Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Retail - Department Stores
business biographies  

May 2, 1670 - England's King Charles II granted charter to "Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading  into Hudson's Bay"; trading monopoly in Hudson Bay drainage basin; March 2006 - acquired by The InterTech Group Inc. (North Charleston, SC) for $1.1billion; taken private; 2008 - Anita Zucker (widow) became first woman chief executive, or governor, in company’s 338-year history; July 2008 - acquired by NRDC Equity Partners (owners of Lord & Taylor).

1778 - Thomas Clark established Flint & Clark, drapers store on Wigmore Street in London; sold expensive fabrics, bonnets, gloves, parasols; December 25, 1813 - formed partnership with William Debenham, named Clark and Debenham; 1851 - William Debenham Jr., Clement Freebody (brother-in-law) joined business (Clark retired), renamed Debenham, Son and Freebody; 1863 - renamed Debenham and Freebody; 1905 - original draper's shop transformed into full department store; incorporated as Debenhams Ltd.; 1919 - merged with Marshall & Snellgrove; 1920 - acquired Harvey Nichols (Knightsbridge retailer); 1928 - went public; Debenham family involvement ended; 1950 - largest department store group in UK (84 companies, 110 stores); 1966 - introduced central buying; 1976 - acquired Brown’s of Chester; early 1980s - holding company renamed Debenhams Ltd. (in use since expansion in 1910s); 1985 - acquired by Burton Group; 1993 – significant increase in number of stores; 1997 - opened first international franchise store in Bahrain; 1998 - became independent public company, 106 stores across the UK (mid-range, own-label products, brand-name concession spots); 2003 - acquired by Baroness Retail Ltd. (consortium of CVC Capital Partners, Texas Pacific Group, Merrill Lynch Private Equity); May 2006 - became independent public company; September 2006 - acquired nine stores from Roches (Ireland), rebranded as Debenhams stores.

1813 - Benjamin Harvey opened linen shop in terraced house (on the corner of Knightsbridge and Sloane Street) in London; 1820 - Elizabeth Harvey (daughter) inherited business with understanding that she go into partnership with Colonel Nichols (company's silk buyer); renamed Harvey Nichols; sold Oriental carpets, silks, luxury goods, linens; 1919 - acquired by Debenhams; 1985 - became part of Burton Group; October 1991 - acquired by Dickson Concepts (International) Ltd., and embarked on major refurbishment; April 1996 - Harvey Nichols Group plc went public; 2000 - opened first overseas store in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; opened first small format store (Mailbox centre in Birmingham); January 2003 - acquired by Dr. Dickson Poon (Hong Kong).

April 7, 1818 - Henry Sands Brooks (45) opened H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. on the Northeast corner of Catharine and Cherry Streets in New York City; 1833 - eldest son, Henry, Jr. assumed control of company (after Brooks's death); 1845 - introduced first ready-to-wear suits in America; 1850 - Henry's sons Daniel, John, and Elisha inherited family business = Brooks Brothers; 1850 - Golden Fleece symbol adopted as company's trademark; 1896 - John Brooks, founder's grandson, introduced button-down polo collar shirt; April 20, 1915 - Brooks Brothers Corporation registered "Brooks Brothers" trademark first used in 1856 (boys and men's clothing); 2001 - acquired by Retail Brand Alliance.

mainImg Brooks Brothers (l-r): Edward, Elisha, Daniel, John (http://demandware.edgesuite.net/aahx_prd/on/demandware.static/Sites-brooksbrothers-Site/Sites-brooksbrothers-Library/default/v1367208993984/images/timeline/tl-1833.png)

September 1, 1823 - Alexander T. Stewart opened A.T. Stewart and Company at 283 Broadway in lower Manhattan in New York City (12.5 feet wide by 30 feet deep, average size at time); September 1846 - opened "The Marble Dry Goods Palace", first U.S. department store, 280 Broadway at Chambers Street in New York City; 1862 - leased part of The Randall farm in Greenwich Village (Broadway between 9th and 10th streets on the East Side), built store known as the "Cast Iron Palace," all cast iron and glass, with a large glass dome over a central court (bought in 1896 by Wannamaker).

May 2, 1826 - Samuel Lord opened first store at 47-49 Catherine Street in Manhattan (gone by 1912); 1838 - George Washington Taylor (Lord's wife's cousin) joined firm as partner; February 1914 - new store established at 38th Street and Fifth Avenue; 1916 - founding member of American Dry Goods Co.; November 16, 1926 - Lord & Taylor Corporation registered "Lord & Taylor" trademark first used May 2, 1826 (dry goods consisting of piece goods of silk, cotton, wool, or combinations therof); 1946- first major store on Fifth Avenue to name woman as President (Dorothy Shaver); 1986 - acquired by May Company; August 30, 2005 - acquired by Federated Department Stores; June 22, 2006 - acquired by  NRDC Equity Partners, LLC (National Realty & Development Corp. acquires operating companies in  retail, leisure, lodging, commercial real estate sectors) for $1.2 billion; oldest retail store in New York.

1834 - Charles Henry Harrod set up wholesale grocer in Stepney, in London’s East End, special interest in tea; 1849 - took over small shop in new district of Knightsbridge (on site of current store) to escape filth of inner city, to capitalize on trade to Great Exhibition of 1851 in nearby Hyde Park;   single room, two assistants, messenger boy; Charles Digby Harrod (son) built business into thriving store, sold medicines, perfumes, stationery, fruit and vegetables; 1880 - expanded into adjoining buildings, employed 100 staff; December 1883 - burnt to ground; fulfilled all Christmas orders, made  record profit; rebuilt; 1889 - went public; 1894 - first sale or "Winter Clearance"; 1898 - introduced world’s first escalator (brandy at top to revive nervous customers), shortened working hours for 200 staff, devised plan to build world’s most luxurious department store; 1901 - building construction began, designed by architect of Claridge’s Hotel C.W. Stephens; 1959 - acquired by House of Fraser; 1967 - 'Way In' boutique opened, brought Carnaby Street to Harrods; 1971 - black marble Perfumery Hall opened; 1972 - white marble Cosmetics Hall counterpart opened; March 11, 1985 - Mohamed Al Fayed acquired House of Fraser Group for £615 million.

1840 - John Simons (17) opened dry goods store, La Maison Simons, near Porte St-Jean in Quebec City, Quebec; sold products imported from England, Scotland; 1870 - moved to 20 côte de la Fabrique, became fixture in heart of Old Quebec; Gordon Simons (son) took over; 1952 - Donald Simons took over, transformed business into department store, leader in popularizing fashion; 1962 - opened second store; 1965 - opened department Contemporaine for women; 1999 - Peter and Richard Simons (Donald's sons) took over; opened stores in Montreal.

1841 - Eben Jordan, Benjamin L. Marsh opened Jordan Marsh in Boston; 1935 - became one of founders of Allied Stores Corporation; 1986 - acquired by Campeau Corporation (Montreal, QU); February 1992 - former Allied Stores Corporation merged into a new public company, Federated Department Stores, Inc.; 1996 - last of Jordan Marsh stores renamed Macy's.

Eben D. Jordan - Jordan, Marsh  (http://books.google.com/books?id=8qUTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA162&img=1&zoom=3&hl= en&sig=ACfU3U3N2PGCJ0SrKKuN3fKlCUArD4ynAg&w=575)

1842 - Alan Gimbel opened Palace of Trade Vincennes, IN; 1887 - Isaac and Jacob Gimbel opened first store in Milwaukee; 1894 - opened large department store in Philadelphia;  1910 - opened store in New York City in Herald Square near Macy's (Isaac Gimbel as manager, President); 1922 - organized Gimbel Bros., Inc.; 1923 - acquired Saks and Company; 1930 - sales of $123 million, 20,000 employees; 1973 - acquired by B. A. T. Industries PLC for $200 million; 1987 - last of Gimbel stores closed.

Isaac Gimbel - Gimbel Brothers  (http://www.historyforsale.com/productimages/thumbnails/251390.jpg)

1842 - Scottish immigrant George Turnball established dry goods business in Boston, MA; 1855 - Scotsmen Robert and John Gilchrist, store's former clerks, took over, formed Gilchrist Company Dry Goods Company; 1901 - renamed Gilchrist Company; 1970s - closed.

1848 - Aristide Boucicaut, unemployed, suggested  partnership to Videau brothers who owned a small retailing stall in rue du Bac, called Bon Marche ('good deal'); 1863 - rebuffed for his aggressive commercial ideas; acquired Videaus' interest in business; September 9,1869 - first stone laid for expansion into a department store with functional architecture (completed 1887).

1851 - Simon Lazarus, ordained rabbi, opened Lazarus store in Columbus, OH with capital of less than $3000, in space less than 20 x 50 feet, staff of one clerk; 1881 - 22 clerks employed; 1899 - name changed to F.&R. Lazarus (after sons Fred and Ralph); 1929 - formed core of Federated Department Stores.

Simon Lazarus - Lazarus  (http://www.wosu.org/archive/lazarus/images/family_tree/simon_1.jpg)

Fred, Ralph Lazarus - F & R Lazarus (http://www.wosu.org/archive/lazarus/images/family_tree/fred_ralph.jpg)

1853 - Frank D. Bullock, John Luther Jones became haberdashers to San Francisco gentlemen of newfound wealth; emphasis on luxury fabrics, finest in tailoring; 1982 - started catalog (about $20 million in sales); August 1998 - acquired by Saks Fifth Avenue for $25 million; 2000 - closed; September 2001 -  acquired by Eric  Goodwill (son of former owner Sidney Goodwill), Spencer Hays (chairman of Individualized Apparel Group, clothing manufacturer)

1854 - Scottish immigrants Samuel Carson, John T. Pirie opened dry goods store in Amboy, IL (headquarters of Illinois Central Railroad); 1856 - George and Robert Scott emigrated from Scotland, joined Carson and Pirie in business; 1890 - name changed to Carson Pirie Scott & Co.; 1867 - Andrew MacLeish established firm's retail department store; September 1904 - acquired State St., Chicago store from Schlesinger & Meyer; 1989 - acquired by P. A. Bergner & Co., Milwaukee-based subsidiary of a Swiss company; 1997 - acquired by Proffitt's Inc. of Knoxville, TN; March 2006 - acquired by Bon Ton Stores, Inc.

1857 - Aaron Meier (26), German immigrant, rented 35 X 50 foot space, began selling dry goods at 137 Front Street in Portland, OR; 1873 - Emil Frank became partner, name changed to Meier & Frank; 1888 - Emil left partnership; Sigmund Frank (brother) made partner; 1889 - Frank became sole manager, company incorporated; 1910 - Abe Meier (son) assumed control; largest retail outlet west of Mississippi, one of largest stores in nation; 1964 - acquired one-third interest in Meier & Frank (Oregon's largest department-store chain); 1966 - acquired by May Company; August 30, 2005 - acquired by Federated department Stores; 2006 - name changed to Macy's.

October 27, 1858 - Captain Rowland H. Macy (36) opened Macy's department store in New York City, with financial backing of Caleb Dustin Hunking, on corner of 14th Street and 6th Avenue (had started Rowland Hussey's Wholesale and Retail Dry Goods Store in 1851 in Haverhill, MA, hosted first parade on July 4, 1854, store failed); immediate success after string of seven business failures - first day sales totaled $11.06; $90,000.00 gross sales in first year; 1887 - Isidore and Nathan Straus became part owners; 1898 - bought full control; 1902 - built new store at Herald Square (9 stories, 33 elevators, 4 escalators, pneumatic tube system); proclaimed "the largest store on earth"; June 7, 1910 - R. H. Macy & Co. registered "Macy's trademark first used in 1858 (men's [youths' and boys'] coats, vests, trousers and overcoats, ladies' [misses' and children's] coats, cloaks, raincoats, inner and outer suits, outer skirts and trimmed hats, etc.); 1924 - Macy's Herald Square location became largest store in world, following completion of Seventh Avenue addition.

1861 - David Hausemann founded business to manufacture mirrors, mantels and fine wood work and to import European paintings and art novelties; 1863 - Solomon Gump (brother-in-law) acquired an interest; 1864 - acquired entire business; 1871 - Gustave Gump (brother) joined company, renamed S. & G. Gump; 1906 - Abraham Livingston ("A. L.") Gump (son) took over as head of business; March 1947 - Richard Benjamin Gump (43), artist and entrepreneur, assumed control; oldest continuously operating gallery in northern California.

1861 - John Wanamaker, Nathan Brown (brother-in-law) opened Oak Hall Clothing Bazaar, men's clothing store in Philadelphia, PA; 1876 - converted abandoned Pennsylvania Railroad freight depot into multipurpose clothing, specialties store called Grand Depot (intended to resemble central market like London's Royal Exchange or Paris' Les Halles); featured 129 circular counters that ringed central gas-lighted tent for demonstration of women's ballroom fashions; 1874 - printed first-ever, copyrighted store advertisement; 1976 - opened in-store restaurant; December 26, 1878 - installed first electric lights in an American store; 1889 - added elevators; 1896 - acquired A.T. Stewart Cast Iron Palace in New York.

1862 - Quakers Justus Clayton Strawbridge, Isaac Hallowell Clothier founded dry goods business in Philadelphia; 1868 - opened first store at northeast corner of Market and 8th Streets in Center City Philadelphia; 1996 - 13 department stores acquired by May Department Stores Company.

Isaac Hallowell Clothier - Strawbridge & Clothier (http://books.google.com/books?id=QGgUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA199&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U0MTcr09Iy4Ax8hz-vQ4NNA1f-UsA&w=575)

1864 - John Lewis opened first shop on Oxford Street; first day sales = 16 shillings and fourpence.

1864 - J Hepworth & son, Gentleman's Tailors, established in Leeds; 1981 - bought the chain of Kendalls rainwear shops to develop a Womenswear group of shops called NEXT; 1986 - company changes name to NEXT plc.

