow Sports Ventures (division of Omnicom Group, Inc.). Horrow, Rick; sports -- Economic aspects -- United States. Public-private infrastructure initiatives; deals that create new stadiums, bring sports franchises to cities. 

(Houston Oilers), Ed Fowler (1997). Loser Takes All: Bud Adams, Bad Football & Big Business. (Atlanta, GA: Lonstreet Press, 181 p.). Adams, Bud, 1923- ; Houston Oilers (Football team)--History; Tennessee Oilers (Football team)--History; Football team owners--United States--Biography.

(J/Boats, Inc.), Anthony Dalton (2005). J/Boats: Sailing to Success. (St. Paul, MN: MBI, 160 p.). J/Boats, Inc.; Yacht building--United States--History--20th century; Boatbuilding--United States--History--20th century; Sailboats--United States; Yachts--United States. 1975 - Rod Johnstone built boat in his garage based on design correspondence school; 2005 - most popular recreational offshore keelboat in the world. 

(Karsten Manufacturing Corporation), Tracy Sumner (2000). Karsten's Way: The Life-Changing Story of Karsten Solheim-- Pioneer in Golf Club Design and the Founder of Ping. (Chicago, IL: Northfield, 239 p.). Solheim, Karsten, b. 1911; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Golf equipment industry--United States--History; Golf clubs (Sporting goods)--Design and construction--History.

(LA Dodgers), Michael D'Antonio (2009). Forever Blue: The True Story of Walter O'Malley, Baseball's Most Controversial Owner, and the Dodgers of Brooklyn and Los Angeles. (New York, NY: Riverhead, 368 p.). Pulitzer Prize-winner. O’Malley, Walter F. (Walter Frank), 1903-1979; Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball team); Los Angeles Dodgers (Baseball team); Baseball team owners --United States --Biography. Biography of Walter O'Malley, most controversial owner in history of American sports; changed baseball, Brooklyn forever when he moved Dodgers to California (outmatched in war of wills with famed power broker Robert Moses); helped define Los Angeles; worked behind scenes to usher in age of players union, free agency; pioneering business strategies, relationship with Jackie Robinson.

Walter O'Malley - Los Angeles Dodgers (http://www.walteromalley.com/images/biog_ref/intro/wfom_stadium_rail_a.jpg)

(NAIA), John R.M. Wilson (2005). The History of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics: Competition, Tradition, Character. (Monterey, CA: Coaches Choice, 286 p.). National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics--History; College sports--United States--Management.

(NASCAR), Robert G. Hagstrom, Jr. (1998). The Nascar Way: The Business That Drives the Sport. (New York, NY: Wiley, 230 p.). NASCAR (Association); NASCAR (Association)--Finance; Stock car racing--United States; Stock car racing--Economic aspects--United States.

(NASCAR), Neal Thompson (2006). Driving with the Devil: Southern Moonshine, Detroit Wheels, and the Birth of NASCAR. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 411 p.). Teaches at the University of North Carolina-Asheville’s Great Smokies Writing Program. Stock car racing--Southern States--History; Automobile racing--United States--Biography; Southern States--Social conditions. True story behind NASCAR’s distant, moonshine-fueled origins; how moonshine, fast cars merged to create new sport for the South; 1930s car of choice was Ford V-8, mountain roads at 100 miles an hour.

(NASCAR), Mark Yost (2007). The 200-mph Billboard: The Inside Story of How Big Money Changed NASCAR. (St. Paul, MN: MBI Pub. Company LLC, 320 p.). Contributor to the Wall Street Journal Leisure and Arts pages. NASCAR (Association)--History; Stock car racing--United States--History; Stock car racing--Economic aspects--United States. How NASCAR grew from provincial roots to big business of international proportions; economics, politics behind NASCAR sponsorship; corporate deals that altered way NASCAR does business.

(Nashville Predators), Craig Leipold & Richard W. Oliver (2001). Hockey-Tonk: The Amazing Story of the Nashville Predators. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 238 p.). Nashville Predators (Hockey team)--History; Nashville Predators (Hockey team)--Finance; Hockey--Economic aspects--United States.

(NBA), Eldon Ham (2000). The Playmasters: From Sellouts to Lockouts-an Unauthorized History of the NBA. (Lincolnwood, IL: Contemporary Books, 258 p.). National Basketball Association--History; Basketball--Economic aspects--United States.

(NBA), J. Bruce Miller (2004). Airball: The Complete and Unvarnished Account of Louisville’s 30-Year Odyssey To Acquire an NBA Franchise. (Louisville, K: JBM Partners, 416 p.). Basketball--Economic aspects--Kentucky--Louisville; National Basketball Association--Management; Sports franchises--Location--United States.

(NBA), Connie Kirchberg; foreword by Jim Barnett (2007). Hoop Lore: A History of the National Basketball Association. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 347 p.). Freelance Writer. National Basketball Association--History. How, why NBA able to overcome obstacles to become most successfully marketed league in professional sports.

(NCAA), Jack Falla (1981). NCAA, The Voice of College Sports: A Diamond Anniversary History, 1906-1981. (Mission, KS: National Collegiate Athletic Association, 300 p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association--History--20th century; College sports--United States--History--20th century.

(NCAA), Paul R. Lawrence (1987). Unsportsmanlike Conduct: The National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Business of College Football. (New York, NY: Praeger, 173 p.). Economist with Price Waterhouse. National Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports--Economic aspects--United States; College sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Football--Economic aspects--United States; Football--Moral and ethical aspects--United States.

(NCAA), Murray A. Sperber (1990). College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs [sic] the University. (New York, NY: Holt, 416 p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports--Economic aspects--United States; College sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; College sports--United States--Management.

(NCAA), Arthur A. Fleisher, Brian L. Goff, and Robert D. Tollison (1992). The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in Cartel Behavior. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 190 p.). Assistant Professor Economics (Metropolitan State College of Denver); Associate Professor of Economics (Western Kentucky University); Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for the Study of Public Choice (George Mason University). National Collegiate Athletic Association--Finance; Cartels--United States--Case studies; College sports--Economic aspects--United States--Case studies.

