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BUSINESS HISTORY - Money - The History
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1561 - First coins produced by machinery (known as a 'mill') rather than by hand; 1663 - new machinery replaced hand struck coinage.

1613 - Copper farthing produced; silver coin too small.

May 26, 1652 - Massachusetts established only Colonial Mint; September 1‚ 1652 - John Hull, Robert Sanderson officially opened Massachusetts Bay Mint in Boston‚ issued Pine Tree Shilling, first coin produced in what is now the United States; initial issue consisted of simple round planchets with NE punched on obverse, denomination on reverse.

July 16, 1661 - Bank of Stockholm issued first banknotes in Europe.

February 3, 1690 - Colony of Massachusetts authorized the first official paper currency ever used in the Western Hemisphere; prior to that colonists generally used unofficial coins; 1652-1682 - Boston-based silversmiths John Hull and Robert Sanderson operated their own mint, issued silver shillings and three and sixpence piece.

December 10, 1690 - Massachusetts colony bills of credit for soldiers were first official currency in America.

1717 - Value of golden guinea fixed at 21 shillings.

May 10, 1775 - Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania , issued paper currency for first time.

June 22, 1775 - Congress authorized first issue of Continental Currency, some $2 million in bills of credit, known as "Continentals", to help to finance American Revolution. Featured likenesses of Revolutionary soldiers, inscription "The United Colonies." Backed by promise of "future tax revenues"; ultimately failed,  left the young nation saddled with a hefty war debt. America resisted the urge to issues new paper notes until the dawn of the Civil War.

July 23, 1775 - Three men appointed to supervise printing of $2 million in bills; 28 citizens of Philadelphia employed by Congress to sign, number them.

July 25, 1775 - Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling Magna Carta.

February 17, 1776 - The Continental Congress provided for  standing committee of five to oversee Treasury Department; Committee referred to by various names, including Board of Treasury, Treasury Office of Accounts.

April 1, 1776 - Continental Congress established Treasury's Office of Accounts with an Auditor General, under Standing Committee of the Treasury.

December 24, 1776 - Treasurer of the United States authorized to employ persons to sign bills.

April 1, 1778 - Oliver Pollock, New Orleans businessman, created dollar ($) sign; his penmanship made abbreviation appear to be transposition of letters "p" and "s."

July 9, 1778 - The Articles of Confederation regulated coin alloys and values.

February 11, 1779 -Continental Congress created office of Secretary of the Treasury; July 1779 - position abolished when new Board of Treasury established. 

November 29, 1779 - The final issue of Continental Currency authorized; money later became worthless, gave rise to saying "not worth a Continental."

February 17, 1781 -- The Office of the Superintendent of Finance replaced Board of Treasury; February 20, 1781 -- Robert Morris unanimously elected Superintendent of Finance.

September 16, 1782 - The first known imprint of Great Seal of the United States made.

May 28, 1784 - The Continental Congress established Board of Treasury to consist of three Commissioners.

July 6, 1785 - First time in history, nation adopted decimal coinage system; dollar unanimously chosen as money unit for  United States.

1786 - Congress approved Thomas Jefferson's proposal for  dollar-driven currency; August 8, 1786 - Congress adopted silver dollar, decimal system of money.

October 16, 1786 - The Continental Congress authorized establishment of Mint facility in Philadelphia, PA.

September 2, 1789 - Law enacted by Congress created  Treasury Department; second oldest department in Federal Government; September 11, 1789 - Alexander Hamilton took oath of office as first Secretary of the Treasury. 

September 13, 1789 - Temporary Loan made; believed to be only loan negotiated without authority of law.

August 4, 1790 - Congress authorized first U.S. Government securities.

January 28, 1791 -Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton submitted Mint Report to Congress; gave results of U.S. Government's first financial survey on silver content of Spanish dollar. 

April 2, 1792 - Congress passed the Coinage Act; authorized: 1) legal tender system; 2) establishment of the U.S. Mint and a decimal-based currency system, 3) the President to construct Mint buildings in the nation's capitol, Philadelphia (first federal building erected under the Constitution), 4) minting of $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle and 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins and silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime and half-dime; April 14, 1792 - astronomer and mathematician David Rittenhouse installed as Mint's inaugural Director (served from 1793 until 1795); ushered 11,178 copper coins into circulation, oversaw initial issues of gold and silver currency; Robert Scot appointed first engraver to federal mint. 

May 8, 1792 - An Act of Congress established Commissioner of Revenue in the Treasury Department.

November 6, 1792 -- President George Washington declared  end to coin shortage with striking of first half-dime coins.

February 9, 1793 - Congress authorized use of foreign coins as legal tender in United States.

April 15, 1793 - Bank of England handed out first 5 pound note.

October 15, 1794 - First silver dollar coins released into circulation.

December 1, 1794 - First half-dollar coins placed into circulation.

1795 - Robert Scot formed bank note engraving business in Philadelphia, PA; 1810 - three Philadelphia engravers, with associations to Scot, formed Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., one of principal producers of American Banknotes.

January 31, 1795 -- Alexander Hamilton resigned, ended his term as first Secretary of U. S. Treasury.

September 22, 1795 - First $10 gold coins, known as "eagles," roduced.

October 10, 1795 - United States Mint hired first two female employees.

September 21, 1796 - First $2-1/2 gold coins, known as "quarter eagles," produced.

1797 - Frst copper pennies produced ('cartwheels') in England by application of steam power to coining press.

February 26, 1797 - First £1 note issued by Bank of England.

1799 - U.S. Mint made an independent agency.

August 24, 1814 - The British burned Main Treasury Building, dined by its light across street in Rhodes Tavern.

1816 - First time British silver coins produced with intrinsic value substantially below their face value – first official 'token' coinage.

July 4, 1829 - Cornerstone laid for first U.S. mint (Chestnut and Juniper St, Philadelphia).

June 28, 1834 - An Act of Congress regulated gold coinage;  reduced gold standard weight.

March 3, 1835 -- An Act of Congress authorized Charlotte Mint in North Carolina (in operation from 1838 until 1861); authorized  Dahlonega Mint in Georgia (in operation from 1838 until 1861); authorized New Orleans Mint in Louisiana.

March 23, 1836 - Franklin Beale invented steam-powered coin press; produced first batch of coins for U.S. Mint.

June 9, 1837 - The Republic of Texas authorized issuance of money

March 8, 1838 - U.S. Mint in New Orleans began operation (produced dimes).

March 28, 1838 - Charlotte Mint in North Carolina produced first "branch mint" coinage, gold half-eagle coins.

August 26, 1842 - A Fiscal Year of July 1 through June 30 established for Treasury Department.

March 3, 1849 - Gold Coinage Act authorized $20 Double Eagle gold coin.

1850 - Creation of Swiss Franc; prior to 1850: about 860 different coins were in circulation in Switzerland, all were legal tender.

March 12, 1850 - First U.S. $20 gold piece issued.

March 3, 1851 - Congress authorized smallest U.S. silver coin (3 cent piece).

July 3, 1852 - Congress authorized second U. S. mint (San Francisco, CA).