1865 - Benjamin Altman opened B. Altman & Co. dry goods store on Third Avenue and 10th Street, New York;  later acquired his brother Morris's business on Sixth Ave; 1906 - moved to Fifth Ave. and 34th St.; formed  firm of B. Altman & Co. with Michael Friedsam; first large-scale department store on Fifth Avenue (created August 2, 1824); building (architects Trowbridge and Livingston) designed to blend into grand residential structures that dominated area at that time; no outside signs for 25 years in deference to high-class residential neighbors; 1913 - Col. Friedsam became president; Benjamin Altman established Altman Foundation; $20,000,000 represented by his art collection given to Metropolitan Museum, New York; 1987 - controlling interest acquired by L. J.  Hooker Corporation, its CEO, George Herscu; August 1989 - filed for bankruptcy;  1995 - Oxford University Press moved into building; 1996 - New York Public Library’s Science, Industry, and Business Library took over space.

Benjamin Altman - B. Altman & Co. (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/10/21/realestate/21scap190.1.jpg)

1865 - Ferdinando Bocconi opened Alle Città d'Italia, first emporium of Italian clothes made for men, in Via Santa Radegonda in Milan; 1877 - moved next to Piazza del Duomo, Bocconi brothers (Luigi and Ferdinando) opened Aux Villes d'Italie, Italy's first department store, focused exclusively on ready-to-wear dresses; sold Italian textiles, clothing, furniture, opened branches in several Italian cities; 1887 - opened first department store in Rome; exposed clothes in plain sight, allowed customers to walk around shop and "watch and desire"; 1917 - chain of stores about to go out of business; acquired by entrepreneur Senatore and Romualdo Borletti; renamed La Rinascente ("she who is born again") to symbolize rebirth of store, rebirth of Italy at end of war which caused widespread poverty; 1961 - launched Supermercati Sma, supermarket chain; late 1960s - majority interest acquired by Agnelli family (Fiat); 1972 - pioneered hypermarket format in Italy, launched Citta Mercati, or City Market; 1981 - majority interest acquired by construction group De Angeli Frua; 1984 - interest re-acquired by Agnelli family (transferred to IFIL holding); 1988 - acquired supermarket rival Sigros e Sagea; early 1990s - about 800 stores; 1996 -food sales represented more than 70% of total sales; 1997 - IFIL transferred ownership stake to Eurofind, joint venture with France's Auchan; 2002 - IFIl, Auchan bid to take full control of La Rinascente; 2004 - food operations, including supermarket chains, acquired by Auchan; March 2005 - acquired by investment consortium led by Borletti family (under Maurizio Borletti, grandson of Romualdo Borletti) for $1.2 billion; 2011 - top luxury department store in Italy, chain of 12 department stores located in Italian major cities; May 27, 2011 - acquired by Central Retail Corporation, Thailand's largest retail chain, for 10 billion baht (260 million euros, $291 billion).

Ferdinando Bocconi - La Rinascente (http://www.unibocconi.it/wtmrep/mostra/img/008.gif)

January 4, 1865 - Marshall Field, junior partner at Cooley, Wadsworth & Company, Levi Leiter became business partners with Potter Palmer, prosperous dry-goods merchant in Chicago; formed Field, Palmer, & Leiter; 1867 - Palmer's interests acquired by Field, Leiter; name changed to Field, Leiter & Company; October 12, 1868 - opened first store on State Street (in building built by Potter); 1871 - destroyed in Great Chicago Fire; 1879 - acquired new Singer Building at State and Washington Streets; 1881 - Leiter retired, renamed Marshall Field and Company; 1990 - acquired by Dayton Hudson; 2004 - acquired by May Department Stores; 2005 - acquired by Federated Department Stores. 

Potter Palmer - Field, Palmer, & Leiter  (http://illinoisreview.typepad.com/illinoisreview/images/potter55_1.jpg)

February 14, 1865 - Abraham Abraham, 22 year old Bavarian immigrant, opened 25 foot wide dry goods store, with friend, Joseph Wechsler, on Fulton St., Brooklyn; named Wechsler & Abraham; September 1, 1893 - Weschsler interest acquired by Isidor and Nathan Straus, renamed retail dry goods firm Abraham & Straus (Simon F. Rothschild also a partner); January 18, 1995 - Federated Department Stores announced merger of Abraham & Straus with Macys, Bloomingdales, Sterns chains; April 30, 1995 -  all of remaining A&S stores coverted to Macy's stores.

[Nathan Straus, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left] Isadore and Nathan Straus (bought Wechsler & Abraham)  (http://www.macysinc.com/Assets/img/history/his_01.jpg)

1867 - Andrew Saks, street peddler from Philadelphia, and Isador Saks opened Saks & Company, men's clothing shop in Washington, DC; 1902 - opened store in New York City on Broadway and Sixth Avenue, between 34th and 33rd Streets (closed in 1965); 1912 - Horace Saks (son) became president; 1923 - merged with Gimbel Brothers for $8 million in Gimbel’s Brothers stock; created one of earliest regional department store chains in United States; September 15, 1924 - Horace Saks, Bernard Gimbel opened Saks Fifth Avenue, uptown store next to St. Patrick's Cathedral; 1925 - Adam Long Gimbel (32, grandson of Adam Gimbel) took control; February 7, 1956 - Saks & Company registered "Saks Fifth Avenue" trademark first used September 15, 1924 (all articles of wearing apparel for men and boys, and for women, misses, children and infants, exclusive of boots and shoes and other items of outer footwear); 1973 - acquired by B.A.T. Industries PLC; 1990 - acquired by Investcorp S.A.; 1992 - created first outlet store known as Clearinghouse; 1995 - renamed "Off 5th"; Saks Holdings, Inc. made public stock offering; September 1998 - acquired by Proffitt’s (Birmingham, AL); renamed Saks, Incorporated; 2004 - 63 Saks stores; May 2005 - Proffitt’s and McRae’s department store chains for $622 million sold to Belk, Inc.

May 28, 1867 - Morris Rich founded M. Rich Dry Goods general store in Atlanta, GA; 1871 - renamed M. Rich & Co.; 1876 - renamed M. Rich & Bros. (3 brothers); 1924 - became simply Rich's.

October 16, 1868 - America's first department store "ZCMI" (Zion's Co-Operative Mercantile Institution) opened in Salt Lake City, UT; majority owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; December 1999 - acquired by  May Department Stores.

1869 - Timothy Eaton opened  T. Eaton Co. Limited, dry goods store at 178 Yonge Street, Toronto, ON; 1884 - launched mail-order catalogue; 1889 - opened first Eaton’s factory in Toronto store; 1930 - generated 60% of all department store sales in Canada (10.6% in 1997); 1999 - went bankrupt; assets acquired by Sears.

1869 - Colonel Henry Mansfield Cook, Mississippi veteran of Civil War, opened Cook Mercantile Company in Centerville, TX; 1874 - Cook, Thomas W. Cochran (son-in-law) established H.M. Cook & Company; 1876 - sold dry goods, hardware, drugs, coffins, lumber; 1884 - moved to Belton, TX; 1896 - Thomas A. Cook (son) joined business, renamed Cook, Cochran, & Company; 1904 - Thomas Cook's interest acquired by Harry T. Cochran (son), Jesse S. Blair (son-in-law); renamed T.W. Cochran and Company; 1910 - Arthur H. Potts (Cochran son-in-law) became a partner; 1917 - renamed Cochran, Blair and Potts Department Store; 1938 - dissolved; became partnership owned by members of Cochran, Blair, Potts families; 1970 - acquired by Roy and Jean Potts; 1977 - incorporated; 2011 - sixth generation of family ownership; seventh generation joined business.

1872 - Lyman and Joseph Bloomingdale founded  Bloomingdale Brothers Great East Side Bazaar on 56th Street and Third Avenue, Manhattan; first day’s sales were $3.68; 1886 - moved to new store at 59th Street and Lexington Avenue; 1929 - store covered an entire city block.

1875 - Arthur Lasenby Liberty opened shop selling ornaments, fabric and objets d'art from Japan and the East; 1884 - introduced costume department; 1939 - Liberty of London Prints, wholesale company, formed.

Arthur Lasenby Liberty - Liberty of London  (http://www.thelee.org.uk/history/Arthur%20Liberty.jpg)

July 13, 1875 - David Brown of Lebanon , NJ received a U.S. patent for "Improvement in Apparatus for Transmission of Goods, Packages, etc." (first cash carrier system); February 1879 - first installed at ladies' furnishing store of William S. Lamson in Lowell, MA; two overhead wires with endless rope pulleys moved small basket between sales clerk and cashier; 1881 - Lamson began manufacturing cash carrier systems; January 1882 - incorporated Lamson Cash Railway Company.

1877 - Edward and George Butler established Butler Brothers in Boston as a wholesaler selling general and variety-store merchandise by mail; 1878 - inaugurated the "five cent" counter plan to attract customers to buy all lines of wares under one roof (beginning of department store concept), issued comprehensive catalogue, sent to its customers instead of employing traveling salesman; early 20th century - served about 100,000 customers through the United States, largest firm of its type in country; 1927 - formed Ben Franklin Stores, chain of franchised variety stores (Sam Walton bought store in Newport, AR in 1945); 1936 - about 2,600 Ben Franklin stores, mostly in small towns; 1950s - Butler Bros. approached $120 million a year in wholesale, retail sales;1959 - divested Ben Franklin stores to City Products Corporation (OH; acquired by Household Finance Corp. in 1965).

Edward B. Butler - Butler Brothers  (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/lucile/publishers/butler/EB%20Butler%20Bio.JPG)

1877 - David May opened first store (The May Department Stores Company) in Leadville, CO, a silver-mining boom town; 1905 - moved headquarters to St. Louis, MO; 1910 - May Department Stores Company incorporated; 1986 - acquired Associated Dry Goods Corporation (Lord & Taylor); 1988 - acquired Foley's (Houston), Filene's (Boston); 1999 - 25th year of record sales, earnings; 2004 - acquired 62-store Marshall Field's chain from Target Corporation for $3.2 billion deal (included nine Mervyn's locations in Minneapolis, MN); August 3, 2005 - acquired by Federated Department Stores for $11 billion in stock; nation's second largest department store chain with over 1,000 stores, $30 billion in annual sales.

1877 - Mary Ann Cohen Magnin, an accomplished seamstress and lace maker, opened department store in San Francisco (named for husband, Isaac Magnin, former wood carver and gilder in a picture-framing shop in London); successfully promoted 'salon' concept of retailing (no racks, couches for customers, saleswomen brought dresses on hangers); 1948 - opened in Timothy Pflueger-designed "The Marbe Lady" at Stockton and Geary Streets in San Francisco (now Macy's); 1944 - merged with Bullock's; 1964 - acquired by Federated Department Stores; January 15, 1995 - business ceased.

1880 - Everett Wilber Hale, Prentiss Cobb Hale founded The Criterion, dry goods business, in Sacramento, CA; name changed to Hale Bros.; 1898 - incorporated; 1950 - merged Broadway Stores, formed Broadway-Hale Stores; 1965 - West's largest department-store group (1964 sales of $219 million); 1974 - name changed to Carter Hawley Hale.

1881 - Joseph Lowthian Hudson (35) opened mens' and boys' clothing store in Detroit in direct competition with his former employer, C.R. Mabley; 1950s - third largest retailer in country; March 22, 1954 - opened world's first shopping center in Southfield, MI (complex grew to more than 125 stores ); January 1983 - downtown Detroit store closed after 102 years.

1881 - William Filene (born Wilhelm Katz) founded clothing store at 10 Winter Street in Boston, MA; 1882 - opened the Guillaume Glove Store at 4 Winter Street; 1890 - consolidated Winter Street stores in five story building at 445-447 Washington Street; specialized in women’s ready-to-wear apparel, accessories; renamed William Filene and Sons Company; 1899 - organized Filene Cooperative Association (FCA) for employees; 1904 - expanded to half city block (445-463 Washington Street), carried ready-to-wear garments for women, young girls; September 3, 1912 - opened purpose-built store (designed by Daniel Burnham, nationally prominent architect), carried ready-to-wear garments, accessories for all ages of both sexes; drew over 235,000 people; 1929 - took up whole city block; became internationally regarded model of employer/employee relations (engaged employees as collaborators), innovative merchandizing; became one of founding members of Federated Department Stores, Inc.; April 1988 - acquired by May Department Stores; August 30, 2005 - May merged with Federated Department Stores; September 2006 - dissolved, replaced by Macy's.

May 14, 1881 - Rudolph Karstadt opened first Tuch-, Manufaktur- und Konfektionsgeschäft (Cloth, Manufacture, and Mass Production Business Karstadt) in his father's name in Wismar, Germany; 1884 - became sole owner, opened second store in Lübeck; 1900 - acquired 13 stores from brother (in financial difficulty); 1906 - 24 department stores in northern Germany; 1912 - opened first store in major city, Hamburg; May 19, 1920 - went public; owned over 30 shops in whole of Germany; merged with Theodor Althoff AG (founded 1885); 1931 - Rudolph Karstadt AG owned 89 stores throughout German Reich; 1939 - pre-war peak: 67 stores (about 260,000 sq. meters of sales space), sales of 299.7 million Reichsmark; 1948 - became part of Intercontinentale Warenhausgruppe (Lausanne, Switzerland); 1956 - sales exceeded 1 billion DM for first time; 1963 - renamed Karlstadt AG; 1977 - acquired 51.2% of Neckermann Versand AG; 1988 - sales of 14.3 billion DM; 1994 - acquired department store chain Hertie Waren- und Kaufhaus GmbH (80 stores, including KaDeWe); 1999 - merged with Schickedanz Handelswerte GmbH & Co. KG, formed KarstadtQuelle AG; July 1, 2007 - renamed Arcandor AG.