(NFL), Joe F. Carr, Chris Willis (2010). The Man Who Built the National Football League. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 496 p.). President of the NFL for most of first two decades; head of NFL Films' Research Library. Carr, Joe F., d. 1939; National Football League --History --20th century; Football managers --United States --History --20th century; Football. 1921 - Guided American Professional Football Association, created one of first traveling football teams (Columbus Panhandles); 1922-1937 - laid solid foundation of modern professional football, established NFL as big-city sport: wrote league's first-ever Record and Fact Book, developed standard player's contracts, established rules for college recruitment, professional football regulations, players' statistics, created of two NFL divisions, championship game.

(Newark Eagles), James Overmyer (1998). Queen of the Negro Leagues: Effa Manley and the Newark Eagles. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 297 p. [rev. ed.]). Manley, Effa, 1900- ; Newark Eagles (Baseball team) -- History; Baseball team owners -- United States -- Biography; African American business enterprises; Women-owned business enterprises -- United States; Negro leagues.

(New York Giants), Tom Callahan (2007). The GM: The Inside Story of a Dream Job and the Nightmares That Go with It. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 288 p.). Former Senior Writer (Time magazine), Sports Columnist (Washington Post). Accorsi, Ernie; National Football League; New York Giants (Football team)--Biography; Football--United States. Role of general manager (part seer, part accountant, balancing psyches, salary caps); story of the job, what it means to be guy who makes the decisions.

(New York Yankees), Ray Robinson and Christopher Jennison (1998). Yankee Stadium: 75 Years of Drama, Glamor, and Glory. (New York, NY: Penguin Studio, 182 p.). Yankee Stadium (New York, N.Y.)--History; Sports--New York (State)--New York--History.

Frank Farrell (right, rear) - moved Yankees to NYC  (http://i685.photobucket.com/albums/vv217/BillBurgess/Image14-15.jpg)

Big Bill Devery Big Bill Devery  - moved Yankees to NYC  (http://www.davidpietrusza.com/devery.JPG)

Col. Jacob Ruppert - bought Yankees on 1/11/1915  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/ Jacob_Ruppert_1923.jpg/466px-Jacob_Ruppert_1923.jpg)

(New York Yankees), Henry D. Fetter (2003). Taking on the Yankees: Winning and Losing in the Business of Baseball, 1903-2003. (New York, NY: Norton, 461 p.). Attorney. New York Yankees (Baseball team)--History; Baseball--Economic aspects--United States--History; Baseball--United States--History.  

(NFL), David Harris (1986). The League: The Rise and Decline of the NFL. (New York, NY: Bantam Books, 710 p.). National Football League --History. Business history of the NFL from the late 1960's and primarily the early 1970's to the early to mid 1980's.

(NFL), Mark Yost (2006). Tailgating, Sacks, and Salary Caps: How the NFL Became the Most Successful Sports League in History. (Chicago, IL: Kaplan Pub., 272 p.). WSJ contributor and St. Paul Pioneer Press editorial writer. National Football League--History; Football--Economic aspects--United States. History, business decisions that have made NFL most successful organization in sports industry. 

(NFL), Michael Oriard (2007). Brand NFL: Making and Selling America’s Favorite Sport. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 336 p.). Former Professional Football Player, Distinguished Professor of American Literature and Culture and Associate Dean of the College of Liberal Arts (Oregon State University). National Football League; Football--United States--Marketing; Football--United States--Management. $6 billion sports entertainment industry since 1960; has extraordinary commercializing, "branding" of NFL football weakened cultural power of sport whose appeal for more than century was fundamentally noncommercial?

(NFL), Allen St. John (2009). The Billion Dollar Game: The Improbable Collision of Culture, Commerce, and Competition on Super Bowl Sunday. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 272 p.). Sports Columnist (Wall Street Journal). Super Bowl; Super Bowl --Social aspects; Super Bowl --Economic aspects. People, corporations behind biggest cultural phenomenon in American sport  - into FOX Sports broadcast booth, front-row seat in Madison Avenue conference rooms, behind-the-scenes with stadium architect Peter Eisenman; political snafus, organizational nightmares, well-oiled hype machine.

Frank P. Jozsa, Jr.; foreword by John Maxymuk (2010). Football Fortunes: The Business, Organization, and Strategy of the NFL. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.,242 p.). National Football League; Football --Economic aspects --United States. Growth of industry, intricacies of league’s expansions and mergers, territories, relocations; operation and organization of franchises; role of stadiums and markets; effect of the NFL on domestic, foreign affairs.

(NHL), Marc Edge (2004). Red Line, Blue Line, Bottom Line: How Push Came to Shove Between the National Hockey League and Its Players. (Vancouver, BC: New Star Books, 160 p.). National Hockey League--Finance; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States; Professional sports--Economic aspects--Canada.

(NHL), John Chi-Kit Wong (2005). Lords of the Rinks: The Emergence of the National Hockey League, 1875-1936. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 235 p.). Assistant Professor in the Sport Management Program (Washington State University). National Hockey League--History; Hockey--Canada--History; Hockey--United States--History. History of league, business of hockey; 1917 - NHL held its first games, 1936 - had become dominant governing body; sport rarely, if ever, without some commercial aspects.

(Oakland A's), Michael Lewis (2003). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p,). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--Scouting--United States; Baseball players--Salaries, etc.--United States.

(Oakland A's), G. Michael Green and Roger D. Launius (2010). Charlie Finley: The Outrageous Story of Baseball’s Super Showman. (New York, NY: Walker & Co., 368 p.). Senior Planner at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in Washington, DC; Senior Curator in the Division of Space History at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. Finley, Charles Oscar, 1918-; Oakland Athletics (Baseball team) --History; Baseball team owners --United States --Biography. Oakland Athletics of early 1970s; owner, general manager, personally assembled team, decided players' salaries, made player moves during season (level of involvement no other owner engaged in); "Baseball's Super Showman" (Time magazine's description of Finley on cover of an August 1975 issue) in all his contradictions: generous yet vengeful, inventive yet destructive.