February 21, 1853 - U.S. authorized minting of $3 gold pieces.

February 21, 1857 - Act of Congress outlawed foreign currency as legal tender in U.S.

1858 - American Bank Note Company formed from merger of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson (founded 1847, 23.9% share), Toppan, Carpenter & Co. (founded 1845, 22.4% share), Danforth, Perkins & Co. (founded 1858, 21.8% share), Bald, Cousland & Co. (founded 1853, 13.3% share), Jocelyn, Draper, Welsh & Co. (founded 1854, 8.4% share), Wellstood, Hay & Whiting (founded 1855, 8.2% share), John E. Gavit (founded 1851, 2% share); offices at Merchants' Exchange Building, 55 Wall St.; 1879 - merged with National Bank Note Co. (formed 1859), Continental Bank Note Co. (formed 1863); 1891 - introduced "planchette paper" (supplied by Crane & Co.), contained colored paper discs (rather than silk fibers or silk threads), instantly revealed any counterfeit; became pre-eminent supplier of engraved travelers check forms (with safeguards against counterfeiting); 1900 - supplied bank notes for 48 countries,printed stock certificates, bonds, checks; 1911 - merged with United Bank Note Corp. (formed in 1906 as holding company to acquire stock of American Bank Note Co.); 1940s - worked with American Cyanamid Company, Crane & Co. to develop "Melamine" paper, provides increased resistance to folding, tearing, rubbing, wet strength or resistance to wear when subjected to moisture; 1990 - International Banknote merged with U.S. Banknote Company L.P. (founded 1884) in transaction valued at $104 million, formed United States Banknote Corporation, second largest security printer in world; July 1, 1995 - name changed to American Banknote Corporation; 1997 - international operations genertated nearly 75% of revenue; 1998 - sold American Bank Note Holographics (formed in mid-1980s) for $116 million to reduce domestic debt service; 1999 - forced to restate 1998 earnings because of questions regarding overstatement of revenues, net income by Holographics; at least 20 class-action suits filed, investigations initiated by independent auditors, SEC, U.S. Attorney's office in New York; August 1999 - stock delisted; December 18, 1999 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; August 22, 2002 - United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York confirmed Reorganization Plan (effective October 1, 2002); August 8, 2003 - jury found that Morris Weissman, former chairman, CEO of American Banknote, had inflated company's earnings in 1996 and 1997; April 8, 2005 - Bankruptcy Court confirmed Company's Plan of Reorganization as American Banknote Corporation.

March 9, 1861 - Confederate currency authorized - $50, $100, $500, $1,000 denominations.

April 8, 1861 - Confederacy seized U.S. Mint at Dahlonega, GA.

July 17, 1861 - United States Government issued first paper money, U.S. demand notes popularly known as Greenbacks.

November 20, 1861 -- Salmon P. Chase, 25th Secretary of the Treasury, instructed Director of the Philadelphia Mint to develop appropriate motto to be used on United States coins.

February 25, 1862 - Congress formed U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing; Congress passed Legal Tender Act, authorized use of paper notes, called "greenbacks", to prevent counterfeiting, to pay government's bills; ended long-standing policy of using only gold or silver in transactions, allowed government to finance enormously costly war long after its gold, silver reserves depleted; greenbacks were legal tender (creditors had to accept them at face value). Congress also passed income tax, steep excise taxes, both of which cooled inflationary pressures created by greenbacks; March 17, 1862 - first two issues of Greenbacks made legal tender; 1863 - another legal tender act passed; by Civil War's end nearly half-billion dollars in greenbacks issued. The Legal Tender Act laid foundation for creation of permanent currency in decades after Civil War.

March 10, 1862 - First paper money issued in US: $5, $10, and $20.

April 21, 1862 - Congress established U.S. Mint in Denver, CO.

July 11, 1862 - Act of Congress provided that Secretary of the Treasury is responsible for selection of designs, including  portraits, which appear on paper currency.

August 21, 1862 - Treasury Department released fractional currency, also known as postage currency: new 5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes (economy took a beating from Civil War).

August 29, 1862 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing founded; originally housed in basement of Treasury Building, staff of six (didn't print notes, separated $1 and $2 United States Notes produced by private companies); 1863 - bureau started printing notes; 1887 - assumed full responsibility for producing nation's currency; bureau grew from six to 2,800 employees in two offices in Washington, DC, branch in Fort Worth, TX; 2006 - bureau annually engraves approximately 6.5 billion notes worth $80 billion.

November 20, 1862 - First engraving staff (3 people) started work at Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

February 25, 1863 - President Lincoln signed National Currency Act; established Office of the Comptroller of the Currency,  bureau governed by Secretary of the Treasury, to begin first steps to nationwide circulation of standardized currency.

March 3, 1863 -- An Act of Congress authorized Carson City Mint in Nevada (in operation from 1870 until 1893); United States produced first fractional currency notes.

May 9, 1863 - Hugh McCulloch appointed as first Comptroller of the Currency (later served as Secretary of the Treasury).

October 10, 1863 - First fractional currency notes released into circulation.

December 9, 1863 -- Salmon P. Chase approved proposal by Director of the Philadelphia Mint for changes to mottoes on United States coins.

February 17, 1864 -- The Confederate States of America authorized fourth printing of currency, amounted to $200 million of notes.

April 22, 1864 - Congress authorized use of phrase "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins.

March 3, 1865 -- An Act of Congress authorized Director of the Philadelphia Mint to place motto "In God We Trust" on all gold and silver coins.

November 13, 1865 --First gold certificate issued.

April 7, 1866 - An Act of Congress stated that only portrait of  deceased person may appear on bank notes.

May 16, 1866 - Congress authorized minting of five-cent piece; voted to discontinue use of small silver coin, half-dime, and replace it with five-cent piece; initial version of nickel featured  shield on front, "5" on back, plain-faced; successive runs of coin more ornate; 1913 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing issued  now-coveted "buffalo" nickel, with buffalo, bust of Native American on respective sides; current, and even more ornate, incarnation of coin pays homage to Thomas Jefferson--features  third U.S. president's likeness on one side, rendering of his home, Monticello, on other.

September 17, 1868 - Nation's six-year-old currency agency  officially christened as Bureau of Engraving and Printing, national currency production bureau.

December 1869 - U.S. Mint at Carson City, NV opened; February 10, 1870 - first silver dollar coins released into circulation; eight coin denominations bearing mint mark "CC" produced until June 1, 1893; Mint produced more than $49,000,000 of gold and silver.

June 27, 1871 - Yen became new form of currency in Japan.

February 12, 1873 - Coinage Act of 1873 established  Bureau of the Mint under Treasury Department; authorized Treasury Department to place motto "In God We Trust" on all United States coins.

February 19, 1873 -- Comptroller of the Currency required to report on condition of State banks.

January 19, 1874 -- The United States Mint authorized to strike coinage for foreign governments.

1876 - U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Engraving and Printing created to print all U.S. notes, securities; 1877 - became sole producer of all United States currency

1894 - Began printing postage stamps.

February 23, 1876 - Last fractional currency issued, fortotal of $368,720,000. of notes.