Rudolph Karstadt - Tuch-, Manufaktur- und Konfektionsgeschäft (http://geschichtspuls.de/wp-content/uploads/2009/b-portraet-rudolph-karstadt.jpg)

1884 - Michael Marks opened stall at Leeds Kirkgate Market; 1894 - 12 locations; formed partnership with Thomas Spencer, former cashier from wholesale company Isaac J. Dewhirst; invested £300; 1903 - Marks and Spencer Ltd registered as firm with capital of 30,000 £1 shares (split equally between two founders); July 1905 - Spencer died; October 1907 - Simon Marks (son) joined company; William Chapman, executor of Spencer estate, named Chairman; February 1914 - bought London Penny Bazaar Company; 1915 - Israel Sieff, very close friend of Simon Marks, elected to Board of Directors; 1916 - Simon Marks (28) became Chairman; 1926 - started buying goods directly from manufacturers; November 1930 - flagship store opened at Marble Arch, London (located in basement, ground floor of newly erected office block); 1931 - introduced food department, sold produce and canned goods; 1934 - established Scientific Research Lab to pre-test garments, research innovative new fabrics; first research lab of any British retailer; 1935 - opened first Cafe Bar in Leeds (82 cafe bars by 1942; gradually phased out in 1950s); Marcus Sieff (son) joined company; 1939 - 234 stores; 1948 - established Food Technology department; 1956 - all goods sold under St Michael label; 1959 - first retailer to introduce No Smoking rules in stores; 1964 - Israel Sieff became Chairman; 1970 - 'Sell By Dates' introduced; 1972 - Marcus Sieff became Chairman; 1975 - opened store on Boulevard Haussman in Paris, first in Europe (closed in 2001); 1985 - Christmas Hampers tested for first time in 30 stores; 1988 - acquired Brook Brothers, American clothing company (sold in 2002), Kings Supermarkets, American food chain (sold in 2006); May 17, 2004 - Phillip Green (Revival Acquisitions Limited) launched takeover attempt; May 31, 2004 - Stuart Rose appointed Chief Executive; pushed business forward with focus on quality, value, service, innovation, trust (named Chairman in June 2008).

1885 - Linton Miller, Webster Rhoads, Simon Gerhart opened Miller, Rhoads, & Gerhart, dry goods store, in Richmond, VA; 1890 - name changed to Miller & Rhoads; marked all goods with set, fixed price; shoppers could return items for any reason, no questions asked; 1906 - incorporated; became Richmond's largest department store; first Richmond store to install electric lighting, electric elevator, escalator; 1930s - first large store in America to be completely air-conditioned; 1967 - merged with Julius Garfinkel & Co. ( Washington, DC), specialty chain Brooks Brothers, formed Garfinckel, Brooks Brothers, Miller & Rhoads, Inc.; 1982 - acquired by Allied Stores; 1987 - Miller & Rhoads (21 stores) acquired by Philadelphia developer Kevin Donohue, store management; began to renovate stores, plan major expansion; 1989 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1990 - 4 stores acquired by May Department Stores Company for about $22.7 million; remaining stores closed.

1885 - Theodor Althoff, fabric merchant, took over Kurz-, Woll- und Weibwarengeschaft (haberdashery, linens, woolen goods shop) from widoewed mother in Dulmen; 1890 - introduced central purchasing; 1910 - 11 stores; 1920 - merged with Rudolph Karstadt AG.

1887 - Henry Siegel, Frank H. Cooper, Isaac Keim established Siegel, Cooper & Co. in Chicago; 1900 - employed about 2,000 people; 1901 - formed syndicate of stores (Siegel-Cooper's stores, Simpson-Crawford-Simpson in Manhattan, Schlesinger and Mayer in Chicago); 1913-1914 - reorganized, with John Claflin's 40 stores (H.B. Claflin and Co., Lord & Taylor, Stewart & Co., Hengerer's), into Associated Dry Goods Corp. (Lord & Taylor largest, most profitable division); October 1986 - acquired by May Department Stores.

May 29, 1888 - William Henry Belk (26) opened New York Racket, small bargain store (22 by 70 feet, about 1,500 square feet total), in Monroe, NC; started with $750 in savings, $500, 10% interest loan from local widow, about $3,000 worth of goods taken on consignment from bankrupt store; paid off debts, netted $3,300 profit in less than seven months; 1891 - Dr. John Belk, brother, left medical profession, became partner in the store, became Belk Brothers Company; May 2005 - acquired Proffitt's and McRae's department store chains for $622 million; 2007 - operated under third generation Belk family leadership; nation's largest privately-owned department store company (more than 310 stores in 16 states in southeast, southwest, mid-Atlantic regions).

William Henry Belk - Belk Brothers  (http://historync.org/images/laureates/WmHBelk.jpg)

1890 - Edward and Josephine Nordhoff invested life savings of $1,200, started department store, christened "The Bon Marche", in homage to inspiration in Paris (first experience in retail business at Louvre department store); early 1920s - annual sales of $8 million; 1928 - acquired by Hahn Department Stores.

1890 - Donald Edward (D. E.) Frederick arrived in Seattle; with James Mecham, started second-hand furniture business; named J.G. Mecham and Company; Nels B. Nelson (Swedish) purchased one-third interest in business for cash; months later - Mecham sold his interest because of ill health; name changed to Frederick & Nelson; 1891 - acquired Queen City Furniture Company, began selling new furniture; 1907 - Nelson died at sea; September 3, 1918 - opened new six story building; 1929 - acquired by Marshall Field Company for $6 million; 1980 - 15 stores; 1982 - Marshall Field acquired by BATUS Inc. (Louisville, KY); January 1986 - F & N acquired by local investors; May 1992 - closed.

1891 - Samuel H. and Salmon P. Halle established Halle Brothers Co. on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, OH; became one of Cleveland's largest department stores; 1970 - acquired by Marshall Field; overexpanded, lost money; 1982 - closed.

June 4, 1892 - David T. Abercrombie opened David T. Abercrombie Co., small waterfront shop at No.36 South Street in lower Manhattan; 1900 - Ezra H. Fitch, former lawyer, acquired part of company; 1904 - incorporated as Abercrombie & Fitch Co.; 1907 - Fitch bought Abercrombie out; 1909 - created mail-order catalog; 1910 - first store in New York to supply clothing to women, men; 1977 - filed for bankruptcy; acquired by Oshman's (Houston, TX), sporting goods retailer; 1988 - acquired The Limited, Inc.; September 26, 1996 - went public; 1998 - introduced "abercrombie" brand for young audience; July 2000 - introduced Hollister brand for teenagers ages 14 through 18 (preppy California surfing image); September 6, 2004 - introduced RUEHL No.925 brand for 22 through 35 customers.

Ezra H. Fitch - Abercrombie & Fitch  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Ezra_Fitch.png)

December 13, 1893 - Theophile Bader, Alphonse Kahn (cousins) opened novelty store at corner of La Fayette and Chausee d'Antin near Opera in Paris to appeal to travellers from suburbs, Provinces passing through Saint-Lazare train station; December 21, 1896 - acquired 1 rue La Fayette; named store Galeries Lafayette; September 1, 1899 - created Societe Anonyme des Galeries Lafayette; 1905 - acquired 38, 40, 42 Boulevard Haussmann, 15 rue Chaussee d'Antin; 1906 - commissioned Roman award-winning architect Georges Chedanne (later his student Ferdinand Chanut) to design new layout of Haussmann store; October 1912 - Belle Epoque store opened with neo-Byzantine stained-glass cupola, art-nouveau atrium; grew to 96 departments; Kahn retired, sold shares to Bader; primary positioning point: fashion, novelty; 1926 - Max Heilbronn (son-in-law) joined company; 1931 - Societe Anonyme des Monoprix; 1947 - Etienne Moulin (Heilbronn's son-in-law) joined company; 1965 - Georges Meyer (Meyer's son-in-law) joined company; 1971 - completed acquisition of Inno-France; opened department stores in regional shopping centers; 1991 - acquired Nouvelles Galeries, largest chain of provincial department stores in France; initiated global expansion plan; December 2004 - 15.6% stake acquired by Credit Mutuel; March 2005 - went private in $3 billion deal: 29.5% stake, owned by Leone-Noelle Meyer (Bader's granddaughter), acquired by BNP Paribas (already owned almost half of Lafayette's consumer-credit business; combined with Moulin family's 32% ownership).

Théophile Bader - Galeries Lafayette  (http://judaisme.sdv.fr/perso/bader/bader.jpg)

1896 - Arthur Letts, Sr. founded The Broadway, mid-level department store chain in Los Angeles, CA; 1950 - merged with Hale Brothers, formed Broadway-Hale Stores with Edward W. Carter as president (former president of The Broadway); 1972 - acquired Bergdorf Goodman, Holt Renfrew (Montreal, QU); 1974 - name changed to Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. (reflected contributions from Carter, Philip Hawley - with company since 1958); 1977 - attempted hostile takeover of Marshall Field's; April 1978 - acquired John Wanamaker's (Philadelphia); 1984 - sixth largest department store chain in United States; takeover attempted by The Limited; 1986 - second takeover attempted by The Limited; 1985 - sold Waldenbooks to Kmart; April 1986 - sold Holt Renfrew to Weston Family; January 1987 - sold Wanamaker's to Woodward & Lothrop; spun off splitting off specialty store business as Neiman-Marcus Group, Inc. (Neiman-Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman, Contempo Casuals stores); 1991 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1992 - Zell/Chilmark Fund completed reorganization, renamed Broadway Stores, Inc.; August 1995 - acquired by Federated Department Stores (dissolved in 1996).

1896 - William Burdine, retired Confederate army officer, Henry Payne, opened dry goods store in Bartow, FL; 1897 - Burdine lost his partner, struggled to stay open; 1898 - he, sons opened satellite store South Florida store on Flagler Street in Miami, FL; 1912 - became full-fledged department store; 1926 - hurricane hurt business, closed one store under financial strain of Great Depression; 1956 - merged with Federated Department Stores, (Macy's, Bloomingdale's, other major stores); 2003 - no Burdine family members involved in company, all Federated stores renamed Macy's; March 6, 2005 - Burdines name officially terminated.

1899 - David Lowenstein purchased little store in Pagosa Springs, CO; 12 1/2 X 35 feet and sold "Gent’s Furnishings," and called it Lowenstein’s Gent’s Furnishings; developed "odorless socks" to counter continuous problem of strong foot odor; November 1922 - Hortense Lowenstein Goodman, Louis Goodman took over operation of family business; later renamed Goodman’s; 1929 - expanded; 1946 - Dave Goodman (son) joined business; 1977 - Robert Goodman (grandson) joined company; 1981 - assumed control.

1900 - Austin Reed opened men's tailoring store on Fenchurch Street in London; 1911 - opened flagship store on Regent Street; dedicated to tailoring, ready-to-wear clothing, grooming; 1925 - introduced quality, value-for-money ready-to-wear suit; 1929 - selected by Cunard to open shop on transatlantic liner, Aquitania; 1936 - opened concession on Queen Mary; WW II - developed one-piece siren suit for Winston Churchill; 1946 - opened concession on Queen Elizabeth; 1980s - developed collection to meet needs of career women; 1990s - opened first tax-free shop, sold shirts, accessories at Terminal 4, Heathrow; 2007 - 70 outlets in UK, international licensees across globe.

1901 - Carl Wallin, owner of Seattle shoe repair shop, and John W. Nordstrom opened Wallin & Nordstrom, shoe store, in downtown Seattle; 1923 - opened second store; 1929 - Wallin retired, sold out to Nordstrom's sons; 1966 - men's clothing, children's wear added; 1968 - third Nordstrom generation took over; 1973 - sales passed $100 million (largest-volume West Coast fashion specialty store); changed to Nordstrom, Inc.

1902 - George D. Dayton, banker and real estate investor, became partner in Goodfellow's Dry Goods Company, fourth largest department store in Minneapolis, MN; 1903 - took over company, renamed Dayton Dry Goods Company; 1911 - renamed The Dayton Company (known as Dayton's Department Store); 1918 - created Dayton Foundation with $1 milion endowment (renamed Dayton-Hudson Foundation in 1969, renamed Target Foundation in 2000); 1938 - George N. Dayton (son) named President; 1950 - Donald C. Dayton, grandson, named President (six grandsons in leadership positions in company); 1956 - expanded to suburbs in Southdale mall (nation's first fully enclosed shopping center); May 1, 1962 - opened first Target store, mass market discount, in Roseville, MN; September 6, 1967 - Dayton went public; 1969 - merged with J. L. Hudson Company (Detroit, MI), renamed Dayton-Hudson Corporation (one of 15 largest non-food retailers in U.S.); 1975 - Target became largest revenue source for company; 1978 - acquired Mervyn's (California); 1979 - Target generated $1 billion in annual sales (74 stores in 11 states); 1983 - last Daytons involved with company; 1988 - Target became first mass merchandiser to introduce UPC scanning at all stores; 1990 - DH acquired Marshall Field's from Batus Inc., American division of B.A.T. Industries P.L.C.; 1995 - SuperTarget store opened in Omaha, NB; 2000 - Dayton Hudson Corporation renamed Target Corporation; 2001 - Target opened 1000th store (47 states); 2004 - sold Marshall Field's (to May Department Stores for $3.2 billion), Mervyn's; 2005 - sales exceed $50 billion; 2007 - $3 million/week in giving to local communities (5% of income since 1946); 2008 - opened in Alaska; 2009 - opened in Hawaii.