Charles Oscar Finley - Oakland A's (http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2286/2355327914_13491dbb4f.jpg)

(Oakland Raiders), Mark Ribowsky (1991). Slick: The Silver and Black Life of Al Davis. (New York, NY: Macmillan Pub. Co., 358 p.). Davis, Al, 1929- ; Oakland Raiders (Football team); Football coaches--United States--Biography; Football team owners--United States--Biography.

(Old Town Canoe Company), Susan T. Audette, David E. Baker (2003). The Old Town Canoe Company: Our First Hundred Years. (Gardiner, ME: Tilbury House Publishers, 162 p.). Old Town Canoe Company --History; Boating industry --United States --History; Canoes and canoeing --United States --Equipment and supplies --History; Kayaks --United States --History; Kayaking --United States --Equipment and supplies --History. From earliest wood-and canvas canoes to sleek polymer models.

(Olympia Stadium), Robert Wimmer (2000). Detroit’s Olympia Stadium. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Photographer for the Red Wings. Olympia Stadium--Detroit. THE entertainment venue in Detroit for over a half century; major tenant was Detroit Red Wings.

(Olympics), Holger Preuss (2004). The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games, 1972-2008. (Northampton, MA: E. Elgar, 332 p.). Olympics--Economic aspects; Olympics--Finance; Olympics--History.

(Olympics), Michael Payne (2005). Olympic Turnaround: How the Olympic Games Stepped Back from the Brink of Extinction to Become the World's Best Known Brand - and a Multi Billion Dollar Global Franchise. (London, UK: London Business Press, 332 p.). Former Marketing Director, IOC. Olympic Games; International Olympic Committee; Sports Promotion.

(Peetz Manufacturing), Douglas F.W. Pollard; foreword by Alan Haig-Brown (1997). Peetz, A Reel for All Time. (Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 127 p.). B.C. Peetz Manufacturing Company -- History; Fishing reels -- British Columbia -- History.

(Pompano Park), Frank J. Cavaioli (2005). Pompano Park Harness Track. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Pompano Park (Pompano Beach, Fla.)--History; Harness racing--Florida--Pompano Beach--History. "Winter Capital of Harness Racing;" only nighttime standard-bred harness competition in Florida since 1964 inaugural season.

(Neil Pryde Limited), Neil Pryde (2010). Will To Win: The Remarkable Story of the NeilPryde Brand. (New Territories, Hong Kong: Pryde Group, 250 p.). Founder Pryde Group, Neil Pryde Limited; windsurfing. Founded by New Zealander in Hong Kong in 1970 as sailmaker for yachts in Europe; from largest maker of yacht sails in world (until Oil Shocks dampened demand) to watersports, beyond; how windsurfing developed into global phenomenon;  got into paragliding; 2001- exited that business, entered kite-surfing market; one of world's top three wetsuit manufacturers; changing times, changing sports. three sets of business partners, speed records, near financial ruin, decision to diversify, film shoots, Olympic triumph; one of world’s biggest players in marine, adventure sports markets.

(Rawlings), Robert Liston Burnes (1948). 50 Golden Years of Sports. (St. Louis, MO: Rawlings Manufacturing Co., 200 p.). Rawlings Manufacturing Company, St. Louis; Sports--United States.

(San Diego Chargers), Gene Klein and David Fisher (1987). First Down and a Billion: The Funny Business of Pro Football. (New York, NY: Morrow, 300 p.). Owner from 1966-1984. Klein, Gene; San Diego Chargers (Football team); Football team owners--United States.

(San Diego Chargers), Alex Spanos with Mark Seal and Natalia Kasparian; with a foreword by Rush Limbaugh (2002). Sharing the Wealth: My Story. (Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 254 p.). Spanos, Alex; San Diego Chargers (Football team); Football team owners--United States--Biography; Businessmen--United States--Biography. 

(Skiing), Jacques Mouriquand (1988). L'or Blanc: Le Système des Sports d'Hiver. (Paris, FR: Lieu Commun, 239 p.). Ski resorts--Economic aspects--France; Ski resorts--France--History; Ski resorts--France--Management.

(Skiing), Karen D. Lorentz (1990). Killington: A Story of Mountains and Men. (Shrewsbury, VT: Mountain Publsihing, 271 p.). Killington Ski Area (Vt.)--History; Ski resorts--Vermont; Skis and skiing--Vermont; Killington Peak (Vt.)--Recreational use.

(Skiing), George Weider (1990). Blue Mountain. (Erin, ON: Boston Mills Press, 160 p.). Weider, Jozo; Weider, Jozo; Blue Mountain Resorts Limited--History;Blue Mountain Resorts Limited--Histoire; Ski resorts--Ontario--History; Skis and skiing--Ontario--History;Stations de ski--Ontario--Blue Mountains--Histoire; Ski--Ontario--Blue Mountains--Histoire.

(Skiing), as told to Rick Richards (1992). Ski Pioneers: Ernie Blake, His Friends, and the Making of Taos Ski Valley. (Arroyo Seco, NM: Dry Gulch Publishing, 235 p.). Blake, Ernie, 1913-1989; Skiers--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Ski resorts--New Mexico--Taos--History.

(Skiing), S. Franklin Burford (1992). The Snowshoe Story: Business, Politics, and the Judiciary in West Virginia. (Elkins, WV: Kerens Hill Publications, 178 p.). Snowshoe Company--Trials, litigation, etc.; Bankruptcy--United States; Judicial corruption--United States; Ski resorts--West Virginia--Finance; West Virginia--Politics and government.

(Skiing), Peter W. Seibert with William Oscar Johnson; [foreword by Jean-Claude Killy] (2000). Vail: Triumph of a Dream. (Boulder, CO: Mountain Sports Press in conjunction with Vail Resorts Management Co., 192 p.). Founder, Vail Resorts. Ski resorts--Colorado--Vail--History; Vail (Colo.)--History; Vail (Colo.)--History--Pictorial works; Vail (Colo.)--Pictorial works.

(Skiing), Roland Huntford (2008). Two Planks and a Passion : The Dramatic History of Skiing from Paleolithic Times until Today. (New York, NY: Continuum, 436 p.). Skis and skiing --History; Skis and skiing --Social aspects. From means of survival to leisure and sporting pursuit; use in polar exploration, wartime  changed history; origins of skiing bound to emergence of modern man.