March 3, 1877 - Functions of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing formally established.

February 28, 1878 - Congress passed Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act; provided for issue of silver certificates, authorized coinage of silver dollar coins.

May 2, 1878 - U.S. stopped minting 20 cent coin.

May 31, 1878 - Act of Congress forbade further retirement of U.S. legal tender notes.

September 26, 1880 - Congress enacted law mandating that coin designs must remain in use for 25 years.

October 1, 1887 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing began producing all United States paper currency and government securities; function centralized for first time.

February 20, 1895 - Congress authorized U.S. mint at Denver, Colorado.

March 3, 1899 - Congress authorized Lafayette silver dollar.

March 14, 1900 - Gold Standard Act fixed value of dollar against gold.

February 18, 1908 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing delivered first postage stamp coils.

May 18, 1908 - Congress passed legislation that made maxim "In God We Trust" an obligatory element of certain coins; motto dates to early 1860s, when Civil War stirred religious feelings throughout nation. America's heightened piety manifested itself in many places, including treasury department, which received countless letters requesting that nation's coins pay some form of tribute to God. Concerned citizens, religious leaders found fast friend in Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase, who readily agreed that "trust of our people in God should be declared on our national coins." James Pollock, director of U.S. Mint at Philadelphia, charged with devising suitable motto. After some key revisions from Chase, Pollock decided upon "In God We Trust."

May 30, 1908 - National Monetary Commission established; published 40 banking treatises, led to establishment of Federal Reserve System.

August 2, 1909 - First Lincoln head pennies minted to replace Indian Head Cent; ; 95% copper, first US coin to depict likeness of a president; August 7 - first Lincoln head pennies issued.

May 14, 1910 - Canada authorized issuing of silver dollar coins.

February 23, 1916 - Congress authorized McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin.

February 24, 1919 - Revenue Act codified existing tax laws.

February 22, 1922 - Congress authorized Grant Memorial $1 gold coin.

1928 - Basic face, back designs of all denominations of United States paper currency adopted (except backs of $1 and $2 denominations in general circulation today).

August 7, 1928 - Dollar shrank; Treasury unveiled new version of note, one third smaller than predecessor.; Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed one billion new bills in denominations ranging from one to ten thousand dollars; 1929 - Treasury department rolled out smaller version of dollar, shrunk by 25%, displayed now standard set of portraits and emblems.

December 5, 1931 - Citizens Bank of Tenino, WA failed, created shortage of money; Chamber of Commerce authorized local newspaper to print first issue of wooden money in U. S. (to avoid merchants' having to travel 30 miles, 4 hours, over roads built for horses and mules to get change).

July 31, 1932 - George Washington quarter went into circulation.

March 16, 1933 -- President Franklin D. Roosevelt deleted gold from coinage, from circulation and from collections; illegal to hold gold in United States; April 5, 1933 - President Roosevelt forbade hoarding of gold, required delivery of gold coins to  government; August 28, 1933 - Executive Order regulated  hoarding, exporting of gold; prohibited holding of gold by United States citizens.

May 3, 1933 - Nellie Taylor Ross took control of United States Mint (first woman); unveiled dime, production of steel penny (designed to aid nation's finances during World War II).

June 5, 1933 - Abrogation of Gold Standard.

December 28, 1933 - Pursuant to Gold Reserve Act of 1934, President Roosevelt ordered private owners of gold certificates to deliver their notes to Treasurer of the United States.

January 17, 1934 - Illegal for private citizens to own gold certificates.

January 30, 1934 - Gold Reserve Act withdrew gold coins from circulation, provided for devaluation of dollar's gold content, created Exchange Stabilization Fund.

May 1, 1935 - Canada's first silver dollar circulated.

March 15, 1938 - United States Secret Service unveiled "Know Your Money" campaign; designed to raise awareness about characteristics of legal tender; called attention to counterfeiting (problem that had plagued nation since 19th century); 1863 - government had hoped to halt counterfeiting by establishing  national currency; backfired, scores of faked bills flooded  market; 1865 - government established Secret Service.

November 18, 1941 - United States agreed to purchase silver from Mexico to help stabilize Peso.

October 8, 1942 - Wartime five-cent coin, made of copper-silver-manganese, authorized; "P" Mint Mark, to denote Philadelphia Mint, first appeared on United States coin.

June 20, 1948 - Deutsche Mark introduced in West-Germany.

August 16, 1948 - Israeli pound became legal tender.

1950 - Louis Eliasberg, Baltimore financier, finished building complete collection of regular issue United States coins comprising all then-known dates, mint marks; only person to ever build complete set of U.S. coins; 1925 - began collecting; 1942 - largest, most important purchase: Clapp Estate Collection (built first by J.M. Clapp from 1880s through his death in 1906, and then his son John H. Clapp from 1906 on) for $100,000; 1949 - purchasing last gold coin he needed (1841 $2 1/2); 1950 - purchased  last silver coin he needed (1873-CC no arrows dime);  1982 - Eliasberg gold coins auctioned by Bowers and Ruddy; 1996-1997 - Eliasberg Copper, Nickel, and Silver coins auctioned by Bowers and Merena; among greatest in numismatic history.

July 4, 1952- Canadian Currency, Mint and Exchange Fund Act allowed gold coins of $5, $10, and $20 to be minted.

November 19, 1953 - Coin distribution responsibilities  transferred from Treasurer of the United States to United States Mint.

July 1, 1955 - President signed Public law 84-140;  mandated that motto "In God We Trust" appear on all United States currency and coinage.

July 30, 1956 - President signed Joint Resolution declaring that motto "In God We Trust" be national motto.

September 9, 1957 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing. delivered first currency bearing motto " In God We Trust"; October 1, 1957 - first appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency; 1963 - first on U.S. Federal Reserve Notes.

March 17, 1960 - New £1 notes issued by Bank of England.

September 15, 1961 -- All $1 currency notes printed on, after this date bore national motto " In God We Trust."

December 31, 1960 - Farthing coin, in use in Great Britain since 13th century, ceased to be legal tender.

June 4, 1963 - Act of Congress that allowed exchange of silver certificates for silver dollars signed into law.

November 6, 1963 -- Production of $1 Federal Reserve notes with motto "In God We Trust" began.

December 30, 1963 -- President Lyndon Johnson approved  John F. Kennedy half-dollar coin.

January 23, 1964 -- Production of $5 United States notes bearing motto "In God We Trust" began; February 12, 1964 - Production of $2 United States notes bearing motto "In God We Trust" began; February 24, 1964 -- Production of $10 Federal Reserve notes bearing motto began.

March 24, 1964 - Kennedy half-dollar issued.

March 25, 1964 - Silver certificates no longer redeemable in silver dollars, pursuant to Act of June 4, 1963 (redeemable in silver bullion).

July 31, 1964 - Production of $5 Federal Reserve notes bearing motto "In God We Trust" began.

July 23, 1965 - Coinage Act signed; substituted cupro-nickel clad coins for silver coins in United States circulating coins, deleted all Mint Marks from coins (returned in 1968).