1904 - German immigrant Emil Gottschalk opened 10,000-square-foot dry goods store in downtown Fresno, CA; 1956 - Joe Levy (great-nephew of store founder's wife) joined company; annual sales nearly $4 million; Fresno's first retailer to install air conditioner; among first retailers in area to accept bank credit cards; 1961 - opened first branch store; 1976 - America's first department store to totally automate sales transactions; installed electronic point-of-sale (POS) "wands" that read bar codes, store credit cards; 1980s - Levy became chairman; 1986 - went public; 1989 - annual sales surpassed $200 million; 1998 - annual sales exceeded $500 million; November 2006 - 66-store chain; March 2008 - first annual loss in five years ($12.4 million); October 24, 2008 - delisted from New York Stock Exchang because of company's low market value (<$1/share); December 18, 2008 - sale of majority ownership for $30 million to Everbright Development Overseas Ltd., Chinese investor, fell through; January 14, 2009 - filed for bankruptcy protection; operated 58 department stores, three specialty apparel stores in six western states.

1905 - Moses Hartz opened store in Baltimore, MD; 1922 - Anna Hartz, traveling saleswoman, married Jose[h A. Bank; formed L. Hartz & Bank; sold suits to retailers throughout region; 1945 - Bank and son bought out Hartz, formed Joseph A. Bank & Co.; 1954 - son Howard took over; 2006 - more than 300 stores.

1905 - Three immigrant Harris brothers opened store with only 25 feet of frontage in San Bernardino, CA; 1927 - opened palatial four-story Harris store in downtown San Bernardino; first in region to enhance shopping experience with introduction of elevators, electric signs, escalators; became known as one of swankiest stores in Southern California; grew to 9 stores; 1981 - acquired by Spanish retailer El Corte Ingles, S.A (Spain's largest retailer, sales over $8 billion in 1996); ; 1998 - acquired by Gottschalks; 1999 - flagship store closed.

March 2, 1907 - John Gillespie Bullock (36), Percy Glen Winnett opened Bullock's in Los Angeles; backed by former employer, Arthur Letts, English-born merchant whose dry goods store at Broadway and 4th Street became The Broadway Store; 1912 - erected 10-story building on Broadway; 1944 - merged with I. Magnin (twelve stores blanketing the West Coast, 1943 combined sales of $63,000,000 [three-quarters of which was Bullock's], profits of $2,600,000); 1964 - acquired by Federated Department Stores.

March 27, 1907 - Adolf Jandorf, Councillor of Commerce, opened Kaufhaus des Westens in Berlin, Germany (five floors over 24,000 square meters, huge range of goods, services); 1927 - taken over by Hermann Tietz, incorporated into Hertie group of department stores; 1933 - National Socialist era, banking group forced Jewish owners to sell Hertie chain (withheld credits), appointed "Aryan" managing director; July 3, 1950 - first two floors reopened after war; 1956 - all seven floors completed; 1976-1978 - sales space extended to around 44,000 square meters; November 1989 - biggest boom in its history after fall of Berlin Wall; 1991-1996 - sales space expanded to around 60,000 sqm; 1994 - Hertie acquired by Karstadt AG (today Arcandor AG), flagship store of Karstadt Warenhaus Group; February 2006 - Arcandor AG combined highest profile department stores, formed Premium Group (KaDeWe Managing Director Patrice Wagner took over leadership); second largest department store in Europe (behind Harrods).

September 10, 1907 - A. L. Neiman,, advertising agency president, Carrie Marcus Neiman (his wife) and Herbert Marcus, Sr. (her brother) founded Neiman-Marcus retail establishment in Dallas, TX; store offered women's clothing, "presenting wider varieties and more exclusive lines than any other store in the South...Only the finest productions of the best garment makers are good enough for us"; 1926 - Stanley Marcus (son) left Harvard Graduate School of Business, began long and legendary career at the store; 1928 - Marcus family acquired A.L. Neiman's interest in company; 1929 - began offering menswear (fine French ties, European shirts, other furnishings) previously available only in New York; 1934 - first retail establishment outside New York City to run national advertisements in Vogue, Harper's Bazaar magazines; 1950 - Stanley Marcus elected president and chief executive officer; 1968 - merged into Broadway-Hale Stores, Inc.; 1971 - opened first store outside Texas, Bal Harbour, FL; June 2, 1987 - spun off as publicly traded firm, called The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc., in response to second hostile takeover attempt by The Limited (60% owned by white knight General Cinema Corporation);  1988 - acquired Horchow Collection of fine furniture, linens, and decorative objects for the home.

1911 - Solomon Boscov established Boscov's at 9th and Pike Streets in Reading, PA; 1954 - Albert (son), Edwin Lakin (son-in-law) joined business; August 1972 - expanded to Lebanon, PA; grew to 49 stores in mid-Atlantic region; August 4, 2008 - filed for bankruptcy (sales of $1.25 billion).

1912 - John Wanamaker opened 24-story department store in Philadelphia.

1923 - Barney Pressman sold wife's ring, opened Barney's, off-price men's suit store on 17th St. at Seventh Avenue in Manhattan; 1980s - sons (Bob, Gene) expanded in U. S., formed partnership with Isetan Company (Japan); 1996 - filed for bankruptcy, control shifted to creditors, Whippoorwill Associates, Bay Harbour Management; 2004 - acquired by Jones Apparel for $400 million; June 22, 2007 - acquired by Istithmar, investment arm of Dubai government, for $825 million.

November 27, 1924 - New York City's Macy's department store held its first Thanksgiving Day parade down a two-mile stretch of Broadway from Central Park West to Herald Square; featured large performing "theme" platforms that, because they were attached to specially outfitted automobiles concealed beneath them, seemed to float down Broadway;  event was created to boost holiday sales and to bring customers to Macy's new flagship store at Herald Square; 1927 - new Macy's tradition began with  introduction of large balloons in shape of animal, cartoon characters. Felix the Cat was Macy's first parade balloon.

December 1928 - Lew Hahn organized Hahn Department Stores, Inc. as holding company of 22 department stores (Boston's Jordan Marsh, L.S. Donaldson - Minneapolis, Bon Marche - Seattle) to acquire, operate large, well-known department stores throughout United States with annual sales between $1-$10 million, good earnings records, dominant in their regions; chain store advantages to independent, family-owned department stores; capitalized at $60,000,000, aggregate 1927 sales of more than $100,000,000; 1933 - reorganized as Allied Stores.

1929 - Fred Lazarus, Jr. formed Federated Department Stores, Inc. as holding company for several family-owned department stores: Shillito's (founded 1830 in Cincinnati, acquired by Lazarus in 1928), F & R Lazarus & Company (founded 1851 in in Columbus, OH); Abraham & Strauss (originally Wechsler and Abraham, founded 1865 in Brooklyn, NY); 1930 - Bloomingdales joined company; corporate offices established in Columbus, OH; 1945 - headquarters moved to Cincinnati, OH.

Fred Lazarus, Jr. - Federated Department Stores (http://www.cincinnatichamber.com/uploadedImages/lazarus69_80x120.jpg)

December 8, 1946 - First test in U.S. of snow-melting apparatus embedded in sidewalk made in New York City. Best & Co. department store installed 15 coils made up from 4,530 feet of pipe through which circulated with a mixture of about 67% water with 33% Zerex, effective to prevent freezing to as low as -5 deg. F; December 26, 1946 - first put to use during a blizzard.

1949 - Mervin Morris opened family store in San Lorenzo, CA; used first name to distinguish it from his father's Morris Department Store.; architect spelled name with a "y", explained it gave name more aesthetically pleasing appearance; invented mid-range department store; first to offer customers revolving credit, advertise sales in newspaper, focus on young families; April 12, 1977 - registered "Mervyn's" trademark first used June 16, 1954 (retail department store services); 2007 - 177  stores.

1963 - Amancio Ortega Gaona founded Confecciones Goa (his initials in reverse); made bathrobes; 1975 - opened first Zara store on street in downtown A Coruna, Spain (second largest city in Galicia in northwestern Spain); grew into enormously popular chain of fashion stores; 1985 - created Industrias de Diseno Textil Sociedad Anonima (Inditex Group) as holding company (brands Zara, Massimo Dutti, Oysho, Zara Home, Kiddy's Class, Tempe, Stradivarius, Pull and Bear/Often, Bershka; owns 59.29%); December 1988 - opened first Zara store outside of Spain (Oporto, Portugal); 1989 - opened store in New York; 1991 - launched Pull & Bear, acquired 65% of Massimo Dutti Group; 1995 - acquired 100% of Massimo Dutti; 1998 - launched Bershka (retailer aimed at young women, teen girls); 1999 - acquired Stradivarius (Group's fifth retailer); 2001 - launched Oysho (lingerie retailer); 2004 - opened 2,000th store (in Hong Kong), operated in 56 countries; more than 14,000 employees.

May 15, 1992 - Alexanders, New York department store chain, announced closing of all 11 stores.

July 2002 - Only 53 single-location department stores remained in U.S.; 1993 - 281 single-location department stores generated collective sales of $533.6 million. (Source: Chain Store Guide). 

February 28, 2005 - Federated Department Stores acquired May Department Stores for $17.5 billion; planned to expand Macy's brand name (replace Marshall Field-Chicago, Filene's-Boston, Meier & Frank- Portland, OR , Kaufmann's-Pittsburgh).

May 2, 2005 - Texas Pacific Group/Warburg Pincus acquired Neiman Marcus Group for $5.1 billion.

August 30, 2005 - Federated Department Stores, Inc. completed $17 billion merger with The May Department Stores Company; biggest acquisition in department-store history; first national department store-chain (end of independent department stores in home cities).

2005 - U.S. Census Bureau estimated that department store sales have fallen 14 percent to $86.7 billion since 1999; sales in warehouse chains, membership clubs have grown 128 percent; clothing stores sales have grown 31 percent.

March 2006 - Hudson's Bay Company acquired by The InterTech Group Inc. (North Charleston, SC) for $1.1billion;  2008 - Anita Zucker (widow) became first woman to be chief executive, or governor, in company’s 338-year history

July 30, 2006 - Marshall Field renamed Macy's.

September 30, 2006 - "Unwrapping Macy's", first of eight 30-minute reality TV shows focused on a major American retailer, debuted on WE (Women's Entertainment Network). behind-the-scenes look at how retailer operates stores, selects merchandise, creates catalog, runs events (Thanksgiving Day Parade); depicts daily life of employees.

March 2007 - Bon Ton Stores Inc., parent of Carson Pirie Scott department stores, closed original downtown Chicago store because of continuing operating losses; designed by Louis H. Sullivan, store built in 1898-1899 for retail firm Schlesinger and Meyer; 1904 - expanded, sold to Carson Pirie Scott.

June 22, 2007 - Barneys New York, Inc. acquired from Jones Apparel (acquired in 2004 for $400 million) by Istithmar, investment arm of Dubai government, for $825 million.

(Allied Stores), John Rothchild (2000). Going for Broke: How Robert Campeau Bankrupted the Retail Industry, Jolted the Junk Bond Market, and Brought the Booming 80s to a Crashing Halt. (Washington, DC: Beard, 286 p. [orig. pub. 1991]). Campeau, Robert; Allied Stores Corporation; Federated Department Stores; Leveraged buyouts; Department stores--Corrupt practices--United States; Bond market.

(Arnotts), Ronald Nesbitt (1993). At Arnotts of Dublin, 1843-1993. (Dublin, IR: A.& A. Farmar, 242 p.). Arnotts (Department stores)--History; Department stores--Ireland--Dublin--History; Stores, Retail--Ireland--History.

(Austin Reed), Berry Ritchie (1990). A Touch of Class: Story of Austin Reed. (London, UK: James & James, 144 p.). Reed, Austin; Austin reed Group; department stores--Great Britain--History. Array of fashion, society,  advertising graphics.

Austin Reed - Austin Reed Group  (http://www.austinreed.co.uk/pws/images/cms/about/img_about1.jpg)

(Bamberger's), Richard Weil (1940). The Art of Practical Thinking; An Informal Discussion for the Intelligent Layman. (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 192 p.). President of Bamberger's. Logic; Reasoning. 

(Barneys), Joshua Levine (1999). The Rise and Fall of the House of Barneys: A Family Tale of Chutzpah, Glory, and Greed. (New York, NY: Morrow, 256 p.). Senior Editor (Forbes). Barneys New York--History; Men's clothing industry--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Belk Stores Services), LeGette Blythe (1958). William Henry Belk, Merchant of the South. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 269 p.). Belk, William Henry, 1862-1952.

(Belk Stores Services), Howard E. Covington, Jr. (1988). Belk, A Century of Retail Leadership. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 308 p.). Belk Stores Services--History; Department stores--United States--History; Retail trade--United States--History.

(Belle Jardinière), Francois Faraut (1987). Histoire de la Belle Jardinière. (Paris, FR: Belin, 185 p.). Belle Jardinière (Firm)--History; Clothing trade--France--Paris--History; Department stores--France--Paris--History.

(Bentalls), Rowan Bentall (1974). My Store of Memories. (London, UK: W. H. Allen, 298 p.). Bentalls Ltd.--History; Department stores--England--London; Kingston upon Thames (London, England).

(Bergdorf Goodman), Booton Herndon (1956). Bergdorf's on the Plaza; The Story of Bergdorf Goodman and a Half-Century of American Fashion. (New York, NY: Knopf, 244 p.). Bergdorf Goodman, New York.

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(Bloomingdale's), Mark Stevens (1979). "Like No Other Store in the World": The Inside Story of Bloomingdale's. (New York, NY: Crowell, 224 p.). Bloomingdale's (Firm).

portrait1 Joseph Bloomingdale (http://assets.bloomingdales.com/ img/about/portrait1.jpg)

portrait2 Lyman Bloomingdale (http://assets.bloomingdales.com/ img/about/portrait2.jpg)

(Bloomingdale's), Maxine Brady (1980). Bloomingdale's. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 229 p.). Bloomingdale's (Firm)--History.

(Bloomingdale's), Marvin Traub and Tom Teicholz (1993). Like No Other Store--: The Bloomingdale's Legend and The Revolution in American Marketing. (New York, NY: Times Books, 428 p.). Traub, Marvin; Bloomingdale's (Firm) -- History.