(Soccer), Stefan Szymanski and Tim Kuypers (1999). Winners and Losers; The Business Strategy of Football. (London, UK: Viking, 416 p.). Professor of Economics, MBA Dean at the Cass Business School (City University London). Football --United Kingdom--Finance; Football --United Kingdom--Economics. Relationship between finance, football; how football (soccer) works as business (estimated to be worth around £150bn worldwide; 20 UK clubs quoted on stock market in 1998 had combined value of over £1bn); why some clubs are winners, others are not; historical description of football's finances; current state of game financially; predictable relationship between clubs' spending policies (transfers, wages), league performance, total revenues.

(A. G. Spalding Brothers), Arthur C. Bartlett (1951). Baseball and Mr. Spalding; The History and Romance of Baseball. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Young, p.). Spalding, Albert Goodwill, 1850-1915; Spalding (A. G.) and Brothers, inc.; Baseball--History.

Al Spalding Al G. Spalding (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/AGSpalding.jpg)

(A. G. Spaulding Brothers), Peter Levine (1985). A.G. Spalding and the Rise of Baseball: The Promise of American Sport. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 184 p.). Spalding, A. G. (Albert Goodwill); Baseball players -- United States -- Biography; Businessmen -- Biography.

(A. G. Spaulding Brothers), Mark Lamster (2006). Spalding’s World Tour: The Epic Adventure That Took Baseball Around the Globe--and Made iIt America’s Game. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 341 p.). Senior Editor (Princeton Architectural Press). Spalding, A. G. (Albert Goodwill); Baseball--United States--History--19th century; Baseball--United States--History--20th century. October 1888 - Albert Goodwill Spalding  departed Chicago on 57-game trip around globe with twenty of baseball's greatest players to bring baseball and American way to the four corners of the earth.  

(Surfing), Phil Jarratt (2010). Salts and Suits. (Victoria, Australia: Hardie Grant Books 301 p.). Former Editor of Tracks and The Australian Surfers Journal, contributing editor to The Surfers Journal, Surfer, Surfing and Pacific Longboarder. Surfing industry -- history. How group of young beach bums turned passion for riding big waves into world's fastest growing leisure industry; surfing's biggest brands generate more than $1 billion in revenue; long, bloody battle between ‘salts' and ‘suits' to control industry.

(Tampa Bay Rays), Jonah Keri (2011). The Extra 2%: How Wall Street Strategies Took a Major League Baseball Team from Worst to First. (New York, NY: ESPN, 272 p.). Columnist for Investor’s Business Daily. Tampa Bay Rays (Baseball team); Baseball --Economic aspects; Sports franchises --Economic aspects --Florida --Tampa bay. 2005 - Stuart Sternberg and Matthew Silverman, former Goldman Sachs partners, assumed control of Tampa Bay Devil Rays; innovative ideas about employee development, marketing, public relations, personnel management; developed metrics to take advantage of undervalued aspects of game (defense), hired forward-thinking field manager dedicated to unconventional strategy; quantified game’s intangibles (extra 2% of winning organizations); 2008 - won American League pennant; one of greatest turnarounds in baseball history from divisional doormat to World Series contender.

(USFL), Jim Byrne (1987). The $1 League: The Rise and Fall of the USFL. (New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 352 p.). USFL (Organization) -- History.

(Vail Resorts), Peter W. Seibert with William Oscar Johnson; [foreword by Jean-Claude Killy] (2000). Vail: Triumph of a Dream. (Boulder, CO: Mountain Sports Press in conjunction with Vail Resorts Management Co., 192 p.). Co-Founder, Vail Resorts. Ski resorts --Colorado --Vail --History; Vail (Colo.) --History; Vail (Colo.) --History --Pictorial works; Vail (Colo.) --Pictorial works.

(Washington Redskins), Adrian Havill (1992). The Last Mogul: The Unauthorized Biography of Jack Kent Cooke. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 302 p.). Cooke, Jack Kent; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.




Jack Kent Cooke - Redskins (http://www.jkcf.org/assets/files/0000/0085/jack-kent-cooke-thumb.jpg)

(Waterloo Diamonds), Jerry Klinkowitz ; with a foreword by Mike Veeck (1999). Owning a Piece of the Minors. (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 156 p.). Klinkowitz, Jerome; Waterloo Diamonds (Baseball team); Baseball team owners--United States--Biography.

(Westminster Kennel Club), William F. Stifel (2001). The Dog Show: 125 Years of Westminster. (ew York, NY: Westminster Kennel Club, 240 p.). President of the American Kennel Club (1977 to 1986). Westminster Kennel Club--History; Dog shows--New York (State)--New York--History; Dog breeds--Pictorial works. 

(Weider Health and Fitness), Joe Weider, Ben Weider, and Mike Steere (2006). Brothers of Iron: How the Weider Brothers Created the Fitness Movement and Built a Business Empire. (Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing, 252 p.). Weider Joe; Weider, Ben; Weider Health and Fitness; bodybuilding. From small muscle magazine at family's dining room table to publishing empire; built backyard barbell business into equipment, food supplement companies; transformed bodybuilding into hugely successful sport, organized under one of largest, best-run athletic federations in world.

(World Championship Wrestling Inc.), Eric Bischoff with Jeremy Roberts (2006). World Wrestling Entertainment Presents Controversy Creates Cash. (New York, NY: Pocket Books, 389 p.). Bischoff, Eric; World Championship Wrestling, Inc.--History; World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc.--History; Wrestling--History. Rise, fall of organization in head-to-head, no-holds-barred ratings war with WWE; how author helped shape sports entertainment industry into billion dollar business

(York Barbell), John D. Fair (1999). Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York Barbell. (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 420 p.). Bob Hoffman, York Barbell Company, Weight Lifting, Fitness.