September 1, 1965 - San Francisco Mint produced coins for  first time since 1955; bore no Mint Mark until 1968, when "S"  restored.

August 18, 1966 - First redesigned $100 bills, featuring motto "In God We Trust", printed; August 24, 1966 - production of $50 Federal Reserve notes bearing motto began.

November 6, 1966 - First $1 Federal Reserve notes delivered to Dallas, San Francisco Federal Reserve Banks.

April 17, 1968 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing completed conversion to dry printing method.

April 23, 1968 - First decimal coins issued in Britain (5 and 10 pence).

June 24, 1968 - Exchange of silver certificates for silver bullion discontinued.

August 1, 1968 - Canada began replacing silver with nickel in coins.

November 27, 1968 - First $100 United States notes delivered to Treasury.

April 1, 1969 - Royal Canadian Mint formally formed asCrown Corporation.

April 11, 1969 - Export ban on U.S. silver coins, which began on May 18, 1967, lifted; April 26, 1969 - ownership of pre-1934 gold coins no longer required license from Treasury Department.

July 14, 1969 - Department of the Treasury, Federal Reserve System announced that currency notes in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 would be discontinued immediately due to lack of use; issued until 1969, last printed in 1945.

July 31, 1969 - Halfpenny ceased to be legal tender in Britain.

October 14, 1969 - Britain introduced 50p (fifty-pence) coin, replaced ten-shilling note (in anticipation of decimalization of  currency).

December 30, 1970 - Coinage Act authorized production of  Eisenhower one-dollar coin.

February 15, 1971 - Great Britain, Ireland switched to decimal-based currency.

October 14, 1971 - First Eisenhower one-dollar coins released into circulation.

December 18, 1971 - Smithsonian Agreement ended import surcharge, devalued dollar, realigned exchange rates; official U.S. price for gold raised to $38 per ounce.

April 3, 1972 - Official U.S. gold rate raised from $35 per ounce to $38 per ounce.

February 13, 1973 -- President Nixon raised official gold price in United States from $38.00 an ounce to $42.22 an ounce.

October 18, 1973 - Congress authorized bi-centennial quarter, half-dollar and dollar coin.

December 7, 1973 -- Treasury Department requested standby authority to make aluminum one-cent coins.

December 30, 1974 - Public Law 93-373 allowed United States citizens to own gold; first time since 1933; December 31, 1974 - United States citizens permitted to buy gold coins, gold bullion.

October 10, 1978 - US President Jimmy Carter signed bill into law that authorized minting of Susan B. Anthony dollar; December 13, 1978 - United States mint in Philadelphia started production on Susan B. Anthony dollar (silver, not much bigger than quarter); 1979 - 850 million coins put into circulation; flop - people confused it with quarter.

January 14, 1980 - Gold (released from government control) traded at record price, exceeded $800 an ounce; 1821 - units of English currency were redeemable for fixed quantity of gold,  change that Britain hoped would stabilize its rapidly growing economy; late 19th century - most industrialized nations on full gold standard (facilitated international monetary transactions, stabilized foreign exchange rates); 1914 - curbing of gold exports at outbreak of World War I forced recourse to inconvertible paper currency; 1920's - economic growth overtook gold reserves, some nations supplemented reserves with stable currencies like pound, dollar (perceived as measure of permanent value); 1930 - world economy, gold standard collapsed (in response, most governments sharply limited convertibility of paper currency); 1933 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt prohibited circulation of gold coins (though gold still used to define value of dollar); 1930's-1960's - currencies remained "pegged" to gold until global reserves dwindled; 1971 - United States suspended free exchange of U.S. gold for foreign-held dollars; 1974 - lifted four-decade ban on private purchase of gold (gold bullion traded in European markets at highs approaching $200 an ounce); 1975 - U.S. government began to sell some of its holdings on open market ; 1978 - officially abandoned gold standard.

October 27, 1981 - First woman sworn in as Chief Sculptor-Engraver of the United States at Philadelphia Mint.

October 13, 1982 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing unveiled  first batch of mechanical equipment intended to inspect notes.

April 17, 1983 - First National Coin Week began.

April 21, 1983 - One pound coin introduced in United Kingdom.

June 25, 1984 - First gold coin struck by United States Government in 50 years; American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin produced at Denver Mint.

June 30, 1984 - Last sixpence minted in Great-Britain (in use since 1551).

November 12, 1984 - Chancellor Nigel Lawson announced in parliament that English pound note (quid) would disappear after more than 150 years; replaced by coins which introduced in April 1984.

September 22, 1985 - Plaza Accord, international effort to bring down value of dollar, stabilize exchange rates, reached.

March 18, 1986 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing announced  new currency design to prevent counterfeiting; first major design change since 1929.

September 8, 1986 - American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin struck; first time since 1933 that United States Mint produced gold coin.

March 31, 1988 - West Point Bullion Depository became first new mint since 1862.

July 1, 1990 - German Democratic Republic accepted Deutsche Mark as its currency.

October 10, 1994 - Value of Russian ruble decreased, 3081 rubles per dollar.

September 27, 1995 - Government unveiled redesigned $100 bill with off-center, enlarged picture of Ben Franklin; March 25, 1996 - redesigned $100 bill went into circulation.

June 12, 1997 - Treasury Department unveiled new $50 bill meant to be more counterfeit-resistant.

January 1, 1998 - Euro introduced for use by European businesses; June 1, 1998 - European Central Bank opened in Frankfurt, Germany.

May 11, 1998 - French mint produced first coins of Europe's single currency, euro.

August 17, 1998 - Russia devalued ruble.

September 24, 1998 - Redesigned $20 bills, harder to counterfeit, went into circulation.

January 1, 1999 - "Euro" debuted asfinancial unit in corporate and investment markets = first time since Charlemagne's reign in ninth century that Europe united with common currency; eleven European Union nations, representing some 290 million people, launched currency in hopes of increasing European integration,  economic growth; irrevocably established conversion rates between their respective national currencies and euro, created  monetary union wit single currency, gave birth to euro; closed at 1.17 U.S. dollars on first day of trading in foreign exchange markets.

January 1, 2002 - Euro became legal tender for European consumers - currency of 15 countries, 320 million people; replaced Deutsche Mark, French franc, Italian lira,  Spanish peseta, Greek drachma, Austrian schilling, Belgian franc, Finnish markka, Irish pound, Luxembourg franc, Dutch guilder, Portuguese escudo; around 7.8 billion euro notes, 40.4 billion euro coins (worth €144 billion) put into general circulation by central banks of twelve participating countries of euro area; euro notes distributed by bank machines; shops started to give customers change in euro cash.

May 13, 2003 - Government unveiled new version of $20 bill - first to be colorized in effort to thwart counterfeiters.

April 26, 2004 - U. S. government unveiled new colorized $50 bill.

November 1, 2004 - Bank of Japan issued new series of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 yen notes; old and new series circulated together.

2005 - Decline in U.S. dollar's purchasing power (1800-2005) (Source: Barron's)


September 19, 2005 - Gold Rush-era coin, confirmed as one of only 12 Quarter Eagles known to exist of 246 made by San Francisco Mint in 1854, containing 1/8 of an ounce of California gold, sold for $ 253,000 at a Beverly Hills auction; owned by  descendant of Chinese immigrants who worked in California gold fields.