(Bon Marche), Charles d'Ydewalle (1965). Au Bon Marche, de la Boutique au Grand Magasin. (Paris, Plon: Paris, Plon, 187 p.). Au Bon Marche (Paris, France)--History.

Aristide Boucicaut Aristide Boucicaut - Bon Marche  (http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/celebrations2002/img/boucicaut.jpg)

(Bon Marche), Michael B. Miller (1981). The Bon Marché: Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store 1869-1920. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 266 p.). Au Bon Marché (Paris, France) -- History; France -- Social conditions.

(Bon-Ton), Nancy E. Cohen (1998). "Doing a Good Business": 100 Years at the Bon-Ton. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Publishing Group, Inc., 112 p.). Bon-Ton (Firm)--History; Department stores--Pennsylvania--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Retail trade--Pennsylvania--History.

(Bonwit Teller), Hortense McQuarrie Odlum (1939). A Woman's Place: The Autobiography of Hortense Odlum. (New York, NY: Scribner, 286 p.). Former President of Bonwit Teller. Oldum, Hortense McQuarrie, 1892- ;Bonwit Teller & Co.; Businesswomen--United States--Biography. 

(Brooks Brothers), John William Cooke (2003). Generations of Style: It’s All About the Clothing. (New York, NY: Brooks Brothers, 165 p.). Brooks Brothers (Firm)--History; Clothing trade--United States--History.

(Bullocks), Margaret Leslie Davis (1996). Bullocks Wilshire. (Los Angles, CA: Balcony Press, 118 p.). Bullock's Wilshire (Department store)--History; Bullock's Wilshire (Department store)--Pictorial works; Department stores--California, Southern--History.

(A. J. Bundschu Company), William B. Bundschu (2005). The A. J. Bundschu Company--: The Dominant Store of Independence. (Independence, MO: Little Blue Valley Publishing Co., 191 p.). Bundschu, Anton Joseph, 1855-1928; A. J. Bundschu Company--History; Department stores--Missouri--Independence.--History; Family-owned business enterprises--Missouri--Independence--History; Independence (Mo.)--History.

(Burdines - Founded 1898), Roberta Morgan (1991). It's Better at Burdines: How the Famous Store Grew Hand in Hand with Florida. (Miami, FL: Pickering Press, 152 p.). Burdines (Department store)--History; Department stores--Florida--History; Miami (Fla.)--History.

(Burdines), Stephen L. Goldstein (1999). You Can't Go Wrong by Doing It Right: 50 Principles for Running a Successful Business. (Central Point, OR: Oasis Press, 239 p.). Burdines (Department store)--History; Department stores--Florida--History; New business enterprises--Management; Small business--Management.

(Carson Pirie Scott), Joseph Siry (1988). Carson Pirie Scott: Louis Sullivan and the Chicago Department Store. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 290 p.). Sullivan, Louis H., 1856-1924 --Criticism and interpretation; Carson Pirie Scott; Architecture--Illinois--Chicago--20th century; Skyscrapers--Illinois--Chicago; Department stores--Illinois--Chicago; Chicago (Ill.)--Buildings, structures, etc.

(Clery and Co.), Peter Costello & Tony Farmar (1992). The Very Heart of the City: The Story of Denis Guiney and Clerys. (Bublin, IR: Clery and Co., 150 p.). Guiney, Denis, 1893-1967; Clery and Co. (1941) Ltd.--History; Department stores--Ireland--Dublin--History.

(Corte Ingles), Juavier Cuartas (1992). Biografía de "El Corte Inglés". (Barcelona, SP: Dictext, 806 p.). Corte Inglés (Firm)--History; Department stores--Spain--History.

(Crescent Department Store), Donald R. Johnson (2004). Under The Clock: The Story of the Crescent Department Store. (Apple Blossom Publishing, 143 p.). Crescent Department Store; Spokane--retail--history. Premier department store of Inland Northwest for almost 100 years (1889-1988); institution as lived by founders, owners, employees, customers; extraordinary customer service, quality merchandise caused The Crescent to develop into largest store between Seattle and Twin Cities.

(Dayton Corporation), Bruce B. Dayton and Ellen B. Green (1997). George Draper Dayton: A Man of Parts. (Minneapolis, MN: B. B. Dayton, 527 p.). Dayton, George Draper, 1857-1938; Dayton family; Dayton Corporation--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography; Worthington (Minn.)--Biography.

George Draper Dayton





George Draper Dayton (http://foundationnews.org/files/1past_2.jpg)

(Dayton's), Mary Firestone (2007). Dayton’s Department Store. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 127 p.). Dayton’s (Department store)--History--Pictorial works. Originally called Goodfellows; 1902 - real estate investor, banker George Draper Dayton became silent partner; took over  company; became vibrant self-contained community (post office, newspaper, infirmary, laundry, bakery, college); grew into neighboring states, developed nation’s first indoor mall.

(Debenhams), Maurice Corina (1978). Fine Silks and Oak Counters: Debenhams, 1778-1978. (London, UK: Hutchinson Benham, 200 p.). Debenhams Ltd.

(De Gruchy's), Beth Lloyd; foreword by Frank Perrée (1982). De Gruchy's: The History of Jersey's Department Store of Distinction. De Gruchy (Firm)--History; Department stores--Channel Islands--Jersey--History.

(Dillard's), Leon Joseph Rosenberg; with a foreword by Sam Walton (1988). Dillard's, The First Fifty Years. (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 141 p.). Dillard, William Thomas, 1914- ; Dillard's Department Stores -- History; Department stores -- United States -- History; Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

William T. Dillard (http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/media/gallery/Photo/Wm_Dillard_t.jpg)

(Dupuis Freres), Josette Dupuis-Leman (2001). Dupuis Frères, Le Magasin du Peuple: Plus d'un Siècle de Fierté Québécoise. (Montreal, QU: Stanke, 290 p.). Dupuis Frères limitée--History; Department stores--Québec--Montréal--History.

(Eaden Lilley & Co.), Ian Ormes (2000). Eaden Lilley: 250 Years of Retailing. (Saffron Walden, UK: W. Eaden Lilley & Co., 120 p.). Eaden Lilley & Co. -- History.

(Eatons), Eugene Scribe (1919). Golden Jubilee, 1869-1919: A Book To Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the T. Eaton Co. Limited. (Toronto, ON: T. Eaton Co., Ltd., 289 p.). T. Eaton Co. -- History; Department stores -- Canada -- History.

Timothy Eaton (http://www.ourheritage.net/People/Woodcock_Book/ Timothy_Eaton.GIF)

(Eatons), George G. Nasmith (1923). Timothy Eaton. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 312 p.). Eaton, Timothy, 1834-1907; Retail trade--Toronto. Special edition - limited to four hundred copies.

(Eatons), Flora McCrea Eaton (1956). Memory’s Wall, Autobiography. (Toronto, ON: Clarke, Irwin, 214 p.). Wife of Eaton's Pesident Sir John Craig Eaton (Timothy Eaton's youngest Son). Eaton, Flora McCrea; Eaton family; Eaton, Sir John Craig; Eaton's Department Store.

(Eatons), Mary Etta Macpherson (1963). Shopkeepers to a Nation: The Eatons. (Toronto, McClelland and Stewart: Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 122 p.). Eaton (T.) Company, ltd. [from old catalog].

(Eatons), William Stephenson (1969). The Store That Timothy Built. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 255 p.). T. Eaton Co. -- History.

(Eatons), Eileen Sufrin (1982). The Eaton Drive: The Campaign To Organize Canada's Largest Department Store 1948 to 1952. (Toronto, ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 240 p.). T. Eaton Co. -- History; Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union. Local 1000 (Toronto, Ont.); Retail trade -- Ontario -- Toronto -- Employees -- History -- 20th century; Labor unions -- Ontario -- Toronto -- History -- 20th century.

(Eatons), Joy L. Santink (1990). Timothy Eaton and the Rise of His Department Store. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 319 p.). Eaton, Timothy, 1834-1907; Businesspeople--Canada--Biography; Department stores--Canada--History.

(Eatons), Rod McQueen (1999). The Eatons: The Rise and Fall of Canada's Royal Family. (Toronto, ON: Stoddart, 322 p. [rev. ed.]). Eaton family; T. Eaton Co.--History; Department stores--Canada--History.

(Eatons), Patricia Phenix (2002). Eatonians: The Story of the Family Behind the Family. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 312 p.). Eaton family; Eaton's Department Store; Employees. 

(Eatons), Russ Gourluck (2004). A Store Like No Other: Eaton’s of Winnipeg. (Winnipeg : Great Plains Publications: Winnipeg : Great Plains Publications, 208 p.). T. Eaton Co.--Manitoba--Winnipeg--History; T. Eaton Co.--Manitoba--Winnipeg--Histoire; Department stores--Manitoba--Winnipeg--History; Grands magasins--Manitoba--Winnipeg--Histoire. Icon for generations of Winnipeggers.

(Farmers' Trading Company Ltd. - founded 1909), Malcolm Kay (1954). Inside Story of Farmers'; First Complete Record of the Marvellous Growth of Laidlaw Leeds and the Farmers' Trading Co., Ltd., Auckland, N. Z. (Auckland, NZ: Framers Trading Co., 335 p.). Farmers' Trading Company, ltd.; Laidlaw Leeds and Company, Auckland, N.Z. 

(Federated), John Rothchild (1991). Going for Broke: How Robert Campeau Bankrupted the Retail Industry, Jolted the Junk Bond Market, and Brought the Booming Eighties to a Crashing Halt. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 286 p.). Campeau, Robert; Allied Stores Corporation; Federated Department Stores; Leveraged buyouts; Department stores--Corrupt practices--United States; Bond market.

(Filene's), Mary La Dame (1930). The Filene Store; A Study of Employees’ Relation to Management in a Retail Store. (New York, Russell Sage Foundation: New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 541 p.). Filene’s, William, Sons company; Filene Co-operative Association; Management--Employee participation; Retail trade.

(Filene's), George E. Berkley (1998). The Filenes. (Boston, MA: International Pocket Library, 291 p.). Filene's, Department Stores.

(Frederick & Nelson), Ann Wendell (2008). Frederick & Nelson. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 128 p.). Wendell family has over 100 years of service to Frederick & Nelson and parent store, Marshall Field & Company. More than just department store to people of Seattle; referred to as F&N; established city’s retail core, led war-bond drive, acted as civic booster, pioneered high level of benefits for its workers; customer experience that made all difference.

(Georges Australia Ltd.), Keith Dunstan (1979). The Store on the Hill. (Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan, 100 p.). Georges Australia Ltd.; Department stores--Australia--Melbourne (Vic.)--History. 

(Goldblatt's), Louis Goldblatt (1994). Life Is a Game, Play To Win!!: Notes on the Game of Life by an Immigrant Merchant, An Autobiography. (Chicago, IL: Lindenhouse Books, 377 p.). Goldblatt, Louis, 1903- ; Merchants--United States--Biography; Retail trade--United States.

(Goudchaux/Maison Blanche), Hans J. Sternberg, with James E. Shelledy; foreword by Bobby Jindal (2009). We Were Merchants: The Sternberg Family and the Story of Goudchaux’s and Maison Blanche Department Stores. (Baton Rouge, LA, Louisiana State University Press, 141p.). Chairman and co-CEO (with his brother, Josef) of Goudchaux's/Maison Blanche Department Stores from 1965 to 1992; Fred Jones Greer Endowed Chair at the Manship School of Mass Communication (Louisiana State University). Sternberg, Hans J., 1935-; Goudchaux/Maison Blanche (Firm) --History; Department stores --Louisiana --History; Merchants --Louisiana --Biography. Five generations of mercantile extending to small shop in 18th-century Germany; 1939 - Erich Sternberg bought Goudchaux's, transformed it from nondescript apparel shop into  department store; peak - 24 stores in Louisiana and Florida, employed more than 8,000 people; early 1990s - sold business.

(Grands Magasins Decre), Andre´ Bovar; preface de Andre´ Aumonier (1997). Emile Decre, Un Grand Commercant Chretien. (Laval, FR: Siloe¨, 138 p.). Decre´, Emile, 1897-1973; Grands Magasins Decre´--History; Merchants--France--Nantes--Biography; Retail trade--France--Nantes--History; Department stores--France--Nantes--History.

(Gump's), Carol Green Wilson (1965). Gump's Treasure Trade: A Story of San Francisco. (New York, NY: Crowell, 306 p.). S. & G. Gump Company, San Francisco; Art, Oriental. 

(Gump's), Editor Gareth Esersky; contributing writers, Nan Birmingham ... [et al.] (1991). Gump's Since 1861: A San Francisco Legend. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 136 p.). Gump's (Department store)--History; Department stores--California--San Francisco--History.

(Halle Bros. Co.), James M. Wood (1987). Halle's: Memoirs of a Family Department Store (1891-1982). (Cleveland, OH: Geranium Press, 223 p.). Halle Bros. Co.--History; Department stores--Ohio--Cleveland--History.

(Harris Company), Aimmee L. Rodrigueez, Richard A. Hanks, and Robin S. Hanks (2008). The Harris Company (Charleston, SC : Arcadia Publishing,127 p.). Library Specialist; Former Archivist in the Inland Empire; Graphic Artist. Department stores --California, Southern --History; Buildings --California --San Bernardino County --History. 'Harris Has It' - set standard for quality merchandise, selection, personal service for almost century.

(Paul Harris Retail Stores Inc.), Gerald Paul with Victoria Barrett (2007). My Business Life Cycle: How Innovation, Evolution, and Determination Made Paul Harris Great. (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 111 p.). Founder of Paul Harris Stores; Teaches Writing at Ball State University. Paul, Gerald, 1924- Harris Paul Retail Stores, Inc.--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Clothing trade--United States; Fashion merchandising--United States. U.S. culture, retail history, brand of entrepreneurship. 1954 - started Paul Harris stores in Indianapolis, grew chain to 303 stores; brought fashion, comfort, style, functionality to millions of women in Midwest.