Brett L. Abrams (2008). Capital Sporting Grounds: A History of Stadium and Ballpark Construction in Washington, D.C. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 290 p.). Nationals Park (Washington, D.C.) --History; Washington Nationals (Baseball team) --History; Stadiums --Washington (D.C.) --Design and construction --History. District's past stadiums, tracks, Olympics facilities with their political backdrops; stadium for expansion Washington Nationals baseball team cost more than $600 million; supporters said stadium would generate economic development; opponents decried waste of taxpayer money.

Dean V. Baim (1994). The Sports Stadium as a Municipal Investment. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 240 p.). Stadiums -- Economic aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Urban economics -- United States -- Case studies; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States -- Case studies.

Hugh Barty-King (1979). Quilt Winders and Pod Shavers: The History of Cricket Bat and Ball Manufacture. (London, UK: Macdonald and Jane's, 208 p.). Cricket equipment industry--Great Britain--History.

David J. Berri, Martin B. Schmidt, and Stacey L. Brook (2006). The Wages of Wins: Taking Measure of the Many Myths in Modern Sport. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 304 p.). Associate Professor of Economics (California State University, Bakersfield); Associate Professor of Economics (College of William and Mary); Associate Professor of Economics (University of Sioux Falls). Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States; Professional sports--Social aspects--United States. Many of most commonly held beliefs about sport.

David Browne (2004). Amped: How Big Air, Big Dollars, and a New Generation Took Sports to the Extreme. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 300 p.). Music Critic (Entertainment Weekly). Extreme sports--Economic aspects--United States. 

Jerry Crasnick (2005). License To Deal: A Season on the Run with a Maverick Baseball Agent. (Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 312 p.). Baseball reporter (ESPN.com's lead Insider). Sosnick, Matt; Major League Baseball (Organization); Sports agents--United States--Biography; Baseball players--United States.

Timothy Jon Curry, Kent Schwirian, and Rachael A. Woldoff (2004). High Stakes: Big Time Sports and Downtown Redevelopment. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 184 p.). Associate Professor of Sociology (Ohio State University); Professor Emeritus of Sociology (Ohio State University); Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology (West Virginia University). Sports--Social aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Professional sports--Social aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Sports--Economic aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Professional sports--Economic aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Community development--Ohio--Columbus; Urban renewal--Ohio--Columbus.  

Michael N. Danielson (1997). Home Team: Professional Sports and the American Metropolis. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 397 p.). Sports and state -- United States; Sports -- United States -- Sociological aspects; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States.

Francis X. Dealy, Jr. (1990). Win at Any Cost: The Sell Out of College Athletics. (New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 240 p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; Doping in sports -- United States.

William C. Dowling (2007). Confessions of a Spoilsport: My Life and Hard Times Fighting Sports Corruption at an Old Eastern University. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 208 p.). University Distinguished Professor of English and American Literature (Rutgers University). Rutgers University; National Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; College sports--Economic aspects--United States. When Rutgers joined Big East; Rutgers 1000 (students, alumni) set out to resist decline of their university.

Joseph Durso (1971). The All-American Dollar; The Big Business of Sports. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 294 p.). Sports--Economic aspects--United States.

Shari L. Dworkin and Faye Linda Wachs (2009). Body Panic: Gender, Health, and the Selling of Fitness. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 227 p.). Associate Professor of Medical Sociology in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences (University of California at San Francisco); Associate Professor of Sociology in the Department of Psychology and Sociology (California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona). Body image --United States; Advertising, Magazine --United States; Culture --United States; Gender identity --United States; Physical fitness --United States --Periodicals; Exercise --Psychological aspects; Body Image --United States; Advertising as Topic --trends --United States; Culture --United States; Gender Identity --United States; Periodicals as Topic --United States; Physical Fitness --psychology --United States. Ten years of men’s, women's health and fitness magazines to determine ways in which bodies are “made” in today’s culture; images, workouts, ideology being sold, contemporary links among health, morality, citizenship, identity; in-depth understanding of this pervasive cultural trend.

Charles C. Euchner (1993). Playing the Field: Why Sports Teams Move and Cities Fight to Keep Them. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 213 p.). Sports -- Political aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States -- Case studies; Sports franchises -- United States -- Location -- Case studies; Metropolitan areas -- United States -- Case studies.

David Falk (2009). The Bald Truth. (New York, NY: Pocket, 384 p.). Most Successful Agent in the Game of Basketball (represented more NBA first-round draft selections, lottery picks, Rookies-of-the-Year, All-Stars than anyone else). Falk, David, 1950-; Success in business; Sports --Economic aspects --United States. Inside look at business at its highest level; lessons learned from its champions, on and off court; business secrets that have fueled extraordinary success; how he negotiated lucrative contracts, learned from his mistakes, branded, marketed greatest basketball stars in history, other elite athletes, coaches.

Arthur A. Fleisher III, Brian L. Goff, and Robert D. Tollison (1992). The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in Cartel Behavior. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 190 p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association -- Finance; Cartels -- United States -- Case studies; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United States -- Case studies.

Kristine Fredriksson (1985). American Rodeo: From Buffalo Bill to Big Business. (College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 255 p.). Rodeos--West (U.S.)--History; Rodeos--Economic aspects--West (U.S.).

Sheldon Gallner (1974). Pro Sports: The Contract Game. (New York, NY: Scribner, 231 p.). Professional sports contracts--United States.

Vince Gennaro (2007). Diamond Dollars: The Economics of Winning in Baseball. (Hingham, MA: Maple Street Press, 250 p.). Former President Pepsico subsidiary. Major League Baseball (Organization); Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--United States--History. Win-revenue relationship as foundation: 1) How does winning affect revenues for each team? 2) What is a player's economic value to his team? 3) Why does berth in the postseason have great economic value? 4) What is the economic value of productive farm system? 5) Does competitive balance exist in baseball today?

Jerry Gorman, Kirk Calhoun ; with Skip Rozin (1994). The Name of the Game: The Business of Sports. (New York, NY: Wiley, 278 p.). Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; Professionalism in sports.

Kenneth M. Jennings (1990). Balls and Strikes: The Money Game in Professional Baseball. (New York, NY: Praeger, 273 p.). Collective bargaining--Baseball--United States--History.