September 28, 2005 - U.S. Treasury unveiled new $10 bill, featured splashes of red, yellow and orange.

April 2006 - Cost of metals in penny (zinc, copper) rose above 0.008 cents, more than twice value in Fall 2005; U.S. government spent at least six-tenths of cent (above cost of metal) to make each penny - lost about half of a cent on each new penny minted; July 18, 2006 - Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Arizona) announced legislation to eliminate penny (production cost = $.014), to round cash transactions to nearest nickel; 1982 - copper rose to record levels; Mint started making pennies mostly of zinc (with thin copper coating).

November 20, 2006 - Edmund C. Moy, Director of United States Mint, unveiled four designs for on-dollar coins, featured likenesses of first first four presidents; began decade-long series to portray every deceased president; first coin, with George Washington on one side, Statue of Liberty on other side, began to circulate in February 2007.

February 24, 2009 - U.S. Mint honored Edward Kennedy Ellington ('Duke') with place on quarter coin issued to celebrate his birthplace, District of Columbia; coin depicts Ellington sitting at piano surrounded by words "District of Columbia"; first African American to appear by himself on circulating coin (York, African American slave who accompanied Lewis and Clark on journey westward across United States, appeared with them in canoe on 2003 Missouri quarter).

Louis Eliasberg - only person to ever build a complete set of U.S. coins ( Articles/eliasberg_vault.jpg)

November 2009 - Penny accounts for about 58.4% of all coins circulating, but only contributes 7.5% of the value, 298.7 billion in circulation; quarter accounts for 56.8% of all coin value (source: IbisWorld); costs more to produce pennies than they are worth, United States Mint has been producing fewer in recent years.

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April 24, 2010 - Total volume of United States currency outstanding rose by $34.7 billion in 2009 (all but $33.4 billion of increase in $100 bills); value of euro notes outstanding, of 100 euros or more, rose 6.3% in 2009, smaller bills climbed 4.9%; dollar split sharper: $100 bills rose 5%, smaller bills gained only 1.5%.

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Sir Norman  Angell (1929). The Story of Money. (New York, N: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 411 p.). Money--History.

Alonzo Barton and Emily Eaton Hepburn (1924). A History of Currency in the United States. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 573 p.). Money--History; Coinage--History; Currency question; Federal Reserve banks.

Klaus W. Bender (2006). Moneymakers: The Secret World of Banknote Printing. (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag, 316 p.). Foreign Correspondent for the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" (FAZ), Germany's leading daily paper. Paper money --Europe; Counterfeits and counterfeiting --Europe; Bank notes --Europe. In-depth view of banknote industry, its modus operandi

S.M.H. Bozorgnia (1998). The Role of Precious Metals in European Economic Development: From Roman Times to the Eve of the Industrial Revolution. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 209 p.). Europe -- Economic conditions; Money -- Europe -- History; Precious metals -- Europe -- History; Economic history. 

Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge (1969). Legal Tender; A Study in English and American Monetary History. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 181 p. [orig. pub. 1903]). Legal tender; Money--United States--History; Money--Great Britain--History.

James Buchan (1997). Frozen Desire: The Meaning of Money. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 320 p.). Money--History--Miscellanea.

Arthur R. Burns (1965). Money and Monetary Policy in Early Times. (New York, NY: A.M. Kelley, 517 p.). Money--History; Coinage--History. Numismatics; Coins, Ancient. Weights and measures.

John Chown (1994). A History of Money: From AD 800. (New York, NY: Routledge, 306 p.). Money--History; Credit--History.

John Cooley (2008). Currency Wars: How Forged Money is the New Weapon of Mass Destruction. (New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, 320 p.). Counterfeits and counterfeiting--Political aspects; Political stability--Economic aspects. Greed and fear as catalysts in world economics; forgery as way of waging war, seizing power; counterfeit money as weapon; grand-scale forgery's corrosive implications for global economic, political, social stability.

Simon Coupland (2007). Carolingian Coinage and the Vikings: Studies on Power and Trade in the 9th Century. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate/Variorum, 336 p.). Money -- France -- History; Coinage -- France -- History; Economic history -- Medieval, 500-1500; Vikings -- France; France -- History -- To 987.

Joanne C. Dauer, Edward A. Dauer (2003). American History as Seen Through Currency: A Pictorial History of United States Currency as Seen Throughout Important Historical Events. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Edward and Joanne Dauer, 400 p.). Paper money--United States--History; United States--History.

Glyn Davies (2002). A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day. (Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 720 p. [3rd ed.]). Emeritus Professor (University of Wales). Money; Money--History; Coinage; Coinage--History. 

Agnes F. Dodd (1911). History of Money in the British Empire & the United States. (New York, NY: Longmans, Green, and Co., 356 p.). Money--Great Britain--History; Money--United States--History; Money--Great Britain.

Armand van Dormael (1997). The Power of Money (Washington Square, NY: New York University Press, 184 p.). Money--Europe--History--20th century; Money--United States--History--20th century; Economic history--20th century.

Ed. Mark Duckenfield (2004). The Monetary History of Gold: A Documentary History, 1660-1999. (Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 536 p.). Gold --History; Gold standard --History; Money --History.

Catherine Eagleton and Jonathan Williams; with Joe Cribb and Elizabeth Errington (2007). Money: A History. (Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 272 p.). Curator of Paper Money and Modern Coins; Curator of Roman and Iron Age coin; Curator of Asian coins; Curator of South Asian coins (all at the British Museum). Money--History; Monnaie--Histoire. Coins, paper money from ancient to modern times; use of monetary exchange from primitive barter system to online, cashless systems: 1) Ancient Mesopotamia, Greece and Egypt; 2) Roman world; 3) Medieval Europe; 4) Islamic lands; 5) India and Southeast Asia; 6) China and the Far East.

Africa and Oceania; 7) early modern period and the modern period (introduction of the Euro and e-money).

Paul Einzig (1962). The History of Foreign Exchange. (New York, NY: St Martin’s Press, 319 p.). Financial Journalist, Lombard Street," column for the Financial News. Foreign exchange--History. Impressive, controversial, provocative, work; a classic.

--- (1966). Primitive Money in Its Ethnological, Historical, and Economic Aspects. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 557 p. [2nd ed.]). Money--Origin.

Joseph A. Ernst (1973). Money and Politics in America, 1755-1775; A Study in the Currency Act of 1764 and the Political Economy of Revolution. (Chapel Hill, NC, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University of North Carolina Press, 403 p.). Department of History (York University). Currency question --United States; Monetary policy --History; Great Britain --Colonies --America --Finance; Great Britain --Colonies --America --History --18th century; United States --Politics and government --To 1775.

Joseph Farris (2001). Money Inc.: A Wry Look at Business Today. (Mt. Pleasant, SC: Spectacle Lane Press, 133 p.). Business--Caricatures and cartoons; Money--Caricatures and cartoons. Portions of this work have appeared previously in: Accounting Today, Barron's, Harvard Business Review, Natural Pharmacy, The National Law Journal, The New Yorker, and Wall Street Journal.