(Harrods), George Pottinger (1971). The Winning Counter: Hugh Fraser and Harrods. (London, UK: Hutchinson, 192 p.). Fraser, Hugh, Baron Fraser, 1903-1966; Harrods.

Charles Henry Harrod  (http://www.mpt.org/tea/heather/images/monthly/jan12_9.jpg)

(Harrods), Tim Dale (1981). Harrods: The Store and the Legend. (London, UK: Pan, 149 p.). Harrods Ltd.

(Harrods), Sean Callery (1991). Harrods, Knightsbridge: The Story of Society's Favourite Store. (London, UK: Ebury Press, 176 p.). Harrod's Stores, Ltd.--History; Harrods Ltd.--History; Department stores--England--London--History.

(Harzfeld's), Joe and Michele Boeckholt (2009). Harzfeld's: A Brief History. (Charleston, SC History Press, 142 p.). Department stores -- Missouri -- Kansas City -- History; Kansas City (Mo.) -- History; Harzfeld's (Firm); Harzfeld's (Firm) -- History. Founded in 1891 by Siegmund Harzfeld, Ferdinand Siegel as  Parisian Cloak Company; 1959 - went public; 1972 - acquired for $3 million by Garfinckel, Brooks Brothers, Miller & Rhodes, Inc. (acquired in 1981 by Allied Stores); 1984 - closed.

(Hertie Warenhaus und Kaufhaus), Friedrich W. Ko¨hler (1997). Zur Geschichte der Warenha¨User: Seenot und Untergang des Hertie-Konzerns. (Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Haag + Herchen, 240 p.). Hertie Warenhaus und Kaufhaus--History; Department stores--Germany--History; Trading companies--Germany--History; Business failures--Germany--Case studies.

(House of Fraser), Michael Moss and Alison Turton (1989). A Legend of Retailing: House of Fraser. (London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 384 p.). House of Fraser Holdings plc -- History; Department stores -- Great Britain -- History.

(Hudson's), Jean Maddern Pitrone (1991). Hudson's: Hub of America's Heartland. (West Bloomfield, MI: Altwerger and Mandel Pub. Co., 201 p.). Hudson family; J.L. Hudson Company--History; Hudson Motor Car Company--History; Department stores--Michigan--Detroit--History; Automobile industry and trade--United States--History. 

(Hudson's Bay), Sir William Schooling (1920). The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay During Two Hundred and Fifty Years, 1670-1920. (London, UK: The Hudson's Bay Company, 129 p.). Hudson's Bay Company.

Pierre-Esprit Radisson

(Hudson's Bay), Douglas MacKay (1936). The Honourable Company; A History of the Hudson’s Bay Company. (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 396 p.). Hudson’s Bay Company; Fur trade--Canada; Northwest, Canadian--History.

(Hudson's Bay), W. Stewart Wallace. (1954). The Pedlars from Quebec: And Other Papers on the Nor' westers. (Toronto, ON: Ryerson Press, 101 p.). North West Company; Fur trade--Canada.

(Hudson's Bay), Marjorie Wilkins Campbell (1957). The North West Company. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 295 p.). North West Company.

(Hudson's Bay), Gordon C. Davidson (1967). The North West Company. (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 349 p. [orig. pub. 1918]). North West Company (1967- ); Hudson's Bay Company; XY Company; Fur trade--Canada.

(Hudson's Bay), George Simpson; Edited with a new introd. by Frederick Merk (1968). Fur Trade and Empire; George Simpson's Journal Entitled Remarks Connected with the Fur Trade in the Course of a Voyage from York Factory to Fort George and Back to York Factory 1824-25, with Related Documents. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 370 p.). Simpson, George, Sir, 1786 or 7-1860; Hudson's Bay Company; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History; Northwest, Canadian--Description and travel.

(Hudson's Bay), Lawrence Freiman (1978). Don't Fall Off the Rocking Horse: An Autobiography. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 199 p.). Freiman, Lawrence, 1909- ; Businesspeople--Canada--Biography. Retailing business A. J. Freiman, Ltd. was absorbed by the Hudson's Bay Company in the early 1970s.

(Hudson's Bay), Peter C. Newman (1985-1991). Company of Adventurers: Vol. 1. (New York, NY: Viking, Vol. 1). Hudson's Bay Company; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History; Northwest, Canadian--History. 

(Hudson's Bay), Peter C. Newman (1987). Company of Adventurers: Caesars of the Wilderness (Vol. 2) . (New York, NY: Viking, 480 p.). Hudson's Bay Company; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History; Northwest, Canadian--History. 

(Hudson's Bay), Michael Payne (1989). The Most Respectable Place in the Territory: Everyday Life in Hudson's Bay Company Service, York Factory, 1788 to 1870. (Ottawa, ON: National Historic Parks and Sites, Canadian Parks Service, Environment Canada, 206 p.). Hudson's Bay Company--History; Fur trade--Social aspects--Manitoba--York Factory; Frontier and pioneer life--Northwest, Canadian; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History; York Factory (Man.)--History; York Factory (Man.)--Social conditions.

(Hudson's Bay), Arthur J. Ray (1990). The Canadian Fur Trade in the Industrial Age. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 283 p.). Hudson's Bay Company--History; Fur trade--Canada--History; Indians of North America--Canada--Economic conditions.

(Hudson's Bay), Peter C. Newman (1992). Company of Adventurers: Merchant Princes (Vol. 3). (New York, NY: Viking, 448 p.). Hudson's Bay Company; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History; Northwest, Canadian--History. 

(Hudson's Bay), Isaac Cowie (1993). The Company of Adventurers: A Narrative of Seven Years in the Service of the Hudson's Bay Company during 1867-1874 on the Great Buffalo Plains ... (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 515 p. [orig. pub. 1913]). Cowie, Isaac, b. 1848; Hudson's Bay Company; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History--19th century; Northwest, Canadian--Description and travel.

(Hudson's Bay), Eleanor Stardom (1995). A Stranger to the Fur Trade: Joseph Wrigley and the Transformation of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1884-1891. (Winnipeg, MB: Rupert's Land Research Centre, University of Winnipeg, 109 p.). Wrigley, J.; Hudson's Bay Company--History--19th century; Fur trade--Northwest, Canadian--History--19th century; Northwest, Canadian--History.

(Hudson's Bay), Edith I. Burley (1997). Servants of the Honourable Company: Work, Discipline, and Conflict in the Hudson's Bay Company, 1770 - 1870. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 319 p.). Hudson's Bay Company -- Employees -- History; Industrial relations -- Canada -- History; Fur trade -- Canada -- History.

(Hudson's Bay), Dorothy N. Morrison (1999). Outpost: John McLoughlin and the Far Northwest. (Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society, 641 p.). McLoughlin, John, 1784-1857; Hudson's Bay Company--Biography; Pioneers--Oregon--Biography; Fur traders--Oregon--Biography; Fur trade--Northwest, Pacific--History--19th century; Oregon--History--To 1859; Northwest, Pacific--Biography.

(Hudson's Bay), Peter C. Newman (2000). Empire of the Bay: The Company of Adventurers That Seized a Continent. (New York, NY: Penguin Books, 612 p.). Hudson's Bay Company--History; Fur trade--Canada--History; Northwest, Canadian--History.

(Hudson's Bay), Donna McDonald (2002). Lord Strathcona: A Biography of Donald Alexander Smith. (Tonawanda, NY: Dundurn Press, 600 p.). Strathcona and Mount Royal, Donald Alexander Smith, Baron, 1820-1914; Hudson's Bay Company--Biography; Canadian Pacific Railway Company--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--Canada--Biography; Canada--History--1841-1867--Biography; Canada--History--1867-1914--Biography; Canada--Officials and employees--Biography. 

(Hutzler's), Michael J. Lisicky; Foreword by Jacques Kelly (2009). Hutzler's: Where Baltimore Shops. (Charleston, SC: The History Press, 160 p.). Hutzler's (Firm) -- History; Department stores -- Maryland -- Baltimore -- History; Baltimore (Md.) -- History. Hutzler Brother's Company, part of Baltimore retail, cultural scene for 132 years; rise of family-run department store, growth into Towson, other Maryland cities, eventual passing; role that Hutzler's played in lives of Baltimoreans.

(Jacome's Department Store), June Webb-Vignery (1989). Jacome's Department Store: Business and Culture in Tucson, Arizona, 1896-1980. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 209 p.). Jacome's Department Store--History; Department stores--Arizona--Tucson--History; Mexican American business enterprises--Arizona--Tucson--History. 

(Fletcher Jones), Fletcher Jones with a foreword by Sir Edmund Herring (1976). Not by Myself: The Fletcher Jones Story. (Warrnambool, Australia: The Author, 240 p.). Jones, Fletcher, 1895- ; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography; Clothing trade--Australia; Trousers.

(John Lewis Partnership) Keith Bradley and Simon (1968). Experiment in Industrial Democracy: A Study of the John Lewis Partnership. (London, UK: Faber, 261 p.). John Lewis Partnership, ltd.; Profit-sharing--Great Britain--Case studies.

John Spedan Lewis John Spedan Lewis  - John Lewis Partnership  (http://www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk/content/cws/about/our-founder/_jcr_content/mainLeftPar/textimage/image.img.jpg/1365087403627.jpg)

(John Lewis Partnership), Ed. Hugh Macpherson, Hugh (1985). John Spedan Lewis 1885-1963. (London, UK: John Lewis Partnership, 222 p.). Lewis, John Spedan; John Lewis Partnership, ltd. Centenary tribute to John Spedan Lewis by some of his contemporaries.

(John Lewis Partnership), Keith Bradley and Simon Taylor (1992). Business Performance in the Retail Sector: The Experience of the John Lewis Partnership. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 194 p.). John Lewis Partnership--History; Retail trade--Great Britain--Case studies; Profit-sharing--Great Britain--Case studies.

(Jordan Marsh), Richard H. Edwards (1950). Tales of the Observer. (Boston, MA: Jordan Marsh Co., 116 p.). Jordan, Marsh & Co., Boston.

(KaDeWe), Antonia Meiners (2007). 100 Jahre KaDeWe. (Berlin, Germany: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, 168 p.). Jandorf, Adolf; KaDeWe; Retail trade--Germany--History; Department stores--Berlin--History. KaDeWe is to Berlin as Galeries Lafayette is to Paris and Harrod's is to London.

(Kirkaldie & Stains), Julia Millen (2000). Kirkaldie & Stains: A Wellington Story. (Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams Books, 240 p.). Kirkaldie & Stains--History; Department stores--New Zealand--Wellington--History.

(Leonard's), Victoria Buenger and Walter L. Buenger. (1998). Texas Merchant: Marvin Leonard & Fort Worth. (College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press, 245 p.). Leonard, Marvin; Leonards Department Stores--History; Department stores--United States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Fort Worth (Tex.)--History. 

(Liberty's), Alison Adburgham (1975). Liberty's: A Biography of a Shop. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 160 p.). Liberty's (Store).

(Lord & Taylor), The Company (2001). The History of Lord & Taylor, 1826-2001. (New York, NY: Lord & Taylor, p. [rev. 1926 ed.]). Lord & Taylor; Retail trade--Department Stores.

(Macy's), Edward Hungerford (1922). The Romance of a Great Store. (New York, NY: R.M. McBride & Company, 281 p.). Macy's (Firm). 





Rowland Hussey (R. H.) Macy -  founder of Macy's  (http://www.thebiographychannel.ca/images/episodes/289.jpg)

Isadore Straus  (sold glassware,  china in R. H. Macy's starting in 1873; bought company from Macy family in 1896; went down with Titanic in 1912; http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51nZJ1TidnL._AA280_.jpg)

(Macy's), E. C. Riegel (1928). Barnum and Bunk. (New York, NY: The Riegel Corporation of New York, 147 p.). Macy’s (Firm); Credit.

(Macy's), Ralph M. Hower (1943). History of Macy's of New York, 1858-1919; Chapters in the Evolution of the Department Store. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 500 p.). Macy's (Firm).

(Macy's), Margaret Case Harriman (1958). And the Price Is Right. (Cleveland, OH: World Pub. Co., 318 p.). Macy's (Firm).

(Macy's), Curtis S. Johnson (1964). The Indomitable R. H. Macy. (New York,. NY: Vantage Press, 215 p.). Macy, Rowland Hussey, 1822-1877.

--- (1965). America's First Lady Boss: A Wisp of a Girl, Macy's, and Romance. (Norwalk, CT: Silvermine Publishers, 164 p.). La Forge, Margaret Swain (Getchell) 1841-1880; Macy's (Firm).

(Macy's), Isadore Barmash (1989). Macy's for Sale. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 172 p.). Macy's (Firm); Leveraged buyouts--United States.

(Macy's), Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg (1996). The Rain on Macy's Parade: How Greed, Ambition, and Folly Ruined America's Greatest Store. (New York, NY: Times Books, 274 p.). Macy's (Firm); Leveraged buyouts--United States.

(I. Magnin), Devin Thomas Frick (2000). I. Magnin & Co.: A California Legacy. (Garden Grove, CA: Park Place Press, 117 p.). I. Magnin & Co.--History; Department stores--California--History.

(I. Magnin), James Thomas Mullane (2006). A Store To Remember. (San Ramon, CA: Falcon Books, 144 p.). I. Magnin & Co.--History. How I. Magnin came to be cultural icon, geographic landmark.

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Goronwy Rees (1969). St Michael: A History of Marks and Spencer. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 261 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.

Michael Marks (http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Bmarks.jpg)

Tom Spencer (http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Bspen.jpg)

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Israel Sieff (1970). Memoirs. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 214 p.). Sieff, Israel Moses, Baron Sieff, 1889- ; Marks and Spencer ltd.; Zionists--Great Britain--Biography.