Frank P. Jozsa, Jr. (2004). Sports Capitalism: The Foreign Business of American Professional Leagues. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 316 p.). Associate Professor of Economics and Business Administration (Pfeiffer University in Charlotte, North Carolina). Professional sports--United States--Marketing; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States. Contents: Major league baseball -- National Football League -- National Basketball Association -- National Hockey League -- Major league soccer.

--- (2006). Baseball, Inc.: The National Pastime as Big Business. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 284 p.). Associate Professor of Economics and Business Administration (Pfeiffer University in Charlotte, North Carolina). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--Social aspects--United States. Past and present commercial elements of organized baseball; dual roles, as competitive sport and profitable business.

--- (2006). Big Sports, Big Business: A Century of League Expansions, Mergers, and Reorganizations. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 181 p.). Associate Professor of Economics and Business Administration (Pfeiffer University). Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States; Sports franchises--United States. Expansions, mergers, relocations, transfers from 1870s to present; successes, failures in baseball, football, basketball, hockey, soccer, their effects on team competitiveness, market share, prosperity, impact on  communities in which they operate.

Frank P. Jozsa, Jr.; foreword by John Maxymuk (2010). Football Fortunes: The Business, Organization, and Strategy of the NFL. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.,242 p.). National Football League; Football --Economic aspects --United States. Growth of industry generating billions of dollars in revenue; intricacies of league’s expansions and mergers, territories, relocations; operation and organization of franchises; role of stadiums and markets; effect of the NFL on domestic, foreign affairs.

Alan M. Klein (2006). Growing the Game: The Globalization of Major League Baseball. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 280 p.). Professor of Sociology and Anthropology (Northeastern University). Baseball--Economic aspects; Globalization; Sports and globalization. Study of sport in  process of globalizing; ways in which Major League Baseball operates on world stage from Dominican Republic to South Africa to Japan.

Don Kowet (1977). The Rich Who Own Sports. (New York, NY: Random House, 271 p.). Sports team owners--United States--Biography.

Walter LaFeber (1999). Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 191). Cultural Imperialism, Transnational Companies. 

Paul R. Lawrence (1987). Unsportsmanlike Conduct: The National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Business of College Football. (New York, NY: Praeger, 173 p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; College sports -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States.

Eric M. Leifer (1995). Making the Majors: The Transformation of Team Sports in America. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 378 p.). Professional sports -- United States -- History; Sports teams -- United States -- History.

Richard A. Lipsey; with a foreword by Thomas B. Doyle (2006). The Sporting Goods Industry: History, Practices and Products. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 177 p.). President and CEO of the Sporting Goods Research Network Inc./dba SBRnet. Sporting goods industry--United States; Sporting goods industry--United States--History. Industry has moved far beyond equipment manufacture. Author offers insight into every major function of the sporting goods industry.

Michael E. Lomax (2003). Black Baseball Entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: Operating by Any Means Necessary. (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 222 p.). Teacher of Physical Education, Sports Studies (University of Georgia). African American baseball team owners--History--19th century; Baseball--United States--History--19th century; African American business enterprises--History--19th century; Entrepreneurship--United States--History--19th century.

Marc S. Maltby (1997). The Origins and Early Development of Professional Football. (New York, NY: Garland, 238 p.). Football--United States--History; Football--Social aspects--United States--History.

G. Richard McKelvey (2000). The MacPhails: Baseball's First Family of the Front Office. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 344 p.). MacPhail, Larry, 1890-1975; MacPhail, Lee; MacPhail, Andrew Bowen, 1953- ; Baseball managers -- United States -- Biography; Baseball -- United States -- Management.

Eds. Roger G. Noll and Andrew Zimbalist (1997). Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 525 p.). Sports franchises -- Economic aspects -- United States; Sports teams -- Economic aspects -- United States; Stadiums -- Economic aspects -- United States; Urban economics -- United States.

Kevin G. Quinn (2009). Sports and Their Fans: The History, Economics and Culture of the Relationship Between Spectator and Sport. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 259 p.). Associate Professor of Economics (St. Norbert College, De Pere, WI). Sports --Social aspects --United States; Sports spectators --United States; Sports --Moral and ethical aspects --United States; Sports --Economic aspects --United States. Role of sports in creation of mass culture, cheating, abuse of illegal drugs, strange and fascinating role that numbers play in sporting events, future of spectator sport.

James Quirk and Rodney D. Fort (1992). Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Team Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 538 p.). Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States.

--- (1999). Hard Ball: The Abuse of Power in Pro Team Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 233 p.). Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States; Professional sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States. 

Irving Rein, Philip Kotler, and Ben Shields (2006). The Elusive Fan: Reinventing Sports in a Crowded Marketplace. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 300 p.). Professor of Communication Studies (Northwestern University's School of Communication); S. C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management (Northwestern University); Doctoral Student in Communication studies (Northwestern University). Sports --Marketing; Sports --Economic aspects; Communication in marketing; Sports spectators --United States; Professional sports --United States. Business model centered on fan satisfaction, retention; transform sports product into  enduring brand that quickly adapts to changing market conditions.

Ed. Wilbur C. Rich (2000). The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities. (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 237 p.). Sports facilities -- Economic aspects -- United States; Sports facilities -- Political aspects -- United States.

Patrick Robinson with Nick Robinson (1993). Horsetrader: Robert Sangster and the Rise and Fall of the Sport of Kings. (London, UK: HarperCollins, 340 p.). Sangster, Robert; Race horses -- Breeding; Horse industry -- United States; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

Mitt Romney with Timothy Robinson (2004). Turnaround: Crisis, Leadership, and the Olympic Games. (Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 396 p.). Head of the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics Organizing Committee. Olympic Winter Games (19th : 2002 : Salt Lake City, Utah); Winter Olympics --Planning. Early 1999 - took over as CEO; revamped budget, kept costs down, marketed games to sponsors.

Mark S. Rosentraub (1999). Major League Losers: The Real Cost of Sports and Who's Paying for It. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 364 p.). Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; Sports teams -- United States -- Costs; Sports teams -- United States -- Finance; Cities and towns -- United States -- Economic conditions; Sports team owners -- United States.