Albert Edgar Feavearyear (1931). The Pound Sterling: A History of English Money. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 367 p.). Money--Great Britain--History; Currency question--Great Britain.

Niall Ferguson (2001). The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700-2000. (London, UK: Allen Lane, 552 p.). Money--History; History, Modern.

--- (2008). The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 432 p.). Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History (Harvard University), William Ziegler Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School), Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College (Oxford), Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution (Stanford). Finance--History; Money--History; Economics--History. Finance is foundation of human progress, essential backstory behind all history; origins of key financial institutions, concepts; sooner or later every bubble bursts; sooner or later bearish sellers outnumber bullish buyers;  sooner or later greed flips into fear.

Eds. Robert M. Fishman and Anthony M. Messina (2006). The Year of the Euro: The Cultural, Social, and Political import of Europe’s Common Currency. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 328 p.). professor of sociology and a fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and the Nanovic Institute for European Studies (University of Notre Dame); associate professor of political science and a fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and Nanovic Institute for European Studies (University of Notre Dame). Euro--Social aspects--Congresses; Euro--Political aspects--Congresses. Whether new common currency will reshape Europe's cultures, societies, political systems and, if so, in what ways. 

Alison Frankel (2006). Double Eagle: The Epic Story of the World’s Most Valuable Coin. (New York, NY: Norton, 320 p.). Senior Writer at The American Lawyer. Double eagle (Coin)--History. Author brings coin's history to life and illuminates the world of coin collecting. One coin, for years only known 1933 twenty-dollar Double Eagle in world, has inspired passions of thieves and collectors, lawyers and charlatans.

John Kenneth Galbraith (1975). Money, Whence It Came, Where It Went. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 324 p.). Money--History; Economic history.

Barbara Garson (2001). Money Makes the World Go Around. (New York, NY: Viking, 342 p.). Capital movements; Mutual funds; International finance; Money.

Jason Goodwin (2003). Greenback: The Almighty Dollar and the Invention of America. (New York, NY: Holt, 321 P.). Dollar. 

Elgin Groseclose (1976). Money and Man: A Survey of Monetary Experience. (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 307 p. [4th ed.]). Money--History; Currency question.

William Hamilton; with an introd. by John Kenneth Galbraith (1980). Money Should Be Fun. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 128 p.). Money--Caricatures and cartoons; American wit and humor, Pictorial.

Kenneth W. Harl (1996). Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 533 p.). Professor of History (Tulane University). Coins, Roman; Coinage--Rome--History; Rome--Economic conditions.

Ed. William V. Harris (2008). The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 330 p.). Shepherd Professor of History (Columbia University). Money --Rome --History; Money --Greece --History; Rome --Economic conditions --30 B.C.-476 A.D; Greece --Economic conditions --To 146 B.C. Complexity of Greek, Roman monetary systems, how systems worked, how they did, did not resemble modern monetary system.

Eric Helleiner (2003). The Making of National Money: Territorial Currencies in Historical Perspective. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 277 p.). Money; Money--Political aspects; Currency question. 

Manuel Hinds (2006). Playing Monopoly with the Devil: Dollarization and Domestic Currencies in Developing Countries. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 304 p.). Former Chief Adviser to the President of El Salvador on the Dollarization of the Country in 2000-2001. Money--Developing countries; Currency question--Developing countries; Monetary policy--Developing countries. Currency problems faced by developing countries,  practical advice for policy makers on how to deal with them.

James Willard Hurst (1973). A Legal History of Money in the United States, 1774-1970. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 367 p.). Money--United States--History; Monetary policy--United States.

Louis Jordan (2002). John Hull: The Mint and the Economics of Massachusetts Coinage. (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 348 p.). Hull, John, 1624-1683; Coinage--Massachusetts--History--17th century; Coins, American--Massachusetts; Mints--Massachusetts; Massachusetts--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775--Sources; Massachusetts--Economic aspects.

Craig Karmin (2008). The Biography of a Dollar: How Mr. Greenback Greases the Skids of America and the World. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 272 p.). Reporter for the "Money and Investing" section of The Wall Street Journal. Dollar, American; Foreign exchange; International finance. Dollar's history from early days in mid-19th century to position at top of global economy; power of Federal Reserve, inner sanctums of foreign central banks, foreign exchange traders; enabled global economy to flourish but allowed U. S. to owe shocking amounts of money, raised concerns that dollar standard may not be sustainable.

Jason Kersten (2009). The Art of Making Money: The Story of a Master Counterfeiter. (New York, NY: Gotham, 304 p.). Senior Editor at Maxim magazine. Luciano, Arthur Julius; Counterfeiters --Biography; Counterfeits and counterfeiting. How Art Williams, Jr. painstakingly defeated anti-forging features of U. S. Treasury Department's 1996 New Note (most secure hundred-dollar bill ever created); printed millions in counterfeit bills for 14 years, sold them to criminal organizations, used them to fund cross-country spending sprees at shopping malls all over America; how they stayed one step ahead of Secret Service; searched for long-lost father, betrayed;  delinquent genius, sensitive young man seeking paternal love, aesthetic validation.

Edited by Robert Mankoff; introduction by Christopher Buckley (1999). The New Yorker Book of Money Cartoons: The Influence, Power, and Occasional Insanity of Money in All of Our Lives. (Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 110 p.). New Yorker (New York, N.Y. : 1925); Money--Caricatures and cartoons; American wit and humor, Pictorial.

Nicholas Mayhew (2000). Sterling, The History of a Currency. (New York, NY: Wiley, 290 p.). Curator in the Heberden Coin Room (Ashmolean Museum); Fellow of St. Cross College, (Oxford). Money--Great Britain--History. 

John J. McCusker (1978). Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775: A Handbook. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 367 p.). Money--Tables; Money--United States--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775; Money--Europe--History.

--- (2001). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Commodity Price Index for Use As a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States. (Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 142 p. [2nd ed.]). Ewing Halsell Distinguished Professor of American History and Professor of Economics (Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas). Prices --United States --History; Consumer price indexes --United States --History; Money --United States --History; Value --History.

Stephen Mihm (2007). A Nation of Counterfeiters: Capitalists, Con Men, and the Making of the United States. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 472 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Georgia). Bank notes--Forgeries--United States; Banks and banking--United States; Counterfeits and counterfeiting--United States. Bank note counterfeiting in  antebellum U.S.; countless banks issued paper money in variety of denominations, designs; counterfeiters flourished, circulated vast quantities of bogus bills; how federal government issued greenbacks for first time, began dismantling older monetary system, counterfeit economy it sustained.

Robert Minton (1975). John Law, The Father of Paper Money. (New York, NY: Association Press, 288 p.). Law, John, 1671-1729; Capitalists and financiers--Biography; Paper money--France--History.

Wesley Clair Mitchell (1903). A History of Greenbacks. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 577 p.). Assistant Professor of Economics (University of Chicago). Greenbacks --History.

Carl H. Moore, Alvin E. Russell (1987). Money: Its Origin, Development, and Modern Use. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 164 p.). Money--History.