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Asa Briggs (1984). Marks & Spencer 1884 - 1984: A Centenary History. (London, UK: Octopus Books, 128 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.--History; Department stores--England--History.

(Marks and Spencer ltd.), K.K. Tse (1985). Marks & Spencer: Anatomy of Britain's Most Efficiently Managed Company. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 239 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.

(Marks and Spencer ltd.), Marcus Sieff (1988). Don't Ask the Price: The Memoirs of the President of Marks & Spencer. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 354 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd. -- Biography; Businessmen -- Great Britain -- Biography; Great Britain Multiple shops Marks & Spencer (Firm) Sieff, Marcus Biographies.

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Paul Bookbinder; foreword by Lord Sieff of Brimpton (1989). Marks & Spencer: The War Years, 1939-1945. (London, UK: Century Benham, 144 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.--History; World War, 1939-1945--Great Britain; Department stores--Great Britain--History.

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Baron Marcus Sieff (1990). Marcus Sieff on Management: The Marks & Spencer Way. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 189 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.; Management.

(Marks and Spencer ltd.), Judi Bevan (2001). The Rise and Fall of Marks & Spencer. (London, UK: Profile Books, 269 p.). Marks and Spencer ltd.; Department stores--Great Britain--History; Clothing trade--Great Britain--History; Chain stores--Great Britain; Business failures--Great Britain.

(Marks and Spencer Ltd.), Rachel Worth (2007). Fashion for the People: A History of Clothing at Marks & Spencer. (New York, NY: Berg, 224 p.). Principal Lecturer in Fashion Studies (Arts Institute at Bournemouth). Marks & Spencer plc--History; Clothing trade--Great Britain--History. Fashion to  masses; 1920s - brought fashion to High Street; 1970s - company's contribution to British, international fashion.

(Marks & Spencer), Helen Chislett (2009). Marks in Time: 125 Years of Marks & Spencer. (London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 224 p.). Journalist. Chain stores -- Great Britain -- History; Clothing trade -- Great Britain -- History; Marks and Spencer ltd -- History. History, influence, activity, success of national treasure; technical innovations, democratisation of fashion, power of advertising (M&S can predict what high percentage of population will eat in any given week), war years, revolution of mass-produced food, ecommerce, customers, staff, social history (M&S archive has bigger collection of utility clothing than Victoria & Albert).

(Marshall Field - founded 1852), John W. Tebbel (1947). The Marshall Fields: A Study in Wealth. (New York, NY: E.P. Dutton, 320 p.). Marshall Field (1835-1906), Marshall Field (1893-), Marshall Field & Company.

Marshall Field (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Marshall_field.jpg)

(Marshall Field), Emily Kimbrough (1952). Through Charley's Door. (New York, NY: Harper, 273 p.). Marshall Field & Company.

(Marshall Field), Lloyd Wendt and Herman Kogan (1952). Give the Lady What She Wants! ... The Story of Marshall Field & Company. (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 384 p.). Marshall Field & Company.

(Marshall Field), Robert W. Twyman (1976). History of Marshall Field & Co., 1852-1906. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 249 p. [Reprint of 1954 ed.]). Marshall Field & Company.

(Marshall Field), Axel Madsen (2002). The Marshall Fields. (New York, NY: Wiley, 367 p.). Field family; Field, Marshall, 1834-1906 --Family; Marshall Field & Company; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Chicago (Ill.)--Biography.

(Marshall Field), Gayle Soucek (2010). Marshall Field's: The Store that Helped Build Chicago. (Charleston, SC: History Press, 155 p.). Retail trade -- Illinois -- Chicago -- History; Merchants -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Biography; Field, Marshall, 1834-1906. Chicago (Ill.) -- Economic conditions; Chicago (Ill.) -- Biography; Marshall Field's (Department store) -- History.

(Mercantile Stores), William A. Newcomb (1975). Mercantile Stores Company, Inc.: A Profile of a Growing Retail Enterprise. (Wilmington, DE: Mercantile Stores Co., 131 [p.). Mercantile Stores Company; Department stores--United States.

(Mervyn’s), Mervin G. Morris (1984). Mervyn’s with a "y": A Story of Retailing. (Indianapolis, IN: Curtis Pub. Co., 96 p.). Morris, Mervin G.; Mervyn’s (Dept. store)--History; Department stores--United States--History; Department stores--California--History.

(Miller & Rhoads), George T. Bryson and Earle Dunford (2008). Under the Clock: The Story of Miller & Rhoads. (Charleston, SC: History Press, 128 p.). Former 40-year Employee. Miller & Rhoads; Department stores --Virginia -Richmond --History; Department store Santas --Virginia --Richmond. History of Miller & Rhoads department store, 1885 - 1990.

(Muir & Mirrielees), Harvey Pitcher (1994). Muir & Mirrielees: The Scottish Partnership That Became a Household Name in Russia. (Cromer, UK: Swallow House, 201 p.). Mirrielees, Archibald, 1797-1877; Muir, Andrew, 1817-1899; Muir & Mirrielees (Firm); TsUM (Firm); Businesspeople--Scotland--Biography; Scots--Russia--Biography; Department stores--Russia--History; Retail trade--Russia--History.

(Myer Stores Ltd.), Ambrose Pratt; with a foreward by Robert Menzies (1978). Sidney Myer: A Biography. (Melbourne,AU: Quartet Books Australia, 180 p.). Myer, Sidney Baevski, 1878-1934; Department stores--Australia--History; Merchants--Australia--Biography.

(Myer Stores Ltd.), Michael Liffman (2004). Tradition of Giving: Seventy-Five Years of Myer Family Philanthropy. (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 248 p.). Myer, Sidney Baevski, 1878-1934; Myer Foundation; Philanthropists --Australia --Melbourne (Vic.); Endowments --Australia --Melbourne (Vic.); Myers family. History of Sidney Myer Fund, Myer Foundation, two arms of one of largest philanthropic organizations in Australia; altruistic ethic of three generations of Myer family, historical and social context of Australian philanthropy (privately donated wealth plays minor role in building Australia's major civic, welfare, cultural institutions, compared to U.S.); nature, shaping, consequence of philanthrophy in Australia's market-driven, pluralistic society.

(Myer Stores Ltd.), Stella M. Barber (2005). Sidney Myer: A Life, A Legacy. (Prahran, Vic.: Hardie Grant Books, 259 p.). Myer, Sidney Baevski, 1878-1934; Myer Emporium; Retail trade--Australia--Biography; Jews--Russia--Biography; Jews--Australia--Biography. Life of courage, conviction, great passion and fulfillment.

(Myer Stores Ltd.), Sue Ebury (2008). The Many Lives of Kenneth Myer. (Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 621 p.). Research Associate in the History Department (Hong Kong University). Myer, Ken (Kenneth Baillieu), 1921-1992; Myer, Sidney Baevski, 1878-1934; Myer Emporium; Executives --Australia --Biography; Department stores --Australia. From groundwork laid by his father for family business, purportedly illegitimate birth in California, unfortunate role as executive chairman for family business, scandalous divorce and remarriage to much younger Japanese woman; immigration, anti-Semitism, acculturation in 20th-century Australia.

(Neiman Marcus), Stanley Marcus (1974). Minding the Store; A Memoir. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 383 p.). Marcus, Stanley, 1905- ; Businesspeople--Biography.

Carrie Marcus Neiman  (http://image2.findagrave.com/photos/2006/203/7879939_115371013373.jpg)

Stanley Marcus (http://smu.edu/smunews/jfk/images/StanleyMarcus.jpg)

(Neiman Marcus), Stanley Marcus (1979). Quest for the Best. (New York, NY: Viking, 227 p.). Marcus, Stanley, 1905- ; Businesspeople--Biography; Commercial products; Quality of products.

(Neiman Marcus), Stanley Marcus (1995). The Viewpoints of Stanley Marcus: A Ten-Year Perspective. (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 261 p.). Stanley Marcus. Notes: A compilation of the weekly articles on various subjects written by S. Marcus for the Dallas morning news.

--- (2000). Stanley Marcus from A-Z: Viewpoints, Volume II. (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 242 p.). Stanley Marcus. Notes: Additional newspaper articles to those published in author's The viewpoints of Stanley Marcus in 1995.

(NEXT plc), David Jones; Foreword by Philip Green (2006). NEXT TO ME: Luck, Leadership and Living with Parkinson's. (London, UK: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 256 p.). Chairman of NEXT plc, Deputy Chairman of Wm. Morrison. Jones, David; NEXT plc; Parkinson's Disease. Turnaround of NEXT Plc while battling Parkinson’s Disease.

(Nordstrom), Robert Spector and Patrick D. McCarthy (2000). The Nordstrom Way: The inside Story of America's #1 Customer Service Company. (New York, NY: Wiley, 244 p. [2nd ed.]). Nordstrom (Firm); Customer services--United States; Department stores--United States.

John W. Nordstrom - Nordstrom (http://i.nordstromimage.com/images/default/shop/image/misc/company-history/companyhist1.jpg)

(Nordstrom), Robert Spector (2001). Lessons from the Nordstrom Way: How Companies Are Emulating the # 1 Customer Service Company. (New York, NY: Wiley, 226 p.). Customer services--United States.

(Nordstrom), Bruce A. Nordstrom (2007). Leave It Better Than You Found It. (Seattle, WA: Documentary Media, 248 p.). Chairman, Nordstrom, Grandson of Nordstrom Founder. Nordstrom, Bruce A., 1933- ; Nordstrom (Firm)--History; Department stores--United States--History; Family-owned business enterprises--United States--Case studies; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.

(Pizitz), Tim Hollis (2010). Pizitz: Your Store. (Charleston, SC History Press, 125 p.). Department stores -- Alabama -- History; Pizitz (Department store). 1899 - Louis Pizitz opened Louis Pizitz Dry Goods Co. in downtown Birmingham, AL; established tradition of giving freely to local causes; December 1986 - acquired by McRae's; 2005 - McRae's acquired by Belk Department Stores (Charlotte, NC).

(Rich's), Henry Givens Baker (1953). Rich's of Atlanta; The Story of a Store Since 1867. (Atlanta, GA: Division of Research, School of Business Administration, Atlanta Division, University of Georgia, 411 p.). Rich's (Retail store); Department stores; Marketing. 

(Rich's), Celestine Sibley (1990). Dear Store: An Affectionate Portrait of Rich's. (Atlanta, GA: Peachtree Publishers, 143 p. [orig. pub. 1967]). Rich's (Retail store)--History; Department stores--Georgia--Atlanta--History.

(Rinascente S.p.A.), Ciro Poggiali (1945). Ferdinando Bocconi, Mercurio in Finanziera. (Milan, IT: Editoriale Domus, 280 p.). Bocconi, Ferdinando, 1836-1908.

(Rinascente S.p.A.), Franco Amatori (1989). Proprietà e Direzione: La Rinascente, 1917-1969. (Milano, IT: F. Angeli, 328 p.). Professor of Economic History (Bocconi University, Milan). Rinascente (Firm)--History; Department stores--Italy--History.

(Rinascente S.p.A.), Enrico Resti (1990). Ferdinando Bocconi: Dai Grandi Magazzini all'Universita. (Milan, IT: EGEA, 124 p.). Bocconi, Ferdinando, 1836-1908; Universita commerciale Luigi Bocconi --History; Merchants --Italy --Milan --History; Department stores --Italy --Milan --History.

(Rinascente S.p.A.), Rodolfo Francesconi (1994). Azienda come Cultura: La Rinascente. (Milano, IT: Baldini & Castoldi, 167 p.). Rinascente (Firm); Rinascente (Firm); Corporate culture--Italy--Case studies.

(Jacob Rothberger), Andreas Lehne; mit Beitra¨gen von Gerhard Meissl und Edith Hann (1990). Wiener Warenha¨user, 1865-1914. (Wien, Austria: Franz Deuticke, 195 p.). Jacob Rothberger (Firm)--History; Department stores--Austria--Vienna--History; Architecture--Austria--Vienna--19th century; Architecture--Austria--Vienna--20th century; Architecture--Designs and plans; Industrial archaeology--Austria--Vienna; Vienna (Austria)--Buildings, structures, etc.; Vienna (Austria)--Commerce--History--19th century; Vienna (Austria)--Commerce--History--20th century.

(Saan Stores Ltd. - opened 1947 by Sam and Albert Cohen as a war surplus store - Surplus Army, Airforce, Navy), Albert D. Cohen (2002). The Saan Story: Triangle of Success. (Winnipeg, MB: Park Mark Pub., 208 p.). Cohen, Albert D. (Albert Diamond), 1914- ; Cohen family; Saan Stores Ltd.--History; Department stores--Canada--History; Businesspeople--Canada--Biography.

(Sakowitz Department Store), Jane Wolfe (1993). Blood Rich: When Oil Billions, High Fashion, and Royal Intimacies Are Not Enough. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 346 p.). Sakowitz, Robert; Wyatt, Lynn Sakowitz; Sakowitz Department Store--History; Family-owned business enterprises--Texas--History; Business failures--Southwestern States--History; Scandals--Texas--History; Businesspeople--Texas--Biography.

(Schocken & Co.), Anthony David (2003). The Patron: A Life of Salman Schocken, 1887-1958. (New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 464.). Schocken, Salman; retail trade--Department Stores; publishing. 

(Selfridges), Lindy Woodhead (2007). Shopping, Seduction & Mr Selfridge. (London, UK, Profile, 310 p.). International Fashion Public Relations (25 years). Selfridge, H. Gordon (Harry Gordon), 1856-1947; Selfridges (Firm); Businessmen --United States --Biography; Retail trade --Great Britain --History. What happened before curtain fell on Harry Gordon Selfridge (1856-1947): father of modern retailing, philanderer, gambler, dandy greatest showman consumer world has ever known; learned trade in nascent metropolis of Chicago; 1907 - moved to London; 1939 - ousted after losing millions at gaming tables in France.