Phil Schaaf (2004). Sports, Inc.: 100 Years of Sports Business: Event Evolution ... (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 394 p.). Sports Economic aspects; Sports Marketing. 

Gerald W. Scully (1995). The Market Structure of Sports. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 207 p.). Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; Sports administration -- United States; Sports -- United States -- Marketing.

Richard G. Sheehan (1996). Keeping Score: The Economics of Big-Time Sports. (South Bend, IN: Diamond Communications, 339 p.). Sports--Economic aspects--United States; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States.

Kenneth L. Shropshire; with a foreword by Sharon Pratt Kelly (1995). The Sports Franchise Game: Cities in Pursuit of Sports Franchises, Events, Stadiums, and Arenas. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 102 p.). Sports franchises -- United States; Sports franchises -- Economic aspects -- United States; Sports franchises -- Social aspects -- United States; Cities and towns -- United States -- Social conditions.

Kenneth L. Shropshire and Timothy Davis (2003). The Business of Sports Agents. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 206 p.). Sports agents--United States; Sports--Corrupt practices--United States; College sports--United States.

Murray A. Sperber (1998). Onward to Victory: The Crises That Shaped College Sports. (New York, NY: Holt, 578 p.). College sports--United States--History.

--- (2000). Beer and Circus: How Big-Time College Sports Is Crippling Undergraduate Education. (New York, NY: Holt, 322 p.). College sports--United States--History; College sports--Economic aspects--United States; College sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Universities and colleges--United States--Administration.

Leigh Steinberg with Michael D'Orso (1998). Winning with Integrity: Getting What You're Worth Without Selling Your Soul. (New York, NY: Villard, 239 p.). Sports Agent. Negotiation in business.

Neil J. Sullivan (1987). The Dodgers Move West: The Transfer of the Brooklyn Baseball Franchise to Los Angeles. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 252 p.). Los Angeles Dodgers (Baseball team) -- History; Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball team) -- History; Sports and state -- California; Baseball -- California -- Management; Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- Management.

--- (1990). The Minors: The Struggles and the Triumph of Baseball's Poor Relation from 1876 to the Present. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 307 p.). Baseball teams -- United States -- History -- 19th century; Baseball teams -- United States -- History -- 20th century.

--- (2001). The Diamond in the Bronx: Yankee Stadium and the Politics of New York. (New York. NY: Oxford University Press, 225 p.). Yankee Stadium (New York, N.Y.) -- History -- 20th century; Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- Political aspects; Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th century.

Stefan Szymanski, Andrew Zimbalist (2005). National Pastime: How Americans Play Baseball and the Rest of the World plays Soccer. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 263 p.). Professor of Economics and Strategy at the Tanaka Business School (Imperial College London); Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). Professional sports--Economic aspects--Cross-cultural studies; Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Soccer--Economic aspects. Cross-cultural comparison of two sports, mega-businesses they have become.

Stefan Szymanski (2009). Playbooks and Checkbooks: An Introduction to the Economics of Modern Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 248 p.). Professor of Economics, MBA Dean at the Cass Business School (City University London). Professional sports --Economic aspects: Sports --Economic aspects: Sports administration. World of sports through economics, world of economics through sports; core paradox of sports industry - would not survive if competitors obliterated each other to extinction, financially or otherwise; nothing to sell without rivals; how this unique economic truth plays out in sports world, both on, off field; how economics has guided antitrust, monopoly, cartel issues in sporting world; motivation provided by prize money, discrepancies in players' salaries, why incentive structure for professional athletes encourages them to cheat through performance-enhancing drugs, match fixing; how changes in media broadcasting allow owners, athletes to play to global audience, why governments continue to publicly fund sporting events (Olympics), despite almost certain financial loss.

Wray Vamplew (1988). Pay Up and Play the Game: Professional Sport in Britain, 1875-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 394 p.). Professional sports--Great Britain--History--19th century; Professional sports--Economic aspects--Great Britain; Professional sports--Great Britain--History--20th century.

Ted Vincent (1994). The Rise and Fall of American Sport: Mudville's Revenge. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 358 p. [rev. ed.]). Sports--United States--History.

Jay Weiner (2000). Stadium Games: Fifty Years of Big League Greed and Bush League Boondoggles. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 503 p.). Professional sports -- Economic aspects -- Minnesota -- Minneapolis; Stadiums -- Economic aspects -- Minnesota -- Minneapolis; Sports franchises -- Economic aspects -- Minnesota -- Minneapolis.

Ann E. Weiss (1993). Money Games: The Business of Sports. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 186 p.). Sports--Economic aspects--United States; Sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States; Professional sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States; Athletes--Professional ethics--United States; Sports--Economic aspects. 

David Whitford (1993). Playing Hardball: The High-Stakes Battle for Baseball's New Franchises. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 271 p.). National League of Professional Baseball Clubs; Baseball -- Economic aspects -- United States; Baseball teams -- United States -- Management; Sports franchises -- Location -- United States.

Mark Yost (2010). Varsity Green: A Behind the Scenes Look at Culture and Corruption in College Athletics. (Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 208 p.). Sports Journalist. College sports --Economic aspects --United States; College sports --Corrupt practices --United States. Conspicuous, high-revenue business of college sports; depth, breadth of influence, both financial and otherwise; how academic institutions capitalize on success of  athletic programs, role sports-based revenues play across campus; climate that big-money athletics has created over past decade; how corrupting influences that drive college athletics have affected every aspect of youth sports, seeped into communities.

Andrew Zimbalist (1999). Unpaid Professionals: Commercialism and Conflict in Big-Time College Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 252 p.). Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). College sports -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United States; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United States; College sports -- United States -- Management; College athletes -- United States.

--- (2003). May the Best Team Win: Baseball Economics and Public Policy. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 198 p.). Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). Major League Baseball (Organization); Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--Law and legislation--United States; Antitrust law--United States.

--- (2006). In the Best Interests of Baseball?: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). Selig, Allan H. (Allan Huber), 1934- ; Baseball--Management; Baseball commissioners. Selig redefined role of commissioner, shepherded transformation of industry into a business; brought owners together as partners.