Walter T.K. Nugent (1968). Money and American Society, 1865-1880. (New York, NY: Free Press, 336 p.). Money--United States--History.

Arthur Nussbaum (1957). A History of the Dollar. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 308 p.). Money--History.

Sitta von Reden (2010). Money in Classical Antiquity. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 237 p.). Lecturer in Ancient History (Universität München). Money -- Greece -- History; Money -- Rome -- History. Impact of money on economy, society, culture of Greek and Roman World; how money affected economy, which factors need to be considered in order to improve understanding of ancient money; money plays different roles under different social and political circumstances.

Fred L. Reed (2005). Show Me the Money!: The Standard Catalog of Motion Picture, Television, Stage, and Advertising Prop Money. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 790 p). Prop money--Catalogs; Money in motion pictures--Catalogs. Hollywood’s storytellers have produced wealth of imitation greenbacks (more than 270 types of motion picture, other theatrical prop money—including nearly 2,000 sub-varieties).

Thomas J. Sargent, Francois R. Velde (2002). The Big Problem of Small Change. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 405 p.). Economics Professor (Stanford), Officer (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago). Money--Europe--History; Coins--Europe--History; Mints--Europe--History.

Anna Jacobson Schwartz (1987). Money in Historical Perspective. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 442 p.). Money--History; Money--Great Britain--History; Monetary policy; Gold standard--History.

George Selgin (2008). Good Money: Birmingham Button Makers, the Royal Mint, and the Beginnings of Modern Coinage, 1775-1821. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 345 p.). Professor of Economics in the Terry College of Business (University of Georgia). Coinage -- Great Britain -- History; Money -- Great Britain -- History. British manufacturers' challenge to Crown's monopoly on coinage; 1780s - Royal Mint failed to produce enough small-denomination coinage for factory owners to pay workers; currency shortage threatened to derail industrial progress, manufacturers began to mint custom-made coins, called "tradesman's tokens"; gained wide acceptance, served as nation's most popular currency for wages and retail sales; 1821 - Crown outlawed all moneys except its own.

Georg Simmel; edited by David Frisby; translated by Tom Bottomore and David Frisby from a first draft by Kaethe Mengelberg (1990). The Philosophy of Money. (Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 537 p. [2nd enl. ed.]). Money.

Robert Sobel (2000). The Pursuit of Wealth: The Incredible Story of Money Throughout the Ages. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 347 p.). Money--History; Investments--History.

Peter Spufford (1988). Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 467 p.). Money--Europe--History; Numismatics, Medieval--Europe; Europe--Economic conditions--To 1492. 

G. Richard Thompson (1985). Expectations and the Greenback Rate, 1862-1878. (New York, NY: Garland, 310 p.). Greenbacks --History --19th century; Paper money --United States --History --19th century; Foreign exchange --History --19th century; Inflation (Finance) --United States --History --19th century.

David Tripp (2004). Illegal Tender: The Mystery of the Lost Double Eagle. (New York, NY: Free Press, 320 p.). Former Head of Sotheby’s Coin Department. Double eagle (Coin)--History.

Irwin Unger (1964). The Greenback Era; A Social and Political History of American Finance, 1865-1879. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 467 p.). Greenbacks--History; Currency question--United States--History; United States--Politics and government--1865-1877. Winner of Pulitzer Prize in History.

Deborah Valenze (2006). The Social Life of Money in the English Past. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 324 p.). Professor of History (Barnard College, Columbia University). Money--Social aspects--England--History--18th century; Money--Social aspects--England--History--17th century; England--Economic conditions--18th century; England--Economic conditions--17th century; England--Social conditions--18th century; England--Social conditions--17th century. How money became involved in relations between people in ways that moved beyond purely economic functions.

Jack Weatherford (1997). The History of Money: From Sandstone to Cyberspace. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 288 p.). Money--History.

Lawrence Weschler (1999). Boggs, A Comedy of Values. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 160 p.). Boggs, J. S. G. (James Stephen George); Paper money; Money in art; Value. World of the conceptual artist J.S.G. Boggs; accused by Bank of England of counterfeiting (drew paper currency so accurately, might enter marketplace undetected; spent them at face value with full explanation to any shopkeeper who agreed to play along; acquitted); looking glass of value, nature of art and money.

Robert S. Wicks (1992). Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. (Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 354 p.). Money--Southeast Asia--History; Indigenous peoples--Southeast Asia--History; Southeast Asia--Commerce--History. Impact of monetization in pre-modern Southeast Asia from third century BC to rise of Maleka in early fifteenth century; intertwining of anthropology, archeology, history, culture, economics; why ideas about money developed unevenly throughout region; trade policies, price controls, exchange ratios, monopolies, variant standards of value, administrative complexity necessary for such economic complexity.

Eds. Jonathan Williams, with Joe Cribb, Catherine Eagleton and Elizabeth Errington (1997). Money: A History. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 256 p.). Curator of Roman and Iron Age Coins; Curator of Asian Coins; Curator of Paper Money and Modern Coins; Curator of South Asian Coins (all at Britis Museum). Money--History. Origins, spread, cultural diversity of money throughout world- from exchange systems of earliest times to increasingly cashless society of today; money, currency set against background of broader issues (moral, political, religious attitudes to money in different cultures); development of monetary systems from ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt to invention of coinage in Lydia in 7th century BC, its dissemination throughout Greek, Roman empires; money in medieval West, Islamic lands, ancient civilizations of India and China, early modern period in West; consequences of globalization of world monetary economy in 19th, 20th centuries.

William Wiseley (1977). A Tool of Power: The Political History of Money. (New York, NY: Wiley, 401 p.). Money--History; International finance--History.


Video (2001). The Story of Money (A & E Home Video, 2 VHS Tapes). Humorous and informative look at how money moves the world.

Video (2004). Money: What It Is; How It Works. (Huntsville, TX: Educational Video Network, Inc., 80 min. DVD). Money--History; Money--uses. Origins of money, what it stands for, how it fuels the modern economic system.

Video (2004). Understanding Money and Inflation. (Huntsville, TX: Educational Video Network, Inc., 71 min. DVD). Money --creation; inflation. Explains inflation, creation of money, regulation of the economy.



American Currency Exhibit                                                                                      

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's American Currency Exhibit.

American Numismatic Association Money Museum                     ExploretheWorldofMoney/MoneyMuseum/default.htm            

Explores art, history, science and much more to promote the diverse nature of money and related items. Museum collection consists of over 250,000 objects encompassing the history of numismatics from the earliest invention of money to modern day. The objects include paper money, coins, tokens, medals, exonumia, and traditional money from all over the world. Some of the highlights from the collection include individual rarities such as the 1804 dollar, the 1913 'V' Nickel, the 1866 no motto series, and the Aubrey E. and Adeline I. Bebee collection of United States paper money.