Harry Gordon Selfridge - Selfridges (http://img.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2007/11_01/037HarrySelfridg_468x371.jpg)

(Simpsons Limited), C.L. Burton (1952). A Sense of Urgency: Memoirs of a Canadian Merchant. (Toronto, ON: Clarke, Irwin, 363 p.). Simpsons Limited.

(Simpsons Limited), G. Allan Burton (1986). A Store of Memories. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 330 p.). Burton, G. Allan, 1915- ; Simpsons Limited -- Biography; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography; Directors of corporations -- Canada -- Biography.

(A. T. Stewart and Company), Stephen N. Elias (1992). Alexander T. Stewart: The Forgotten Merchant Prince. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 172 p.). Stewart, Alexander Turney, 1803-1876; Merchants--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Retail trade--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century.

(A. T. Stewart and Company), Wayne Fanebust; foreword by John Ellis Kordes (2005). The Missing Corpse: Grave Robbing a Gilded Age Tycoon. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 274 p.). Stewart, Alexander Turney, 1803-1876 --Death and burial; Robbery investigation--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century; Grave robbing--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century; Body snatching--New York (State)--New York--History--19th century; Merchants--New York (State)--New York--Biography; Rich people--New York (State)--New York--Social life and customs--19th century. November 7, 1878 - body of the Merchant of Manhattan stolen; one of the biggest police investigations in the New York City's history; body never recovered.

(Strawbridge & Clothier), Alfred Lief (1968). Family Business: A Century in the Life and Times of Strawbridge & Clothier. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 343 p.). Strawbridge & Clothier. 

(Strawbridge & Clothier), Alfred Lief and Frank R. Veale (1981). Family Business: Strawbridge & Clothier, the Momentous Seventies. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 224 p.). Strawbridge & Clothier. 

(Strawbridge & Clothier), Frank R. Veale (1991). Family Business: Strawbridge & Clothier: The Triumphant Eighties 1980-1989. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill). Strawbridge & Clothier. 

(Hermann Tietz), Georg Tietz (1965). Hermann Tietz: Geschichte einer Familie und ihrer Warenha¨User / Berichtet von Georg Tietz; with the compliments of Leo Baek Institute. (Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 212 p.). Hermann Tietz (Firm); Hertie Waren- und Kaufhaus GmbH.

(Wanamaker), Russell H. Conwell (1924). The Romantic Rise of a Great American. (New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 225 p.). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922.

John Wanamaker  (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ theymadeamerica/whomade/images/who_wanamaker_image.jpg)

(Wanamaker), Herbert Adams Gibbons (1926). John Wanamaker Part 1. (New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 472 p.). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922.

(Wanamaker), Herbert Adams Gibbons (1926). John Wanamaker Part 2. (New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 564 p.). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922.

(Wanamaker), Joseph H. Appel (1970). The Business Biography of John Wanamaker, Founder and Builder; America's Merchant Pioneer from 1861 to 1922; with glimpses of Rodman Wanamaker and Thomas B. Wanamaker. (New York, NY: AMS Press, 471 p. [orig. pub. 1930]). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922; Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928; Wanamaker, Thomas Brown, 1861-1908.

(Wanamaker), William Allen Zulker (1993). John Wanamaker: King of Merchants. (Wayne, PA: Eaglecrest Press, 236 p.). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922; Bethany Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia, Pa); John Wanamaker (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Retail trade--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History.

(Wanamaker), Herbert Ershkowitz (1999). John Wanamaker: Philadelphia Merchant. (Conshohocren, PA: Combined Pub., 227 p.). Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922.; John Wanamaker (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--Biography; Merchants--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History; Department stores--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History.

(Wanamaker), Michael J. Lisicky (2010). Wanamaker's: Meet Me at the Eagle. (Charleston, SC: History Press, 157 p.). Department stores -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- History; John Wanamaker (Firm) -- History.

(Whiteley's), Richard S. Lambert (1938). The Universal Provider; A Study of William Whiteley and the Rise of the London Department Store. (London, UK: G. G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 276 p.). Whiteley, William, 1831-1907; Retail trade--England--London.

(Whiteley's), Linda Stratmann (2004). Whiteley's Folly: The Life and Death of a Salesman. (Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 288 P.). Whiteley, William, 1831-1907; Retail trade--England--London. Harrods of nineteenth century.

(Woodward & Lothrop), ed. Martha C. Guilford (1955). From Founders to Grandsons; The Story of Woodward & Lothrop. (Washington, DC: R.H. Darby Print. Co., 215 p.). Department stores -- Washington (D.C.). Published in Commemoration of its Seventy-Fifth Anniversary.

(Woodward Stores Limited), Douglas E. Harker (1976). The Woodwards: The Story of a Distinguished British Columbia Family, 1850-1975. (Vancouver, BC: Mitchell Press, 316 p.). Woodward family; Woodward Stores Limited.

(Wuhan Department Group Co. Ltd.), Bingxin Hu; translated from the Chinese by Chengchi Wang (2004). Breaking Grounds: The Journal of a Chinese Top Woman Manager in Retail. (Dumont, NJ: Homa & Sekey Books, 256 p.). Former General Manager (Chinese equivalent of a CEO) of the Wuhan Department Group Co., Ltd.; Executive General Manager of the Wuhan Plaza Management Co., Ltd. Current Executive President for Greater China of the Hong Kong Goldlion Group, and General Manager of Goldlion (China) Co., Ltd. Hu, Bingxin, 1950- ; Businesswomen--China--Biography; Shopping centers--China--Wuhan; Retail trade--China. 

Bingxin Hu (http://www.homabooks.com/ english_titles/hu_bingxin/Hu Bingxin Small.jpg)

(Zara Ltd.), Enrique Badía (2009). Zara and Her Sisters: The Story of the World's Largest Clothing Retailer. (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 300 p.). Ortega Gaona, Amancio, 1936-; Zara Ltd.; Fashion merchandising --Case studies. Best known Spanish brand at international level; secrets behind Zara's success; show Amancio Ortega Gaona made Zara global market leader in fashion; how Zara balanced global standardization, integration mandates with need to adapt to local markets where their customers, other stakeholders reside.

Amancio Ortega Gaona - Zara  (http://images.forbes.com/media/lists/10/2009/amancio-ortega.jpg)

(ZCMI), Martha Sonntag Bradley (1991). ZCMI, America's First Department Store. (Salt Lake City, UT: ZCMI, 202 p.). Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution--History; Department stores--West (U.S.)--History.

Susan Porter Benson (1986). Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 322 p.). Department stores -- United States -- History; Department stores -- United States -- Employees -- History; Women clerks (Retail trade) -- United States -- History.

Nan Tillson Birmingham (1978). Store. (New York, NY: Putnam, 365 p.). Department stores--United States.

Colin N. Crisswell (1981). The Taipans, Hong Kong's Merchant Princes. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 249 p.). Merchants--China--Hong Kong--History; Hong Kong (China)--Commerce--History.

ed. Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain (1998). Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store, 1850-1939. (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, p.). Department stores--Europe, Western--History--19th century; Department stores--Europe, Western--History--20th century. Series: Historical urban studies.

Joseph Devorkin (1987). Great Merchants of early New York: "The Ladies' Mile". (New York, NY: Society for the Architecture of the City, 101 p.). Merchants--United States--Biography.

John William Ferry (1960). A History of the Department Store. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 387 p.). Department stores.

Leon Harris with a new foreword by Oscar Handlin and a new introduction by Kenneth Libo (1994). Merchant Princes: An Intimate History of Jewish Families Who Built Great Department Stores. (New York, NY: Kodansha International, 411 p.; orig. pub. 1979). Biographer and Department Store Executive. Jews--United States--Biography; Merchants, Jewish--United States--Biography; Department stores--United States--History; United States--Biography. 

Robert Hendrickson (1979). The Grand Emporiums: The Illustrated History of America's Great Department Stores. (New York, NY: Stein and Day, 488 p.). Department stores--United States--History.

Max Hess, Jr. (1952). Every Dollar Counts; The Story of the American Department Store. (New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 166 p.). Department stores -- United States.

Rupert Hodder (1996). Merchant Princes of the East: Cultural Delusions, Economic Success, and the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. (New York, NY: Wiley, 333 p.). China--Commerce--Asia, Southeastern; Merchants--Asia, Southeastern; Success in business--Asia, Southeastern; Chinese--Asia, Southeastern--Economic conditions; Chinese--Asia, Southeastern--Social conditions; Chinese--Asia, Southeastern--Societies, etc.; Asia, Southeastern--Commerce--China.

Bill Lancaster (1995). The Department Store: A Social History. (New York, NY: Leicester University Press, 212 p.). Department stores--Great Britain--History; Industrial relations--Great Britain--History; Department stores--Social aspects--Great Britain--History.

Helen Laurenson (2005). Going Up, Going Down: The Rise and Fall of the Department Store. (Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press, 150 p.). Department stores--New Zealand--Auckland--History; Retail trade--New Zealand--Auckland--History. Stores' confident presence in 1920s to rapid decline in 1960s.

William Leach (1993). Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. (New York, NY: Pantheon, 510 p.). Department stores--United States--History; Sales promotion--United States--History; Department stores--Social aspects--United States--History; Consumer behavior--United States--History; United States--Commercial policy--History. 

Richard Longstreth (2010). The American Department Store Transformed, 1920-1960. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 352 p.). Professor of American Civilization and Director of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation (George Washington University). Department stores --United States --History --20th century. Development, evolution of department stores from local, urban institutions to suburban entities in nation’s 60 largest cities; changes in business practices, shopping patterns, design approaches, urban structure; how stores adapted to dramatic economic, urban developments, challenges from retail competitors on national level; role they played in defining America’s cities.

Bettina O’Neil Lyons (2008). Zeckendorfs and Steinfelds: Merchant Princes of the American Southwest. (Tucson, AZ: Arizona Historical Society, 416 p.). Zeckendorf, Louis, 1838-; Steinfeld, Albert, 1854-1935; Steinfeld, Albert, 1854-1935 --Family; L. Zeckendorf & Co. --History; Albert Steinfeld & Co. --History; Department stores --Arizona --History; Businessmen --Arizona --Biography. Lives, times of the Zeckendorfs and Steinfelds, intertwined with economic development of Southwest; 130 years of mercantile enterprise; men and women who laid business foundations, set social tone of Arizona and New Mexico for much of 19th, 20th centuries.

Edited by Kerrie L. MacPherson (1998). Asian Department Stores. (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 309 p.). Department Stores. 

Tom Mahoney and Leonard Sloane (1974). The Great Merchants; America's Foremost Retail Institutions and the People Who Made Them Great. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 413 p.). Retail trade--United States; Merchants--United States.

Frank McConnell Mayfield (1949). The Department Store Story. (New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 260 p.). Department stores.

Hrant Pasdermadjian (1954). The Department Store, Its Origins, Evolution, and Economics. (London, UK: Newman Books, 217 p.). Department stores.

Phillip J. Reilly (1966). Old Masters of Retailing. (New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 210 p.). Retail trade; Department stores.

Jesse Rainsford Sprague, with an introduction by John Allen Murphy (1928). The Making of a Merchant. (New York, NY: Morrow, 209 p.). Retail trade; Department stores; Business.

Jan Whitaker (2006). Service and Style: How the American Department Store Fashioned the Middle Class. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 352 p.). Department stores--United States--History--20th century; Middle class--United States--History--20th century; Department stores--Social aspects--United States--History--20th century. Author recreates days of downtown department stores (prime time: 1890s through 1960s); grew, why they declined, how they responded to, shaped society around them.


Business History Links

Center for Retailing Studies (Texas A & M University)        http://www.crstamu.org/                                       

The Center supports and promotes retailing through student and executive programs, resources and service.

Center for Retail Management (Northwestern)              http://www.kellogg.nwu.edu/research/retail/crm_000.htm            

The mission of the Center is to improve the marketing capabilities of the retailing industry. To achieve this, the Center develops and applies new methods and tools to help retailers provide greater value to their customers. In turn, the Center works with manufacturers to help them better understand retailer goals and objectives, and to develop marketing programs that deliver greater value to retailers.

The History of Department Stores                                     http://www.departmentstorehistory.net                              

History of America told through the department store – as reflected in its windows, fashion shows, and bargain tables. Department stores were, in their prime (1890s through 1960s), stewards of taste, circus impresarios, tourist sites, civic centers, women’s clubs, urban landmarks, and places where customers could spend the day and buy anything from an ironing board to a Dior original – or nothing at all. They displayed, promoted, sometimes produced and sold a wide range of merchandise, particularly style goods such as clothing and home furnishings. They grew, declined, responded to and shaped the society around them.

E. N. Jenckes Store Museum                                        http://www.douglashistoricalsociety.org/                               

Built in 1833, the Jenckes Store was operated for generations by the same family and was a classic example of a small town general store; served almost every need anyone would have at the time, from furniture to grains, fabrics, foods, baskets, tools and much more. The train would arrive once or twice a week with supplies and alternate days would be reserved for deliveries around town by horse and carriage; stocked today as it would have been a century ago.

The Magnificent, the Merry and the Mundane: The Display Windows of Eaton's Department Store                                                                           http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/english/exhibits/eatons-windows/      

This exhibit explores department store display windows, which "have been central to Canadian retailing since Timothy Eaton built Canada's first super-size department store in the 1880s." Topics include the history of Eaton's (founded as T. Eaton Company by Timothy Eaton), displays inspired by royalty, Christmas windows, and other window display trends through the history of the store. From the Archives of Ontario.

The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective                                                                                                 http://faculty.quinnipiac.edu/charm/Docs/DeptStoreRefs.pdf       

May 10, 2008 - Robert D. Takillia, Professor of Marketing (University of Quebec at Montreal). Two objectives: 1) provide short summary of what department store is all about and its historical in marketing, in society and the world in general; 2) to provide social and other historical researchers with most comprehensive and complete reference list on the department store ever compiled.


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