Business History Links

A Brief History of Billiards and the Tools of the Trade                                 http://www.eaba.co.uk/articles/billiardsHistory/chapter1.html                 "Advances in the game of billiards and the equipment used to play the game occurred very much in parallel. This brief history is intended to chronicle the links between the two." Covers the period 1600-1930 and topics such as an early form of the game played with two wooden balls, the mace and the cue, types of cushions and chalk, and ivory and synthetic resin balls. From the English Amateur Billiards Association.

The Business of Baseball                                                                            http://www.businessofbaseball.com/                                         

A great contribution for anyone who cares about the history of baseball, this site includes key documents (contracts, court cases, etc.), data (player salaries, league attendance, franchise valuations, etc.), biographies, suggested readings, interviews, and more.

Centre for the International Business of Sport                                 http://www.coventry.ac.uk/researchnet/d/691                      

Based at Coventry University, the CIBS and its affiliates are primarily interested in researching the world of sport management. Visitors can learn about the scope of their work, their thematic research projects, and read their weblog. Scholars and others with an interest in this work will want to look over their working paper series. Recent papers have included "The Only Way Forward for African Sport?" and "The circumstances in which English football clubs become insolvent". Additionally, visitors can also check out their podcasts which feature commentary on such subjects as the "Financial aspects of football" (soccer), "Sport Marketing", and "David Beckham".

50 Years of Dodger Baseball, 1958-2008                                                      http://losangeles.dodgers.mlb.com/la/history/50th/index.jsp       

Details about golden anniversary celebration in 2008 of move of Dodgers baseball team from Brooklyn to Los Angeles. Features history of the team's move, other articles, trivia, event listings, video clips, opportunities for fan participation, other material related to celebration. From the official Major League Baseball website for the Los Angeles Dodgers.

Rodney Fort's Sports Economics: Sports Business Data                      http://www.rodneyfort.com/SportsData/BizFrame.htm               

Years of salary, attendance, and financial information for Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Football League, the National Hockey League, and English and European football associations - organized by sport (Rodney Fort, Professor, Program in Sport Management Division of Kinesiology, University of Michigan).

The Fortunate 50                                                                                    http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/more/specials/fortunate50/          

Profiles, compiled annually, of the 50 top-earning U.S. athletes. The "figures include salary, bonuses, winnings, endorsement money and appearance fees." Also includes a list of the 20 top-earning athletes from outside the U.S., and predictions of athletes who might make the top-50 list in the future. From Sports Illustrated.

The History of Fitness                                                                              http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/history.html           

Article on the history of physical fitness from primitive times through the 20th century. Includes discussion of exercise and fitness in ancient China, India, the ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, Europe, and the U.S. The U.S. sections cover President Theodore Roosevelt's physical fitness ideologies, physical education in public schools, fitness pioneer Jack LaLanne, Dr. Kenneth Cooper, and other exercise-related trends and people. Written by exercise science professors.

International Museum of the Horse
Founded in 1978, is the largest equestrian museum in the world (located on the grounds of the Kentucky Horse Park). The permanent exhibition, "Legacy of the Horse", traces the history of all horses into the 20th c. chronologically. Highlights of the collections include memorabilia of racing champions, to include the Calumet Farm Collections which contains 560 Thoroughbred racing trophies, riding accoutrements and equipment.

Museum of British Surfing                                                        http://www.museumofbritishsurfing.org.uk/                           

Europe’s first surf museum - formal opening in North Devon in the summer of 2011; project began in 2003, has staged exhibitions all over the UK, seen by around 200,000 people. 2009 - became a Registered Charity (1131433), established itself as the national body responsible for looking after Britain’s surfing heritage that dates more than two centuries; most extensive and historically significant collection of vintage surfboards, literature and memorabilia on public display and for academic research in Europe.

National Sporting Library                                                                   http://www.nsl.org/                                          

State-of-the-art, non-lending research facility dedicated to the world of horse sports, shooting, and fishing. It is open to the public and admission is free; 16,000-book collection covers a wide range of horse and field sports, including foxhunting, Thoroughbred racing, dressage, eventing, steeplechasing, polo, coaching, shooting, and angling. Over 4,000 rare books from the sixteenth century onwards.

The North American Society for Sport History                                   http://www.nassh.org/NASSH_CMS/index.php                                       Committed to the promotion of research in and teaching of the history of sport, exercise and physical activity through our annual conferences and our internationally renowned Journal of Sport History. We are committed to sharing ideas and information about the study of sport and exercise across time and space and in diverse historical context. We invite you to share our passion for history and sport with a growing community of scholars and practitioners.

Ski Museum of Maine                                                                          http://www.skimuseumofmaine.org/

Founded in 1995 by Don Hayes of Ellsworth, Don Fletcher of Orono, and Greg Foster of Cumberland; established with the mission to “preserve and publicize the business of skiing in Maine, while celebrating Maine’s ski history and heritage,” the board of directors has undertaken a number of projects to identify and preserve our skiing heritage and to share this heritage with the younger generations.

Sports Business Institute (University of Southern California               http://www.marshall.usc.edu/web/sbi.cfm?doc_id=7352         

October 17, 2005 -- In recognition of the dramatic rise in the popularity of sports-related businesses, the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business established the Sports Business Institute, believed to be the nation's first all-encompassing sports business center at a premier academic institution; will provide a center for scholarly research and executive education programs, as well as offer seminars and symposiums for industry participants and stakeholders. A board of advisors consisting of noted sports business leaders will guide the Institute's strategic direction and activities.

The Sports Economist                                                                     http://www.thesportseconomist.com/                         

Intended to be a depository of economic thinking on issues in sport, and to a lesser extent, economics in general.

Surfing Heritage Foundation                                                              http://www.surfingheritage.com                                  

Preserves the history of surfing for future generations. We collect, preserve, and document, surf craft, print, photos, oral histories, art, cinematography, and surfing memorabilia. Through education and outreach we tell surfing's story and bring its rich lore to life.

Vermont Ski Museum                                                                      http://www.vermontskimuseum.org                                         

To Collect, Preserve and Celebrate Vermont's Skiing History.


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