Beyond Face Value: Depictions of Slavery in Confederate Currency                           

Produced by the United States Civil War Center - detailed look how deeply embedded slavery was in all aspects of Southern life. As evidence, the site offers hundreds of scans of Confederate currency, examines documents for references to Southern economics, agriculture, and slavery; offers series of introductory scholarly essays by Civil War historians contextualizes the phenomenon of Confederate currency and the unique set of political, social, and cultural conditions that created it (though little to help the reader understand each individual image and the context of the historical reality that it depicts; catalogs an important set of sources, as Southerners consecrated their culture on the official documents of their seceded government. Site historian Harold Holzer observes, "Much more than remnants of a shattered economy, these artifacts open a rare window onto the Confederacy's view of itself, and they deserve our attention as artistic and political, not just financial, currency."

The Leslie Brock Center for the Study of Colonial Currency                                

Decades before the American revolution, each of the colonies issued their own paper money. These monetary experiments embroiled the colonies in controversy, fueling political disputes both within the colonies and between the colonies and England. These experiments also raised fundamental economic questions, such as how paper money influences prices, exchange rates, economic growth, and the balance of trade. Almost three centuries later, these issues remain unsettled, and continue to spark controversy.

Bureau of Engraving                                                                                             

Largest producer of security documents in the United States. The BEP prints billions of Federal Reserve Notes for delivery to the Federal Reserve System each year (the BEP does not produce coins – all coinage is minted by the United States Mint). These notes are produced at our facilities in Washington, DC, and Fort Worth, Texas. In addition to U.S. currency, the BEP produces several other security documents such as portions of U.S. passports, materials for Homeland Security, military identification cards, and Immigration and Naturalization Certificates. All products are designed and manufactured with advanced counterfeit deterrence features to ensure product integrity. The BEP also advises other Federal agencies on document security matters. In addition, the BEP processes claims for the redemption of mutilated currency. The BEP’s research and development efforts focus on the continued use of automation in the production process and counterfeit deterrent technologies for use in security documents, especially United States currency.

Tom Chao's paper Money Gallery                                                                                                   

This site is all about paper money. Most people associate money with earning and spending. Very few consider money as an art object or a collectable item. Only in the last several years has paper money collecting as a hobby become more popular. Modern banknotes are very attractive and colorful, especially in uncirculated conditions favored by collectors. entire collection: 1739* different banknotes; 298* countries; 984 web pages; 3600+ pictures.

Coin & Conscience: Popular Views of Money, Credit and Speculation                                 

This exhibit features historical images (from the 16th through the 19th centuries) depicting themes related to money and finance, such as bankers, stock exchanges, the "money devil," credit and speculation, "misers, moneylenders, and thieves," love and money, and "vanity and virtue: allegories on the pursuit of riches." View images by theme or artist. Includes an introduction to the collection and a selected bibliography. From the Bleichroeder Collection at the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.

Coins and History of Asia                                                                           

Information and scans of over 2100 coins of Near Eastern, Persian, Indian, Central Asian and Chinese history from 600 BC to 1600 AD.

Colonial Currency                                                                         

"Descriptions and images of paper currencies of early America through the 1790's" (including Continental Congress issues, lottery tickets, and fiscal documents). Can be browsed by colony/state. Also features essays on the first printed currency (1690), Bills of Credit, Land Office Banks, devaluation, the Copper Panic, the value of money in Colonial America, the 1702 London Mint Assay, legal tender, and indenting. From the University of Notre Dame, Department of Special Collections. Subjects: Paper money...

The Current Value of Old Money                                                                                       

The Current Value of Old Money, created by Roy Davies, a science librarian at the University of Exeter, provides annotated links to an array of Websites that help answer the question "How much would a specified amount of money at a certain period of time be worth today?" The annotated links contain more than just simple calculators, encompassing a rich variety of resources including data tables, research papers, and electronic mailing list archives on the question. The site also provides an informative bibliography of print resources on the topic of inflation.

First Spouse 24-Karat Coin Program                                                  

Details about the U.S. Mint program "honoring our Nation's First Spouses by issuing one-half ounce $10 gold coins featuring their images, in the order that they served as first spouse, beginning in 2007 with Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, (Thomas Jefferson's Liberty), and Dolley Madison." Provides images of the coins, biographies of the first spouses, and information about issue dates and coin features. From the United States Mint.

Gallery Mint Museum                                                                                           

Private mint, whose mission is to build a permanent museum showing the evolution of coin-making technology from ancient Greece through the Industrial Revolution - museum will exhibit the entire minting process, with full-scale equipment, including a water wheel for generating power and a huge furnace for melting silver and copper.

The Higgins Museum of National Bank Notes                                                                         

Opened in 1978, the purpose of this museum is to acquire, preserve and display the notes and artifacts of the National Banks... and pertinent reference materials relating to the National Bank Note issuance era for educational purposes. 496 National Banks in 300 Iowa Communities issued National Bank Notes during the Period 1863-1935. The most complete state collection of National Bank Note issues ever assembled for a major state, with 278 of the state's 300 communities of issue represented.

History of the Dollar Sign                                                                     

The Word "Dollar" and the Dollar Sign $: Origins, History and Geography of Dollar Currencies.

History of Money from Ancient Times to Present Day                                  

Monetary history in context from the dawn of civilization to the beginning of the twenty first century.

Museum of Money & Financial Institutions                                                                     

Aimed at public education in economics in general with a stress on explaining the importance of money and financial institutions in guiding personal, business and government activities.

History of the United States Mint index.cfm?action=Intro

Money Museum (Kansas City Fed)                                               

The museum tells the story of money - from the settler’s early bartering system to U.S. currency’s humble beginnings – when banks throughout the Union produced their own currency – to the present day – where more and more business is being conducted through electronic means. The centerpiece of the Money Museum is the Truman Coin Collection, which includes over 450 coins dating all the way back to George Washington's presidential administration. Samples of historic currency supplement the coin collection and help to re-create the events and personalities that have come to shape our nation's money.

Presidential $1 Coin Program                                                   $1coin/                   

"The United States is honoring our Nation's Presidents by issuing $1 circulating coins featuring their images in the order that they served, beginning with Presidents Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison in 2007. The United States Mint will mint and issue four Presidential $1 coins per year." Features a coin release schedule, coin images (and edge lettering), and material about coinage legislation and U.S. Mint directors during each presidential term. From the U.S. Mint.

Tax History Museum                                                                                                                    

Virtual museum of United States tax history - provides a synthetic overview of the history of American taxation. Incorporating both narrative text and multimedia source materials, the museum offers a concise summary of American revenue policy and politics.

United States Money: A Guide to Information Sources                       

"This guide covers selected resources on the history of money in the United States from colonial times to the present." Topics include paper money, coins, associations and government agencies, pages for children, and museums and exhibits. Most listings are for websites; includes a few print suggestions. From the Library of Congress, Business Reference Services.

U. S. Mint Tours                                                                       

Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins (VCRC)                                                  

The VCRC contains images and descriptions of coins from the Early Republic through the end of the fourth century A.D. and the formal division of the Roman Empire into east and west. Browse by decades for the republic and by emperor/empress for the empire, or search for specific features such as individuals, deities, and inscriptions. Subjects: Coins, Roman...

Woden Nickel Historical Museum                                                                      

History of wooden money in the U. S.

World Currency Museum                                                                                     

Gallery of thousands of images of banknotes world-wide.




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